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									Haas Education Leadership
Case Competition:
Pittsburgh Public Schools
           Harvard University
           February 13, 2010
   Today, too many of Pittsburgh‟s students are
   unprepared for college and careers

               Student academic performance                                              Students are not prepared to take
                 is not meeting expectations                                              advantage of Pittsburgh Promise

                      Grade 11 Performance                                                          2008 Promise Awards
            (percent of students proficient or advanced)                                        (Note: 2008 GPA requirement of 2.0)

      100%                                         District goal of 80% higher
                                                   degree attainment for high           2,000
       90%                                               school graduates                              1,845
                                                                                        1,800
       80%
                73%
                                                                                        1,600        GPA <2.0
       70%                                     66%
                                                                                        1,400
       60%
                                                                                        1,200
                       50%
       50%
                                                       43%                              1,000        GPA >2.0
                              39%
       40%                            34%                                                800                              757
                                                              32%
       30%                                                           27%                 600

       20%                                                                               400

       10%                                                                               200
                                                                                           0
        0%
                      PSSA Reading                    PSSA Math                                   12th Grade Class      Promise
                                                                                                        2008          Scholarships
          White     All Students     Low -incom e       African Am erican                                              Aw arded
                                                                                                                                      2
Source: Haas Education Leadership Case C ompetition, Pittsburgh Public Schools, 2010.
  Out of Classroom Time (OCT) can be better
  utilized to support college readiness

                                                                                Many organizations already work with
       OCT is one element of student success
                                                                                        students during OCT


                                                                                School
                                                                               programs



                                                          OCT                  Afterschool
                                                                                programs




                                                                               Summer
                                                                               programs



                                    Family                                     Businesses
                                                                                and non-
                                                                                 profits

                                                                                                                   3
Source: PPS Summer Dreamers Academy, Education Committee Presentation (2009)
A successful OCT strategy will be neither highly
centralized nor simply visionary


           Direct Management                       Shared Rhetoric

• Single entity directly controls all   • Voluntary agreement on broad
  organizations                           themes, or a marketing campaign
• Tight regulation of operations        • Little or no shared operational
• Strict accountability                   expectations

• EXAMPLE: Garbage collection           • Few or no accountability
  contractors                             mechanisms
                                        • EXAMPLE: “Make Poverty History”




          Best strategy for Pittsburgh is a middle ground
   Pathways to the Promise strategy will combine the best of both:
                   sufficient space for innovation,
                  while ensuring aligned agreement                          4
Guiding Principles can create a shared vision in the
community

  Suggested language for Guiding Principles


   1   All students will be encouraged and challenged to go to college


   2   All students who want to go to college will receive practical support
       at each step of the preparation process


   3   All students will have conversations about their futures with caring,
       trusted adults


   4   All families will receive the information they need to help their
       students plan for the future



                                                                               5
Action is needed in four areas for implementation


    1                           2

        Provide a roadmap for          Understand the
        students to reach                 differences in
        the Promise                   students’ needs




    4                           3


        Create capacity to          Leverage partners’
        manage and                           strengths
        support partners               and capabilities




                                                           6
 1
         Provide stronger and earlier instructions to
         navigate Pathways to the Promise

                    Aspiration is not enough                                                  Students need help meeting milestones

 Enrollment rate of academically qualified students                                      • Early communication upon entering high
     meeting milestone by start of senior year                                             school helps students begin college path
   100%                                                                                         - Personalized roadmap for students
     90%                                                                                        - iEnroll application
     80%
     70%     63%
     60%                      54%
                                               50%             49%
     50%
     40%                                              36%              33%
             Yes                     29%
     30%             24%
     20%
                     No
     10%
      0%
             Took SAT          Have an        Counselor         Visited a
                              application     Visits (4+)        college

   “…Considerable evidence of low-income youths with                                     • Quick Wins
   high aspirations and high valuations of college                                              - Partner with H&R block to offer FAFSA application
   failing to clear seemingly minor hurdles in the                                                assistance to all
   [college going] process…”
                                                                                                     28% of low-income students haven‟t heard of
                                      Christopher Avery
                                                                                                      the FAFSA
                       Harvard Department of Economics
                                                                                                - Flex funds to help students pay for SAT tests
Note: Students in program studied had min 3.0 GPA and were looking for admission to 4-year BA programs in MA
                                                                                                                                                                     7
Source: C hristopher Avery & Thomas Kane, Student Perceptions of College Opportunities: The Boston COACH Program; Bettinger, Eric, Increasing Postsecondary Enrollment among
Low-Income Families… The FAFSA H&R Block Experiment
 2
         Understand students‟ differentiated needs
         to tailor approaches for support

