Introduction to Secondary Transition

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					Introduction to Secondary Transition

  An overview of the variables affecting
    transition services and planning
       options for individuals with
         A Note About Language

Keeping in mind that individuals with
disabilities are first and foremost individuals, I
ask all of you to use person first language (i.e.,
“a person with a disability” as opposed to “an
LD student”. Specific attention will be given to
this point during the assessment of all written
        Background Information
• We will not discuss slides 4 – 46 in class unless
  you have specific questions. They are meant
  to provide an overview of the essential special
  education knowledge necessary for you to
  take an active role in this course.
              Major Tenants of IDEA
•   Applies to children ages 3 - 21
•   Zero reject - nonexclusionary education
•   FAPE - Free appropriate public education
•   LRE - Least restrictive environment
•   Nondiscriminatory evaluation
•   Due process
•   Transition planning
•   AYP - Adequate yearly progress
•   Advocacy
•   Confidentiality
•   Noncompliance - lawsuits
•   Person first language
     Major Tenants of Section 504
• Prevents discrimination by any organization receiving
  federal funds
• Defines a handicapped person as “Any person who
  has a physical or mental impairment which
  substantially limits one or more major life activities”
• Students served under IDEA are also eligible for 504
• Both laws mandate FAPE
• IDEA requires an individual education program (IEP)
  while 504 requires schools to demonstrate how
  services are being provided
       Major Tenants of ADA (1990)
• Maximize the employment potential of individuals with
• Provide “reasonable accommodations” in the workplace.
• Employers may not ask if an individual has a disability and may
  not discriminate against persons who have a disability.
• Colleges and universities must provide appropriate
• Telecommunications must be accessible to individuals who are
            Brief history of IDEA
• Public Law 94-142, Education For All
  Handicapped Children Act (1975).
• This law was reauthorized and expanded as the
  “Individuals with Disabilities Education Act”
  (IDEA) in 1990.
• Reauthorized again in 1997 & 2004
  (P.L. 108-446).
• Federal regulations for 2004 reauthorization were
  released August 14, 2006.
• WA regulations released in July 2007.
Who is eligible for services under

    Students who demonstrate the
 characteristics of any of the previous
categories IF their disability adversely
 impacts educational performance
and requires specialized instruction.
 What if the disability does not affect
     academic achievement?
• Students are NOT eligible for services
  under IDEA
• They may receive services under
  Section 504 of the Vocational
  Rehabilitation Act (1973)
• Section 504 covers many more students
  than IDEA
Visual representation of school-aged populations
      served under IDEA and Section 504

          Students served under Section 504

                Students served under IDEA
                         Student Need
Consider IDEA                              Consider 504

 Adverse affect          Not Eligible
                    No                      Disability
 on educational
                                    No      limits one or
                                            more major
                                            life activities
                          Not Eligible
 IDEA Eligible

 IEP Developed                             504 Protected

 Related Services                        Reasonable
                          FAPE           Accommodations
Placement Options
  Disability Categories in Washington
• Developmentally Delayed        • Multiple disabilities
  (age 3 - 8)
                                 • Hearing impairment /
• Emotional Behavioral             Deafness
                                 • Visually impairment /
• Speech or language               blindness
                                 • Deaf / blindness
• Orthopedically impairment
                                 • Autism
• Other Health impaired
                                 • Traumatic brain injury
• Specific learning disability
• Mental retardation
Categorical Disability Distribution

             U.S. Department of Education 2005
  Specific Learnin g Disability      Speech or Lang uage Impaired
  Menta l Retardation              Emotional Disturban ce
  Multiple Disabilities            Hearing Impa irme nt
  Orthopedic Impairment            Other He alth Impairment
  Autism                           Visual Impairment
  Tra umatic Brain Injury          Developmental Dela y
  Deaf/Blin dness
Nondiscriminatory Evaluation

        Screening                All Students


                                 Some Students


   Nondiscriminatory        Students in need of special
  Evaluation Procedures   education and related services
            IDEA Procedures
• Pre-referral - consultation with instructional support team (IST)
• Document current levels of student performance (academic,
  social, & behavioral)
• Implement academic supports - document results
• Referral (identification)
• Notice of procedural safeguards & due process rights
• Parental consent
• Evaluation
• Eligibility determination (within 35 school days of parental
• IEP development
• Placement decision (LRE)
• Annual review
• Triennial reevaluation
• Transition planning
         Evaluation Procedures
• Review existing data on the student including
  classroom-based, local, state assessments, and
  classroom observations.
• Use a variety of assessment tools and strategies to
  gather relevant functional, developmental, and
  academic information about the student.
• Provide assessments in the student’s native
IEP Development - Who’s involved?

• The student (when appropriate)
• Local educational agency (LEA) - who will oversee
  implementation of the child’s plan
• General classroom teachers (at least 1)
• Special education teacher
• Therapist
• Parents
• Others at the discretion of the parents or LEA
• Evaluator if other than the special education teacher
           Contents of the IEP

• Child’s present levels of performance (e.g.,
  educational, social, behavioral)
• Specific measurable annual goals, objectives,
  expected levels of performance, timelines
• Information regarding the students placement and
  related services
• Modifications to the general education curriculum
• Dates & times for delivery of services
• Means to assess AYP
• Transition plan (16 and up)
     Continuum of Sped Services - LRE
                                Most Inclusive

                 General Education (Gen Ed) Curriculum

                    Gen Ed w/ consultative services

                    Gen Ed & instruction & services

                        Gen Ed & resource room

                             Full time Sped classroom

                               Special school

                               Special facilities, day
                                  or residential

Most intensive
   Help general education teachers help you!

