Refrigerator A refrigerator (often called a "fridge" for short) is a cooling appliance comprising a thermally insulated compartment and a mechanism to transfer heat from it to the external environment, cooling the contents to a temperature below ambient. Refrigerators are extensively used to store foods which deteriorate at ambient temperatures; spoilage due to bacterial growth and other processes is much slower at low temperatures. Devices described as "refrigerators" maintain a temperature a few degrees above the freezing point of water; similar devices which maintain temperatures below the freezing point of water are called "freezers". The refrigerator is a relatively modern invention amongst kitchen appliances. It replaced the common icebox which had been a household item for almost a century and a half prior, and is sometimes still called by the original name "icebox". Freezers keep their contents, usually foods, frozen. They are used both in households and for commercial use. Most freezers operate at around -18 °C (0 °F). Domestic freezers can be included as a compartment in a refrigerator, sharing the same mechanism or with a separate mechanism, or can be standalone units. Domestic freezers are generally upright units, resembling refrigerators, or chests, resembling upright units laid on their backs. Many modern freezers come with an icemaker. Commercial fridge and freezer units, which go by many other names, were in use for almost 40 years prior to the common home models. They used toxic ammonia gas systems, making them unsafe for home use. Practical household refrigerators were introduced in the 1920s and gained wider acceptance in the United States in the 1930s as prices fell and non-toxic, non-flammable synthetic refrigerants such as Freon or R-12 were introduced. It is notable that while 60% of households in the US owned a refrigerator by the 1930s, it was not until 40 years later, in the 1970s, that the refrigerator achieved a similar level of penetration in the United Kingdom. History of development Before the invention of the refrigerator, icehouses were used to provide cool storage for most of the year. Placed near freshwater lakes or packed with snow and ice during the winter, they were once very common. Using the environment to cool foodstuffs is still common today. On mountainsides run off from melting snow higher up is a convenient way to cool drinks, and during the winter months simply placing one's milk outside one's window is sufficient to greatly extend its useful life. The first known artificial refrigeration was demonstrated by William Cullen at the University of Glasgow in 1748, and relied on the vapor-compression refrigeration process explained by Michael Faraday. Between 1805, when Oliver Evans designed the first refrigeration machine that used vapor instead of liquid, and 1902 when Willis Haviland Carrier demonstrated the first air conditioner, scores of inventors contributed many small advances in cooling machinery. In 1850 or 1851, Dr. John Gorrie demonstrated an ice maker. In 1857, Australian James Harrison introduced vapor-compression refrigeration to the brewing and meat packing industries. The absorption refrigerator was invented by Baltzar von Platen and Carl Munters in 1922, while they were still students at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden. It became a worldwide success and was commercialized by Electrolux. Other pioneers included Charles Tellier, David Boyle, and Raoul Pictet. At the start of the 20th Century, about half of households in the United States relied on melting ice (and an icebox) to keep food cold, while the remaining half had no cooled storage at all. The ice used for household storage was expensive because ice had to be cut from winter ponds (or mechanically produced), stored centrally until needed, and delivered regularly. In a few exceptional cases, mechanical refrigeration systems had been adapted by the start of the 20th century for use in the homes of the very wealthy, and might be used for cooling both living and food storage areas. One early system was installed at the mansion of Walter Pierce, an oil company executive. Marcel Audiffren of France championed the idea of a refrigerating machine for cooling and preserving foods at home, and he received U.S. Patents #551,107 (in 1895) and #898,400 (in 1908, with Albert Sigrun). These patents were purchased by the American Audiffren Refrigerating Machine Company. Machines based on Audiffren's sulfur dioxide process were manufactured by General Electric in Fort Wayne, Indiana and marketed by the Johns Manville Company. The first unit was sold in 1911. Audiffren machines were expensive, selling for about $1,000 — about twice as much as an automobile. General Electric sought to develop refrigerators of its own, and in 1915 the first Guardian unit was assembled in a back yard wash house as a predecessor to the Frigidaire. In 1916 Kelvinator and Servel came out with two units among a field of competing models. This number increased to 200 by 1920. In 1918 Kelvinator had a model with automatic controls. These home units usually required the installation of the mechanical parts, motor and compressor, in the basement or an adjacent room while the cold box was located in the kitchen. There was a 1922 model that consisted of a wooden cold box, water-cooled