Refrigerator Refrigerator A refrigerator often called a fridge

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Refrigerator Refrigerator A refrigerator often called a fridge Powered By Docstoc
					Refrigerator
       A refrigerator (often called a "fridge" for short) is a cooling appliance
comprising a thermally insulated compartment and a mechanism to transfer heat from it
to the external environment, cooling the contents to a temperature below ambient.
Refrigerators are extensively used to store foods which deteriorate at ambient
temperatures; spoilage due to bacterial growth and other processes is much slower at low
temperatures. Devices described as "refrigerators" maintain a temperature a few degrees
above the freezing point of water; similar devices which maintain temperatures below the
freezing point of water are called "freezers". The refrigerator is a relatively modern
invention amongst kitchen appliances. It replaced the common icebox which had been a
household item for almost a century and a half prior, and is sometimes still called by the
original name "icebox".

Freezers keep their contents, usually foods, frozen. They are used both in households and
for commercial use. Most freezers operate at around -18 °C (0 °F). Domestic freezers can
be included as a compartment in a refrigerator, sharing the same mechanism or with a
separate mechanism, or can be standalone units. Domestic freezers are generally upright
units, resembling refrigerators, or chests, resembling upright units laid on their backs.
Many modern freezers come with an icemaker.

Commercial fridge and freezer units, which go by many other names, were in use for
almost 40 years prior to the common home models. They used toxic ammonia gas
systems, making them unsafe for home use. Practical household refrigerators were
introduced in the 1920s and gained wider acceptance in the United States in the 1930s as
prices fell and non-toxic, non-flammable synthetic refrigerants such as Freon or R-12
were introduced. It is notable that while 60% of households in the US owned a
refrigerator by the 1930s, it was not until 40 years later, in the 1970s, that the refrigerator
achieved a similar level of penetration in the United Kingdom.

History of development
Before the invention of the refrigerator, icehouses were used to provide cool storage for
most of the year. Placed near freshwater lakes or packed with snow and ice during the
winter, they were once very common. Using the environment to cool foodstuffs is still
common today. On mountainsides run off from melting snow higher up is a convenient
way to cool drinks, and during the winter months simply placing one's milk outside one's
window is sufficient to greatly extend its useful life.

The first known artificial refrigeration was demonstrated by William Cullen at the
University of Glasgow in 1748, and relied on the vapor-compression refrigeration process
explained by Michael Faraday. Between 1805, when Oliver Evans designed the first
refrigeration machine that used vapor instead of liquid, and 1902 when Willis Haviland
Carrier demonstrated the first air conditioner, scores of inventors contributed many small
advances in cooling machinery. In 1850 or 1851, Dr. John Gorrie demonstrated an ice
maker. In 1857, Australian James Harrison introduced vapor-compression refrigeration to
the brewing and meat packing industries. The absorption refrigerator was invented by
Baltzar von Platen and Carl Munters in 1922, while they were still students at the Royal
Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden. It became a worldwide success and was
commercialized by Electrolux. Other pioneers included Charles Tellier, David Boyle, and
Raoul Pictet.

At the start of the 20th Century, about half of households in the United States relied on
melting ice (and an icebox) to keep food cold, while the remaining half had no cooled
storage at all. The ice used for household storage was expensive because ice had to be cut
from winter ponds (or mechanically produced), stored centrally until needed, and
delivered regularly.

In a few exceptional cases, mechanical refrigeration systems had been adapted by the
start of the 20th century for use in the homes of the very wealthy, and might be used for
cooling both living and food storage areas. One early system was installed at the mansion
of Walter Pierce, an oil company executive.

Marcel Audiffren of France championed the idea of a refrigerating machine for cooling
and preserving foods at home, and he received U.S. Patents #551,107 (in 1895) and
#898,400 (in 1908, with Albert Sigrun). These patents were purchased by the American
Audiffren Refrigerating Machine Company. Machines based on Audiffren's sulfur
dioxide process were manufactured by General Electric in Fort Wayne, Indiana and
marketed by the Johns Manville Company. The first unit was sold in 1911. Audiffren
machines were expensive, selling for about $1,000 — about twice as much as an
automobile.

General Electric sought to develop refrigerators of its own, and in 1915 the first
Guardian unit was assembled in a back yard wash house as a predecessor to the
Frigidaire. In 1916 Kelvinator and Servel came out with two units among a field of
competing models. This number increased to 200 by 1920. In 1918 Kelvinator had a
model with automatic controls.

