Comma Rules and Eats_ Shoots and Leaves.ppt - Keller ISD Schools

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Comma Rules and Eats_ Shoots and Leaves.ppt - Keller ISD Schools Powered By Docstoc
					             Why Commas Are
•Commas tell the reader when to stop, pause, and
take a breath while reading.

•Commas can change the entire message that the
author is trying to relay to its reader.

After this unit, you will be able to:
   •Identify where a comma should be inserted or deleted
   •Notice how the sentence is altered without the comma
                           Take a Look…
                    How does the comma placement
                          change outcome?

1.   THE FATAL COMMA                     3. THE   MILLION-DOLLAR COMMA

         Czarina Maria Fyodorovna                  The US government lost at
     once saved the life of a man by          least a million dollars through the
     transposing a single comma in a          slip of a comma. In the tariff act
     warrant signed by her husband,           passed on June 6, 1872, a list of
     Alexander III, which exiled a            duty-free items included: `Fruit
     criminal to imprisonment and             plants, tropical and semitropical'.
     death in Siberia. On the bottom          A government clerk accidentally
                                              altered the line to read: `Fruit,
     of the warrant the czar had              plants tropical and semitropical'.
     written: `Pardon impossible, to          Importers successfully contended
     be sent to Siberia.' The czarina         that the passage, as written,
     changed the punctuation so that          exempted all tropical and
     her husband's instructions read:         semitropical plants from duty fees.
     `Pardon, impossible to be sent to        This cost the US a fortune until
     Siberia.' The man was set free.          May 9, 1874, when the passage
                                              was amended to plug the hole.
           “Eats, Shoots, and Leaves”
                        -Pandas eat bamboo shoots and leaves
  Knowing this, read the following paragraph and tell me why the comma placement
                                   makes a difference.

A panda walks into a cafe. He orders a sandwich, eats it, then draws
   a gun and fires two shots in the air.

"Why?" asks the confused waiter, as the panda makes towards the
  exit. The panda produces a badly punctuated wildlife manual and
  tosses it over his shoulder.

"I'm a panda," he says, at the door. "Look it up."

The waiter turns to the relevant entry and, sure enough, finds an

"Panda. Large black-and-white bear-like mammal, native to China.
  Eats, shoots and leaves."
          “Eats, Shoots, and Leaves”
Eats, Shoots, and Leaves is
 a book dubbed “The Zero
Approach to Punctuation.”
   Lynne Truss is a British
  author who was tired of
 seeing punctuation errors
  on signs, in newspapers,
  magazines, and all other
  public places. She wrote
  the book to help people
understand the importance
   of punctuation. Based
upon the book, she created
a children’s book version to
    help young learners
 VISUALIZE the effects the
 comma has on sentences.
                             Try It!
Which comma placement makes the most sense for the following sentence:
      Leonora walked on her head a little higher than usual.

1. Leonora walked on her head, a little higher than

2. Leonora walked, on her head a little higher than

3. Leonora walked on, her head a little higher than
  #1: Between Items in a Series
• Commas are         Non-Example:
                     • Mr. Jensen wants us to
  used to separate     bring apples peanut
  words, phrases,      butter and milk
  or clauses in a
                     • Mr. Jensen wants us to
                       bring apples, peanut
                       butter, and milk
  #2: Between Independent Clauses
           with FANBOYS
• If two *independent* Non-Examples:
  clauses are joined by • I went to the store and I
  FANBOYS, the            got flour.
  conjunction must have • We went to Six Flags, and
  a comma before it.      Hurricane Harbor.

• If FANBOYS join          • I went to the store, and I
  compound verbs or          got flour.
  subjects, do NOT put a   • We went to Six Flags and
  comma.                     Hurricane Harbor.
  #3: After an Introductory Dependent
• When a dependent clause           Non-Examples:
  BEGINS a sentence, use a
  comma.                            • When I leave for work I
• Dependent clauses begin             often forget to set the
  with subordinating                  home alarm system.

Subordinating Conjunctions:         Examples:
after   since    while   although
once    before   as      whereas    • When I leave for work, I
until   unless   when    because      often forget to set the
If      where
                                      home alarm system.
 #4: Between Coordinating Adjectives
• Commas are used to           Non-Examples:
  separate descriptive words   • His arrogant condescending
  that modify the same           manner annoyed us all.
                               • Everyone loved our former,
                                 math teacher.
• These adjectives can also
  be separated by ‘and’        Examples:
  instead of a comma.          • His arrogant, condescending
                                 manner annoyed us all.

                               • Everyone loved our fuzzy,
                                 sweet dog.
  #5: Around Non-Essential Words
• Commas are used to set      Non-Examples:
  off nonessential words,     • Mr. Green in my opinion is a
  phrases that are NON-         great teacher.
  ESSENTIAL to the            • The sister who lives in Japan
  sentence.                     is coming to visit.

• These non-essential words   Examples:
  can be removed from the     • Mr. Green, in my opinion, is
  sentence without changing     a great teacher.
  the sentences meaning.      • The quality of the material,
                                however, is questionable.
           #6: Around Appositives
• Commas are used to set off      Non-Examples:
  appositives, which are words    • The award was given to Jan
  or phrases that rename the        Carol’s daughter.
  same noun, or clarify the       • Lacrosse a sport played
  noun by giving additional         hundreds of years ago is still
  information.                      popular.

• Appositives are extra details
  about the noun stated in the    Examples:
  sentence. They can also be      • The award was given to Jan,
  removed from the sentence         Carol’s daughter.
  and not effect the total        • Lacrosse, a sport played
  sentence meaning.                 hundreds of years ago, is still
  #7: Before and After Quotations
• Commas are used to         Non-Examples:
  separate quotations from   • “Research”, she said “,has found
  the sentences in which       that unhealthy diets cause cancer”.
  they are found.
                             •   Manny said “I can show my
                                 classmates my Colombian culture!”
• When starting a quote,
  commas go OUTSIDE the
  quotation                  Examples:
                             •   “Research,” she said, “has found
                                 that unhealthy diets cause cancer.”
• When closing a quote,
  commas go INSIDE the       •   Manny said, “I can show my
  quotation.                     classmates my Colombian culture!”
  #8: With Place Names and Dates
• A comma should separate        Non-Examples:
  the name of a city from its    • We moved to Salt Lake City Utah
  state (Keller, Texas) and a      three months ago.
  street name from the city
  (Bob Jones Road, Keller)       •   I was born on Tuesday September 2

• When dates are written, a
  comma is needed between        Examples:
  the date and year and          • We moved to Salt Lake City, Utah,
                                   three months ago.
  between the name of a day
  and its date (March 19, 2005   • I was born on Tuesday,
  and Tuesday, May 2)              September 2 , 1981.
  #9: Around Nouns of Direct Address
• Commas set off the names      Non-Examples:
  of people when they are       • Anthony can you please clean your
  directly being addressed in
  a sentence.                   •   Can you Jamie help me figure out
                                    the meaning of life?

• This is only done when
  speaking to a person.         Examples:
                                • Anthony, can you please clean
                                  your room?

                                • Can you, Jamie, help me figure
                                  out the meaning of life?

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