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					                                            Lesson Plans 1




MUSIC IN FILM
- A ten week course for year 9 students -




      James Brownlie (n7122306)
                                                                                                                          Lesson Plans 2


                                              Essential Learnings Key

            Knowledge and Understanding                                               Ways Of Working

1 Duration, beat, time value and metre are used to create        1 Make decisions about arts elements, languages and
and vary rhythm                                                  cultural protocols in relation to specific style, function,
                                                                 audience and purpose of arts works
2 Pitch,
tonalities, scales and intervals are used to create
and vary the horizontal arrangement of sound                     2 Create and shape arts works by manipulating arts
                                                                 elements to express meaning in different contexts
3 Tonalities and harmonies are used to
 organise music in
different vertical arrangements                                  3 Modify and refine genre-specific arts works, using
                                                                 interpretive and technical skills
4 Contemporary, traditional and genre-specific musical forms
are used to structure music                                      4 Present arts works to particular audiences for a specific
                                                                 purpose, style and function, using genre-specific arts
5 Interaction between the linear and the vertical arrangement    techniques, skills, processes and cultural protocols
of music is used to create the texture or density of sound
                                                                 5 Identify risks and devise and apply safe practices
6 Vocal, instrumental, electronic and computer-
generated
 sound sources have characteristic
 sound
qualities (tone colour) that can be altered through methods of   6 Respond by deconstructing arts works in relation to
production and manipulation                                      social, cultural, historical, spiritual, political, technological
                                                                 and economic contexts, using arts elements and languages
7 Relative softness and loudness of sounds,
and digital and
electronic devices, are used to change dynamic levels and        7 Reflect on and learning, apply new understandings and
 expression of music                                             justify future applications.
                                                                                                                                       Lesson Plans 3


                                                           Episode One

Subject: Introduction and overview, revision of intervals audiation skills

Objectives: Questioning and debate will draw out studentsʼ previous knowledge of the topic. Overview of
expectations for unit and assessment. Revision and refresher of studentsʼ audiation skills with intervals.

Resources: KWL Chart, Listening worksheet, Interval worksheet, MP3 excerpts

                                                                                                                             Knowledge and
                                                                                                                             Understanding
  Steps/
                Specific Objectives                              Teaching /Learning                            Organisation         &
  CLASP                                                                                                                         Ways Of
                                                                                                                                Working

                                            •What defines film music and how does it differ from other music?
    Intro                                   •Can any music be used in film? How does music enhance a                               4
               Draw out studentsʼ prior                                                                        Seated at
   CLASP         knowledge of topic
                                            narrative? Can music be the narrative?                              desks
    15min                                   •Use KWL chart to list studentsʼ knowledge about origins,                            6,7
                                            development and variety of functions of music in film.

                                            •Play a numbered sequence of short MP3 excerpts.
                                                                                                               Seated at          4
  Listening     Students experience         •Using worksheet, students will answer - What do you see
                                                                                                                desks,
   CLASP      musicʼs capacity to narrate   happening (in your mind) when you hear this music?
                                                                                                               working in
    10min     and evoke specific images      •Students exchange answers, comparing and contrasting
                                            •Why were so many answers similar? Discuss.
                                                                                                                 pairs           6,7
                                                                                                                                          Lesson Plans 4

                                                                                                                                Knowledge and
                                                                                                                                Understanding
Steps/
               Specific Objectives                                  Teaching /Learning                            Organisation         &
CLASP                                                                                                                              Ways Of
                                                                                                                                   Working

                Students refresh and/or      •Brainstorm a list of (well) known melodies derived from film or
Experience     experience their ability to   TV. (examples may include; Twighlight, Star Wars, Simpsons,                            1,2
                                                                                                                  Seated at
CLASP        sing a known melody and to      Wizard of Oz, Close Encounters)                                       desks
  5min            “pick it out” on their     •Students sing examples, then play on instruments either by                             2
                      instruments            memory, by ear or by trial and error

                                             •Which is the most effective method? Is it easier to “pick out” a
                                             tune on some instruments than others?
Reflection                                    •When we sing, how do we know the tune? How do we know                                 1,2
             Students discuss the role of    what notes to play on our instruments? Discuss                       Seated at
CLASP         audiation in musicianship      •What is audiation? How is it different from listening or from        desks
  5min                                       audition                                                                               6,7
                                             •How can we become skilled audiators? Why is it an important
                                             skill for us as musicians? Discuss
                                                                                                                                                Lesson Plans 5

                                                                                                                                       Knowledge and
                                                                                                                                       Understanding
 Steps/
                Specific Objectives                                   Teaching /Learning                                Organisation          &
 CLASP                                                                                                                                    Ways Of
                                                                                                                                          Working