These home units usually required the installation of the mechanical parts, motor and
compressor, in the basement or an adjacent room while the cold box was located in the
kitchen. There was a 1922 model that consisted of a wooden cold box, water-cooled
compressor, an ice cube tray and a 9 cubic foot compartment for $714. (A 1922 Model-T
Ford cost about $450.) In 1923 Frigidaire introduced the first self-contained unit. About
this same time porcelain covered metal cabinets began to appear. Ice cube trays were
introduced more and more during the 1920s; up to this time freezing was not a function
of the modern refrigerator.
                                A monitor style refrigerator

The first refrigerator to see widespread use was the General Electric "Monitor-Top"
refrigerator introduced in 1927. The compressor assembly, which emitted a substantial
amount of heat, was placed above the cabinet, and surrounded with a decorative ring.
Over 1,000,000 units were produced. This refrigerator used sulfur dioxide refrigerant.
Many units are still functional today.

The introduction of freon expanded the refrigerator market during the 1930s, and freezer
units became a little more common and requested during the 1940s. Home units did not
go into mass production until after WWII. The 1950s and 60s saw technical advances like
automatic defrosting and automatic ice making. Developments of the 1970s and 80s
brought about more efficient refrigerators, and environmental issues banned the use of
CFC (freon) refrigerants used in sealed systems.

 Last of all, introduction of home freezer units occurred in the United States in 1940, and
frozen foods began to make the transition from luxury to necessity.
    After discussing refrigerator with its history of development, now we are
representing our refrigerator company Superior. Our refrigerator company Superior is
running successfully almost 35 countries. Such as—U.S.A , U.K , Newziland , Jarman ,
Australia , India , Pakistan & Bangladesh also.

Superior— The High Energy




                              Superior Refrigerator

Our company Superior has become the No.1 brand in China and now ranks among the
top ten largest refrigerator manufacturers in the world. The creation of comfortable
habitat has always been the aim in manufacturing the refrigerators.

Superior is working hard to develop new technology and new products to make more
convenient and comfortable life for our customers: the application of the technology of
fuzzy control, intelligent frequency conversion, wet-keeping and anti-bacteria ensures
that we are at the leading position in our industry line.

From small to large, freezing, refrigerating, and double doors, side by side, etc, we have
six series, more than 3000 specifications of refrigerators available for the customers'
choices.

As the first home electrical appliance enterprise in China to be awarded IS09001 and
IS014001 certification, they have mastered CFC replacement technologies and super
energy saving devices and have raised them to the highest international standard.
With the winning of various international awards including the UL, CE, GS, VDE, CSA,
S-MARK, SAS and SAA our refrigerators division has emerged as a supplier at world
level possessed with advanced technical know-how and skilled of meeting the demands
of consumers

     Superior qualified refrigerators require about half as much energy as models
manufactured before 1990 in China . Superior qualified refrigerators provide energy
savings without sacrificing the features we want.

Earning the Superior
       Superior qualified refrigerator models use high efficiency compressors, improved
       insulation, and more precise temperature and defrost mechanisms to improve
       energy efficiency.
      Superior qualified refrigerator models use at least 15% less energy than required
       by current federal standards         and 40% less energy than the conventional
       models sold in 2001.
      Many qualified refrigerator models include automatic ice-maker and through-the-
       door ice dispensers. Qualified models are also available with top, bottom, and
       side-by-side freezers.
      Superior qualified freezer models use at least 10% less energy than required by
       current federal standards. Qualified freezer models are available in three
       configurations:
           o upright freezers with automatic defrost
           o upright freezers with manual defrost
           o chest freezers with manual defrost only
      Superior compact refrigerators and freezers use at least 20% less energy than
       required by current federal standards. Compacts are models with volumes less
       than 7.75 cubic feet.

How Superior refrigerator works




Refrigerators work by the use of heat pumps operating in a refrigeration cycle. An
industrial refrigerator is simply a refrigerator used in an industrial setting, usually in a
restaurant or supermarket. They may consist of either a cooling compartment only (a
larger refrigerator) or a freezing compartment only (a freezer) or contain both. The
industry has nicknames for these units as well sometimes referring to them as a ―cold
box‖ or a ―walk-in.‖ The dual compartment was introduced commercially by General
Electric in 1939.