What should they do when a student is struggling in class?
• Start a confidential file on a secure computer.
• Describe the student in a one paragraph narrative that concludes w/
  your concerns.
• Identify the student’s current levels of functional performance in
  each of the following domains: academic, social,
  emotional/behavioral - one paragraph overview from IST pre-
• Begin to create a database so that you can chart the student’s
  progress over time.
• Identify and implement research-based instructional strategies.
• Build a relationship with the parents.
     Academic areas of focus
• Listening                • Reading
  comprehension              comprehension
• Oral expression          • Basic writing skills
• Basic reading skills       spelling, grammar)
  (alphabetic principle,   • Written expression
  decoding, phonemic
                           • Math computation
  awareness, fluency,
  semantics)               • Math reasoning
                           • Problem solving
        Listening Comprehension
Sara is able to sustain her attention during
  group activities for 15 - 20 minutes. She
  follows three-step oral directions and is
  able to recall at least five story elements
  from orally read texts. She asks clarifying
  questions, provides feedback pertinent to
  the listening activity (e.g., I’ve seen my dog
  chase cats too!), and responds to verbal
  cues. Sara is meeting GLEs for listening
  comprehension and is a joy to have in
                              Sample Documentation
             Oral Expression
• Sara adjusts her language based on
  the situation (e.g., when speaking with
  friends vs. adults). She initiates
  discussions and participates in group
  activities (e.g., brainstorming). She is
  able to articulate supporting details and
  organize information into logical
  sequences. She speaks clearly and
  distinctly using developmentally
  appropriate grammar, syntax, tone, and

                         Sample Documentation
              Basic Reading Skills
• While Sara possesses strong listening
  comprehension and oral expression skills, she
  struggles with basic reading skills. For example,
  during a Pre-Primer Subject Word List screening
  using the Qualitative Reading Inventory- 4, Sara
  scored in the 60th percentile or frustration level.
  She was unable to automatically identify the
  words “children”, “other”, “animal”, “place”,
  “every”, “thing”, “write”, and “live”. Sara is often
  unable to read words containing complex letter
  patterns (e.g., -ought, -aught). She has difficulty
  decoding multi-syllabic words (i.e., two and
  three syllable). When prompted she is able to
  use prefixes and suffixes to determine the
  meaning of unfamiliar words 50% of the time.
                               Sample Documentation
     Using data to inform instruction
            Sara’s Reading Performance
                                         Sight Words
     Week Week Week Week Week Week
      1    2    3    4    5    6

                        Results of FBA for Jimbo Rucksack in multiple classes

     Jimboユs Daily Schedule:
                                                                                            Office Referrals for September - November
     7:50 - 8:10         Arrive at school. Breakfast on the playground.
     8:10 - 9:00         Language Arts with Ms. Janis
     9:00 - 9:40         Social Studies
     9:40 - 10:20        Gym or Current Events                                       10
     10:20 - 11:00       Science
     11:00 - 11:30       Lunch                                                       8

     11:30 - 11:50            s
     11:50 - 12:30       Math                                                                                                                  O ffice R efe rrals

     12:30 - 1:10        Specials (Music, Art)                                       4
     1:10 - 1:40         Study Hall
     1:40 - 2:20         Technology, Dram a, Community Projects                      2

                    Instructional Approaches by Class                                       Mo n     Tue     Wed      Thurs    Frida y

                                                                                           Jimbo's FBA Results - 3 Observations Per
 5                                                                                                         Class
 4                                                          Scie nce
                                                            So cia l Studie s
                                                            La nguage Arts
 2                                                          Ma th
 1                                                                              15                                                                     Scie nce
                                                                                                                                                       So cia l Studie s
 0                                                                                                                                                     La nguage Arts
                                                                                                                                                       Ma th




















                                                                                          Inte rrupting    Distra cting       T hrea te ning
      Scientifically-based Research

• Involves the application of rigorous, systematic,
  and objective procedures to obtain reliable and
  valid knowledge relevant to educational activities.
• Employs systematic empirical methods that draw
  on observation or experiment.
• Includes rigorous data analysis.
• Is evaluated using experimental or quasi-
  experimental designs
• Has been accepted by a peer reviewed journal or
  approved by a panel of independent experts.
Specific Learning Disabilities

           Section IV
                Defining SLD
•   The definition of SLD is changing (IDEA 2004)
•   Sometimes called the “invisible disability”
•   Unexpected difficulty / low performance
•   Inefficient processing in the area of disability
•   “… a disorder in one or more of the basic
    psychological processes involved in understanding or
    in using language, spoken or written, which may
    manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think,
    speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical
           Early Warning Signs of SLD
The following behaviors may indicate that a child has a specific
  learning disability:

•   Slow to learn the connection between letters and sounds
•   Difficulty "sounding out" unknown words
•   Repeatedly misidentifying known words
•    Makes consistent reading and spelling errors including letter
    reversals (b/d), inversions (m/w), transpositions (felt/left), and
    substitutions (house/home)
•    Transposes number sequences and confuses arithmetic signs (+,
    -, x, /, =)
•   Difficulty understanding or remembering what is read because so
    much time and effort is spent figuring each word