                                              •Identify and revise studentsʼ prior skills with intervals (within one
                                              8ve)
                                              •Experience 12 intervals (m2 - 8ve) through singing and
                                              instrument playing.
                                              •Teacher plays each interval in multiple pitches (keys)
                    Students become
 Experience                                   •Students sing intervals
              acquainted with a series of
                                              •Students sing through scale notes to count the steps between            At desks and/
 CLASP        learning micro-steps which
  30min       will enable them to develop
                                              the two notes. For example, “do-re-mi-fa”=”1-2-3-4” = 4th                    or with          2
                                              •Important: examples must be presented in multiple keys to                instruments
                strong interval audiation
                                              illustrate the relativity of intervals
                          skills
                                              •Students brainstorm well known melodies which correspond with
                                              intervals. For example, the first two notes of “Somewhere Over
                                              the Rainbow” make an octave. The first and third notes of the
                                              same melody make a major seventh.
                                              •Stress the importance of audiation practice

               Explain homework and the
                 purpose of the interval      •Homework: The interval worksheet is used to identify melodies
                       worksheet.             with which the students are familiar to correspond with the 12
              Introduce the website http://   intervals.
Reflection         www.musictheory.net/        •Demonstrate the website http://www.musictheory.net/ and how it            At desks           2
   5min             Brief summary of          can be used to strengthen audiation skills.
                   assessment pieces          •Explain the assessment pieces for the topic. (Do not hand out
                    (composition and          task sheets yet)
                      performance)
                                                                                                                                    Lesson Plans 6


                                                         Episode Three

Subject: Music as Narrative in Film Part One: Homophony.

Objectives: Students familiarise themselves with homophony. Build on existing knowledge to identify major,
minor and dominant 7th chords.

Resources: OHP linked to computer to show website,

Prior Knowledge: Students will have visited http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/
LessonPage:Film_scoring_for_musicians:The_sound_of_fear for homework in preparation for this lesson


                                                                                                                               Knowledge and
                Specific                                                                                                        Understanding
   Steps       Objectives                                 Teaching /Learning                                    Organisation         &
                                                                                                                                  Ways Of
                                                                                                                                  Working

               Consider the
   Intro    variety of emotional
                                   •Dialogue does not tell us what a film character is feeling, but music can.                       4
                                   •Brainstorm ideas about emotions which can be expressed in a film. (Fear,
   CLASP    elements that may                                                                                     At desks
                                   anger, love, joy, sadness and more)
   10min     be conveyed in a
                                   •Distribute worksheet and discuss                                                               2,6
                   movie
                                                                                                                                       Lesson Plans 7

                                                                                                                                  Knowledge and
                 Specific                                                                                                          Understanding
  Steps         Objectives                              Teaching /Learning                                      Organisation            &
                                                                                                                                     Ways Of
                                                                                                                                     Working

                                •Homophony introduction: Teacher demonstrates, then students participate
             Using instruments, in creating homophonic sounds (i.e. chords) first using their voice, then
Experience   explain homophony using available instruments
                                                                                                                  At desks or
                                                                                                                gathered at the
  CLASP              with       •Teacher can demonstrate various homophonic sounds on the piano, asking         piano, in small        3
   10min       demonstrations   students what moods they think it creates. For example, augmented,                  groups
                                diminished, dissonant clusters of sound, high and low register

                                 •(This homophony-only exercise gives an example of the kind of constraints
                                 and restrictions film composers often work under.)                                Keyboards
Experience     Students use
                                 •Exercise: Students pull from a hat a particular emotion and create a single     classroom           3,7
             homophonic sound
  CLASP                          chord (i.e. no rhythm) to describe it. (1 or 2 mins prep time).                 instruments
               only to create                                                                                   and/or student
   20min          moods
                                 •Students with same emotion can work together.
                                                                                                                 instruments
                                                                                                                                     2,3,4
                                 •Exercise can be repeated if time permits.
                                 •Students audition peer creations
                                                                                                                                          Lesson Plans 8

                                                                                                                                     Knowledge and
                Specific                                                                                                              Understanding
   Steps       Objectives                                 Teaching /Learning                                       Organisation            &
                                                                                                                                        Ways Of
                                                                                                                                        Working

                                  •Identify major, minor and dominant 7th chords.
                                  •Example chords given in random keys but students need only to identify
                                  quality (maj, min, dom) not specific keys
                                  •Discuss characteristics of major, minor and dominant 7th chord.
                                  •Inversions may be used, as we are only identifying the character of each
                                  chord, not the specific order of notes
            Use our voice as a
                                  •Explain the importance of the V7 chord: A “I-V” progression does not
Audiation   bridge between the
                                  establish key - it could in fact be “IV-I”. For example, in the chord              At desks or         2,3
            inner and outer ear
  CLASP                           progression “C-G” are we hearing “I-V” (C Major) or “IV-I” (G Major)? Making     gathered at the
               to develop the                                                                                           piano
   25min      ability to identify
                                  the G chord a G7 establishes the key of C, because the note F natural is in                             1
                                  C major but not in G major. So I-V7 establishes key, whereas I-V does not.
            homophonic chords
                                  •Sing and identify intervals within each chord. Note that each chord is just a
                                  “stack” of intervals
                                  •Show students how root position chords are constructed on a staff
                                  •Explain how inversions are still the same chord
                                  •If time allows, introduce suspended chords (students only need to identify
                                  the sound of suspension, not specific intervals).