The vapor compression cycle is used in most household refrigerators. In this cycle, a
circulating refrigerant such as freon enters the compressor as a vapor at its boiling point.
The vapor is compressed and exits the compressor as a superheated vapor. The
superheated vapor travels through part of the condenser which removes the superheat by
cooling the vapor. The vapor travels through the remainder of the condenser and is
condensed into a liquid at its boiling point. The saturated liquid refrigerant passes through
the expansion valve where its pressure abruptly decreases. The decrease in pressure
results in the flash evaporation and auto-refrigeration of a portion of the liquid (typically,
less than half of the liquid flashes). The cold and partially vaporized refrigerant travels
through the coil or tubes in the evaporator. There a fan circulates room air across the coil
or tubes, and the refrigerant is totally vaporized, extracting heat from the air which is then
returned to the food compartment. The refrigerant vapor returns to the compressor inlet to
complete the thermodynamic cycle.

An absorption refrigerator works differently from a compressor refrigerator, using a
source of heat, and typically runs more quietly.

The Peltier effect uses electricity directly to pump heat; refrigerators using this effect are
sometimes used for camping, or where noise is not acceptable. They are totally silent, but
less energy-efficient than other methods.

Other alternatives to the vapour-compression cycle but not in current use include
thermionic, vortex tube, air cycle, magnetic cooling, Stirling cycle, Malone refrigeration,
acoustic cooling, pulse tube and water cycle systems.

Features of Superior




                                       A Superior refrigerator with its door open

 Automatic defrosting: In any refrigerator, over time, water vapor in the air condenses
onto the cooling coils as frost, eventually building up into a thick layer of ice. This ice
acts as an insulator, reducing cooling efficiency. In the past, the ice was removed by
periodically emptying the refrigerator and turning it off to let the ice melt, perhaps aided
by hot water applied by the user (a process known as defrosting). In a refrigerator
equipped for frost-free operation, however, a heater and a thermostat are fitted around the
cooling coils. The cooling is periodically switched off (with the period varying between
every 6 to 24 hours depending on the model) and the heater is turned on until the
temperature around the coils slightly exceeds the freezing point of water, after which
normal cooling resumes. This melts any frost which has collected around the coils. Melt
water drops into a small gulley, through a small pipe which drains into a tray on the top
of the compressor from which it is then evaporated into the surrounding air by residual
heat generated by the operation of the compressor.

 Chilled water and ice available from an in-door station, so the door need not be opened;

 Cabinet rollers that allow the refigerator to be easily rolled around for easier cleaning;

 Adjustable shelves and trays that can be moved around to suit the user;

 A Status Indicator to notify the user when it is time to change the water filter;

 An in-door ice caddy, which relocates the ice-maker storage to the freezer door and
saves approximately 60 litres (about 2 cubic feet) of usable freezer space. It is also
removable, and helps to prevent ice-maker clogging;

 A cooling zone in the refrigerator door shelves. Air from the freezer section is diverted
to the refrigerator door, to better cool milk or juice stored in the door shelf;

 An LCD suggesting what types of food should be stored at what temperatures, and the
expiration date of the food stored .

   Now we are up to launch a new modernized luminous refrigerator for upper class
society- Superior Electra. Because we are going to launch a new product so first of all,
we have to make a business plan for that & also we need to analysis ----

      Objectives ,
      Mission ,
      Key to success,
      Goals setting ,
      SOWT analysis ,
      S-T-P concept ,
      Budget of refrigerator,
      Features of refrigerator,
      Marketing mix strategy,
      How to distribute ,
      Price range & size of refrigerator ,
      Some special features ,
      Business analysis.
Setting Objectives
      Want to achieve first year sales above $120,000.
      Maintain a healthy average gross margin.
      Develop a business model that is favorable to expansion.
      Establish five store locations by the end of the third year.

Mission
Customer satisfaction and education are our paramount missions. We will endeavor to
meet the highest standards of excellence through superb customer service and consistent
product delivery in a friendly and comforting environment.

We seek fair and responsible profit, enough to keep the company financially healthy and
ensure continued growth and development. Responsible profit will fairly compensate
owners and investors for their risk and reward employees for their hard work, loyalty and
commitment.

Employee welfare, participation, and training are equally important to our success. Every
employee will be treated fairly, with dignity and the utmost respect. It is our
responsibility to provide employees with a friendly, comfortable and challenging work
environment with opportunities for growth and development.

Keys to Success
      Locations: visibility, convenient access.
      Store design: visually attractive, relaxed atmosphere, fast and efficient operations.
      Unique products: differentiation, competitive pricing, no direct competition.
      Quality controls: genetically modified free policy, consistency, clean presentation.
      Service: cheerful, professional, articulate and informative.
      Marketing: positive image, educational, word-of-mouth advertising.
      Employee retention: training, ongoing education, recognition programs.

Goals Setting
Goal-setting is crucial to the success of any business, but is particularly important for
entrepreneurs who can become distracted without focus. Goals direct actions, give us
something to aim for, and can serve as a yardstick for measuring our business' success.