      Coordinated Campaign for Learning Disabilities (1999). How children learn to read.
      Retrieved September 2, 2006 from
              NOT SLD if
The deficit is primarily the result of:
• Hearing, visual, or motor disability
• MR (mental retardation)
• SBD (serious behavioral disorder)
• Environmental, cultural, economic
        SLD Determination
• School districts have two means to
  determine if a student qualifies as
  having a learning disability:
  – Severe discrepancy model (Classic)
  – Response to Intervention (IDEA 2004)
Lyon, R. G., Fletcher, J. M., Shaywitz, S. E., Shaywitz, B. A., Torgesson, J. K., Wood, F. B., et al. (2001). Rethinking learning disabilities. In C. E. Finn,
A. J. Rotherham, & C. R. Hokanson (Eds.), Rethinking special education for a new century (p. 270).
Mental Retardation

    MR IQ cut points: 50 - 70 = mild
                      35 - 50 = moderate
                      20 - 35 = severe
                      Below 20 = profound
   Response to Intervention
• IDEA 2004 regulations state:
“The criteria adopted by the State [to
  determine the child’s eligibility as SLD]
  must permit the use of a process based
  on the child’s response to scientific,
  research-based intervention” Section
  300.307 (a) (2)
                     Defining RTI

“…an assessment and intervention
  process for systematically monitoring
  student progress and making decisions
  about the need for instructional
  modifications or increasingly intensified
  services using progress monitoring
 The National Research Center on Learning Disabilities (NRCLD, 2006)
       Seven Core Principles of RTI
•   Use all available resources to teach students
•   Use scientific, research-based instruction
•   Monitor classroom performance
•   Conduct universal screening / benchmarking
•   Use a multi-tier model of service delivery
•   Make data-based decisions
•   Monitor progress frequently
             Three-Tier Model of School Supports
    Academic                              Behavioral

Intensive Interventions                   Intensive Interventions
 Individual students                       Individual students
 Targeted assessment-based                 Targeted assessment-based
 Progress monitoring 1x per week           Progress monitoring 1x per week

Strategic Interventions                   Strategic Interventions
                                          Some at-risk students
Some at-risk students
                                          High efficiency
High efficiency
                                          Progress monitoring 2x per month
Progress monitoring 2x per month

Core Interventions                        Core Interventions
All students                              All students
Preventative / proactive                  Preventative / proactive
Students benchmarked 3x per year          Students benchmarked 3x per year
on core academic skills                   on social/behavior skills
               Key Terms
• Fidelity - the extent to which the
  instruction is implemented as planned.
• Universal screening (Tier I) -
  benchmarking of academic, social skills,
  and behavior (fall, winter, & spring).
• Curriculum-based measurement (CBM)
  - a means to measure student
  development over time.
• Strategic interventions (Tier II)
   – Short-term (9 - 12 weeks) interventions provided to small groups
      of students (3 - 6) where remedial instruction occurs in a core
      academic, social skills, or behavioral area (e.g., phonemic
   – Three to four sessions per week
   – 30 - 60 min. per session.
   – Progress monitoring biweekly (minimum)
• Intensive interventions (Tier III) -
   – Small group (3 or less) or individual instruction
   – May be for 12 weeks or more
   – Up to two 30 min sessions daily
   – Weekly progress monitoring (minimum)
   RTI is a Problem Solving Process
• RTI is a flexible service delivery model
• Define the problem
• Analyze the cause - this requires a conceptual shift
  from the problem occurring in the student to a need
  for improvement educational environment “What can
  we as educators do differently?”
• Develop a plan
• Implement the plan
• Evaluate the plan

 Section 1
            Mainstreaming vs. Inclusion
Mainstreaming                               Inclusion
• Selective placement of                    • Conceptually similar to
  students in one or more                      mainstreaming but…
  general education classrooms                 represents a paradigm
                                               shift where students have
• Based on the assumption                      an inherent right to be in
  that students have earned                    the general education
  the opportunity to “keep up”                 classroom without
  with other students.                         demands to “keep up” in
                                               order to remain there.
                        Rogers, 1993

       Note: Full inclusion is > 80% of the school day in a general
       education setting
                Inclusion Readiness

• Effective inclusion requires comprehensive
  collaborative efforts that involve system-wide
  planning, implementation, and ongoing evaluation
    (McGregor & Vogelsberg, 1998)
•   Common understanding of purpose and need
•   Incentives
•   Administrative support
•   Leadership
•   Resources
               Triangle of Supports (Fisher, 2000)

                              Personal Supports

Curriculum accommodations &
      modifications - UDL                         Assistive and instructive
                 Transition Defined

• Transition - A change in status from behaving
  primarily as a student to assuming emergent adult
  roles in a community(deFur, Todd-Allen, & Getzel, 2001)
• Effective transition begins at the elementary and
  middle school with students assuming a maximum
  responsibility for developing the plan (Wehman, 2006)
  National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS-2, 2005)
• High school completion rates up 17%, with 70% completing high
• Increase in postsecondary education enrollment from 15% to
• Lower full time employment rates (39% vs. 57%)
• 90% remain single
• 75% live with parents
• > 50% had been subject to disciplinary action at school, fired
  from a job, or arrested compared to 33% in 1987.
• Approximately 70% were employed at some level (Benz, Lindstrom, &
  Yovanoff, 2000)
           Transition Services - IDEA

• Must be based on student needs, taking into account
  their preferences and interests
• Be results oriented
• Focus on improving the academic and functional
  achievement of a student with a disability
• Facilitate the movement from school to postschool
     IEP requirements under IDEA 2004
At age 16 the IEP must include:
• Appropriate measurable goals based upon age
   appropriate transition assessments related to training,
   education, employment, and where appropriate
   independent living skills;
• The transition services (including courses of study) needed
   to assist the child in reaching these goals.