            Recap main points
Reflection   and how they apply •Using remaining available time, discuss how learnings from todayʼs
                                                                                                                      At desks            7
    5min      to composition   episode can be used in the unitʼs composition assessment
                assessment



Notes: The homophony-only exercise gives an example of the kind of constraints and restrictions film
composers often work under. The exercise intentionally leaves out rhythmic elements. The idea is to separate
                                                                                                         Lesson Plans 9

essential elements of music creation (in this case harmony and rhythm) in order to give their definitions greater
clarity.




                                                Episode Five
Subject: Rhythm and expression of movement in film music.

Objectives: Using examples, develop an understanding of rhythm as an expression of movement in films.
Revisit and enhance studentsʼ capacity to audiate rhythm.

Resources: DVDs - Punch Drunk Love, Atonement, The Dark Knight, The Lord of the Rings:The Return of the
King
Preparations: Have percussion instruments ready and positioned for a demonstration, to be followed by
student use
                                                                                                                                           Lesson Plans 10

                                                                                                                                         Knowledge
                                                                                                                                            and
                                                                                                                                        Understanding
   Steps      Specific Objectives                                   Teaching/Learning                                  Organisation           &
                                                                                                                                          Ways Of
                                                                                                                                          Working

                                      •Use KWL chart to establish studentsʼ prior knowledge of rhythm as an
                 Use film exerpts      expression of movement
              (Punch Drunk Love,      •Introduce film excerpts, drawing attention to how the musicʼs rhythm helps
              Atonement, The Lord     to create the feeling of movement and continuity                                 Optimum
 Intro          of the Rings:The
               Return of the King
                                      •What time signatures are being used in the examples?
                                      •Use presented excerpts as a springboard for brainstorm exercise:
                                                                                                                        seating
                                                                                                                      positions for
                                                                                                                                            1,4
 CLASP
   25min
              and The Dark Knight)    •Collectively brainstorm and list a range of varying characteristics of         viewing TV            6,7
               to demonstrate the     movement, including; slow/fast, speeding up/slowing down, heavy/light,            monitor
                 use of rhythm to     steady/unsteady, organic/mechanic, single/multiple, static
               express movement       •Introduce and/or revise musical terms for rhythm (presto, largo,
                                      accelerando and so on)

                                      •Draw out studentsʼ understanding of expressing movement through                   Students
 Briefing       Use percussion to
              demonstrate rhythmic
                                      rhythm.
                                      •Collectively identify variation in rhythmic elements; tempo, pulse (strong
                                                                                                                      gather around
                                                                                                                        percussion
 CLASP            examples of         and weak), metre (syncopation/mixed metre)                                      instruments to         17
   10min      movement to students    •What ideas can we express with these rhythmic elements? For example,              observe
                                      how does the feel of 3/4 and 4/4 differ?                                        demonstration

                                      •Exercise: Students pull from a hat a particular characteristic of motion (as
Experience        Students use        listed in intro) and create a rhythm to describe it. (1 or 2 mins prep time).                       1,4,7
Performance     percussion only to    Students may work individually or in groups.                                    In groups, with
              create impressions of   •Exercise can be repeated if time permits.                                        instruments
  CLASP
   10min            movement          •Percussion instruments only                                                                        2,3,4
                                      •Students audition and discuss peer performance
                                                                                                                                      Lesson Plans 11

                                                                                                                                    Knowledge
                                                                                                                                       and
                                                                                                                                   Understanding
   Steps     Specific Objectives                                Teaching/Learning                                 Organisation           &
                                                                                                                                     Ways Of
                                                                                                                                     Working

                                    •Recap of studentsʼ prior knowledge (3/4, 4/4 and 6/8 time)                        With
                                    •Students clap or tap examples presented on whiteboard                       instruments, at
             Practice and develop
 Audiation     our sense of time
                                    •Teacher leads rhythmic dictation exercises, emphasising the importance of   desks or with a
                                                                                                                   writing pad,
  CLASP        through rhythmic
                                    continued practise to develop audiation skills.                                manuscript           17
   20min                            •Draw attention to strong and weak pulses as a means of determining time      and stationery
                    dictation
                                    signatures                                                                       for aural
                                    •Include examples of dotted rhythms and triplets                                dictation

              Summarise main
Reflection    points of lesson and   •Complete KWL chart to summarise studentsʼ understanding of expressive
                                                                                                                    At desks             7
    5min       how it applies to    functions of rhythm
                 assessment


