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					Software Development Course

    Introduction To Software


     Taught by : Ahmed-kafi Abdullahi
                                                 Casharkii hore
                                                                 Computers




                                  General-purpose Computers                  Special-purpose Computers



                             Microcomputers(Desktops, Laptops)




                  Hardware                                                              Software




Input Devices   Processing Unit      Output Devices     Storage Devices
                Waxyaabahaan ku baranayno Casharkan




•   Waa maxay Software?
•   Qaybaha uu Software-gu u kala baxo.
•   Operating System-ka iyo Shaqadiisa.
•   File Extensions
•   Programming Languages
•   Client-Server model (Production Environment).
•   Client-Server model (Development Environment)
       Waa maxay Software?


       Software Classification

                                                       Personal Computer



                                                                                             Hardware

                                      Software




       Application Software                                   System Software



                               Programming Languages                            Operating Systems


                                                                                               IBM computer

                                                                                Windows XP
           Internet Explorer               Java
Examples
      Software Classification




    Application Software
     Word processing (Microsoft Word)
       Spreadsheet(Microsoft Excel)
              Internet Explorer



         System Software
Utility Programs (Virus scanners, Backup software)
  Programming Tools (Compilers, Interpreters)
               Operating Systems




                 Hardware
                            Operating Systems



Operating System waa software agaasima(maamula) hardware-ga iyo software-radda
kale. Operating System-ka hawlihiisa waxaa ka mid ah:-
    - in uu koontaroolo memory-ga kombuyuutarka.
    - in uu turjubaan u noqdo program-yada noocoodu yahay Application Software-ka si
      marka ay la xariirayaan ama amarro siinayaan CPU-ga iyo hardware-ka kale
      ee kombuyuutarka.
   - in uu maamulo faylasha furitaankooda, xiridooda, masixidooda, abuuridooda iwm.
   - in uu isticmaalayaasha u fududeeyo siinta amarrada kombuyuutar-ka isagoo u
    ogolaanaya in ay isticmaalaan mouse-ka halkii ay commands ka isticmaali lahaayeen
    (Graphical User Interface ama GUI).

Noocyada Operating Systems-ka waxaa ka mid ah Windows iyo Linux.
                                 File Name Extension
•    File Name Extension waa xarfaha ama numberada ugu danbeeya ee magaca
     falaylasha ku lamaan, kuwaasoo dhanka midig ka xiga dhibicda kala badha magaca
     faylka iyo extension-kiisa. Tusaale:-
     introductionToSoftware.doc




              .doc waa File extension-ka
              Microsoft Word 97-2003




       introductionToSoftware
       waa File-ka magaciisa



    File Name Extension-ku wuxuu u fududeeyaa Operating System-ka in uu
    faylkan la xariiriyo application-kii(program-kii) uu ku furi lahaa. Program-
    kaasoo garanaya sida loo akhriyo faylkaas.
             File Name Extension-ka program-yada isticmaali doono qaarkood


.java = waa fayl luqu qoray Java(Source Code). Xasuusnoow faylku empty buu ahaan karaa
.class = waa fayl qoraalka ku jira uu java yahay (Byte Code)
.html | .htm = HTML Faayl ah, program-yada aalaba lagu furo faylashan waa Web Browsers-ka sida Internet Explorer
.txt = waa fayl text ah waxaad ku furi kartaa program-kasta oo Text Editor ah sida Notepad, Word, Textpad
.doc = document file. Microsoft Word
.jpg | .jpeg | .gif = faylkan waa sawir. Waxaa lagu furi karaa program-yada loo yaqaano Image Editors iyo kuwa kalaba
.avi = falkan waa video. Waxaa lagu furi karaa video player sida Windows Media player.
.mp3 = waa fayl maqal ah waxaa lagu furi karaa program-yada falasha maqalka.
                                              Programming Languages

                                                        Programming Languages




            Low-level Programming Languages                                       High-level Programming Languages




