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p1670                      In the last noontime drawing session there were many drawings made that impressed me as much
                       as the pros I spoke about earlier. I confiscated a few from James Fujii, Francis Glebas, and Jane Krupka
                       to share with you. In my crusade to suggest that caricature is synonymous with gesture, I would have
                       you view these drawings as perfect examples of caricature. They go beyond just caricaturing someone’s
                       face, they accomplish what every animator must do daily — caricature of action.


                              32               Perspective

p1680                  You may recall me mentioning a tendency to straighten everything up in a drawing. You know, the
                       crooked-picture-on-the-wall phobia. This tendency goes beyond straightening things up horizontally and
                       vertically, but also depth-wise. That would be like taking the lines in Plate 1a and straightening them up
                       like Plate 1b, which you can see, destroys all illusion of depth.

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                                                                                                                Walt Stanchfield   125


p1690                 I am relentless in my crusade against this kind of seeing and drawing. You all have at least some
                 knowledge of perspective, but sometimes the mind wanders and you fail to make use of what you do
                 know. To further complicate matters — beyond just knowing the rules, you have to carefully observe
                 (and feel) the pose so that you can fit the two together. So much depends on perspective — not just
                 what is called linear perspective (see Plate 3), which is a system for linear depiction of three dimensions,
                 but also what I will call Spatial Perspective. (There may be a more specific term, but I am not aware of
                 one.) In drawing human or animal figures, which are loaded with complicated planes, there would be
                 so many vanishing points you would need a computer to keep track of them. But take heart, there is a
                 simpler method, thanks to Bruce McIntyre, former Disney Studios artist and subsequent drawing instruc-
                 tor. This method involves a few very simple rules which, once understood, are easy to apply, effective,
                 and fun to use. I refer to one or more of them often in the evening gesture class critiques. (If you’d like a
                 more in-depth analysis of these rules, let me know — I’ll make an effort to work something up.) Here in
                 Plate 2 are the six principles perspective.


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p1710                      Three of those rules are illustrated in Plate 4.


p1720                       Take the hands first. They illustrate the second rule (see Plate 2), Diminishing Size. The hand far-
                       thest away being the smallest. Next, the left hand overlapping the forearm, the forearm overlapping the
                       upper arm, the shoulder overlapping the chest area, the front of the neck overlapping the far shoulder —
                       all illustrate the fourth rule, Overlap. The way the forearm delineates the contour of the arm as it over-
                       laps the upper arm, and the left shoulder follows the contour as it overlaps at the trapezius muscle, illus-
                       trates the fifth rule, Surface Lines. Plate 4b further explains the Surface Lines rule.
p1730                       The last rule, Foreshortening, is present everywhere in every third dimensional drawing. It should
                       be felt rather than diagrammed, although at times, a few perspective lines may help. Here Donald dem-
                       onstrates how that particular perspective rule has been pushed to great extremes. This is called forced
                       perspective, and is universally accepted as normal.


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                                                                                                             Walt Stanchfield   127


p1740                Okay, now for the drawing that instigated all this. In Plate 6a is a student’s drawing which is about
                 98% two-dimensional. Next to it in Plate 6b, I show how the artist must have envisioned himself on a
                 crane which lifted him up and down so he could get a straight-on view of everything.


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p1750                      This approach to drawing either displays an ignorance of the rules of perspective, or a lazy
                       approach to drawing. The thing is, perspective is so much a part of drawing that an artist cannot
                       neglect mastering it. Putting off learning it only prolongs the agony. Then of course, once you have it,
                       you will joyfully exclaim, “Oh, how sweet it is.”
p1760                      Here is my correction sketch of that drawing (Plate 7a). Next to it is a chart which shows how the
                       eye saw it from a waist high vantage point — no cranes (Plate 7b). Then in Plate 7c, I have translated
                       what the eye sees into the rule of perspective, Foreshortening.


p1770                       So many things to think about! (Pity poor me who has so few brain cells left.) Anyway, we wouldn’t have
                       half as much fun if we could just sit back and draw by the numbers, as my cartoon, Plate 8 postulates.


p1780                      It’s Mr. Stanchfield at the Disney Studios. He wants to know if you will pose for his gesture class…

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p3220                     Tina Price’s sketches are so full of life they seem to still be moving.


p3230                     Remember the formula I put in a handout several years ago? Impression     Expression   Depression.

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