THE CLAUSE THE CLAUSE Clause A group of by liuhongmei


									                                                   THE CLAUSE

Clause - A group of words that contains a ________________ and its ______________ and is used as part of a


        A clause has a ________________ and _________________. Not every clause expresses a complete


                                                                     Clause – I love to run outside
        Sentence – I love to run outside when the weather is nice.
                                                                     Clause – when the weather is nice

        A. Independent Clause: Expresses a complete __________________ and can stand by itself as a


        B. Subordinate Clause: Does not express a ___________________ thought and cannot stand alone as a

             _____________________. Also known as a ______________________ clause.

      **The thought expressed by a ______________________ clause becomes complete when the clause is

                              combined with a _________________________ clause.**

                               Mrs. Arters nodded her head when Jackie answered the question.

                 When you reach Smith Street turn left.                   Meg wrote a book that was a best seller.

English 10                                                                                                           1
Types of Subordinate Clauses

        A. Adjective Clause: A ___________________ clause that modifies a ______________ or


                    The adjective clause always _________________ the word or words that it


                    Usually, an adjective clause begins with a _____________________.

               who                   whom                    whose                which                  that

        He invented a vaccine that cured many people.            The team, which finished undefeated, won in the playoffs.

                    May begin with a ________________ ________________.

                                                when                    where

    We went to the restaurant where I ate five hamburgers.           He told me about the time when you went to Europe.

                    Sometimes the relative pronoun or relative adjective is simply understood.

                                    The book {that} I read was called The Scarlet Letter.

        B. Noun Clause: A _____________________ clause used as a _________________.

                    May be used as a ________________, _______________________, ____________________,

                     ______________________________, or _________________________.

                    Usually introduced by:

              what                  whatever             whichever               whoever              whomever
              who                    whom                 whose                   which                 that
              how                   whether                when                   where                 why

                         1. Subject  Whatever you decide will be best.
                         2. P. N.       The hotel was where the family slept.
                         3. D. O.       Coach knew that the girls had done their best.
                         4. I. O.       Give whoever wants one an ice cream cone.
                         5. O. P.       The prize will be give to whoever deserves it most.
English 10                                                                                                                   2
                      Differentiating Between Noun and Adjective Clauses:

                           If you remove a clause and still have a sentence  Adjective Clause
                           If you remove a clause and DON’T have a sentence  Noun Clause

                              If a noun or pronoun precedes the clause  Adjective Clause
                               If a preposition or verb precedes the clause  Noun Clause

        C. Adverb Clause: A subordinate clause that modifies a ____________, ___________, or


                      Adverb Clauses tell __________, ___________, __________, _________, _________, and


                      Adverb clauses are usually introduced by a _________________________ conjunction:

          after              as long as          because         provided that          through            whenever
        although             as soon as           before             since               unless             where
            as               as though               if             so that               until            wherever
           as if             as well as        in order that         than                when               while

                      If the adverb clause is at the beginning of the sentence                  offset with a comma
                       If the adverb clause is at the end of the sentence                        not offset with a comma

      While driving to the museum, Laura ate her lunch.                 We will avoid the traffic if we leave now.

                      Elliptical Clause: Part of a clause may be left out when the meaning can be understood from
                       the context of the sentence. Most elliptical clauses are adverb clauses.

      Michelle knew Lindsay better than Zachary {did}.             While {he was} jogging, Mr. Kocur hurt his knee.

English 10                                                                                                              3
Identifying Independent and Subordinate Clauses
For each sentence, identify the italicized clause as independent or subordinate.

1. Whenever I think of Barbara Jordan, I remember her as she looks in this picture, delivering the
   commencement address at my sister’s graduation in 1986.

2. In front of a huge audience, Jordan spoke eloquently about the importance of values in our society.

3. Of course, her choice of subject matter surprised no one since Jordan had long been known as an
   important ethical force in American politics.

4. When Jordan began her public service career in 1966, she became the first African American woman
   to serve in the Texas Legislature.

5. In 1972, she won a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives, where only one other black woman –
   Shirley Chisholm – had ever been a member.