              A process is needed to identify                                                                         Targeted approaches to students‟
                     students‟ needs                                                                                        barriers are needed

   • Guidance Counselors take the lead on
                                                                                                                    High
     assessing students when they arrive
     to construct Student Profile
                                                                                                                               Provide           Provide stretch
           - Academic Review
                                                                                                                              academic           goals to reach
                Past GPA performance




                                                                                             Soft Skills Strength
                                                                                                                              supports            full potential
                PSSA performance
                Attendance/Truancy
           - Soft skills and home life review
                Disciplinary history
                                                                                                                               Early and          Communicate
                Federal surveys
                                                                                                                                intense             benefits;
                Take-home surveys                                                                                                                   support
                                                                                                                            intervention to
                                                                                                                                                    milestone
   • Implement a system to capture and                                                                                     build aspirations       attainment
     track this student data (i.e. Pearson‟s                                                                        Low
     PowerSchool)
                                                                                                                           Low                                        High
                                                                                                                                    Academic Strength

Note: Excellent student survey samples can be found from Coalition for C ommunity Schools and Harlem Children Zone to underst and student readiness and risks
      C entral Piedmont Community College in C harlotte currently administers placement tests to early high school students to determine academic areas of focus before graduation
                                                                                                                                                                          8
Source: Focusing on Results in Promise Neighborhoods: Recommendations for the Federal Initiative , The Center for the Study of Social Policy
 3
         Identify partners‟ capabilities to leverage
         their strengths in supporting students

                   Barrier                                            Potential solutions

                                          • Create a web-based directory of CBOs and their programs to
    Lack of knowledge of                    help parents and teachers identify opportunities for students
      existing programs                   • Utilize neighborhood, parent, and political networks to spread
                                            the word about Promise opportunities.

                                          • Create buy-in of Guiding Principles by community partners
                                              -   CBO‟s sign agreement to adhere to Guiding Principles for access to
                                                  school facilities and the online directory

     Lack of alignment                    • Set up a Promise Advisory Board of partners to create buy-in
   with Pittsburgh Promise                • Require Promise recipients/alumni to invest in community
                                              -   Work with targeted CBOs and Summer Programs
                                              -   Could be extended in the form of a „Promise Corps‟


                                          • Formalize communication between committed partners
                                              - Secure agreement from Colleges, CBOs, Summer Schools and Business to
         Lack of open                           Guiding Principles will embed a consistent vision
       communication                      • Highlight the benefits to colleges of supporting Promise success
     between stakeholders                     - Challenge local colleges to run summer schools and mentoring programs
                                              - Support colleges in advertising to students early and often in high school

                                                                                                                       9
Source: PPS; International case studies
 3
         There are innovative interventions that
         Pittsburgh can implement with partners

                      Math in sports clubs                                                               Results focused mentoring

 •    Playing for Success is a British CBO which runs                                      •     College Opportunity and Career Help (COACH) links
      homework clubs at urban sports venues                                                      students from Harvard to Boston Public Schools
 •    Literacy, numeracy and IT with a sporting focus                                      •     Focus is on providing assistance to students in
 •    Target underperforming high school students                                                preparing for and applying to college (e.g., SAT test
                                                                                                 prep, application form completion)
 •    Independent evaluations show significant
                                                                                           •     From the outset undertook rigorous monitoring and
      improvement in numeracy test scores and self-
                                                                                                 evaluation to test impact on college application rates
      confidence particularly for male minority students
                                                                                           •     Results focused approach could be extended to
 •    Steelers, Panthers, Penguins could be partners
                                                                                                 existing University of Pittsburgh program


                        Preparing parents                                                                Summer school at colleges

 •    Parent University is a Boston Public School year-                                    •     New York‟s Youth Development Initiative has found
      long training and education program for parents                                            that students are more likely to complete the
 •    Provides workshops (including full day Saturday                                            application process for college if they have been on
      sessions) to help parents understand how they can                                          campus for an extended period
      help their children with homework and how to                                         •     City University of New York runs month long
      understand the college application process                                                 intensive summer schools on its campus which focus
 •    Supports parents to develop a network that can be a                                        on college preparation as well as after school classes
      friendly challenge to poorly performing schools                                      •     The same could be implemented by Carnegie Mellon
 •    Could easily be extended to PPS                                                            as well as community colleges

Source: UK Department for Education and Skills, Widening Participation in Higher Education (2003); Playing for Success; Boston Public Schools Acceleration Agenda (2009); Youth
Development Institute, College Access and Success for Young Adult Learners: A Research Summary for Schools and Programs
                                                                                                                                                                        10
 4
         Create management capacity to facilitate
         networking across multiple stakeholders

