History of Learning Content Management Systems by vtd78719

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									        E-learning - history,
         present and future



         PhD.Stud. Kornelia Todorova, University of
               Sofia “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Е-mail:
                          cornelia@fmi.uni-sofia.bg

10/05/2011                                             1
                                      E-learning - history , present and future

 Application of ICT in education and
 evolution of different learning types


                                Educational
                                 Strategy




               Educational
               Organization
                                                   Use of ICT




     Fig. 1 ICT and education (adapted by Beaumont & Sutherland, 1992)

                Pioneers Of Bulgarian Mathematics, International Conference,
10/05/2011                                                                     2
                                    Sofia, July 8-10, 2006
                                          E-learning - history , present and future



 Overview of existing learning types

 Traditional learning                         Distant learning




             E-learning                                           CSCL




                                         M-learning


                          Fig. 2 Evolution of learning types

                   Pioneers Of Bulgarian Mathematics, International Conference,
10/05/2011                                                                        3
                                       Sofia, July 8-10, 2006
                                    E-learning - history , present and future

 Advantages and problems of
    traditional learning

     Advantage of traditional learning is that learning
      approaches that have approved their effectiveness
      through the centuries are used and quality of
      education is guarantied.

     Most important problem in the traditional form of
      education is that capabilities of Information and
      Communication Technologies (ICT) are not used and
      requirements of modern information society to the
      provides education are not covered. That is why
      distant form of education has appeared.



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10/05/2011                                                                   4
                                  Sofia, July 8-10, 2006
                                     E-learning - history , present and future



 Distance learning
     The concept of distant learning is learning where students and
      teacher are at different places when education is provided and
      they can communicate and collaborate using synchronous and
      asynchronous technologies. That forms of education can be
      provided by standard post mail, using video and TV or via
      Internet (Lee & Owens 2000).

     Advantages of distant learning are opportunities that it offers
      to students like possibility they to learn in won pace whenever
      and wherever they prefer and need education, easy editing of
      proposed information and capabilities of learning systems to
      manage entire learning process and provide learning materials
      in different distance forms.

      Most important problems are related to communications
      between teachers, students and among students and
      interactivity with content.



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10/05/2011                                                                    5
                                   Sofia, July 8-10, 2006
                                     E-learning - history , present and future



 E-learning
    A common used definition of e-learning is learning that is
     prepared, managed and delivered with technologies applied
     locally or globally.


             traditional

                                                                 hybrid

                 distant

    E-learning allows hybrid form of distant and traditional education
     to be implemented and this way existing problems to be solved.


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10/05/2011                                                                    6
                                   Sofia, July 8-10, 2006
                                   E-learning - history , present and future



 Influence of e-learning
Influence of e-learning covers following fields :
    Learning on demand

    Life-long learning

    Adaptability of learning materials to learners’

     preferences and needs of education
    Innovation in interaction with leaning content

    New learning models & strategies

    E-learning systems compatibility




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10/05/2011                                                                  7
                                 Sofia, July 8-10, 2006
                                    E-learning - history , present and future



 Main principles in e-learning
     Needs of learner to be placed at the center of
      educational process and other elements and
      participants duties to be considered with him.

     Another principle is leaning content to be delivered
      according to learners’ preferences whenever he needs
      it and wherever it is most appropriate for his needs of
      education

     Developed learning materials to designed as a
      reusable resources and to have opportunity to be
      used in different leaning contexts according to users’
      requirements.

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10/05/2011                                                                   8
                                  Sofia, July 8-10, 2006
                                   E-learning - history , present and future



 Types of learning systems
  For providing and support of different functionalities and
    services related to e-learning they are developed
    several types of learning systems:

     Knowledge Management Systems (KMS)

     Content Management Systems (CMS)

     Learning Management Systems (LMS)

     Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS )


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10/05/2011                                                                  9
                                 Sofia, July 8-10, 2006
                                         E-learning - history , present and future



 E-learning advantages
     Main tasks of advanced e-learning are related to development
      and delivery of high quality and efficient leaning content,
      flexibility, mobility and adaptability of proposed learning
      materials.