Homework: Have students visit the website http://datadragon.com/education/instruments/ in preparation for the
next lesson on instrumentation

Notes:
•Notice the timbre in Atonement - the use of a typewriter as instrument.
•Note how the example from Return of the King is in 5/4 time. This time signature is used throughout the Lord of
the Rings trilogy to represent the army of villains. Discuss with students - why do you think the composer has
chosen this time signature? Teacher may point out Mars from Holstʼs The Planets as another example of 5/4
time used to represent battle or war.
                                                                                                       Lesson Plans 12




                                                Episode Six

Subject: Music In Horror And Thrillers: Orchestration and Instrumentation

Objectives: Develop studentsʼ understanding of the varying timbral characteristics of musical instruments. Use
examples from Horror and Thriller films to demonstrate the role of instrumentation and orchestration in creating
the desired musical effect

Resources: Worksheet. DVD excerpts: “The Shining”, “Psycho”, “The Exorcist III”, “Vertigo”, “2001:A Space
Odyssey”. Student instruments.

Prior knowledge: Students have been asked to visit the website http://datadragon.com/education/instruments/
in preparation for this lesson
                                                                                                                                     Lesson Plans 13

                                                                                                                                   Knowledge
                                                                                                                                      and

 Steps      Specific Objectives                              Teaching/Learning                                      Organisation   Understanding
                                                                                                                                       &
                                                                                                                                    Ways Of
                                                                                                                                    Working

                Short, light-hearted
  Intro     exercise designed to lead •Students are asked to describe their instrument as a character or person.
                                                                                                                   At desks or
                                                                                                                   presenting
 CLASP       students to consider the •Other orchestral instruments not represented in the class will also be
                                                                                                                    at front of         6
                 character of their   described by class members.
   5min                                                                                                                class
                   instrument*

Reflection   Use worksheet to revisit
            and enhance studentsʼ
                                       •Students fill out worksheet, working together in discussion, aided by
 CLASP       understanding of the
                                       teacher scaffolding, listing orchestral and other western instruments and
                                       their timbral characteristics (their personality)
                                                                                                                    At desks            6
  15min       timbre of western
                                       •Answers may vary and are open to discussion
                 instruments
                                                                                                                                       Lesson Plans 14

                                                                                                                                     Knowledge
                                                                                                                                        and

 Steps      Specific Objectives                               Teaching/Learning                                      Organisation    Understanding
                                                                                                                                         &
                                                                                                                                      Ways Of
                                                                                                                                      Working

                                         •Students watch excerpt from “The Shining” (00:21:22 - 00:22:14), first
                                         without sound (music), then with sound
                                         •Note how a seemingly ordinary scene suddenly becomes eerie because
                                         of the music. In this case, it is the music which reveals the real story
                                         •What is the instrumentation? What register of the instruments is being
                                         used? What other effects can you hear (for example, reverb or delay)?
                                         •Could the same effects be produced on other instruments? Why / why
                                         not? What are the qualities of this instrument that makes it unique?
                 Use example film         •Students watch excerpt from “Psycho” (shower/murder scene)
            excerpts from horror and     •What instruments can you hear? What is the register of the instruments?
                                                                                                                     Optimum
             thriller films, as well as   What is not present (for example, where is the lower register or the                         4,6,7
Listening      class discussion, to      bass)?                                                                       seating
                                                                                                                    positions for
               assess and develop        •Students watch excerpt from “The Exorcist III” (headless statue)
 CLASP      studentsʼ comprehension      •How does the instrumentation differ from the first two examples?
                                                                                                                    viewing TV
                                                                                                                                        1,6
                                                                                                                      monitor
  25min      of instrumentation and      •Note the context of silence in this example (i.e. how suddenness
                   orchestration         enhances the musical effect)
                                         •Watch the opening credits from “Vertigo”. What instruments do we hear
                                         here that have not been in previous examples? (Note the more prominent
                                         use of instruments such as flute and saxophone and a more jazzy feel to
                                         the music). How does this music set the mood for the film. What kind of
                                         film do you expect “Vertigo” to be?
                                         •Watch a scene from “2001: A Space Odyssey” (apes encounter the
                                         monolith).
                                         •What instruments are being used? What effect does it create?
                                                                                                                                    Lesson Plans 15

                                                                                                                                  Knowledge
                                                                                                                                     and

 Steps       Specific Objectives                          Teaching/Learning                                       Organisation    Understanding
                                                                                                                                      &
                                                                                                                                   Ways Of
                                                                                                                                   Working