compressor, an ice cube tray and a 9 cubic foot compartment for $714. (A 1922 Model-T Ford cost about $450.) In 1923 Frigidaire introduced the first self-contained unit. About this same time porcelain covered metal cabinets began to appear. Ice cube trays were introduced more and more during the 1920s; up to this time freezing was not a function of the modern refrigerator. A monitor style refrigerator The first refrigerator to see widespread use was the General Electric "Monitor-Top" refrigerator introduced in 1927. The compressor assembly, which emitted a substantial amount of heat, was placed above the cabinet, and surrounded with a decorative ring. Over 1,000,000 units were produced. This refrigerator used sulfur dioxide refrigerant. Many units are still functional today. The introduction of freon expanded the refrigerator market during the 1930s, and freezer units became a little more common and requested during the 1940s. Home units did not go into mass production until after WWII. The 1950s and 60s saw technical advances like automatic defrosting and automatic ice making. Developments of the 1970s and 80s brought about more efficient refrigerators, and environmental issues banned the use of CFC (freon) refrigerants used in sealed systems. Last of all, introduction of home freezer units occurred in the United States in 1940, and frozen foods began to make the transition from luxury to necessity. After discussing refrigerator with its history of development, now we are representing our refrigerator company Superior. Our refrigerator company Superior is running successfully almost 35 countries. Such as—U.S.A , U.K , Newziland , Jarman , Australia , India , Pakistan & Bangladesh also. Superior— The High Energy Superior Refrigerator Our company Superior has become the No.1 brand in China and now ranks among the top ten largest refrigerator manufacturers in the world. The creation of comfortable habitat has always been the aim in manufacturing the refrigerators. Superior is working hard to develop new technology and new products to make more convenient and comfortable life for our customers: the application of the technology of fuzzy control, intelligent frequency conversion, wet-keeping and anti-bacteria ensures that we are at the leading position in our industry line. From small to large, freezing, refrigerating, and double doors, side by side, etc, we have six series, more than 3000 specifications of refrigerators available for the customers' choices. As the first home electrical appliance enterprise in China to be awarded IS09001 and IS014001 certification, they have mastered CFC replacement technologies and super energy saving devices and have raised them to the highest international standard. With the winning of various international awards including the UL, CE, GS, VDE, CSA, S-MARK, SAS and SAA our refrigerators division has emerged as a supplier at world level possessed with advanced technical know-how and skilled of meeting the demands of consumers Superior qualified refrigerators require about half as much energy as models manufactured before 1990 in China . Superior qualified refrigerators provide energy savings without sacrificing the features we want. Earning the Superior Superior qualified refrigerator models use high efficiency compressors, improved insulation, and more precise temperature and defrost mechanisms to improve energy efficiency. Superior qualified refrigerator models use at least 15% less energy than required by current federal standards and 40% less energy than the conventional models sold in 2001. Many qualified refrigerator models include automatic ice-maker and through-the- door ice dispensers. Qualified models are also available with top, bottom, and side-by-side freezers. Superior qualified freezer models use at least 10% less energy than required by current federal standards. Qualified freezer models are available in three configurations: o upright freezers with automatic defrost o upright freezers with manual defrost o chest freezers with manual defrost only Superior compact refrigerators and freezers use at least 20% less energy than required by current federal standards. Compacts are models with volumes less than 7.75 cubic feet. How Superior refrigerator works Refrigerators work by the use of heat pumps operating in a refrigeration cycle. An industrial refrigerator is simply a refrigerator used in an industrial setting, usually in a restaurant or supermarket. They may consist of either a cooling compartment only (a larger refrigerator) or a freezing compartment only (a freezer) or contain both. The industry has nicknames for these units as well sometimes referring to them as a ―cold box‖ or a ―walk-in.