  The goals in IDEA 2004 represent a shift from process to
                     results and outcomes

• Working provides an opportunity to receive
  payments and benefits that lead to greater
• Individual productivity on a daily basis is
  critical for dignity and self-esteem
• Having a job facilitates the development of
  social networks and friendships
             (Wehman, 2006)
Defined: A combination of skills,             Curriculum consideration
knowledge, and beliefs that enable a
person to engage in goal-directed,            • Self-awareness
self-regulated, autonomous
behavior (Wehmayer, Agran, & Hughes, 1998)    • Decision making
                                              • Self-advocacy
                                              • Goal expression and

Self-determined students with disabilities understand their strengths and limitations.
They are able to take control of their lives and assume adult roles (Flexer et al.,
       Developmental Characteristics (EA)

Early Adolescence:              Transition Planning
   – 10 - 14 years old             – Focus on self-awareness
   – Withdraw from parents         – Explore career options
   – Explore adult roles           – Develop self-determination
                                     (Flexer, Baer, Luft, & Simmons, 2008)
   – Problem solving through
     trial and error
   – Abstract and deductive
     reasoning (Piaget, 1966)
      Developmental Characteristics (MA)
Middle Adolescence
   – 15 - 17 years old
   – Pressure to conform and
                                     Transition Planning
      engage in risk-taking behavior    – Activities should develop
   – Discrepancy between actual           self-confidence
      self and self-perceptions is
      most pronounced                   – Contextualized learning
      (Lichtenstein, 1998)                experiences (e.g., work in
   – Drop out rates increase as           the community)
      students avoid frustration and
      embarrassment                     – Focus on independent
                                        living, leisure, and
                                        extracurricular activities
    Developmental Characteristics (LA)

• Late Adolescence            Transition Planning
  – 18 - mid 20s                 –   Problem solving
  – Develop personal             –   Sensible decisions
    identity and intimacy        –   Self-advocacy
  – Employment                   –   Support from adult
  – Postsecondary education          services program
    Other Ecological Transition Considerations
• Develop study skills, procedures for choosing institutions,
  exam strategies, financial aid, and disability support
  services (Postsecondary education)
• Provide social services, support personal hygiene,financial
  and community supports (Poverty)
• Educate and involve parents in transition planning, include
  their role in employment and continued support post-IEP
  (Relationships with parents)
• Choosing courses, organizing schedules, mastering
  content (High school)
             Person-Centered Planning
• Develop meaningful adult living goals and a means to achieve
  those goals
• A team works to identify the student’s history, dreams,
  nightmares, relationships, and abilities
• The team should analyze the environment the student plans to
  enter, the demands of that environment, and the skills and
  supports necessary to succeed (ecological perspective)
• Plan with the end goals in mind (backward plan)
• Develop benchmarks
   Transition Service Integration Model

• Integrates resources from schools, the rehabilitation
  system, and the developmental disabilities system
• Collaborative effort during the last year of school (typically
  age 21) to provide a paid, direct hire job
• Secure funding to continue employment
• Provide opportunities for community participation
• Support autonomy and self-determination
                   (Certo et al., 2003)
                 Transition Skills
•   Shopping              •   Reservations
•   Travel                •   Work habits
•   Banking               •   Scheduling
•   Emergency Care        •   Organizing
•   Advocacy              •   Hygiene
•   Social etiquette      •   Friendships
•   Dining out            •   Sexuality
  Ecological View of Adolescence (Lichtenstein, 1998)

                             Relations with peers

      High School                                      Mass media

Relationships with                                         Role of work


                                                             Pursuit of
   Postsecondary education

                               Risk taking, Juvenile
 Transition Implications of Ecologic View
• Establish social connections and community participation
  after high school (Relationships)
• Positive role models (Mass Media)
• Realistic understanding of the disability (Role of Work)
• Encourage and support extracurricular activities as part of
  the IEP (Extracurricular)
• Teach independent living, travel, and life-skills (Independence)
• Teach safety precautions, natural consequences, and
  emergency procedures (Risk taking)
             Cross’s Barrier Model     (1981)

• Situational - lack of time or money
• Institutional - schedules or location
• Dispositional - attitudes or self perceptions
 Thoughts on Ecological View of Transition

• How might a critical analysis of the macro-systems
  affecting transition enable us to provide efficacious
  service delivery options for individuals with disabilities?
• Macro-systems refers to looking at transition through a
  holistic lens or the “big picture” approach.In what ways
  does a critical analysis of the big picture help us provide
  an effective transition and related services for individuals
  with disabilities?
  Stigma /                           Defeated attitude
embarrassment                         Victim complex

                Relationships with

  Loneliness                         Separated from
                                     Peers/ isolation
     Parents                        Lack of choices

                       Pursuit of

Student life goals
                           Lack of technology
Employment                    & resources


Family history                Lack of basic
                                    Computer /

                       Mass media

    Junk Mail                       Promotion of
(credit card offers)                  drugs &

                                    Difficulty with
   Homework                         social skills &

                     High School

Multiple buildings
                                    Peer pressure

 Family support                     Financial stability

                       Pursuit of

Housing / location                    Community
   Proving one’s self
   by acting against                     Gang affiliation /
     social norms                         peer pressure

                         Risk-taking /
Respect                 Juvenile Crime

                                         Drugs & Alcohol
                       Generation Gap

                                           Dependence vs.
  Absent parents

                      Relationships with

Child at the center
    of marital
     disputes                               Oppositional
                        Family values /
                         Interview &

    Self-advocacy                        Time Management


  Financial &

                                            Work Load
                    Paperwork              Management

    w/ peers


                  Team Player
                In your Flexer text don’t miss!