           Considerations                                       Recommended approaches

                                          • Create a Community Coordination Officer (CCO)
                                              - 1 CCO for every 2 high schools
       School personnel
                                              - Strengthen relationship between CBOs and schools
     lacks bandwidth to                       - Provide feedback to the district on program effectiveness
      manage additional                   • Introduce volunteer “Parent Coordinators” in all high schools
        responsibilities                      - Responsible for daily tasks (lunch duty, dismissal, etc) to free up Guidance
                                                Counselors/Social Worker to focus on Promise support

                                          • Provide incentives for community partners to align with Promise
                                              - Allocate 150K to “CBO Innovation Prize” for effective strategies focus on
     Manage balance of                          college-readiness
     CBO autonomy and                     • Annual Parent and Student Surveys to evaluate CBO Promise
       commitment to                        support programs
          Promise                             - Publicize survey response on PPS website and in CBO Directory (i.e. “Did
                                                CBO provide college tour?”)


                                          • Establish “Promise Corps”
       Pittsburgh Promise                     - Use Teach for America 2-year commitment model
       alumni base is a                       - Top 10% of graduating class eligible for greater school loan repayment
            resource                          - Vigorously develop relationships with community partners and commitment
                                                to Promise

                                                                                                                       11
Source: PPS; International case studies
Management tools will guide implementation

 Marketing & Communication Plan   Dashboard for Evaluation




       Suggested Budget           Implementation Timeline




                                            12
PPS should continue to build upon the Pathways to
Promise brand




                    Continue to build on brand momentum




          Public                            Families                            CBOs

• Celebrate early                 • Market Guiding Principles        • “For our partners” link on
  successes                         to develop awareness               the web with
    - Advertise student success     and support                          - Guiding Principles
      stories                         - Advertise „Parent College‟       - CCO Contact information
• Challenge businesses to
  partner with the Promise
                                                                                              13
 PPS should establish a monthly dashboard to track
 how it is delivering on the Promise

                       Enrollment readiness                            Promise readiness
                       12th Grade iEnroll checklist completion         Current GPAs
• Dashboards
  should be                                                                                 Target:
                                                                                       80% >2.5 GPA
  created at a
                                                      Target: 75%
  District, CCO and
  school level
• Data on CBO
  performance
  should be drawn
  from a bi-annual
  survey of
  students
• An upgraded IT       CBO survey response from 11th Grade             Current attendance
  system should                                                                        Target: 80%
  link with the                                                                     >90% attendance
  iEnroll student                                           75%
  checklist to track
  performance                                        50%
  against key
                                               35%
  barriers to
  enrolment                                                      85%




                                                                                               14
PPS can have real impact for $1m a year


Category                           Cost/Unit Quantity Total Cost             Notes
Expenses
Staffing
             HS Community
             Coordination
             Officer (CCO)             75,000        5             375,000 1 CCO for every 2 HS's
                                                                           PC Pilot Program in 2010-
             Promise Corps (PC)        40,000        5             200,000 2011
             Recruitment                                                   Postings, Travel to Career
             Expenses                  35,000        1              35,000 Fairs, etc

Programmatic Expenses

             Promise Corp
             Expenses (training,                                           PD for PC's (5*$200/week at
             recruitment)              11,000        5              55,000 52 weeks)

             Promise Marketing/                                            $50 per graduating PPS HS
             Advertising                   50    1,845              92,250 senior
             CBO Incentive                                                 100K First Prize; 50K Second
             Program                  150,000        1             150,000 Prize
Technology
                                                                           1,400 per school, in addition
             IT Needs                   1,400       66              92,400 to IT in process
Total
Expenses                                                           999,650
                                                                                                    15
PPS should define a workplan for timely and
effective implementation
                                        Spring „10     Summer „10        2010 - 2011       2011 - 2012
     Task by Action Area
                                       Feb Mar Apr May Jun   Jul   Aug   Q1   Q2   Q3   Q4 Q1   Q2   Q3   Q4

• Provide Roadmap for students
   -Introduce Parent University
   -Develop iEnroll data system with
    guidance counselor monitoring
   -Implement iEnroll data system
• Determine students needs
   -Collect student data
   -Design Student Profile document
• Leverage partners‟ strengths
   -Create advisory board
   -Develop „Guiding Principles‟
   -Host a call to action for CBOs
   -Formalize college relationships
   -Finalize CBO directory
   -Pilot Promise Corps Program
   -Roll out Promise Corps Program
• Build capacity to manage
   -Roosevelt meet with principles
   -Define CCO role and recruiting
   -Provide intensive training for
    guidance counselors

                                                                                                          16
Next Steps: What are you going to do when you
get back to the office?

  1   Seek feedback from other members of your PPS team. Does the
      strategy need adjusting given their expertise?


  2   Define your top 2-3 stakeholders among Pittsburgh‟s CBOs,
      colleges and businesses. Would they be appropriate Advisory Board
      members?