‖ The dual compartment was introduced commercially by General Electric in 1939. The vapor compression cycle is used in most household refrigerators. In this cycle, a circulating refrigerant such as freon enters the compressor as a vapor at its boiling point. The vapor is compressed and exits the compressor as a superheated vapor. The superheated vapor travels through part of the condenser which removes the superheat by cooling the vapor. The vapor travels through the remainder of the condenser and is condensed into a liquid at its boiling point. The saturated liquid refrigerant passes through the expansion valve where its pressure abruptly decreases. The decrease in pressure results in the flash evaporation and auto-refrigeration of a portion of the liquid (typically, less than half of the liquid flashes). The cold and partially vaporized refrigerant travels through the coil or tubes in the evaporator. There a fan circulates room air across the coil or tubes, and the refrigerant is totally vaporized, extracting heat from the air which is then returned to the food compartment. The refrigerant vapor returns to the compressor inlet to complete the thermodynamic cycle. An absorption refrigerator works differently from a compressor refrigerator, using a source of heat, and typically runs more quietly. The Peltier effect uses electricity directly to pump heat; refrigerators using this effect are sometimes used for camping, or where noise is not acceptable. They are totally silent, but less energy-efficient than other methods. Other alternatives to the vapour-compression cycle but not in current use include thermionic, vortex tube, air cycle, magnetic cooling, Stirling cycle, Malone refrigeration, acoustic cooling, pulse tube and water cycle systems. Features of Superior A Superior refrigerator with its door open Automatic defrosting: In any refrigerator, over time, water vapor in the air condenses onto the cooling coils as frost, eventually building up into a thick layer of ice. This ice acts as an insulator, reducing cooling efficiency. In the past, the ice was removed by periodically emptying the refrigerator and turning it off to let the ice melt, perhaps aided by hot water applied by the user (a process known as defrosting). In a refrigerator equipped for frost-free operation, however, a heater and a thermostat are fitted around the cooling coils. The cooling is periodically switched off (with the period varying between every 6 to 24 hours depending on the model) and the heater is turned on until the temperature around the coils slightly exceeds the freezing point of water, after which normal cooling resumes. This melts any frost which has collected around the coils. Melt water drops into a small gulley, through a small pipe which drains into a tray on the top of the compressor from which it is then evaporated into the surrounding air by residual heat generated by the operation of the compressor. Chilled water and ice available from an in-door station, so the door need not be opened; Cabinet rollers that allow the refigerator to be easily rolled around for easier cleaning; Adjustable shelves and trays that can be moved around to suit the user; A Status Indicator to notify the user when it is time to change the water filter; An in-door ice caddy, which relocates the ice-maker storage to the freezer door and saves approximately 60 litres (about 2 cubic feet) of usable freezer space. It is also removable, and helps to prevent ice-maker clogging; A cooling zone in the refrigerator door shelves. Air from the freezer section is diverted to the refrigerator door, to better cool milk or juice stored in the door shelf; An LCD suggesting what types of food should be stored at what temperatures, and the expiration date of the food stored . Now we are up to launch a new modernized luminous refrigerator for upper class society- Superior Electra. Because we are going to launch a new product so first of all, we have to make a business plan for that & also we need to analysis ---- Objectives , Mission , Key to success, Goals setting , SOWT analysis , S-T-P concept , Budget of refrigerator, Features of refrigerator, Marketing mix strategy, How to distribute , Price range & size of refrigerator , Some special features , Business analysis. Setting Objectives Want to achieve first year sales above $120,000. Maintain a healthy average gross margin. Develop a business model that is favorable to expansion. Establish five store locations by the end of the third year. Mission Customer satisfaction and education are our paramount missions. We will endeavor to meet the highest standards of excellence through superb customer service and consistent product delivery in a friendly and comforting environment. We seek fair and responsible profit, enough to keep the company financially healthy and ensure continued growth and development. Responsible profit will fairly compensate owners and investors for their risk and reward employees for their hard work, loyalty and commitment. Employee welfare, participation, and training are equally important to our success. Every employee will be treated fairly, with dignity and the utmost respect. It is our responsibility to provide employees with a friendly, comfortable and challenging work environment with opportunities for growth and development. Keys to Success Locations: visibility, convenient access. Store design: visually attractive, relaxed atmosphere, fast and efficient operations. Unique products: differentiation, competitive pricing, no direct competition. Quality controls: genetically modified free policy, consistency, clean presentation. Service: cheerful, professional, articulate and informative. Marketing: positive image, educational, word-of-mouth advertising. Employee retention: training, ongoing education, recognition programs. Goals Setting Goal-setting is crucial to the success of any business, but is particularly important for entrepreneurs who can become distracted without focus. Goals direct actions, give