Chapter 1                                   Chapter 2
• Ecological view of adolescence, p.6       • Kohler’s transition education model, p. 48
• Table 1-1, p. 9                           • IDEA 2004 transition requirements, p. 51

• Definition of transition services under
                                            Chapter 3
   IDEA 2004, p. 13
                                            • Essential elements of transition planning, p.
• Self determination defined, p. 17            56
• Person-centered planning, p. 19           • Cultural and racial inequities, p. 58-59.
• Community based experiences, p. 21        • Table 3-1, p. 62
• Postsecondary education, p.24             • Table 3-2, p. 64
• Family involvement, p.25                  • Table 3-3, p. 65
• Transition system issues, p. 27           • Six step strategy to guide reflection, p. 69
                                            • Table 3-5, p. 75
       In your Flexer et al. text don’t miss
Chapter 4
• Factors contributing to unemployment &      Chapter 7
   difficulties students’ face, p. 84         • Figure 7-1, p. 163
• Four stages of career development, p. 95    • Table 7-1, p. 165
• Table 4-1, p.96                             • Managing instructional
Chapter 5                                        environments, p. 166-170
• Table 5-2, p. 107                           • Chapter 8
• assessments, p. 109-129.
                                              • Table 8-1, p. 182
Chapter 6
                                              • Monitoring and evaluation, p. 183-
• Table 6-1, p. 139
• Table 6-2, p. 141
• Table 6-3, p. 143
                                              • Table 8-3, p. 188
• Figure 6-3, p. 146                          • Table 8-4, p. 190
• Figure 6-4, p. 147                          • Figure 8-1, p. 198-199
• Steps for curriculum planning, p. 148-157
                     In Dell et al. don’t miss
Chapter 1                                  Chapter 8 – ALL
• Figure 1-1. , p. 5                       Chapter 9
• Figure 1-4, p. 11                        • Table 9-1, p. 217
Chapter 2 - ALL                            • Table 9-2, p. 219
Chapter 3 – ALL                            • Table 9-4, p. 220
Chapter 4 – ALL                            • Figures 9-1 & 2, p. 223 - 227
Chapter 5                                  Chapter 10 – Skip (syllabus change)
• Figure 5-1, p. 114                       Chapter 11
• Figure 5-9, p. 121                       • Table 11-3, p. 266
Chapter 6                                  • Table 11-4, p. 271
• Accessibility features p. 147-155        • Tips for parents, p. 273
Chapter 7                                  • Figure 11-3, p. 276-277
• Table 7-1, p. 158                        Chapter 12 – ALL
• Table 7-2, p. 166                        Chapter 13 - ALL
• Table 7-3, p. 174
• Alternative output options, p. 184-185
                         503 Reading / Presentations
February 5
•      Shelly - Bond, R. & Castagnera, E. (2006). Peer supports and inclusive education: An underutilized resource. Theory into Practice,
       45(3), 224-229.
•      Angy - Conderman, G. J., & Katsiyannis, A. (2002). Instructional issues and practices in secondary special education. Teacher
       Education and Special Education, 23, 167-179.
February 12
•      Gale - Edyburn, D. L. (2004). Rethinking assistive technology. Special Education Technology Practice, 5(4), 16-23.
February 19
•      Ken - Christensen, R., Overall, T., & Knezek, G. (2006). Personal educational tools (PETs) for Type II learning. Computers in the
       Schools, 23(1/2), 173-189.
•      Teresa - Edelson, D. C., Gordin, D. N., & Pea, R. C. (1999). Addressing the challenges of inquiry-based learning through technology
       and curriculum design. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 8(3&4), 350-391
February 26
•      Cindy - Kirschner, P.A., & Erkens, G. (2006). Cognitive tools and mindtools for collaborative learning. Journal of Educational
       Computing Research, 35(2), 199-209.
•      Ben - Maccini, P., Gagnon, J. C. & Hughes, C. A. (2002). Technology-based practices for secondary students with learning disabilities.
       Learning Disability Quarterly, 25, 247-261.
March 5
•      Matt - Higgins, K., Boone, R., & Williams, D. (2000). Evaluating educational software for special education. Intervention is School and
       Clinic, 36(2), 109-115.
•      Teresa - MacArthur, C. A., Ferretti, R. P., Okolo, C. M., & Cavalier, A. R. (2001). Technology applications for students with literacy
       problems: A critical review. The Elementary School Journal, 101, 273-301.
March 12
•      Carolyn - Reed, P. R. & Lahm, E. A. (2005). A resource guide for teachers and administrators about assistive technology (general
April 9
•      Jessica - McGuire, J., Scott, S., & Shaw, S. (2006). Universal design for learning and its applications in educational environments.
       Remedial and Special Education, 27(3), 166-175.
•      Teresa - Burgstahler, S. (2003). The role of technology in preparing youth with disabilities for postsecondary education and
       employment. Journal of Special Education Technology, 18(4), 7-19.
Transition Assessment
     Purposes of Transition Assessment
• Determine education, working, living,
  personal, & social requirements
• Evaluate the student in terms of proficiency,
  agency eligibility, and admission standards
• Match individuals with appropriate program
Halpern’s Transition Model (1985)