  3   Review Prof. Chris Avery‟s paper on COACH in Boston, the Youth
      Development Institute‟s paper on College Access and Success in
      New York City and other cited resources. Are there further
      lessons to learn from the most successful attempts to tackle this
      issue?


  4   Draw up list of potential additional funders (e.g., Broad
      Foundation, Tiger Foundation). Could Pathways to the Promise be
      pitched to them as a trial program for the nation?

                                                                          17
Questions?


  Q&A




             18
BACKUP




         19
Recommended Sources (1 of 2)

Helping Students Prepare
• “Paving the Way for Success in High School and Beyond: The Importance of Preparing Middle School Students for
  the Transition to Ninth Grade“, Jean Baldwin Grossman and Siobhan M. Cooney
  http://www.ppv.org/ppv/publications/assets/269_publication.pdf
• “The Case for School-Based Integration of Services: Changing the Ways Students, Families and Communities
  Engage With Their Schools”, Jean Baldwin Grossman and Zoua M. Vang
  http://www.ppv.org/ppv/publications/assets/267_publication.pdf

City of New York Youth Development Institute
• “College Access and Success for Young Adult Learners: A Research Summary for Schools and Programs .”
   http://www.ydinstitute.org/resources/publications/CollegeAccess(YouthDevelopmentInstitute).pdf
• “Building a Better Bridge: Helping Young Adults Enter and Succeed in College.”
   http://www.ydinstitute.org/resources/publications/TheDreamofCollege(YouthDevelopmentInstitute).pdf

Boston Public Schools
• “Acceleration Agenda 2009-2014: A Five-Year Strategic Direction to transform the Boston Public Schools.”
  http://www.bostonpublicschools.org/agenda
• “The Effects of College Counseling on High-Achieving, Low-Income Students: Results of a Pilot Study with a
  Randomized Controlled Trial.” Avery, C., Sept, 2009.
   http://www.hks.harvard.edu/fs/cavery/counselor%20paper%20september%2016%202009.pdf
• “Student Perceptions of College Opportunities: The Boston COACH Program”, Avery, C., and Kane, Thomas. In
  College Choices: the Economics of Where to Go, When to Go, and How to Pay for it, Caroline Hoxby, Ed. University
  of Chicago Press, Sept 2004.
   http://www.hks.harvard.edu/fs/cavery/Student%20Perceptions%20of%20College%20Opportunities.pdf

United Kingdom
• “Widening participation in higher education”, Department for Education and Skills. 2003
  http://www.dius.gov.uk/higher_education/~/media/publications/E/EWParticipation


                                                                                                             20
Recommended Sources (2 of 2)

Afterschool Programs/Summer Schools
• National Dropout Prevention Center/Network: Summary of research on benefit of after school programming
  www.droupoutprevention.org/effstrat/after_school_opps
• Children‟s Aid Society
  www.childrensaidsociety.org/TA
• Playing for Success
   http://www.playingforsuccessonline.org.uk/
• COACH
   http://www.communityservice.harvard.edu/programs/coach-college-opportunity-and-career-help
• Boston Public Schools Parent University
   http://www.bostonpublicschools.org/node/3781
• CUNY Summer School
   http://www.lagcc.cuny.edu/academics/precollege/

Sponsors for Educational Opportunity Scholars Program
• http://www.seo-usa.org/Scholars_Overview

The FAFSA
• “Increasing Postsecondary Enrollment Among Low Income Families: A Project to Improve Access to College
  Information and Financial Aid” Bettinger E. et al, Jan 2009.
   http://gseacademic.harvard.edu/~longbr/FAFSA_Project_-_Bettinger_Long_Oreopoulos_-_Description_1-09.pdf
• “FAFSA Experiment Boosts College Going.” Lederman, Doug. Inside Higher Ed, Sept 23, 2009.
   http://www.nber.org/papers/w15361.pdf
• “College Grants on a Postcard: A Proposal for Simple and Predictable Federal Student Aid.” Dynarski, Susan M, and
  Scott-Clayton, Judith E., Social Science Research Network
  http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/rc/papers/2007/02education_dynarski/200702dynarski%20scott%20clay
  ton.pdf


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