us something to aim for, and can serve as a yardstick for measuring our business' success. Purposes of goals are--- * They provide guidance and a unified direction for people in the organization. * Goal- setting practices strongly affect other aspects of planning. * Goals can serve as sources of motivation to employees of the organization. * Goals that are specific and moderately difficult can motivate people to work harder, especially if attaining the goal is likely to result in reward. * Goals provide an effective mechanism for evaluation and control. SOWT Analysis SOWT analysis is a careful evaluation of an organization’s internal strengths and weakness and external opportunities and threats. In SOWT analysis, the best strategy is accomplish organizations mission by a) Exploiting an organization’s opportunities and strengths b) Neutralizing it’s threats and c) Avoiding and correcting its weakness. Organization’s Strengths: Organization’s Strengths are the skills or capabilities that enable an organization to conceive and implement its strategies. Our company’s strength are – Labor and machinery: As we are running our production from long time business we have already enough machinery and skilled labor in our previous business that will be strength for our new product. Goodwill: As our business is expended almost 35 countries our goodwill will also act as strength in new business. Experience: In any kind of business experience is the main and very important strength and we have huge experience also about this business. Technical Expert & Engineers: Our Technicians & Engineers are also expert and skilled enough to produce the new product. Factory, Office and Management: We have already factory, office and well management to get enough feedback to produce the product. Organization opportunities: Organization opportunities are the areas that may generate higher performance. Our company’s opportunity is-- Opportunity: Now a day, the living standard is increased in Bangladesh. So, people especially upper class generally uses luxurious items. They always looking for new versions of product that will be match with their status. So, our scope is so vast. Here, we can see two types of family size, for that we are also making for single family a small size refrigerator rather than big size refrigerator.000000 Organizational threats: Organizational threats are the areas that increase the difficulty of an organization performing at a higher level. Our company’s threats are— New product: As it is a new and luxurious product it’s unknown to us what will be the market reaction. So, it is risky. Competitors: Other competitors are also producing the modern features. So, we have to be conscious. S-T-P Concept Market segmentation: We segmented our portfolio based on social class. Usually uses refrigerator middle class to upper class. If we want to serve upper class we can produce in business purpose, consumer purpose, car, moving, big and family size refrigerator also. With the help of picture now we are segmented our refrigerator marketing. 1. Business purpose (using various types of shop) 2. Consumer purpose (for small size) 3. Consumer purpose (for big size) 4. Car refrigerator 5. Moving refrigerator etc. Target marketing After segmentation, we target upper class to serve as our product is luxurious. Then we divide family size in two type and also produced refrigerator big and small size. Because family size is very important for our quantity of a product. Market positioning Now, we have to create positive position in customer mind through our product feature that will give customers more benefits than other competitors. Budget of the Superior- Electra refrigerator Raw material & equipment 350000 Machinery items 300000 Transportation costs 200000 Production costs 250000 Promotional costs 260000 Packaging costs 180000 Import expenses 200000 Labor wages 300000 Advertising expenses 100000 Supplier expenses 150000 Total amount of budget 22900000 Key features of Superior- Electra refrigerator 1. Many of our refrigerators are equipped with computerized controls and liquid crystal displays -which allow us to control the refrigeration temperature in a direct and efficient manner. 2. Computer control of temperature and liquid crystal display of the temperature inside refrigerators are adopted for our refrigerators, and these offers provide us better direct viewing and convenience while using. 3. Freezers are environmentally friendly and have highly efficient CFC-free compressors-an innovative energy-saving technology. Advanced "ESO" technology-- E=Eliminate condensation S = Save energy O = Optional product. 4. Fully-enclosed freezing system: It is designed to store items in drawers, thus preventing items from picking up odors of each other and flavors, as well as avoiding direct contact between items and the refrigerators plate, warm air can hardly enter the storage compartments when the door is opened so as to keep the cold air inside and achieve energy-saving. 5. As soon as the beverage containers at the lower section are removed, the containers at the upper section will automatically drop to refill the vacancies. 6. Even temperature with the use of intermittent refrigerating operation - powerful cool air circulation. Easily adjustable shelves provide optimal space. 