6. However, Jordan was still not widely recognized until she gave the keynote speech at the 1976
   Democratic National Convention.

7. Seen on television by millions of people, Jordan immediately gained national attention.

8. Two years later, Jordan decided that she would retire from national politics.

9. After she returned to Texas in 1978, Jordan taught at the University of Texas at Austin.

10. From 1991 until her death in 1996, she served on various government committees and used what she
    had learned in her many years of public service to fight corruption in politics.

Identifying Subordinate Clauses
For each sentence, underline the subordinate clause.

1. We couldn’t see who had won the race.

2. They couldn’t tell who the winner was.

3. She is the celebrity whom we saw at the restaurant.

4. Look for the mouse that you heard last night.

5. He spotted a horse that galloped away.

6. After we passed the test, we celebrated.

7. Do you know which country she is from?

8. Because you had not given us the right address, we missed the party.

English 10                                                                                               4
9. The package will arrive on time if you ship it today.

10. Until Mike lent me this book, I had never heard of John Steinbeck.

Identifying Adjective Clauses
For each sentence, underline the adjective clause and circle the relative pronoun or relative adverb
in the clause. Then, identify what word the relative pronoun or relative adverb refers to.

1. A speech community is a group of people who speak the same language.

2. There are speech communities that contain millions of people and some that have only a few.

3. The first language that you learn is called your native language.

4. People who master another language are bilingual.

5. People who conduct business internationally often need to know more than one language.

6. English, French, and Spanish, which many diplomats can speak, are among the six official languages
   of the United Nations.

7. Russian, Chinese, and Arabic are the other three languages that are used officially at the UN.

8. People for whom language study is important include telephone operators, hotel managers, and police

9. Many tourists each year find themselves in parts of the world where they would benefit from knowing
   the language spoken locally.

10. French, for example, is a language that is widely understood in parts of Europe, Africa, and Southeast

Identifying Adverb Clauses
For each sentence, underline the adverb clause and circle the subordinating conjunction.

1. Because the house had been vacant for so long, we had to clean up the lawn and gardens.

2. The grass looked as if it hadn’t been cut in months.

3. Ruth began mowing the lawn while Lou and I weeded the flower beds.

4. We had to borrow some tools because the weeds were so thick.

5. We hadn’t been able to cut through the heavy undergrowth until we started using a machete.

6. Before we pulled out the weeds, we couldn’t even see the roses.

English 10                                                                                              5
7. We stacked the debris in a mound so that it could be hauled away later.

8. After Ruth had mowed the lawn, she was exhausted.

9. We all stretched out in the shade when we stopped for a rest.

10. Long hours in the sun had made us feel as though the day would never end.

Identifying Adjective and Adverb Clauses
Underline the subordinate clauses in the following sentences. Then, identify whether each is an
adjective clause or an adverb clause.

1. In 1978, the aeronauts Ben Abruzzo, Max Anderson, and Larry Newman, whose home was
   Albuquerque, New Mexico, became the first people to pilot a balloon across the Atlantic Ocean.

2. Although Abruzzo and Anderson had been forced to land in the ocean in an earlier attempt in Double
   Eagle, they didn’t give up.

3. Instead, they acquired a new balloon, which they named Double Eagle II.

4. Newman joined them because experience had shown the need for a third crew member.

5. On its journey from Maine to France, Double Eagle II was airborne for 137 hours, which is a little less
   than six days.

6. The aeronauts stressed the fact that Double Eagle II didn’t just drift across the Atlantic; they flew it

7. Abruzzo, Anderson, and Newman had to understand meteorology so that they could take advantage of
   favorable winds.

8. They also had to regulate their altitude constantly by adjusting their supply of helium and by losing
   ballast, as the balloonists shown here are doing.

9. When the balloon gained too much altitude, the crew lowered it by releasing some of the gas.

10. If the balloon lost altitude, the crew raised it by discarding ballast.

English 10                                                                                                    6
Identifying and Classifying Noun Clauses
Underline the noun clauses in the following sentences. Then, identify how each is used: as subject,
predicate nominative, direct object, indirect object, or object of a preposition. NOTE: a sentence may
have more than one noun clause.

