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               A SIMULATED INVENTORY UPDATE:
              wISCONSIN'S 1979 TIMBER RESOURCES

              •                                  Gerhard K. Raile
         "                                               and
                                                   W. Brad Smith
                                              Associate Mensurationists




                  BACKGROUND                                                     METHOD
   Current facts about the Nation's forest resources             A tree growth projection subsystem of FREP was
 such as area, timber volume, biomass, ownership, and         used to update the 1968 Wisconsin survey to 1979.
 prospective supply and demand are essential in the           This subsystem of FREP is a distance-independent
 formation of management policies and practices. The          individual tree growth simulator (Munro 1974) of rood-
 Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning            ular design. It consists of an executive program and a
 Act of 1974 specifically requires the Forest Service to      series of functional subroutines. Updated tree lists are
 make and keep current a comprehensive inventory and          generated through the simulation of growth and mor-
 analysis of renewable forest and rangeland resources,        tality. Management routines are available to prescribe
   In the past, resource evaluation techniques have           and carry out silvicultural activities. A brief overview
 provided forest resource information that was often          of FREP is available in "FREP 78: The Updated Tree
 months, and, unfortunately, sometimes years, old             Growth Projection System" (Hahn et al. 1979).
 before it waswidely available for use. To meet the need         The Wisconsin update was conducted without the
 for more current forest resource information, the            use of new field or photo-interpretive work. New in-
 N0rth Central Forest Experiment Station (NCFES)              ventory data from the Chequ_amegon (1976) and the
 began the Forest Resources Evaluation Program                Nicolet (1975) National Forests were used as a starting
 (FREP) in 1975. _                                            point for updating the National Forest data because
     Whenfu!ly developed, FREP will be a computerized         the 1968 Wisconsin survey included National Forest
  resource evaluation system capable of evaluating eco-       data adjusted from 1967 and 1964 inventories to 1968.
                                                              The term "update," as it is used here, is an estimate of
  n0mic, ecologic-environmental, and sociocultural as-
                                                              current forest statistics derived by modeling the dy-
  pects of timber, wildlife, recreation, water, forage, and
• special uses (Lundgren and Essex 1979). In an evalua-       namic change in a forest from a known time in the past.
  tion of FREP asan inventory tool, the 1968 Wisconsin        The four majorcomponents that define this change are
  forest survey (Spencer and Thorne 1972) was updated         growth, mortality, regeneration, and removals.
  to the year 1979.
                                                                          Growth and Mortality
    _The FREPgrowth     projection system was devel-             Growth and mortality functions 2 were calibrated
 oped jointly by a team of researchers at the North            and validated with data from throughout the Lake
 Central Forest Experiment Station. Included were
 Rolfe A. Leary, Jerold T. Hahn, Roland G. Buchman,
 Gary Brand (working on a cooperative agreement                 2The derivations of the FREP growth functions
 through the University of Minnesota), Brad Smith,            (Hahn and Leary 1979, Leary and Holdaway 1979,
 Margaret Holdaway, Jerrilyn La Varre Thompson,               Holdaway et al. 1979) and mortality functions (Buch-
 and Linda Christensen.                                       man 1979) are too long to present here.
        States (Christensen et al. 1979). Test projections made     that the final updated acreage would coincide by type
        in Wisconsin over a wide range of forest conditions         with the 1977 estimate of commercial forest area. Be-
        produced reliable results when compared with the pre-       cause stand-size class was determined by the projec-
        vious Wisconsin dal_a(Leary et al. 1979).                   tion, acres by size class will not agree with the 1977
                                                                    estimate.