                 (Flexer, Baer, Luft, & Simmons, 2008, p. 43)
(Flexer, Baer, Luft, & Simmons, 2008)
             Collecting Evidence
• Thus far we have utilized an ecological
  perspective to understand the transition planning
  process, deconstructed it into component parts,
  and identified barriers that might inhibit the
  success of secondary students with disabilities.
• Now we need to identify the evidence we should
  collect to make this determination.
• What should we collect, observe, or document?
  How often? How will we know if our plan is
                Transition Planning
• Identify interests, abilities, capabilities, strengths,
  needs, potentials, & behaviors
• Try different tasks to determine how preferences
  match abilities for program options and
  postsecondary settings
• Identify concrete ways to help students, families, and
  team members work toward common goals
                                           (Flexer et al., 2008, p. 107)
           Lehigh Transition Reports
• Consider the substantive depth and breadth of these
  documents and the time constraints inherent with current
  special education teacher case loads. Critically analyze the
  documents and help us, as a class, develop a plan to
  incorporate the most salient aspects of their model into
  our future transition planning.
• What themes were present in our class responses?
• Create an outline of our transition plan.
            Person-Centered Planning

•   Driven by individuals and their families
•   Focuses on individual attributes and capacities
•   Future-oriented
•   Collaborative (community commitment)
•   Emphasizes supports and connections
                                                     Everson & Reid (1999)

               Do we have anything to add to this?
       Role of the Transition Coordinator

•   Services within the school
•   Interagency / business linkage
•   Assessment and counseling
•   Community education and training
•   Family support
•   Advocacy
•   Program development, implementation, assessment,
    and evaluation
   Quality Indicators of Transition Assessment
• Validity - accurately measure the stated
  construct (e.g., self-determination)
• Reliability - replicable results (stability)
• Ease of use
• Scoring
• Meaningful outcomes
      Formal Transition Assessments
• Norm-referenced - Compare student to peer
  group of similar age and developmental level
• Criterion-referenced - Evaluate mastery of
  discrete skills, specific tasks, or technological
• Tend to be standardized in terms of
  administration and evaluation of results
• Provide a limited but useful view of the individual
(Flexer, Baer, Luft, & Simmons, 2008, p. 111)
     Formal Transition Assessment Examples
• Wide-Range Interest and Opinion Test (WRIOT)                                            $840 http://www.harcourt-

• Bennett Hand-Tool Dexterity Test                                                $247

• Test of Interpersonal Competency for Employment (TICE)                                         $99

• Waksman Social Skills Rating Form                                               $60

• The Job Observation Behavior Scale (JOBS)                                               $140
• American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) Adaptive Behavior
  Scales                             $172,69632&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL
   Functional & Informal Assessments

• Provide detailed information about individual’s
  specific strengths & areas of need
• Supplement standardized assessments
• Results provide authentic information about how
  the student performs in specific environments
• Provide a starting point for instruction
• Allow for the development of progress monitoring
(Flexer, Baer, Luft, & Simmons, 2008, p. 119)
The Knowledge
Battery (KB)

                (Flexer, Baer, Luft,
                & Simmons, 2008,
                p. 116)
The Knowledge
Battery (KB):

                (Flexer, Baer,
                Luft, &
                Simmons, 2008,
                p. 117)
ecological job

                 (Flexer, Baer, Luft,
                 & Simmons, 2008,
                 p. 122)
ecological job

                 (Flexer, Baer, Luft,
                 & Simmons,
                 2008, p. 123)
(Flexer, Baer, Luft, &
Simmons, 2008, p. 120)
Kent State
Services Job

               (Flexer, Baer, Luft,
               & Simmons, 2008,
               p. 124)
Kent State
Services Job

               (Flexer, Baer,
               Luft, &
               2008, p. 125)
    Formal Transition Assessments
• Norm-referenced - Compare student to peer group
  of similar age and developmental level
• Criterion-referenced - Evaluate mastery of discrete
  skills, specific tasks, or technological proficiency
• Tend to be standardized in terms of administration
  and evaluation of results
• Provide a limited but useful view of the individual
Functional & Informal Assessments

• Provide detailed information about individual’s
  specific strengths & areas of need
• Supplement standardized assessments
• Results provide authentic information about how
  the student performs in specific environments
• Provide a starting point for instruction
• Allow for the development of progress monitoring
ecological job

                 (Flexer, Baer, Luft,
                 & Simmons, 2008,
                 p. 122)
ecological job

                 (Flexer, Baer, Luft,
                 & Simmons,
                 2008, p. 123)
Sample Plan - Section I
 •   Background Information
 •   Rationale for Assessment
 •   Assessment Format
 •   Assessment Protocol
 •   Person-Centered Planning (likes, dislikes, and wants)
      - continuing education
      - employment preferences
      - community participation
      - social participation
      - home living
      - self-care
      - academic (functional)
    Sample Plan - Section II
•   Academic Assessments
    - reading sight words
    - reading and spelling
    - standardized test (Kaufman Functional Academic Skills)
    - general questions and math
•   Management and Planning Assessments
•   Vocational Assessments
    - included anecdotal information
    - task analysis
    - public transportation
    - safety issues
    - community skills
    - dress code and personal care
       Sample Plan - Section III
• Ecological Inventories for Future Integration (anecdotal information)
   - recreation and leisure
   - continuing education
   - instructional strategies
   - classroom strategies
• Behavior
   - demonstrations of inappropriate behavior
   - possible reasons for behavior
   - alternatives
     Sample Plan - Section IV
• Evaluation Summary
  - strengths
  - support needs
  - recommendations
                                             INDIVIDUA LIZE D TRAN S ITION PLAN