                                    •Students select a random instrument
                                    •For this exercise, they need only produce one note, so students may
                                    consider trying out a new instrument. Consenting students may swap
                                    instruments with friends
                                    •Teacher plays a major triad in root position. (Begin with C, G or A major
                                    to keep it simple)
                                    •Students pick out any note from the chord and may play it at any pitch
                                    •All students play their note together, creating a wall of sound based on
                                    one chord (students may also choose to sing)
                                                                                                                   Optimum
Experience    Students experience
                                    •Students choose a different instrument (where possible) and repeat the
                                                                                                                 positions for    2,3,6,7
                                    exercise
 CLASP            variations of
                                    •Students may (sometimes) choose not to play to create variations on the
                                                                                                                  instrument
                                                                                                                 playing and
   20min        instrumentation
                                    fullness of the sound                                                          listening
                                                                                                                                   1,2,3
                                    •Teacher and students may give suggestions to the class on how to play
                                    the next chord. For example, high register only, or wind instruments only.
                                    •Percussion can be included however rhythm is not a factor in this
                                    experiment
                                    •Bring attention to the sound of the instrumentation
                                    •Repeat as often as time allows
                                    •Follow each performance with commentary from students, reflecting on
                                    what they have heard
                                    •Other chords may be used at teacherʼs discretion
                                                                                                                                 Lesson Plans 16

                                                                                                                               Knowledge
                                                                                                                                  and

  Steps      Specific Objectives                           Teaching/Learning                                    Organisation   Understanding
                                                                                                                                   &
                                                                                                                                Ways Of
                                                                                                                                Working

                                      •Allow time for student questioning, particularly in relation to their
                                      composition assignment
 Reflection    Revision and question
                                      •Recap main points                                                        At desks            7
    5min               time
                                      •Any available time may be used for feedback and checking assignment
                                      progress

Notes: *For a variation of this opening exercise, students can do a quick impersonation of an instrument and
students have to guess which instrument it is.




                                                     Episode Seven

Subject: Music as Narrative in Film (part two).

Objectives: Students watch a short film to witness an example of music in narrative. Students experience
adding chord progressions to melodies as a means of colouring in the melody

Resources: OHP linked to computer to show website, DVD player, TV monitor, worksheet
                                                                                                                                             Lesson Plans 17




Background: The plot is adapted from the film “Shakespeare in Love” and applied to the early life of George Lucas as
he is trying to write a sci-fi script. It is aimed at an audience familiar with “Star Wars” and “Shakespeare in Love” but can
be enjoyed by a more general audience as well.

Prior Knowledge: Students may have visited http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Mad_Max's_-
_Examples_of_Narrative_Music in preparation for this lesson



                                                                                                                                           Knowledge
                                                                                                                                              and
                                                                                                                                          Understanding
    Steps       Specific Objectives                                     Teaching /Learning                                 Organisation
                                                                                                                                               &
                                                                                                                                            Ways Of
                                                                                                                                            Working

    Intro       Introduce the movie,        •Explain the use of satire and the background story
   CLASP      explain its plot and target   •Prior to the screening of the film, teacher will draw the studentsʼ            At desks            4
    5min              audience              attention to how music plays a vital, if not leading, role in the narrative

Experience                                                                                                                 Optimum
                                                                                                                            seating
 Listening       Watch the short film        •Watch the short film “George Lucas in Love”                                   positions for        4
               “George Lucas in Love”       •Students may take notes to use in the reflection time which follows
   CLASP                                                                                                                  viewing TV
    10min                                                                                                                   monitor
                                                                                                                                            Lesson Plans 18

                                                                                                                                          Knowledge
                                                                                                                                             and
                                                                                                                                         Understanding
   Steps          Specific Objectives                                 Teaching /Learning                                 Organisation
                                                                                                                                              &
                                                                                                                                           Ways Of
                                                                                                                                           Working

                                            •There are eight examples of different musical pieces in this film
                Monitor discussion on the
                                            •How does each example give narrative?
                effectiveness of music as                                                                               Optimum
                                            •Which examples support the narrative? Which examples lead the
Reflection        narrator in the example
                                            narrative?                                                                   seating
  CLASP                     film.
                                            •Worksheet/Powerpoint: Discuss and expand on notes. Can students
                                                                                                                       positions for          4
                Hand out worksheet (The                                                                                viewing TV
   20min                                    think of examples from other movies which support the ideas in the
                Music of “George Lucas                                                                                   monitor
                                            worksheet?
                         in Love”).
                                            •After discussion, watch the film again to revise

                                            •Begin by stressing to the students that there is no right or wrong way
                                            to harmonise a melody, just as there is no wrong way to colour in a
                                            drawing or paint a canvas
                Introduce students to the
Experience            conventions of
                                            •Demonstrate examples from known movie themes to illustrate how
                                                                                                                      At desks, facing        3
Harmonisation                               many chordal accompaniments are determined by the overall chordal
                  harmonising a melody                                                                                 whiteboard or
  CLASP                                     structure of the melody (for example, a melody dominated by the                OHP
   20min
                    with simple chord
                                            notes C, E and G will probably use a C chord)                                                     1
                       progressions
                                            •As a group, work through an example on OHP/whiteboard
                                            •Students practice additional examples on worksheet. Incomplete
                                            worksheets may be finished for homework.
                                                                                                                                        Lesson Plans 19