7. Double-layer Folded lid of outer door, unlined tempered glass sliding door of the inter one. Wider climate zone design. Marketing mix Strategy To lunching new refrigerator of company has to develop a marketing mix strategy which is the combination of 4ps. They are Product, Price, Promotion, and Place. Product: Product is the total package that fulfills consumer’s need. We have to fulfill also our customer need that we have already explained in our feature. We have to maintain specially the quality of our refrigerator to match with customer’s expectations to create satisfaction. Price: Price is the amount of money that customer has to pay to purchase the product, and the price of any luxurious product is always high, for the reason upper class people think that low price product is always less qualified and high price product have the best quality. They are satisfied by purchasing products in high price. So, as our refrigerator is a luxurious product we have to set it’s price very high that upper class can easily afford. Promotion: Promotion is a set of activities which is done by the organic to affect customer. As our fridge is produced for upper class we have to express this clearly in our promotions in TV, Magazines, and other to introduce our new product. Promotion must have to adjustable with society and culture of the country. Place: Place is where the product will be show that means showroom. As a luxurious product our fridge have to show in our showrooms specially which are in diplomatic zone like Gulshan , Bonani , Baridhara, Dhanmondi etc. With 4ps we have to consider about another P also which in packaging. After all the Ps, we have to be careful about the packagings of our new product that will be suggest the product has very good quality. How to distribute the product Warranty: We have servicing center and 5 year warranty to serve customers better. We think that it is our responsibility. Dealer: As upper class people lives in other districts also without in Dhaka. So, we have to set up our dealers in some districts. Top 6 most popular refrigerators price range &size Small size 1. Electra 308ywt compact (From Tk. 18000-20000) 2. Electra rf 320 stainless steel (From Tk. 25000-28000) 3. Electra easy reach tm plus (From Tk. 30000- 35000) Large size 4. Electra L364 stainless steel (From Tk.50000-70000) 5. Electra GChex side by (From Tk. 80000-100000) 6. Electra Therma Kud48 (From Tk. 120000-150000) Some special features of Superior- Electra: 1. Smell removing technology: Smell removing technology using the unique deep-lay treatment technology and the special processing craft to distribute the active material on the inner and outside surface of the smell remover, to increase the quantity of active material and greatly improve the result of removing the smell by 95%. 2. Amusement part of our refrigerator: Superior Electra also entertains our consumer. Such as-- * For kids: Kids can express their imagination by drawing various pictures in paper with different colors, which is attached outside of the refrigerator. The process of attaching the picture does not hamper the outside of refrigerator. We provide our customers color box & paper for their kids to focus their creativity. The Refrigerator for our kids * For homemakers: Usually homemakers like to watch daily soaps in television (T.V.). But when they are busy to work specially in cooking they can’t enjoy their daily soap in T.V. In Superior Electra refrigerator give the opportunity to watch television while working in the kitchen. This television is located at the front side of the refrigerator .And our company also gives in the T.V. the color, picture, sound system, and resolution qualitable. Because of having the T.V it won’t create any trouble for both refrigerator and T.V. That means, we can use it as a television and undoubtedly as a refrigerator. It’s a package deal for our customer. Refrigerator with its television (T.V.) 3. Individual marketing (coloring): Our refrigerator company opens the new website electra.com. Here, we give the opportunity to select & order various types of color about refrigerator whatever the customer needs & preferences with the help of one-to-one marketing. That means, we can give the desired color of the refrigerator to individual customer. For this reason, the customer must to be pay huge amount of money. Refrigerator with amusing color Business analysis of Superior – Electra Refrigerator Year No. Of sell Cost (on Sell (on Profit(on average) average) average) Small Large Small Large Small Large Small Large 2007-2008 7 4 160000 200000 280000 350000 120000 150000 (November- January) 2008 10 8 200000 390000 360000 700000 160000 310000 (February- April) 2008 12 10 240000 450000 420000 900000 180000 450000 (May.-July) 2008 22 18 440000 840000 840000 1800000 400000 960000 (august– October) In most households, the refrigerator is the single biggest energy consuming kitchen appliance. In the kitchen of nearly every home in most of the country & also Bangladesh there is a refrigerator. Every 15 minutes or so we hear the motor turn on, and it magically keeps things cold. Without refrigeration, we'd be throwing out our leftovers instead of saving them for another meal. Last of all, we can say the refrigerator is one of those miracles of modern living that totally changes our life.
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