DOMAIN: Employment                                                                     NAME:

Personal Characteristics:   Support Needs:                Instructional Needs:         Recommended Obj ectives/Priorities for this
Vocational Training         Employment training           Vocational related skills    Time Manage ment Skills
                            Job Sampling opportunities    Vocational Specific Skills   Money Management Skills
                            Voluntee r Work                                            Transportation Skills
                                                                                       Pedestrian Skills
                                                                                       Dressing Skills/Grooming
                                                                                       Communication Skills
                                                                                       Social Skills
                                                                                       Participation and Independen ce
                                             INDIVIDUA LIZE D TRAN S ITION PLAN

DOMAIN: Community                                                                 NAME: George D oe

Personal Characteristics:   Support Needs:                Instructional Needs:    Recommended Obj ectives/Pri orities for this
Consumer Activities         Support and instruction       Community -Based        Safet y Skills
                            gaining access to various     Instruction             Functional Academics
                            community sites either                                Communication
                            independently or with peers                           Community Integration
                                                                                  Leisure /Recreation
                                             INDIVIDUA LIZE D TRAN S ITION PLAN

DOMAIN: Home Living                                                                         NAME: George D oe

Personal Characteristics:   Support Needs:                     Instructional Needs:         Recommended Obj ectives/Priorities for this
Living a rrangements        Exploration of di fferent living   Safet y skills to be alone   Emerge ncy Procedures
                            arrang ements                      at home                      General H ome Activities

                                                               Choice making skills         Decision/Choice M aking
Family / Personal
Relationships                                                                               Independence

Self care                                                                                   Chore Skills
                                                                                            Money Management Skills
                                                                                            Safet y Awareness Skills
                                                                                            Meal preparation and planning
                                                                                            Tolerating professional clothing
                                                                                            Grooming / Personal Hygiene

                                                                                            Safet y Skills

                                                                                            Health / Medical Skills
                                                                                            Self -Analysis Skills
                                                                                            Self -Reporting Skills
                                               INDIVIDUA LIZE D TRAN S ITION PLAN

DOMAIN: Leisure/ Recreation                                                            NAME: George D oe

Personal Characteristics:     Support Needs:                Instructional Needs:       Recommended Obj ectives/Priorities for this

                                                            Skills to seek and pla n   Develop calen dar and use Internet and
                                                            preferred activities       newspaper to locate and plan activities.

                                                            Leisur e Skills            Increase independe nce in leisure routines.

                                                                                       Attend events with peers
                                                            Age Appropriate social

                                                                                       Increase physical strength and stamina
                                                            Fitness Training           through swi mming and enga ging in
                                                                                       exercis e.
                                             INDIVIDUA LIZE D TRAN S ITION PLAN

DOMAIN: Social                                                                             NAME: George D oe

Personal Characteristics:   Support Needs:                   Instructional Needs:          Recommended Obj ectives/Priorities for this
Social                                                       Build co mmunication to       Social Skills
                                                             enhan ce social skills.

                                                             Leisur e activities similar
                                                             to peers.

                                             INDIVIDUA LIZE D TRAN S ITION PLAN

DOMAIN: Continuing Education                                                               NAME: George D oe

Personal Characteristics:   Support Needs:                   Instructional Needs:          Recommended Obj ectives/Priori ties for this
Current Academic Skills     Focus on functional academi c                                  Intensive Functional Academic Instruction
                            instruction in the co mmunity,   .
                            home and classroom.
 Origins of Universal Design (UD)
• Developed from architecture in the early
  1970’s at North Carolina State University
• Based on the idea that all products should be
  usable to the greatest extent possible by
  everyone, regardless of their age, ability, or
  status in life.
• Examples of Universal Design include curb
  cuts, TV captioning, & pictorial representation
  on restroom doors.
Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
 • An educational application of the original
   architecture-based UD construct
 • Developed at the Center for Applied Special
   Technology (CAST) for K-12 students
 • UDL is designed to improve access,
   participation, and progress in the general
   education curriculum
 • UDL challenges teachers to anticipate, reduce,
   and/or eliminate barriers by creating flexible
             Premise for UDL
• Barriers occur as diverse learners interact
  with curriculum (e.g., nonreaders working
  with text)
• The curriculum and instruction are the
  problem, NOT the students
• Curricula should consider student differences
  at the outset… as opposed to retrofitting
  existing instructional plans (Meyer & Rose, 2005)
 UDL is Based on Brain Research
Research using the following tools indicates that
 global measures of intelligence (e.g., IQ) do not
 account for individual learning differences at the
 neural level within the brain (Dolan & Hall, 2001; Wallis &
  Bulthoff, 1999)

• Positron emission tomography (PET)
• Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
• Quantitative electroencephalography (Qeeg)
 Individual Learning Experiences
     Shape Neural Pathways
• Brain activity varies by individual based on
  previous experiences with the learning tasks
  (Hund-Georgiadis & von Cramon, 1999; Shaywitz, 2003)

• Modules within the brain expand and contract
  based on personal experiences (van Mier, Fiez, &
  Raichle, 1998)