                          Regeneration                                 The current version of FREP has no provision for
                                                                    simulating actual removals. The system was modified
           Although FREP regeneration routines 3for the Lake        to set removals during the update to the levels estimat-
        States had not been developed by the time of the            ed above. Computerized Lake States guides (Brand
        update, this did not significantly affect the projection.   1979) were used in the projection system to select a
        Most trees that became established on harvested land        subset of plots that were eligible for silvicultural treat-
        during the l 1-year update period would not have            ment during the update period. Lake States guides
        grown to merchantable size. Tables showing number of        were used in lieu of detailed information on Wisconsin
        trees in thisreport include trees below the 6-inch diam-    timber management strategies. The FREP projection
        eter class.. Because there was no regeneration, these are   system was then modified by adding a special removals
        trees that were in the original 1.0-to 4.9-inch sample      analysis algorithm. Each of the eligible plots was
        and did not grow into the 6-inch diameter class,            scanned by the algorithm to determine whether it
                                                                    would be cut. The volume from cut plots was accumu-
                            Removals                                lated until the estimated volume of growing-stock re-
                                                                    movals by species was reached.
           Timber removals for the update fall into two catego-       Information on update costs and data requirements
        ties, product and nonproduct. Timber removals for           are outlined in "FREP: Application of the Tree
        products was estimated using data collected by North
                          •                                         Growth Projection System for Inventory" (Smith and
        Central's Renewable Resources Evaluation Project.           Raile 1979).
        Project staff collect pulpwood data annually, saw log
        data every 2 to 5 years, veneer log data every 2 years,
        and data on total removals (including poles, pilings,                  UPDATE RESULTS
        fuelwood, and an estimate of nonproduct removals) at
        the time of each State forest survey. For the update,                         Area Trends
        pulpwood, saw log, and veneer data were compiled for
        each available year during the update period. Data for         The total commercial forest area in Wisconsin has
        missing years were estimated by analyzing trends in         declined 3percent since 1956 and will probably contin-
        wood consumption for the State (U.S. Department of          ue to decline in the near future. It is estimated that
        Commerce, 1967-1978).                                       commercial forest land now accounts for 42 percent of
                                                                    all land in the State.
          It was not possible to make an annual estimate of
        n0nproduct removals-- the timber removals from cul-            The aspen-birch' and maple-beech-birch forest
        tural operations and changes in land use. But esti-         types make up 29 and 25 percent of the commercial
        mates of removals caused only by changes in land use        forest area, respectively. These types have dominated
•       may be made by estimating the volume by forest type         the forest area of Wisconsin as far back as the first
        occurring on the commercial forest area lost since 1968.    official survey in 1936, although the percentage of
        The area of commercial forest land in 1979 was as-          northern hardwoods has been increasing while aspen-
        sumed -t0 be the same as a 1977 estimate made by the        birch has been declining. The natural succession of
        North' Central Forest Experiment Station and the            aspen-birch stands to maple-beech-birch stands ac-
        Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (USDA             counts for much of this shift. With the exception of
        Forest Service 1978). Area expansion factors used in        aspen-birch, all hardwood types show modest in-
        the 196.8survey were adjusted for each forest type, so      creases in acreage during the update period (table 1).



           3Buchman, R. G. Lake States tree recruitment for
        thenorth central generalized forest tree growth pro-          *In the 1956 survey the aspen and birch forest
        jection system. Unpublished Station study FS-NC-            types were combined, so the 1968 and 1979 aspen
        4252(78-04), on file at North Central Forest Experi-        and    birch types   were added    together   for
    •   ment Station, St. Paul, Minnesota.                          comparison.

        2
                                      Table 1. -- Area of commercial forest land by forest type,
                 .                             Wisconsin, 1956, 1968, and updated 1979
         t
    Forest ype                                      1956                          1968                             1979
                                          Thousand          Percent     Thousand          Percent        Thousand         Percent
                                           acres            of total     acres            of total        acres           of total
    Jackpine                                 687 .             5          727                5             717                5
    Redpine                                  146               1          310                2             332                2
    Whitepine                                172                1          178               2             159                1
    Blackspruce ..                           207                1         236                2             215                1
    Spruce-fir                               352               2          628                4             601                4
           w
    Northern hite-cedar                      207                1         302                2             308                2
    Tamarack-                                131                1         222                2             223                2
          ory
    Oak-hick                               2,461              17         2,665              18            2,681              19
           h
    Lowlandardwoods                          840               6         1,158               8            1,163               8
           h
    Northernardwoods                       2,634              18         3,522              24            3,551              25
    Aspen-birch                            4,684              31         4,219              29            4,202              29
    Nonstocked                              2347              16          370                3             326                2
    All types                             14,868             100         14,537            100            14,478           100
          J