                                                                                                                                      Knowledge
                                                                                                                                         and
                                                                                                                                     Understanding
   Steps       Specific Objectives                                Teaching /Learning                                Organisation
                                                                                                                                          &
                                                                                                                                       Ways Of
                                                                                                                                       Working

                                                                                                                  Students may
                                       •In groups or solo, students perform their melody and chordal                   group
Experience                             accompaniment                                                               themselves,
                                                                                                                                         3,5
                                       •No preparation time will be needed as each piece is only a few bars        according to
Performance   Students perform their                                                                             their instrument.
                                       long
  CLASP        harmonisation work
                                       •Teacher may provide chordal or melodic accompaniment if required          Other students
                                                                                                                                         2,4
   10min                               •Peers give critical analysis, noting what is “pleasing to the ear” and   seated at desks,
                                       what may be “dissonant” or unusual                                            watching
                                                                                                                   performance

              Summarise main points
Reflection      of lesson and how it
                                       •Revise main points of todayʼs episode regarding harmony
                                                                                                                     At desks             7
    5min                               •Answer student questions and provide feedback
              applies to assessment



Follow up episodes: The next episode should have students trying the reverse of this episodeʼs activity by
having them add a melody to a chord progression
                                                                                                                                     Lesson Plans 20


                                                          Episode Eight
Subject: Music: Audition - Music in Comedy

General Objectives: Students audition, analyse and become familiar with various compositional tools used
throughout the history of comedy films and animation.

Resources: TV or computer monitor, DVD player, DVD or CD Rom, “High Diving Hare”, “Bart the Daredevil”

                                                                                                                                Knowledge and
                  Specific
                                                         Teaching/Learning
                                                                                                                                Understanding
    Steps                                                                                                        Organisation         &
                 Objectives                                                                                                        Ways Of
                                                                                                                                   Working

             Students experience film
   Intro      music with the picture
                                          •Studentsʼ attention is immediately drawn to the sound of a looney
                                          tunes cartoon.                                                          Students at
  CLASP        removed to highlight
                                          •With the soundtrack only, students are asked to guess what is          their desks        4
             musicʼs ability to narrate
    10min                                 happening in the cartoon, based on what they hear in the soundtrack.
                    on its own

                                          •Show cartoon (with picture)
                                          •How were we able to guess what was going on in the cartoon by
              Watch the cartoon clip
                                          hearing only the music?
               (approx 3mins) then
 Reflection      reflect on studentsʼ
                                          •Help articulate ideas by introducing musical terminology
                                          •Students discuss and become aware of structural, timbral, melodic,
  CLASP          capacity to draw a
                                          harmonic and rhythmic elements of music in film comedy
                                                                                                                   At desks          4
              narrative from music
    10min                                 •Lead a discussion about how music can be used to enhance the
                       alone
                                          element of comedy in films.
                                          •Have students create comic sounds with available resources (i.e.
                                          their own voice and bodies)
                                                                                                                                         Lesson Plans 21

                                                                                                                                    Knowledge and
                   Specific
                                                             Teaching/Learning
                                                                                                                                    Understanding
   Steps                                                                                                            Organisation          &
                  Objectives                                                                                                           Ways Of
                                                                                                                                       Working

                 Apply knowledge by         •Show a 10 second clip from “The Simpsons” without sound.
              creating and arranging a      •Teacher arranges students in small groups (3 to 5).
 Briefing       short performance piece      •Students are to use the classroom instruments (piano, tuned and         Students at
                                                                                                                                        1-7
   5min       to accompany a clip from      untuned percussion) to create and perform a soundtrack for the clip      their desks
                  “The Simpsons”.           •Learners are exposed to the creative process involved in adding
                                            music to a piece of film

                                            •Teacher monitors from group to group, keeping learners focused on
                                                                                                                      Students
                                            task and suggesting musical elements.
                                                                                                                      seated in
                                            •Teacher counts students into their performance and provides positive
                                                                                                                        groups.
Experience     Students learn how to        feedback for each groupʼs demonstration.
               create comical musical       •Students experience the creative process involved in adding music      Students at         1-7
Performance                                                                                                         their desks,
              effects for film. Learners    and synchronising with a specific segment of film.
 CLASP        will perform their piece in   •Teacher may remind students that this is a fun activity and students      selected
   30min                                    need not fret over the quality of their performance. The idea is to        students         1-4
              sync with the cartoon clip
                                                                                                                     performing
                                            experience film music creativity on the go.
                                                                                                                      in front of
                                            •Students perform and observe other group performances, analysing
                                                                                                                       the class
                                            the musical elements used