1. Mr. Perkins, the band director, announced that we would play at half time this week.

2. We can never predict whether he will choose a march or a show tune.

3. He always gives whoever will play each selection a chance to express an opinion of it.

4. He is genuinely interested in what we think of his choices.

5. A drummer once told Mr. Perkins she did not like most show tunes.

6. How she could say that was a mystery to me.

7. Mr. Perkins told us we would play a medley of marches.

8. What everyone wanted to know was who would play the solos.

9. He understands why that was our first question.

10. The crowd always applauds enthusiastically for whoever plays a solo.

Identifying Adjective, Adverb, and Noun Clauses
Each sentence in the following paragraph has at least one subordinate clause. Identify each
subordinate clause, and tell whether it is an adjective clause, adverb clause, or noun clause.

1. What’s so special about the Blue Grotto, or Grotta Azzurra, as the Italians say?

2. In the painting on the next page, you can see that the color and the hidden location of the Blue Grotto
   have made it famous.

3. The grotto is a cavern that can be entered only from the sea.

4. It is located on the west side of the Italian island of Capri, which lies at the entrance to the Bay of

5. Since the only opening to the cavern is approximately three feet high, visitors must lie down in a
   rowboat to enter it.

6. The sapphire blue of the water inside the spacious, oval-shaped cavern is caused by light that is
   refracted through the deep pool.

7. Although the calm, blue water looks inviting, the grotto is no longer a swimming hole.

English 10                                                                                                   7
8. In the past, however, people who lived in the area greatly enjoyed swimming there.

9. Tour guides tell whoever goes there that centuries ago Tiberius, the Roman emperor, used the Blue
   grotto as his private swimming pool.

10. Seeing it today, you would agree that it’s a pool fit for an emperor.

Identifying and Classifying Clauses
Identify the italicized clause in each of the following sentences as an independent clause or a
subordinate clause. Also, identify each subordinate clause as an adjective clause, an adverb clause,
or a noun clause.

1. During a career that spanned twenty years, Pelé was probably the most popular athlete in the world.

2. He was named Edson Arantes do Nascimento, but hardly anyone recognizes that name.

3. Soccer fans the world over, however, knew Pelé, who was considered the world’s best soccer player.

4. While he was still a teenager, he led his Brazilian teammates to the first of their three World Cup

5. Whenever he played, his skill and agility awed fans.

6. Once, he juggled the ball on his foot for fifty yards, eluding four opponents who were trying to take
   the ball away from him.

7. That he soon became a superstar is not surprising.

8. Even though soccer has never become as popular as baseball or football in the United States, Pelé
   managed to spark considerable interest in the game.

9. After he signed with the New York Cosmos, people flocked to the stands to watch him play.

10. They soon recognized that Pelé was an entertainer as well as an athlete.

Identifying and Classifying Clauses
Identify the italicized clause in each of the following sentences as an independent clause or a
subordinate clause. Also, identify each subordinate clause as an adjective clause, an adverb clause,
or a noun clause.

1. The Brooklyn Bridge, which spans the East River between Brooklyn and Manhattan in New York City,
   is one of the engineering wonders of the world.

2. Massive granite towers that are supported by concrete-filled shafts are among its remarkable features.

3. The bridge was designed and built by John and Washington Roebling, a father-and-son engineering
   team who were pioneers in the use of steel-wire cables.

English 10                                                                                                 8
4. The steel-wire cables give the bridge a graceful appearance that resembles a spider’s web.

5. That the bridge combines strength with beauty remains a tribute to the Roebling family.

6. The Roeblings discovered that construction work could be both slow and dangerous.

7. Although she was not an engineer, Nora Roebling assisted in the efforts to complete the bridge.

8. Because they were required at times to work underwater in airtight chambers called caissons, many
   workers, including Washington Roebling, suffered from caisson disease, or decompression sickness.

9. Sailors, who were used to working at great heights, were hired to string the miles of cable.

10. John Roebling injured his foot at the work site, and as a result, he died of tetanus shortly after
    construction was begun.

English 10                                                                                               9

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