                                 Table    2.-     Commercial    forest land areas by stand-size      class,
                                                Wisconsin,   1956, 1968, and updated   1979
    Stan&size.                                       1956                          1968                            1979
     class     .
                          •               Thousand          Percent      Thousand         Percent         Thousand        Percent
                                           acres            of total      acres           of total         acres          of total
    Sawtimber                              2,054              14          3,098            21              3,235             22
     Poletimber.                           4,822             32           6,580            45              6,664             46
     Seedling-
      Sapling                               5,645             38          4,489             31             4,253             30
     Nonstocked                             2,347             16           370               3              326               2
     AllClasses                            14,868            100         14,537            100            14,478            100



        The area of jack pine and white pine forest types
     has declined since 1968 -- an apparent reversal of the                                      Volume
     trend noted between the 1956 and 1968 forest surveys.
     The red pine type, however, has shown a 127 percent                   Despite the decline in commercial     forest area be-
     increase since 1956. Much of this increase is the result           tween 1968 and 1979, total growing-stock volume in-
     of extensive plantings of red pine and the conversion              creased 16 percent n from 11 billion cubic feet in 1968
     of white pine sites to red pine because of blister rust.           to 12.7 billion cubic feet in 1979 (table 3). Softwood
•    In the update, black spruce and spruce-fir types de-               growing-stock volume increased 36 percent and hard-
     clined; northern white-cedar and tamarack types in-                wood volume increased 10 percent. Softwoods contin-
     creased slightly,                                                  ued to gain, jumping from 20 percent of all growing-
       -POletimber and        sawtimber    stands   have shown a        stock volume in 1956 to an estimated 26 percent in
     steady increase in area since the 1956 survey, but                 1979.
     nonstocked   and seedling-sapling stands have de-                     The maturing of Wisconsin'ssecond-growthforests
     creased. The 1979 update estimates 9.9 million acres               is shown by the upward trend in the area of sawtimber
     of c0mbined sawtimber and poletimber stands corn-                  stands and the increase in sawtimber volume. Saw-
     pared to 9.7 million acres in 1968 and 6.9 million acres           timber volume has risen 44 percent since the 1968
     in 1956.    The area of nonstocked forest land has                 survey and has almost doubled since the 1956 survey.
     probably declined since the 1968 survey (table 2)                  Traditionally,  hardwoods have been dominant, but
     although definition and procedural changes after the               softwoods have begun to make up an increasing per-
     1956 survey hinder interpretation of the decrease. A               centage of the total sawtimber volume. They are now
     more detailed breakdown of the 1979 area data is                   estimated to account for 33 percent of the sawtimber
     given in tables 4 and 5.                                           volume (table 3).

                                                                                                                                     3
                      "                            Table    3.-    Growing-stock  and sawtimber           volumes       for
                                                            Wisconsin,  1956, 1968, and updated            1979

                                                     Growing-etock volume                                      Sawtimber  volume
        Species                         1966               1968               1979               1956               1968               1979
                                  Mil.cu.ft. Percent Mil.cu.ft. Percent Mil.cu.ft. Percent Mil.bd.ft. Percent Mil.bd.ft. Percent Mil.bd.ft. Percent

        Softwoods                 1,670          20        2,475     23       3,368    26       4,783        30         6,497           30    10,318       33
        Hardwoods                 6,768          80        8,521     77       9,363    74      11,049        70        15,259           70    21,052       67
            _
        Total                     8,438         100       10,996    100       12,731   100     15,832      100         21,756       100       31,370       100



                Further        evidence    of the effects    of Wisconsin's    ma-
        turing-forests is the increase in growing-stock volume                                     Growth and Mortality
        per acre in all major forest types (fig. 1). A detailed
        breakdown of all numbers of trees and volume data is                             FREP's      projected        (1968-1979)       average   net annual

        given         in tables         6 l_hrough 12.                                 growth of 346,500 cubic feet is an average annual
                                                                                       growth rate of 3.1 percent. Net growth consists of
                                                                                       survivor growth, ingrowth,   growth on ingrowth,
                                                                                       growth on removals, and growth on trees that die,
                                                                                       minus mortality (tables 26-33)"
                                                                                                                                                                 i