Native Machine Languages      Assembly Languages


                                                                Interpreted Languages                       Complied Languages (Normal
                                                                (Scripting Languages)                        Programming Languages)
Intel Machine Language      x86 assembly language




                                               Groovy            JavaScript        VBScript          Java            C++             C
                          Classification Of Programming Languages and Other Software

Languages & other        Examples
Software Types
Programming              Java ( Java Enterprise Edition) , C++, C#, Smalltalk
Languages


Scripting Languages      VBScript, JavaScript, PHP, groovy, Beanshell

Markup Languages         HTML (HyperText Markup Language), XML (Extensible Markup Language ), XHTML (Extensible HyperText Markup
                         Language)
Stylesheet Languages     CSS (Cascading Style Sheets), XSL (Extensible Stylesheet Language )

Query Languages          SQL (Structured Query language), OQL (Object Query Language)

Integrated Development
Environment              Eclipse, NetBeans, Jcreator,
(IDEs)

Web Browsers             Internet Explorer, FireFox, Opera, Safari

Databases Systems        MySQL, Microsoft Access, Derby,

Operating Systems        Windows(Xp, Vista, 2000), Unix, Linux, Solaris

Web Servers              Apache Tomcat, Jetty
(Containers)
Application Servers      JBOSS, Apache Geronimo, Glassfish, WebSphere


Frameworks               Spring, Ofbiz, Apache Struts, JavaServer Faces,

Modelling Languages      UML (Unified Modelling Language), SysML (System Modelling Language)

Protocols                HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), FTP (File Transfer Protocol), SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol), POP(Post
                         Office Protocol)
                     Client/Server model

Waa maxay Client/Server?
                          Client-Server Model (Production Environment)



                  Client                                                      Server

                                                                  Java ( Java Enterprise Edition)
                                                                               HTML Pages
                                                                               XML files
                                                                                CSS files
           Web Browsers                        HTTP                       MySQL ama Derby
                                                                            Apache Tomcat

                                                                          Apache Geronimo
                                                                                   Ofbiz
                                                                              JavaScript files

                                                                              Groovy files


Xiriirka Server-ka                                             Xiriirka Client-iga
-Codsi ayuu ka sugaa Client-iga (Request)                      -Codsi ayuu u diraa Server-ka (Request)
-Codisguu qiimeeyaa                                            -Jawaab ayuu helaa Server-ka (Response)
-Jawaab ta codsiguu u diraa Client-ga
                 Client-Server model (Development Environment)

                                            Server
                                  Java ( Java Enterprise Edition)
                                            HTML Pages
                                             XML files
                                             CSS files
                                      MySQL ama Derby
                                         Apache Tomcat
                                      Apache Geronimo
                                        Ofbiz framework

                                          JavaScript files

                                          Groovy files


                                          Client
                                          UML tool

                                          Eclipse
                                       Web Browsers


Marka la qorayo Software-ga uma baahnid 2 computer oo mid yahay Server midna yahay Client. Hal Computer
ayaad ka dhigan kartaa server iyo client-iba.
                                      Programming Terminology

•   Production Environment: Waa marka software-ga la qoray uu ku shaqaynayo meeshii iyo qalabkii loogu talay
    galay in uu cimrigiisa ku dhamaysto ama hawshii loogu tala galay in uu baahideeda daboolo meeshuu ku
    qabanayo. Hadii Software-ga uu ku shaqaynayo Production Environement waa software dhamaystiran oo aan
    qabyo ahayn.
•   Development Environment: Waa marka software-ga uu ku shaqaynayo meeshii iyo qalabkii lagu qoray.
    Micnaheedu waa softwareku waa qabyo oo weli dhisme iyo tijaabooyin ayaa ku socda.
•    Data: Data-du waa wax kasta oo computer-ku kuu hayo. Waxay noqon kartaa qoraal aad galisay sida warqad
    aad qof u diraysid ama xisaab aad doonaysid in computer-ku kaaga shaqeeyo (Text). Waxay kale oo noqon kartaa
    sawiradda (images), faylasha maqalka (audio) iyo kuwa muuqaalkaba (video).

				
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