Reflection                                   •Teacher will mediate discussion, drawing attention to particular
               Students will discuss the
Discussion                                  musical elements when needed
                                            Students at
                  outcomes of their
                                            •Students experience critical analysis, responding to and providing      their desks         7
 CLASP              performance
                                            feedback to their peers
   10min

               Revise main learnings
Reflection      and discuss how they
                                            •Reiterate main points and allow time for feedback questions             Students at
                                                                                                                                         7
   5min                                     regarding assessment                                                     their desks
                apply to assessment
                                                                                                         Lesson Plans 22




Notes: The Simpsons excerpt is from the final scene where Homer tumbles down the side of a cliff-face, having
not quite succeeded in making a skateboard jump over a canyon. The running time is from 20:37 to 20:45
(approximately 8 seconds).




                                               Episode Nine

Subject: The Leitmotif

Objectives: Learners are introduced to the concept of the leitmotif, discussing why and how it is used in film.

Resources: Leitmotif example (sheet music for teacher)
                                                                                                                                    Lesson Plans 23

                                                                                                                                Knowledge
                                                                                                                                   and
               Specific                                                                                                         Understanding
  Steps                                                     Teaching /Learning                                  Organisation
              Objectives                                                                                                            &
                                                                                                                                 Ways Of
                                                                                                                                 Working

                               •Various recognisable themes from the “Star Wars” movies will be played
            Using examples     (audio only) as the students come to class.
            and discussion,    •Ascertain studentsʼ familiarity with Star Wars.
  Intro        introduce       •Share and identify five examples of the Leitmotif from “The Empire Strikes
 CLASP      students to the    Back” (Main theme, love theme, villainʼs theme, “hero” theme, Yodaʼs theme).
                                                                                                                 At desks           4
  10min      concept of the    •Explain the idea of leitmotif as a musical representative
                leitmotif      •Leitmotifs not only represent characters in film (and opera) but can represent
                               just about anything. Draw out studentsʼ ideas on examples for this point

                                •Draw out studentsʼ own ability to audiate a piece of music.
                                •Teacher performs chosen example on the piano (see “leitmotif audiation”
                                manuscript)
                                •Separate the musical elements of the chosen excerpt into melody, rhythm
            Use established
                                and harmony
            audiation skills to
                                •Students clap or tap the rhythm
Audiation     determine the
                                •Establish time signature and beat
             rhythm, melody
 : review    and harmony of
                                •Use rhythmic dictation to complete the rhythm. (Note the use of dotted
                                rhythms, as previously taught)
                                                                                                                 At desks       1.2.3.5.
  CLASP        our example
                                •Using the established rhythm, students apply their skills with interval
  20min         leitmotif, the
                                audiation, using melodic dictation to write the melody
               “hero theme”
                                •Students use established skills to determine the homophonic chord structure
             from Star Wars
                                of our example leitmotif (in this case, they all happen to be major)
                                •Teacher can inform students that all chords are in root position, with the
                                melody being the top (Per.5th from root) note of each chord
                                •Use this example to introduce the term “parallel chords”
                                                                                                                                      Lesson Plans 24

                                                                                                                                  Knowledge
                                                                                                                                     and
               Specific                                                                                                           Understanding
  Steps                                                     Teaching /Learning                                  Organisation
              Objectives                                                                                                              &
                                                                                                                                   Ways Of
                                                                                                                                   Working

                               •Refresh and/or enhance studentsʼ knowledge of the seven dwarfs (a la the         Students in
            Create a leitmotif Disney film)                                                                         their own
Experienc   to represent one •Students create a short (two to four bars) leitmotif representing a dwarf of      space (eg at
              of the seven     their choosing. (If some dwarfs are under-represented, teacher may allocate         desks, at
    e         dwarfs (Doc,     dwarfs to students)                                                              keyboards or        1.2.
  CLASP     Grumpy, Happy, •The leitmotif should be melody only                                                 in a practise
  15min     Sleepy, Bashful, •The melody should reflect their dwarfʼs character.                                room) working
            Sneezy, Dopey) •Students work alone with their chosen instrument                                       with their
                               •Students may work with manuscript if they so desire                              instruments


Experienc   Performance and
                                                                                                               At desks or at
    e       peer appraisal of •Students perform their leitmotif                                                front of class,      1.2.
            studentsʼ leitmotif •Students audition peer performances
 CLASP                                                                                                           performing
                creations
  10min

                              •Draw out studentsʼ understanding of musical elements
                              •Brainstorm: How can we apply such elements as instrumentation, tempo,
                              modulation, harmony and chord structure to create variations on our leitmotif?
                              •Homework: create at least two variations on your dwarf leitmotif and explain
             Demonstrate
                              the situation for each variation (for example, Grumpy running away in fright,
Reflection     examples of
                              and Grumpy getting tired)                                                          At desks         1.2.3.7.
  15min      variation on a
                              •Demonstrate examples by taking a short melody and varying the musical
                leitmotif
                              elements of rhythm, tempo, tonality (for example, modulating or changing from
                              major to minor), pitch and harmony
                              •Variations can also be produced with instrumentation but will not be used for
                              this homework exercise
                                                                                                           Lesson Plans 25