                                                                                             Components          of       Thousand            Percent     of
                                    •                                                            growth                   cubic feet           total  net
                     1,400 -                                                                                                                    growth

    '                                                                                  Survivor     growth                    312,326               90

                                                                                       Ingrowth                                76,903               22

                     1,200-                                                            Growth      on ingrowth                 24,035                  7

                                                                                       Growth      on removals                 33,525               10

            w        1,000                                                             Growth      on mortality                24,192                  7
                              -                                                        Mortality                         - 124,425                - 36


                                                cott_:_                                Total net growth            346,557        100
            ¢j        800                                                              This projected net growth averages 24 cubic feet per
                                                                                       acre per year for the update period compared with 34
            _                                                                          cubic feet for 1967 and 20 cubic feet for 1955. s

                      s°°"                                                                Because there was no regeneration model in FREP
                                                                                       at the time of this update and the original data only
                                                                                       included d.b.h, measurements    for trees 1 inch and
                 .                                                                     larger, the ingrowth volumes may be slightly low over
                      400 -                                                            the 11-year period. The effects of no regeneration can
                                                                                       be seen by looking at the original and current distribu-
                                                                                       tions of trees by diameter class in tables 7 and 8. The
                          1968
                              L             '                                 1979
                                                                                       distributions by diameter class of mortality and re-
                                                                                       moval trees are given in tables 10 and 11.




        Figure 1. Growing-stock volume trends                         for major          SThis is the unadjusted   1955 net growth rate. The
          types and type groups in Wisconsin,                          1968 and        adjusted 1955 rate published in the 1968 survey is 26
•          updated 1979.                                                               cubic feet per acre per year.

        4
      The predicted average annual growing-stock mot-                      /
                                                                         2so
   tality is 124.4 million cubic feet _ 1.1 percent of the
   original "inventory or 8.6 cubic feet per acre per year.              _2s
  "The 1967 estimate of 4.1 cubic feet per acre per year is                                                                                              Iiii III

   about half this rate, and the unadjusted 1955 mortali-            _ 200
   ty is 11.4 cubic feet per acre per year. The projected        '
   mortality    rates   by forest   type     are as follows:
                                                                     O   175

                                                   Projected
                                                    mortality        _   150
   Forest      type            Cubic    feet/       as a per-
                                acre/year          cent of in-

        •                                            ventory             _2sl                                                            mACTUAL
                                                                                                                                         ---- PROJECTED

   Jack pine                               3.4          0.66             100"/      I                                              I
                                                                           1967   1968   19169 19170 1971   1972   1973   1974   1975    1976   1977   1978    1979
   Red pine                                4.3 '         .54
   White pine                              6.8           .51
                                                                     Figure 2.-            Estimated   growing-stock                      removals            for
   Black sprdce
   Balsam fir-white                        5.1           1.36           products         in Wisconsin,    1967-1979.

