ICT and Pedagogy

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					ICT and Pedagogy




                   ICT and Pedagogy

                   Appropriate and inappropriate
                        applications of ICT
                   Why do we teach ICT?
ICT and Pedagogy



                   • Enhances learning and teaching;
                   • Key skill for future work / life-long
                     learning;
                   • National Curriculum requirement.
                   ICT can help learning by
ICT and Pedagogy



                   • Developing understanding
                     – speed and automatic functions of ICT can
                       enable teachers to demonstrate, explore or
                       explain aspects of their teaching, and pupils'
                       learning, more effectively e.g. use of a spread
                       sheet to perform calculations in order that
                       patterns can be concentrated on rather than the
                       calculating.
                     – explore prepared or constructed models and
                       simulations
                   ICT can help learning by
ICT and Pedagogy



                   • Extending access to sources
                     – the capacity and range of ICT can enable
                       teachers and pupils to gain access to historical,
                       recent or immediate information, through, for
                       example, accessing information on CD-ROM or
                       the Internet
                   • Enhancing enquiry skills
                     – search for and compare information from
                       different sources
                   ICT can help learning by
ICT and Pedagogy



                   • Enhancing the development of ideas
                     – the provisional nature of information stored,
                       processed and presented using ICT allows work
                       to be changed easily - in using a word processor
                       to edit and refine writing
                   • Enhancing the communication of ideas
                     – communicate with other people, locally and over
                       distances, easily and effectively
                     – present information in ways which are accessible
                       in different forms for different audiences.
                   “There are indeed many
ICT and Pedagogy



                   examples of complex
                   technology being used to
                   achieve low-level educational
                   goals”

                                     Underwood and Underwood (1995)


                   Note some examples which you have seen.
                   Why does this happen?
ICT and Pedagogy



                    Unreliable hardware
                    Inappropriate software - high
                     percentage of „educational‟ software is
                     practice and drill
                    Generic, open-ended software
                     requires greater investment of time
                   Why does this happen?
ICT and Pedagogy



                    Comparative lack of IT training for
                     teachers to learn how to use IT more
                     effectively - teachers unfamiliar with
                     programs and their potential
                    Non IT confident teachers feel more
                     secure using computers for holding
                     activities
                   • Packed curriculum
                   “if computers are used to
ICT and Pedagogy



                   service the teacher‟s needs for
                   organisation and control, they
                   will make little impact on
                   children‟s learning”

                                            Somekh and Davis (1997)


                   Share an example of computers making an
                   impact on children‟s learning.
                   Three modes of using ICT:
ICT and Pedagogy



                   • to support teaching and learning;
                      (Supporting ongoing activities in teaching and learning, e.g. drill
                      and practice spelling exercises.)

                   • to enhance teaching and learning;
                      (Activities enhance subject work and make a tangible impact on
                      teaching strategies and styles e.g. editing written work to improve
                      content, appearance and accessibility for a particular audience.)

                   • to extend teaching and learning.
                      (The ICT-based work is central to the classroom activities, some
                      of which would not be possible without its use e.g. branching
                      multimedia story.)
                            Does ICT

                            support,
ICT and Pedagogy




                           enhance,
                           or extend
                       children’s learning?


                   If not, why is it being used?
                   Factors which teachers need to take
                   into account:
ICT and Pedagogy



                   • clear identification of how ICT will be used to meet
                     specific subject objectives to improve pupils‟
                     attainment;
                   • ensuring that pupils have adequate ICT skills to
                     achieve those objectives;
                   • planned match of pedagogy with the identified
                     purpose of ICT activities and learning outcomes.
                   The Four Es
ICT and Pedagogy



                   Teachers should make sure that ICT:
                   • Ensures that the learning outcomes can be
                     achieved;
                   • Enables the learner;
                   • Eases and supports the task;
                   • Enhances the task’s quality and value.
                                         Barker and Franklin (1998)
                   ICT without the computer
ICT and Pedagogy



                   • Developing keyboard skills with
                     „dummy‟ keyboards
                   • Annotating and revising printouts
                   • Prepared questionnaire to support
                     information handling activity
                   • Planning LOGO or Roamer
                     sequences or procedures on paper
                   Peer support
ICT and Pedagogy



                   • liberates the teacher
                   • gives children the opportunity to
                     teach their peers
                   • having to explain helps
                     demonstrate understanding or
                     misunderstanding
                   Annotated screen dump to support graphics
                   activity and file for record keeping
ICT and Pedagogy
                   Organising children with hot seat and shadow, head-
                   phones, computer file and screen prompts to
                   support activity.
ICT and Pedagogy
                   ICT in the classroom - high profile
ICT and Pedagogy


                   Computer notice-
                   board

                   Children
                   encouraged to
                   display computer
                   work from home

                   Clearly visible rota
                   Screen prompts for LOGO, help cards,
                   rota, tick sheet and wall display.
ICT and Pedagogy