Notes:
•When introducing the leitmotif, the teacher may refer to the work of Wagner (The Ring Cycle) as an example of
a predecessor to film music
•Explicit scaffolding may be required to aid students through the rhythmic, melodic and harmonic dictation.
•Inversions of chords will not be covered in the theory section of this unit, so teacher should inform students of
specific inversions
•For the “seven dwarfs” exercise students should work alone as the leitmotif should be bereft of multiple layers
•Instrumentation will not be a factor in creating the “dwarf” leitmotif. Students simply use their instruments as a
creative tool to construct their leitmotif.
                                                                                                                                       Lesson Plans 26




                                                             Episode Ten
Subject: Guidelines for effective film scoring.

Objectives: Use powerpoint presentation and discussion to summarise and extend on students understanding
of the basic tenets for composing for film.

Resources: Worksheets, powerpoint, DVDs: “Star Wars”, “Little Children”, “2001: A Space Odyssey”, “Eyes
Wide Shut”, “Jaws”, “Team America”

Prior Knowledge: Students have been given the class worksheet in advance and have been asked to think of
examples which support the theories presented in the worksheet and other examples which may contradict the
worksheet. Students will also have been expected to have completed their homework task to create two
variations on their “dwarf” leitmotif.


                                                                                                                                    Knowledge and
                 Specific                                                                                                            Understanding
  Steps         Objectives                                 Teaching/Learning                                         Organisation         &
                                                                                                                                       Ways Of
                                                                                                                                       Working

                             •Students individually perform their original “dwarf” leitmotif, followed by at least     At desks
Experience  Students perform two variations which they have created for homework.                                         and          1-7
Performance their homework •Performers need to explain what is happening on screen for each variation (see           performing
  CLASP
    25min
                 pieces      Episode Nine, reflection)                                                                 in front of      1-4
                             •Peers may analyse and comment on the variations                                         the class.
                                                                                                                                            Lesson Plans 27

                                                                                                                                         Knowledge and
                Specific                                                                                                                  Understanding
 Steps         Objectives                                  Teaching/Learning                                              Organisation         &
                                                                                                                                            Ways Of
                                                                                                                                            Working

                                 Teacher must provide examples for each point.
                                 Examples are given below but others may be used:
                                 •Can support or contradict what is seen on screen: A man may be smiling but the
                                 music tells us he is actually feeling sad. Show the football sequence from “Little
                                 Children”. The military music tells us that the game is like a battle
                                 •Dialogue IS music!: Consider the cadence-like closure of a telephone
                                 conversation. As a contrast, play out a conversation in monotone voice
              With the aid of a •Follow the mood: Show a brief cut from “Star Wars” (Luke meets Leia). The
                 powerpoint      music shifts from fast action to slow romantic, then back again.
                presentation,    •Songs are less suitable:Show the same scene with a pop song in the background            At desks,
Reflection     class will discuss •Melody and rhythm is not always required: Recall the ape scene from “2001: A              viewing         1-7
  CLASP       some of the dos Space Odyssey”                                                                              powerpoint
                                                                                                                          and/or TV
 30 - 40min    and donʼts and •One or two notes is often enough: Consider the theme from “Jaws” or show an
                                                                                                                            monitor
                                                                                                                                              6
               the finer details example from “Eyes Wide Shut”
              of creating music •Songs: action scenes and montage: Explain montage. Show the “montage song”
                    for film      from “Team America”
                                 •Songs can establish time periods: Throughout “Goodfellas”, the songs move from
                                 50ʼs to 80ʼs as time progresses
                                 •Background music: The lilting music behind the “moral-of-the-story” monolgue,
                                 found in almost every episode of “South Park”
                                 •Continuity: “Goodfellas” songs linking scenes
                                 •Kingʼs rule: “Eyes Wide Shut” and “Jaws”
                                 Students will also be asked to share examples

                                                                                                                          In their own
                Use available     •If time allows, students may work on their film music compositions and/or
                                                                                                                            space or
Reflection     time for feedback   performances                                                                              available         7
 5 - 15min      questions and     •Stress to the students that this is an opportunity to use their teacher for feedback     practice
              assessment help     and help                                                                                   rooms
                                                                                                                                       Lesson Plans 28




General Notes

• Some of the boxes in the essential learnings column (either “Knowledge and understanding” or “Ways of working”) have been left blank where no
direct connection is made

• Some of the film excerpts are from R-rated films, however, the excerpts themselves will contain no course language, sexual scenes or graphic
violence

				
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