    spruce                            10.8              1.43
   Northern white-cedar               10.7              1.10
   Tamarack                            6.7              1.58
   Oak-hickory                             7.1            .92                                        Biomass
   Elm-ash-cottonwood                      8.9           1.05
   Maple-beech-birch                  10.4                .97           Many of the equations   for calculating individual
   Aspen                   •          10.5               1.72        tree biomass by species (Young 1976) could not be
   Birch                               5.0                .69        used in creating tables 34 and 35 because (1) usable
   All types                           8.6               1.11        equations are not available for many species in the
      All the components of net growth are summarized                State; (2) many equations use variables not available
   for both cubic feet and board feet in tables 26-33.               in the 1968 Wisconsin inventory data; and (3) some
   These tables give both periodic and average annual                equations give unreliable                     estimates            of biomass            for
                                                                     large trees.
   values by forest type and species group.
                                                                        The following method was developed for estimating
                                                                     biomass in Wisconsin: first, the estimated net cubic
                                                                     foot volumes were converted to green tons by using
                                                                     weight conversion factors for each species (Mark-
                           Removals                                  wardt 1930). Then, the weight of the bole bark was
       Growing-stock     removals for products have in-              computed using bark correction factors for individual
    creased during the past 11 years (fig. 2), except for            species and an average value of 37 pounds per cubic
    slumps in 1972 and 1975. The 1972 decline was due to             foot. Tops and limbs for trees 5 inches d.b.h, and over
    a drop in products Other than pulpwood -- a pattern              were estimated as a percent of gross bole volume.
• ' thatcontinued    through the early 1970's. In 1975, the          Above ground green tons for trees under 5 inches were
    recession reduced all domestic production. The esti-             computed from a regression equation fit to Young's
    mated average annual removals of growing stock for               tree weight table (Young et al. 1976). This regression
                                                                     equation uses d.b.h, to estimate total aboveground
   products was 193 million cubic feet from 1968 through             biomass as 80 percent of the above and belowground
   1978, increasing an average of 2.5 percent per year. At           biomass.
   this rate, the predicted removal of growing stock for
   products _for 1979 is about 214 million cubic feet.

      The tables of current statistics in the appendix                            LITERATURE                                 CITED
   show growing-stock removals for products on the 1979
   commercial   forest land base, but inadequate    data             Brand, Gary. 1979. Timber management      guides and
   prevented tracking other removals on a yearly basis,                marking rules. In A generalized forest growth pro-
   Removals from land use change are taken into account                jection system applied to the Lake States region.
   by an adjustment in area expansion factors and there-               U.S. Department    of Agriculture Forest Service,
   fore do not appear in the tables.                                   General Technical Report NC-49, p. 56-60. U.S.
   °

                                                                                                                                                                    5
               Department of Agriculture Forest Service, North            U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service,
               Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul,               General Technical Report NC-49, p. 79-89. U.S.
               Minnesota.                                                 Department of Agriculture Forest Service, North
                                                                          Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul,
            Buchman, Roland G. 1979. Mortality functions. In A            Minnesota.
              generalized forest growth projection system applied
              to the Lake States region. U.S. Department of Agri-
              culture Forest Service, General Technical Report          Lundgren, Allen L., and Burton L. Essex. 1979. Forest
             •NC-49, p. 56-60. U.S. Department of Agriculture             resource evaluation systems- who needs them? In
              Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment             A generalized forest growth projection system ap-