Purposes of goals are---

       * They provide guidance and a unified direction for people in the organization.

       * Goal- setting practices strongly affect other aspects of planning.
   *   Goals can serve as sources of motivation to employees of the organization.

   *    Goals that are specific and moderately difficult can motivate people to work
   harder, especially if attaining the goal is likely to result in reward.

   *   Goals provide an effective mechanism for evaluation and control.

SOWT Analysis
SOWT analysis is a careful evaluation of an organization’s internal strengths and
weakness and external opportunities and threats.

       In SOWT analysis, the best strategy is accomplish organizations mission by
             a) Exploiting an organization’s opportunities and strengths
             b) Neutralizing it’s threats and
             c) Avoiding and correcting its weakness.

Organization’s Strengths: Organization’s Strengths are the skills or capabilities that
enable an organization to conceive and implement its strategies.
Our company’s strength are –

       Labor and machinery: As we are running our production from long time
business we have already enough machinery and skilled labor in our previous business
that will be strength for our new product.

        Goodwill: As our business is expended almost 35 countries our goodwill will also
act as strength in new business.

        Experience: In any kind of business experience is the main and very important
strength and we have huge experience also about this business.

        Technical Expert & Engineers: Our Technicians & Engineers are also expert
and skilled enough to produce the new product.

      Factory, Office and Management: We have already factory, office and well
management to get enough feedback to produce the product.

Organization opportunities: Organization opportunities are the areas that may generate
higher performance.
Our company’s opportunity is--

       Opportunity: Now a day, the living standard is increased in Bangladesh. So,
people especially upper class generally uses luxurious items. They always looking for
new versions of product that will be match with their status. So, our scope is so vast.
         Here, we can see two types of family size, for that we are also making for single
family a small size refrigerator rather than big size refrigerator.000000
Organizational threats: Organizational threats are the areas that increase the difficulty
of an organization performing at a higher level.
Our company’s threats are—

       New product: As it is a new and luxurious product it’s unknown to us what will
be the market reaction. So, it is risky.

       Competitors: Other competitors are also producing the modern features. So, we
have to be conscious.

S-T-P Concept
Market segmentation: We segmented our portfolio based on social class. Usually uses
refrigerator middle class to upper class. If we want to serve upper class we can produce in
business purpose, consumer purpose, car, moving, big and family size refrigerator also.

          With the help of picture now we are segmented our refrigerator marketing.




                   1. Business purpose (using various types of shop)
2. Consumer purpose (for small size)




3. Consumer purpose (for big size)




       4. Car refrigerator
5. Moving refrigerator etc.




Target marketing
After segmentation, we target upper class to serve as our product is luxurious. Then we
divide family size in two type and also produced refrigerator big and small size. Because
family size is very important for our quantity of a product.


Market positioning
 Now, we have to create positive position in customer mind through our product feature
that will give customers more benefits than other competitors.
Budget of the Superior- Electra refrigerator

Raw material & equipment                  350000

Machinery items                           300000

Transportation costs                      200000
Production costs                          250000
Promotional costs                         260000
Packaging costs                           180000
Import expenses                           200000
Labor wages                               300000
Advertising expenses                      100000
Supplier expenses                         150000
Total amount of budget                    22900000




Key features of Superior- Electra refrigerator




                    1.     Many of our refrigerators are equipped with computerized
controls and liquid crystal displays -which allow us to control the refrigeration
temperature in a direct and efficient manner.
                      2. Computer control of temperature and liquid crystal display of the
temperature inside refrigerators are adopted for our refrigerators, and these offers provide
us better direct viewing and convenience while using.




                      3. Freezers are environmentally friendly and have highly efficient
CFC-free compressors-an innovative energy-saving technology.
Advanced "ESO" technology--
E=Eliminate condensation
S = Save energy
O = Optional product.




                       4. Fully-enclosed freezing system: It is designed to store items in
drawers, thus preventing items from picking up odors of each other and flavors, as well
as avoiding direct contact between items and the refrigerators plate, warm air can hardly
enter the storage compartments when the door is opened so as to keep the cold air inside
and achieve energy-saving.




                     5. As soon as the beverage containers at the lower section are
removed, the containers at the upper section will automatically drop to refill the
vacancies.
                       6. Even temperature with the use of intermittent refrigerating
operation - powerful cool air circulation. Easily adjustable shelves provide optimal space.




                          7. Double-layer Folded lid of outer door, unlined tempered glass
sliding door of the inter one. Wider climate zone design.