     Advantages of e-learning are ( Fenrich, 1997) :

            Learner work with their won step and study whenever and
             wherever he/she needs information

            Easy update and editing of learning materials and this way
             providing up-to-date information

            Allow usage of different multimedia formats and facilitates
             different cognitive approaches for information acceptance
             and representation (Clack & Mayer, 2003)

                   Pioneers Of Bulgarian Mathematics, International Conference,
10/05/2011                                                                        10
                                       Sofia, July 8-10, 2006
                                       E-learning - history , present and future



    E-learning problems
Following problems in the field of e-learning can be defined :

   insufficient collaboration and communication among participants
    in education- teacher, students and administrative staff

   required computer literacy

   lack of well organized and structured learning content and
    capabilities for searching the most appropriate information in
    Internet

   missing or inappropriate use of interactivity and multimedia in
    learning materials

   missing methodology for creation, description and sharing of
    learning resources

   lack of integrated solution for high quality e-learning systems
    development
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10/05/2011                                                                      11
                                     Sofia, July 8-10, 2006
                                    E-learning - history , present and future



    E-learning problems conclusions

   All defined problems reflect on the effectiveness and
    quality of proposed education that uses advanced
    ICT.

   That is why many world organization and institution
    work in the filed of creation, certification and
    development of e-learning standards that will assure
    quality, interoperability and compatibility of
    developed learning systems and learning materials.




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10/05/2011                                                                   12
                                  Sofia, July 8-10, 2006
                                       E-learning - history , present and future



    E-learning standards overview
   Basic standards in the field of e-learning are IEEE LOM, IMS
    Learning Design, IMS Simple Sequencing, ADL SCORM

   They are created, developed and approved of following
    organization that work in the sphere of e-learning
    standardization. Some of them are listed here:

        Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL)
        Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) -
         Learning Technology Standards Committee
        IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. (IMS)
        Aviation Industry Computer-Based Training Committee (AICC)
        Alliance of Remote Instructional Authoring and Distribution
         Networks for Europe (ARIADNE)
        PROmoting Multimedia access to Education and Training in
         EUropean Society (PROMETEUS)

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10/05/2011                                                                      13
                                     Sofia, July 8-10, 2006
                                      E-learning - history , present and future



 CSCL
     Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) is a new
      form of education and its basic task is to provide better , more
      functional and efficient group work and communication among
      participant in education.

     Its should facilitate development of group projects and activities
      like project planning and management and to support different
      form of asynchronous and synchronous communication.

     These skills are critical for the learner because using that form of
      education he is prepared to be a successful member of his work
      team. He gets known with advantages and challenges of group
      work and he has knowledge and skill to manage them.




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10/05/2011                                                                     14
                                    Sofia, July 8-10, 2006
                                       E-learning - history , present and future



     CSCL basic functionalities
    text manipulation                      video and audio
    shared graphic                          conferences
     sheets                                 chat system
    e-meeting and rooms                    sharing writing and
                                             drawing
    resource location                      document management
    e-mail                                 modeling and simulation
    document security                       manipulation tools
    e-news                                 reports
    file distribution                      workflow management
    message system

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    10/05/2011                                                                  15
                                     Sofia, July 8-10, 2006
                                      E-learning - history , present and future



 CSCL advantages and problems
     Most important problems are related to insufficient tools that
      provide capabilities for group work and communication, lack of
      necessary hardware devices for communication and some
      problems of acceptance of new technologies in the educational
      process.

     Main task of CSCL specialist is to decide exiting problems and to
      provide better integration of groupware and capabilities of GDSS
      (Group Decision Support Systems) in the learning and to develop
      user-friendly, attractive and easy to be used interface to
      proposed collaborative tools so encourage users to implement
      them in educational process.

     Insufficient flexibility and mobility of education



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10/05/2011                                                                     16
                                    Sofia, July 8-10, 2006
                                     E-learning - history , present and future



 M-learning
A common used definition for mobile learning
(m-learning) is


             m-learning = wireless + ubicomp


                      (Alexander Br., 2004)



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10/05/2011                                                                    17
                                   Sofia, July 8-10, 2006
                                    E-learning - history , present and future



 Mobile technologies and devices
     Most popular and common used mobile devices
      implemented in education are PDAs, notebooks, cell
      phones, different USB drives and MP3 players.

     Provided learning resources should be able to be
      transferred via wireless technology and for this
      purpose technologies like Bluetooth, GPRS and others
      could be used and challenges related to
      implementation of WML in the process of learning
      resources creation and delivery and specifications of
      WAP as transport protocol should be discussed




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10/05/2011                                                                   18
                                  Sofia, July 8-10, 2006
                                      E-learning - history , present and future



M-learning- advantages and problems
     With invasion of mobile technologies and device in daily life of
      modern people it has appeared question about implementation
      of new technologies in education. Young people are very well
      known with capabilities and easy and limited to some extend
      functionality of mobile devices and they very well accept the
      idea of use mobile technologies it he process of learning.