              Station, St. Paul, Minnesota.                               plied to the Lake States region. U.S. Department of
                                                                          Agriculture Forest Service, General Technical Re-
            Christensen, Linda, Jerold T. Hahn, and Rolfe A.              port NC-49, p. 1-4. U.S. Department of Agriculture
              Leafy. 1979. Data base. In A generalized forest             Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment
              growth projection system applied to the Lake                Station, St. Paul, Minnesota.
              States region. U.S. Department of Agriculture
             Forest Service, General Technical Report NC-49,            Markwardt, L. J. 1930. Comparative strength proper-
             p. 16-21. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest             ties of woods grown in the United States. U.S.
             Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station,           Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 158,
             St. Paul, Minnesota.                                        38 p.
            Hahn, Jerold T., and Rolfe A. Leafy. 1979. Potential
                  diameter growth function. In A generalized forest     Munro, D. D. 1974. Forest Growth Models- A prog-
                  growth projection system applied to the Lake States    nosis. Royal College of Forestry, Research Note 30,
                  region. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Set-     379 p. Stockholm, Sweden.
                  vice, General Technical Report NC-49, p. 22-26.
        .         U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service,
                  North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul,    Smith, W. B., and Gerhard K. Raile. 1979. FREP:
                  Minnesota.                                              Application of the tree growth projection system for
                                                                          inventory update. In Forest Resource Inventories
            Hahn, Jerold T., David M. Belcher, Margaret R.                Workshop Proceedings 1:223-230. July 23-26, 1979.
              Holdaway, Gary J. Brand, and Stephen R. Shirley.            Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
              1979. FREP 78: Description of the updated tree
              growth projection system. In 1979 workshop on             Spencer, John S., Jr., and Harry W. Thorne. 1972.
              Forest Resources Inventories I:211-222.                     Wisconsin's 1968 timber resource -- a perspective.
                                                                          U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Re-
            Holdaway, Margaret R., Rolfe A. Leafy, and Jerrilyn           source Bulletin NC-15, 80 p. U.S. Department of
              LaVarre Thompson. 1979. Estimating mean stand               Agriculture Forest Service, North Central Forest
              crown ratio from stand variables. In A generalized          Experiment Station, St. Paul, Minnesota.
             •forest growth projection system applied to the Lake
               States region. U.S. Department of Agriculture For-       U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1978.
•              est Service, General Technical Report NC-49, p. 27-        Forest statistics of the United States, 1977 _ re-
               30. U.S_ Department of Agriculture Forest Service,         view draft. 133 p.
               North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul,
               Minnesota.                                               U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the
                                                                          Census. Current Industrial Reports, Lumber
            Leafy, Rolfe A., and Margaret R. Holdaway. 1979.              Production and Mill Stocks. MA-24T(67-78)-1.
              Modifier function. In A generalized forest growth
              projection system applied to the Lake States region.      Young, H. E. 1976. A summary and analysis of weight
              U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service,             table studies. In Oslo Biomass Studies. p. 253-282.
             •General Technical' Report NC-49, p. 31-38. U.S.            Life Sciences and Agricultural Experiment Station,
              Department of Agriculture Forest Service, North            University of Maine, Orono, Maine.
              Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul,
             Minnesota.                                                 Young, H. E., L. E. Hoar, and T. C. Tryon. 1976. A
                                                                          forest biomass inventory of some public land in
            Leafy, Rolfe A., Jerold T. Hahn, and Roland G. Buch-          Maine. In Oslo Biomass Studies. p. 285-302. Life
              man. 1979. Tests, In A generalized forest growth            Sciences and Agricultural Experiment Station, Uni-
    .        projection system applied to the Lake States region,         versity of Maine, Orono, Maine.