Marketing mix Strategy
To lunching new refrigerator of company has to develop a marketing mix strategy which
is the combination of 4ps. They are Product, Price, Promotion, and Place.

Product: Product is the total package that fulfills consumer’s need. We have to fulfill
also our customer need that we have already explained in our feature. We have to
maintain specially the quality of our refrigerator to match with customer’s expectations to
create satisfaction.

Price: Price is the amount of money that customer has to pay to purchase the product,
and the price of any luxurious product is always high, for the reason upper class people
think that low price product is always less qualified and high price product have the best
quality. They are satisfied by purchasing products in high price. So, as our refrigerator is
a luxurious product we have to set it’s price very high that upper class can easily afford.

Promotion: Promotion is a set of activities which is done by the organic to affect
customer. As our fridge is produced for upper class we have to express this clearly in our
promotions in TV, Magazines, and other to introduce our new product. Promotion must
have to adjustable with society and culture of the country.

Place: Place is where the product will be show that means showroom. As a luxurious
product our fridge have to show in our showrooms specially which are in diplomatic zone
like Gulshan , Bonani , Baridhara, Dhanmondi etc.

       With 4ps we have to consider about another P also which in packaging. After all
the Ps, we have to be careful about the packagings of our new product that will be
suggest the product has very good quality.
How to distribute the product
Warranty: We have servicing center and 5 year warranty to serve customers better. We
think that it is our responsibility.

Dealer: As upper class people lives in other districts also without in Dhaka. So, we have
to set up our dealers in some districts.


Top 6 most popular refrigerators price range &size
Small size




                    1. Electra 308ywt compact (From Tk. 18000-20000)




                    2. Electra rf 320 stainless steel (From Tk. 25000-28000)




                  3. Electra easy reach tm plus (From Tk. 30000- 35000)
Large size




             4. Electra L364 stainless steel (From Tk.50000-70000)




              5. Electra GChex side by (From Tk. 80000-100000)




              6. Electra Therma Kud48 (From Tk. 120000-150000)
Some special features of Superior- Electra:




                  1. Smell removing technology: Smell removing technology using the
unique deep-lay treatment technology and the special processing craft to distribute the
active material on the inner and outside surface of the smell remover, to increase the
quantity of active material and greatly improve the result of removing the smell by 95%.

2. Amusement part of our refrigerator:
        Superior Electra also entertains our consumer. Such as--

      * For kids:
            Kids can express their imagination by drawing various pictures in paper with
different colors, which is attached outside of the refrigerator. The process of attaching
the picture does not hamper the outside of refrigerator. We provide our customers color
box & paper for their kids to focus their creativity.




                                         The Refrigerator for our kids
* For homemakers:
            Usually homemakers like to watch daily soaps in television (T.V.). But when
they are busy to work specially in cooking they can’t enjoy their daily soap in T.V. In
Superior Electra refrigerator give the opportunity to watch television while working in
the kitchen. This television is located at the front side of the refrigerator .And our
company also gives in the T.V. the color, picture, sound system, and resolution qualitable.
Because of having the T.V it won’t create any trouble for both refrigerator and T.V. That
means, we can use it as a television and undoubtedly as a refrigerator. It’s a package deal
for our customer.




                     Refrigerator with its television (T.V.)
3. Individual marketing (coloring):
Our refrigerator company opens the new website electra.com. Here, we give the
opportunity to select & order various types of color about refrigerator whatever the
customer needs & preferences with the help of one-to-one marketing. That means, we can
give the desired color of the refrigerator to individual customer. For this reason, the
customer must to be pay huge amount of money.




                              Refrigerator with amusing color
Business analysis of Superior – Electra Refrigerator
Year            No. Of sell      Cost          (on Sell             (on Profit(on
                                 average)          average)             average)

                Small Large Small           Large    Small     Large      Small     Large


2007-2008   7            4       160000 200000 280000 350000              120000 150000
(November-
January)
2008        10           8       200000 390000 360000 700000              160000 310000
(February-
April)
2008        12           10      240000 450000 420000 900000              180000 450000
(May.-July)
2008            22       18      440000 840000 840000 1800000 400000 960000
(august–
October)




      In most households, the refrigerator is the single biggest energy consuming kitchen
appliance. In the kitchen of nearly every home in most of the country & also Bangladesh
there is a refrigerator. Every 15 minutes or so we hear the motor turn on, and it magically
keeps things cold. Without refrigeration, we'd be throwing out our leftovers instead of
saving them for another meal.

 Last of all, we can say the refrigerator is one of those miracles of modern living that
totally changes our life.