     That new form of education allows requirements for flexibility
      and mobility of education to get achieved and new methods for
      learning , communication and collaboration in traditional and
      other technology supported forms of education to be applied.

     Problems related to usage of mobile devices and technologies
      are small displays of the devices so little pieces of information
      should be delivered at a time and representation of information
      should be compatible with limited space and specific
      requirements of delivery media

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10/05/2011                                                                     19
                                    Sofia, July 8-10, 2006
                                     E-learning - history , present and future

 Application of ICT in education at
    Sofia University
     New computing technologies are used most intensively at
      Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics and several learning
      platforms are used for providing and support of e-learning like
      ARCADE, Moodle and Sofia University is a Regional Cisco
      Network Academy

     For providing effective education web-base learning materials
      are offered, on-line tests are used for assessment students
      performance and different tools for collaborative work and
      synchronous and asynchronous communications are applied.
      ICT Department offers BSc, MSc and Ph.D. programs that are
      based on e-learning form of education and appropriate
      platforms for this purpose.

     Most of lectures and students involved in the program have
      experienced defined in previous section problems and
      advantages an they are summarized in following Table1.

               Pioneers Of Bulgarian Mathematics, International Conference,
10/05/2011                                                                    20
                                   Sofia, July 8-10, 2006
                                                     E-learning - history , present and future

      Analysis of advantages and problems
      of different types of education
Learning types   Advantages                                  Problems
Traditional      learning approaches that have approved      capabilities of Information and Communication
                      their effectiveness through the            Technologies (ICT) are not used and
                      centuries are used and quality of          requirements of modern information society to
                      education is guarantied                    the provides education are not covered.

Distance         opportunities that it offers to students    bad, delayed or missing communication among
                     like possibility they to learn in            participants in education- teacher, students and
                     won pace whenever and wherever               administrative staff
                     they prefer
E-learning       Learner work with their won step and        insufficient tools that provide capabilities for group
                     study whenever and wherever                  work and communication
                     he/she needs information
CSCL             CSCL facilitates learning activities like   lack of necessary hardware devices for
                    group work, communication and                 communication and collaboration, low level of
                    project management                            collaborative tools integration, missing
                                                                  flexibility and mobility
M-learning       Young people are very well known            small displays of the devices so little pieces of
                    with capabilities of mobile                  information should be delivered at a time
                    technologies and accept the idea

                          Pioneers Of Bulgarian Mathematics, International Conference,
    10/05/2011                                                                                                   21
                                              Sofia, July 8-10, 2006
                                                     E-learning - history , present and future

                                           Blackboard

                                                 Traditional learning
                                  labs
                                                Pedagogical approaches
        Local Tech
                                                                                                  Internet
      E-learning                                                                                    Intra
                                  Sims
                                                            Web content              www          Extra Net
                                                            Distance
                       Global Tech                          Learning                              ICT



               M-learning
                                         m- collaboration

                                                                              CSCL

                           WML & WAP                           Advanced               Collaborative
                                                              collaborative           tools
                                                                  tools
          Mobile Tech                                                                      videoconference

                                         GPRS                                                  CSCW

               Bluetooth                                                                   audioconfefence



Fig. 3 Implementation of ICT and mobile technologies in existing types of learning

                           Pioneers Of Bulgarian Mathematics, International Conference,
  10/05/2011                                                                                                  22
                                               Sofia, July 8-10, 2006
                                   E-learning - history , present and future



 Conclusion
      Information and communication technologies have
      change the traditional form of learning. There are
      many problems related to new forms of learning that
      have to find their decision. Another problem is to
      extend functionality of learning systems according to
      users needs and requirements. In the paper are
      presented different types of education and influence
      of ICT in education evolution. Basic advantaged and
      problems in each of them are discussed and possible
      solution are presented. Relation among existing types
      of learning are shown and implementation of them at
      Sofia University is presented.


             Pioneers Of Bulgarian Mathematics, International Conference,
10/05/2011                                                                  23
                                 Sofia, July 8-10, 2006
                                   E-learning - history , present and future



 Future work
     Future research efforts will be dedicated
     on exploring of advanced technologies
     like iTV, Semantic Web and Grid
     implementation in the providing of
     effective education and their integration
     in advanced learning systems and
     functionalities that they offered to
     support educational process.

             Pioneers Of Bulgarian Mathematics, International Conference,
10/05/2011                                                                  24
                                 Sofia, July 8-10, 2006
Thank you for your attention!




             Pioneers Of Bulgarian Mathematics, International Conference,
10/05/2011                                                                  25
                                 Sofia, July 8-10, 2006

								
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