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					Shared Smart Bicycle
Schemes…                                                        …in European







Peter Midgley gTKP

bike-sharing (bīk-sher-iŋ)
          1: short-term bicycle rental available at
          unattended urban locations;
          2: bicycle transit

          1: make use of applied technology (smart cards
          and/or mobile phones);
          2: provide users with real-time bike availability
          information on the internet.

                                               Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 3
Internet real-time bike availability

Most systems…
        Increase mobility choices, improve air quality, and
        reduce congestion

Many systems…
        Create individual public transport (Barcelona)
        Improve quality of life (Barcelona)
        Promote bicycle use for short trips (Göteborg)
        Support smart growth (Lyon)
        Improve air quality and public health (Paris)

                                           Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 5

Bike “stations” and rental “charges”
           Flexible “pick-up” and “drop-off” 24/7
           Time based “pay-per-ride” (First half hour “Free”)
           Subscription and/or deposit (credit card)
           Rugged, simple, 3 gears, baggage racks
           Vandal “proof”
Smart Technology
           Monitoring bike availability at stations and bike
           Statistical data on bike use (future planning)
                                                Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 6
Bike Stations

                Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 7

                            Barcelona   Call-a-Bike (Munich)

SmartBike (Clear Channel)
                                         Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 8
                   Smart Technology

Source: JCDecaux
                                      Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 9
        Evolution: Bike Sharing

1968, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
          First Bike Sharing Scheme “White Bicycle Plan”
          Ordinary bikes, painted white, were provided for
          free public use.
          All bikes were stolen and the program collapsed
          within days.
1974, La Rochelle, France
          The first successful bike sharing program
          featuring free yellow bicycles.
          Still operating and evolved into Smart Bike

                                            Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 10
       Evolution: Bike Sharing

1993, Cambridge, UK
         Most of the 300 bicycles were stolen
         The program was abandoned.
1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
         First large-scale urban bike share program
         Specially-designed “City Bikes”
         • with parts that cannot be used on other bikes (to avoid theft).
         Picked up and returned at specific locations
         • throughout the central city with a coin deposit.
         When he visited Copenhagen in 1997, Bill Clinton
         received a specially designed city bike called "City
         Bike One".
                                                       Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 11
       Evolution: Smart Bike Sharing

1998, Rennes, France
         First “Smart Card” program – “Vélo à la Carte”
         The longest running smart bike program

         20 schemes in 10 countries (most in France)

         51 more schemes in 8 countries (most in France
         and Italy)

                                           Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 12
     Growth of Smart Bike Schemes


30                                                    29




10                                  8
                                         5    5
      1              1         1
     1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

                                             Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 13
2008: 74 European cities

                           Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 14
                               Schemes/Bikes by Country

    Austria        1                                                1,540

   Belgium         1                                               250

  Denmark              2                                             2,400

    France                                           26                                                                                39,798

  Germany                          6                                         5,800

       Italy                                    19                   2,563

Luxembourg         1                                               250

    Norway                 3                                        1,575

   Portugal        1                                               350

     Spain                             7                                             9,809

   Sweden              2                                             2,125

        UK                     5                                   198

               0                           10   20        30   0         5,000   10,000   15,000   20,000   25,000   30,000   35,000   40,000
                                                                                                            Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 15

Public Sector (35%)
        City administrations: 27%
        Public transport (Deutsche Bahn): 8%
Private Sector (65%)
        “Bicincittà” (Comunicare,Italy): 26%
        “Cyclocity” (JCDecaux, France): 23%
        “SmartBike” (Clear Channel, US): 16%

                                  Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 16
      Schemes by Provider



30%         26%                                     27%
                                         23%                     Towns
                   19%                           20%
20%                   16%

                              9% 8%
      Bicincittà    Clear    Deutsche JCDecaux   Other
                   Channel     Bahn

                                                 Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 17
               Providers by Country
    Austria        1

   Belgium         1

  Denmark              2

    France                     4                        11                          11

  Germany                              6

       Italy                                           18                    1

Luxembourg         1

    Norway                 3

   Portugal        1

     Spain         1           2           3    1

   Sweden              2

        UK                         5

               0                                            10                   20                            30

                                   Bicincittà       Clear Channel   Deutsche Bahn        JCDecaux    Other
                                                                                            Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 18
         Private Sector: Bicincittà

Bicincittà (Comunicare s.r.l., Italy)

           First introduced in 2004
           11,000 registered users, 1,700 stands in 21 cities.
           Mostly in Italy, but also in Spain (Pamplona)
           Provides system in exchange for billboard rights

                                              Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 19
        Private Sector: Cyclocity

Cyclocity (JCDecaux, France)

          2nd largest global outdoor advertising company
          First introduced in 1999
          Operates in 17 cities (mostly in France)
          Largest operation: Paris
          Provides system in exchange for billboard rights

                                            Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 20
Private Sector: Cyclocity