              ,
           .
                                                      APPENDIX



         DEFINITION               OF TERMS                                           Tree Classes
                                                                   All live trees.--Growing-stock,      rough and rotten
                   Land-Use     Classes                         trees I inch d.b.h, and larger.
      Gross area.--The   entire area of land and water as
    determined by the Bureau of Census, 1960.                     Growing-stock      trees.--All     live trees of commer-
      Land area.--The       area of dry land and land tern-     cial species except rough and rotten trees.
    porarily or partially covered by water such as marshes,        Desirable trees.--Growing-stock trees having no
    swamps, flood plains, streams, sloughs, and estuaries,      serious defects in quality limiting present or prospec-
    Canals less than 1/8-mile wide, and lakes, reservoirs,      tire use, and of relatively high vigor and containing no
    and ponds smaller than 40 acres are included as land        pathogens that may result in death or serious deterio-
    area. These figures are from the Bureau of Census,          ration before rotation age. These are trees that would
    1960.                                                       be favored by forest managers in sih_icultural
      Forest land.--Land at least 16.7 percent stocked          operations.
    by forest trees of any size, or formerly having such tree     Acceptable trees.--Trees meeting the standards
    cover, and not currently developed for nonforest use.       for growing stock but not qualifying as desirable trees.
    Includes afforested areas. The minimum forest area
    Classified was 1 acre. Roadside, streamside, and shel-         Sawtimber     trees.--Growing-stock trees of com-
    terbelt strips of timber must have a crown width of at      mercial species containing at least a 12-foot saw log or
                                                                two noncontiguous saw logs, each 8 feet or longer. At
    least 120 feet to qualify as forest land. Unimproved        least 33 percent of the gross volme of the tree must be
    roads and trails, streams, and clearings in forest areas    sound wood. Softwoods must be at least 9 inches d.b.h.
    were classed as forest if less than 120 feet in width.
                                                                and hardwoods at least 11 inches.
      Commercial      forest land.--Forest land that is
                                                                  Poletimber    trees.--Growing-stock   trees of corn-
    producing or is capable of producing crops of industri-
    al wood and that is not withdrawn from timber utiliza-      mercial species at least 5 inches d.b.h, but smaller
                                                                than sawtimber size and of good form and vigor.
    tion by statute or administrative regulation. This in-
    cludes areas suitable for management to grow crops of         Saplings.--Live   trees of commercial species I to 5
    industrial wood generally of a site quality capable of      inches d.b.h, and of good form and vigor.
    producing in excess of 20 cubic feet per acre of annual
    growth. This includes both inaccessible and inoper-            Seedlings.--Live    trees of commercial species less
                                                                than I inch d.b.h, that are expected to survive accord-
     able areas,                                                ing to regional standards (examples of seedlings not
        Noncommercial      forest land.--(a)Unproduc-           expected to survive are those that are diseased or
    tive forest land incapable of yielding crops of indus-      heavily damaged by logging, browsing, or fire). Only
     trial wood because of adverse site conditions, (b)         softwood seedlings 6 inches and hardwood seedlings
•    Productive-reserved_forest            land withdrawn       over 1 foot in height are counted.
     from commercial timber use through statute or ad-
     ministrative regulation, or exclusively used for Christ-      Rotten trees._Live     trees (any size) of commer-
     mas tree production,                                       cial species that do not contain a merchantable 12-
                                                                foot saw log or two noncontiguous 8-foot or longer saw
        Nonforest land.--and that has never supported           logs, now or prospectively, because of rot (that is,
     forests, and land formerly forested where forest use is    when more than 50 percent of the cull volume of the
    •prec!uded by development for nonforest uses, such as       tree is rotten).
     cropland, improved pasture, residential areas, and
     city parks. Also includes improved roads and adjoin-          Rough trees'--Live      trees that do not contain at
     ing rights-of-way, powerline clearings, and certain        least one merchantable 12-foot saw log or two noncon-
                                                                tiguous 8-foot or longer saw logs, now or prospectively,
     areas of water classified by the Bureau of Census as
     land. Unimproved roads, streams, canals, and               because of roughness and poor form, as well as all live
     nonforest strips in forest areas must be more than 120     noncommercial species.
     feet wide, and clearings in forested areas must be more       Short-log    (rough)    trees.--Sawtimber-sized
     than 1 acre in size, to qualify as nonforest land.         trees of commercial species that contain at least one

                                                                                                                         7
    merchantable       8- to 11-foot saw log but not a 12-foot                 Nonstocked     areas.--Commercial     forest land on
    saw log.                                                                 which stocking of growing-stock trees is less than 16.7
                           Stocking                                          percent.
       The degree of utilization of land by trees as mea-                                   Other        Classifications
    sured in terms of basal area and/or the number of                           Site index.--An         expression of forest site quality
    trees in a stand compared to the basal area and/or                       based on the height         of a free-growing dominant or
    number of trees required to utilize fully the growth                     codominant tree of         a representative  species in the
    potential of the land.                                                   forest type at age         50.
      A stocking percent of 100 indicates full utilization                     Site     classes.--A        classification   of forest land in
    of the site and is equivalent to 80 square feet of basal                 terms of inherent capacity to grow crops of industrial
    area per acre in trees 5 inches d.b.h, and larger. In a                  wood expressed in cubic-foot growth per acre per year.
    stand of trees less than 5 inches d.b.h., a stocking
    percent of 100 would indicate that the present number                       Stand-age.--Age      of the main stand. Main stand
    of trees is sufficient to produce 80 square feet of basal                refers to trees of the dominant forest type and stand-
    _area per acre when the trees do reach 5 inches d.b.h,                   size class.