• Repetition and practice produce changes at
  the behavioral level and at the neural level
  within the brain (Meyer & Rose, 2002)
 Neural Networks within the Brian
CAST recognizes 3 primary networks
• Recognition networks receive and analyze
  information “What is this?”
• Strategic networks allow individuals to plan
  and carry out actions “How am I going to do
• Affective networks are involved in
  establishing priorities “Why should I do this?”
                              (Rose, Meyer, & Hitchcock, 2005)
   UDL Addresses Problems with
     Traditional Assessments
• Print-based assessments measure visual acuity,
  decoding ability, writing ability, reading fluency, and
  reading comprehension before they measure subject-
  specific content knowledge
• Students’ performance on print-based assessments
  can cause teachers to purport inaccurate inferences
  regarding students’ learning (Russell & Haney, 2000)
• Traditional assessments often focus on outcomes
  (e.g., # of terms recalled) without considering process
        Principles of UDL
• Enhance recognition by providing
  multiple flexible methods of presentation
• Support strategic learning by providing
  multiple flexible methods of modeling and
• Support affective learning by providing
  multiple flexible options for engagement
           UDL Teaching Methods
Support Recognition             Support Strategic Networks
“What is this?”                 “How am I going to do that?”
• Multiple examples             • Flexible models of
• Highlight critical features
                                • Provide opportunities to
• Provide multiple media          practice with supports
  and formats                   • Provide ongoing relevant
• Support background              feedback
  context                       • Flexible opportunities to
                                  demonstrate skills
       UDL Teaching Methods
To Support Affective Networks
“Why should I do this?”
• Offer choices of content specificity whenever
• Provide multiple tools to access the
• Adjust levels of challenge within assignments
• Offer choices of rewards
• Provide choices of learning context
           The UDL Teaching Process
Set Goals                                 Identify Status
Identify standards-based learning goals   Identify methods, materials, and assessments
Establish context                         Identify barriers

   Teach UDL Lesson                       Apply UDL
   Teach lesson                           Identify UDL materials and methods
   Evaluate effectiveness                 Write UDL Plan
   Unforeseen barriers?                   Collect and organize materials
 UDL & Differentiated Instruction
• UDL is a theoretical framework for
  instructional design
• Differentiated Instruction is a practice
  that can be implemented within the
  Universal Design framework
• Differentiated Instruction and UDL both
  encourage curricula that is flexible and
  designed to decrease learning barriers
                   Theory to Practice
                          Universal Design For Learning (Theory)

    Principle 1                         Principle 2                            Principal 3
Recognition Learning                Strategic Learning                     Affective Learning

            UDL Teaching Methods (practice)   Differentiated Instruction (practice)

                                                          Access, participation,
                                                          & progress in the general
                                                          education curriculum
  Three Elements of Differentiation
• Several materials are used to present the content
• Tasks are aligned with instructional goals
• Instruction is concept focused and principle driven
• Flexible grouping
• Multiple strategies for classroom management
• Continual assessment of student progress
• Students as active participants
• Vary expectations and requirements
     Additional Components of
     Differentiated Instruction
• Clarify key concepts
• Use assessment as a tool to inform
• Emphasize critical and creative thinking
• Provide a balance between teacher-
  assigned and student-selected tasks
                     Teaching methods

      Recognition Learning “What”
UDL Principle 1                   Differentiating Instruction

Provide multiple examples         Use several elements to
                                  support instructional content
Highlight critical features       Instruction is content
                                  focused and principle driven
Provide multiple media and        Use several materials to
formats                           support instruction
Support background context        Assess students’ knowledge
                    Teaching methods

         Strategic Learning “How”
UDL Principle 2                  Differentiating Instruction

Provide flexible models of       Demonstrate information
skilled performance              and skills multiple times
Provide opportunities to         Active and responsible
practice with supports           learners
Provide ongoing relevant         Vary requirements and
feedback                         expectations for the learning
Offer flexible opportunities
for demonstrating skill
                  Teaching methods

       Affective Learning “Why”
UDL Principle 3                  Differentiating Instruction

Offer choice of content and      Effective organization
Provide adjustable levels of     Student engagement is vital
Offer choices of rewards         Effective classroom
Offer a choices of learning      Diversify instruction
      Barriers to Student Learning
•   Prior knowledge about the concept
•   Seeing, decoding, or fluently reading text
•   Filtering extraneous sensory information
•   Keeping track of information (e.g., organization)
•   Lack of interest with the topic
•   Ability to maintain focus for an appropriate
    period of time
     Strategies for Building Prior
    Knowledge in a UDL Framework
•   Direct Instruction (DI) (Adams & Engelmann, 1996)
•   Reflection and recording (Carr & Thompson, 1996)
•   Interactive discussions (Jackson, Harper, & Jackson, 2005)
•   Answering questions (King, 1994)
•   The K-W-L strategy (Ogle, 1986; Fisher, Frey, & Williams, 2002)
•   Computer assisted activation (Biemans, Deel, & Simons,
     Eliminating Recognition &
         Strategic Barriers
• Differentiated Instruction
• Graphic organizers (e.g., thematic maps,
  network tree, problem and solution map)
• Advanced outlines
• Digital media
• Assistive Technology
• Opportunities for dialogue
     Eliminating Affective Barriers
•   Provide choices in context
•   Peek student interests
•   Co-teach with students
•   Authentic assignments
•   Real world applications
•   Technology simulations
•   Tools that support out-of-reach activities
Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST)
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