                            Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 21
       Private Sector: SmartBike

SmartBike (Clear Channel Outdoor, USA)

         World’s largest outdoor advertising company
         First smart bike-sharing program in Rennes,
         France (1998)
         12,000 bikes, 260.000 registered users in 13 cities
         in 6 countries

                                           Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 22
             Examples: Paris (2.15 million)

Vélib: “vélo libre” (free bicycle); “vélo liberté” (bicycle freedom)
                Started 15 July 2007.
                20,600 bikes, 1,451 stations every 300m, 24/7.
                212,000 subscribers, 8-10 users/bicycle/day.
                27.5 m trips, 75,000 trips/day, 370 km cycle lanes.
                Operated by JCDecaux at its own expense.
                Start-up costs €90 million, staff 285.
                City gets subscription and usage fees (€20
                million) and €4.3 million a year from JCDecaux.
                JCDecaux gets advertising on 1,628 billboards for
                10 years.
                                                    Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 23
                  Examples: Paris (2.15 million)

Source: Laurent MERCAT, Montpellier Agglomération, ECOMM 2008   Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 24
          Examples: Barcelona (1.5 million)

Bicing: (Biking)
             Started May 2007.
             6,000 bikes, 400 stations every 300m, 24/7.
             15 m trips, average trip 3 km, average time 17mns
             128 km cycle lanes.
             170,000 subscribers, only available to residents.
             57% work trips (10% trips have replaced car trips)
             30% say it is faster, 37% value exercise.
             Operated by Clear Channel Outdoor under
             contract to B:SM (“Barcelona de Serveis
             Municipals”), a municipal service company.
             Funded from on-street parking.     Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 25
Examples: Barcelona (1.5 million)

                        Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 26
         Examples: La Rochelle (80,000)

Vélos Jaunes: (Yellow Bikes)
            Started 1974, 300 bikes, 50 stations.
            New system “libre-service vélos” 24/7.
            110 bikes, 11 stations.
            Uses a smart fare card that can also be used for
            electric car sharing, parking, and buses.
            System free for smart card holders the first 3
            hours (2 hours for other users).
            Operated by the Communauté d'Agglomération
            de La Rochelle, the metropolitan commission.
            Funded from fees and general revenues.
                                              Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 27
Examples: La Rochelle (80,000)

                       Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 28
Topography and climate.
Keeping bikes longer than the allowed
Theft and vandalism.

Bikes used instead of walking or public
                            Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 29
Smart technology, credit cards, fees
  Users must provide credit card information, so if
  they do not return a bike, they will be charged its
  replacement cost.
  Clear Channel Outdoor bikes have a unique
  identifier and use a GPS tracking system to
  reduce theft
Bike design
  Smart bikes are designed to require the use of
  special tools for disassembly.
  Components are of uncommon dimensions that
  would not be usable on other bikes.

                                      Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 30

            Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 31

Electric Bikes
  Stuttgart (Germany) is hilly and the city is
  launching an electric bike scheme called

                                      Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 32

Key Conditions
         A strong commitment to sustainable urban
         mobility and the promotion of cycling;
         Integration with overall urban transport planning:
         A minimum standard of bicycle infrastructure (bike
         lanes and bike paths) for safe and convenient
         Appropriate topography and climate;
         Sufficient resources to achieve a real impact; and
         Sufficient space for racks/parking to guarantee
         access to bicycles.

                                           Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 33

NICHES Checklist (2007)
         City size: > 200,000 inhabitants
         Implementation time: <2 years
         Stakeholders’ involvement: critical
          • Rail or public transport operators; street furniture companies;
            advertising companies; local authorities, user associations.
         Challenges: mutual respect between cyclists,
         pedestrians and car drivers
         Costs: variable (€1,400 – €3,900/bike/year)
          • staff needed for operation, service and maintenance;
          • bicycles (costs can range from €250 to more than €1,200
            depending on smart bike technology);
          • racks and service terminals.
         most schemes are not financially self-supporting.
                                                        Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 34

User Fees – Subscriptions
  All systems
  • Paris: $44m/ year; Barcelona: $3.5m/year; Lyon: $100,000/year

General Revenues – Public Transport
  Some systems (35%)
  • Barcelona: $6.6m/year (most from surplus parking revenues).

Outdoor Advertising Rights
  Most systems (65%) operated by billboard
  companies in return for advertising rights (usually
  10 years)
  • Bicincittà, Clear Channel, JCDecaux-Publicis

Climate Change
          In just over a year, emissions have been reduced
          by 4,176 tonnes of C02 (Barcelona).
          Burn up to 600 calories/hour by bike
          10% shift from car to bike (Barcelona)
          20% users “driving less” (Paris)
Recession Friendly?
          An opportunity to promote Bike Sharing !

                                            Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 36
   Smart Bike Sharing is Smart!

            Be Smart ☺
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  Please register at
             Thank You

                              Peter Midgley gTKP Slide 37

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