      Stocking of all live trees, growing-stock trees, and                      Basal area.--The    area in square feet of the cross
    desirable trees are recorded separately and stands are                   section at breast height of a single tree. When the
    grouped into the following stocking classes,                             basal area of all the trees in a stand are summed, the
                                                                             result is usually expressed as square feet of basal area
                            Stocking       Classes                           per acre.
      Overstocked    stands.--Stands in which stocking                                           Forest           Types
    of trees is 133 percent or more.
                                                                                A classification of forest        land based upon the spe-
      Fully-stocked    stands.--Stands in which stock-                       cies forming a plurality of           live-tree stocking. Major
    ing of trees is from 100 to 133 percent,                                 forest types in Wisconsin              are:

          Medium-stocked               stands.--Stands        in   which       Jack      pine.--Forests        in which pine species    corn-
    stocking     of trees      is from 60 to 100 percent,                    prise a plurality of the live-tree stocking, with jack
                                                                             pine the most common. (Common associates include
       Poorly-stocked              stands.--Stands   in which                aspen, white birch, maple, balsam fir, cherry, and
    stocking of trees          is from 16.7 to 60 percent,                   oak.)

      Nonstocked          areas.--Commercial    forest land on                 Red pine.--Forests      in which pine species comprise
    which stocking        of trees is less than 16.7 percent,                a plurality of the live-tree stocking, with red pine the
                        Stand-size    Classes                                most common. (Common associates include aspen,
          Stand.--A    growth of trees on a minimum of I acre                white birch, maple, balsam fir, and red oak).

    of forest land that is stocked by forest trees of any size.                White      pine.--Forests        in which pine species com-
       Sawtimber      stands.--Stands   at least 16.7 per-                   prise a plurality of the live-tree stocking, with eastern
    cent stocked with growing-stock trees, with half or                      white pine the most common. (Common associates
•   more of this stocking in sawtimber or poletimber trees                   include hemlock,         aspen, white and yellow birch, and
    and with sawtimber stocking at least equal to pole-                      maple.)
    timber      stocking.                                                      Balsam     fir-white   spruce.--Forests   in which
       Poletimber      stands.--Stands     at least 16.7 per-                balsam fir or white spruce, singly or in combination,
    cent stocked with growing-stock trees, and with half                     comprise a plurality of the live-tree stocking. (Corn-
    or more of this stocking           in sawtimber    and/or                mon associates   include white-cedar,    black spruce,
    poletimber    trees and with poletimber          stocking                tamarack, maple, birch, hemlock, and aspen.)
    exceeding     that of sawtimber.                                            Black      spruce.--Forests         in which swamp conifers
       Sapling-seedling     stands.--Stands                  at least 16.7   (black spruce, tamarack, and northern white-cedar)
    percent stocked with growing-stock                   trees and with      comprise a plurality of the live-tree stocking, with
    saplings and/or seedlings comprising                 more than half      black spruce the most common.                                      I
    of this stocking.                                                           Northern     white-cedar.--Forests      in which                J
                                                                                                                                                i




      .    .
swamp conifers comprise a plurality of live-tree stock-    bark or to the point where the central stem breaks into
ing, with northern white-cedar the most common,            limbs.
   Tamarack.--Forests      in which swamp conifers
comprise a plUrality of live-tree stocking, with tama-              Growth and Mortality
rack the most common.
                                                              Net volume      growth of growing stock.--The
  Oak-hickory.--Forests       in which upland oaks or      annual change    in volume of sound wood in live grow-
hickories, singly or in combination, comprise a plurali-   ing-stock and    sawtimber trees and total volume of
ty of the live-tree stocking. (Common associates in-       trees entering    these classes through ingrowth, less
clude aspen, cherry, balsam fir, elm, maple, and white     volume losses     resulting from natural causes.
birch.)
                                                              Net annual growth of sawtimber.--The       annu-
   Elm-ash-cottonwood.DForests         in which low-       al change in volume of live sawtimber trees and the
land elm, ash, or cottonwood, singly or in combina-        total volume of trees reaching sawtimber size, less
tion, comprise a plurality of the .live-tree stocking,     volume losses resulting from natural causes.
(Common associates include maple, basswood, and
river birch.) These forests may be subtyped cotton-          Mortality of growing stock.--The volume of
wood when it is the most common species,                   sound wood in growing-stock trees dying annually
                                                           from natural causes. Natural causes include fire, in-
  Maple-beech-birch.-         Forests in which maple,      sects, disease, animal damage, weather, and
beech, yellow birch, or upland elm, singly or in combi-    suppression.
nation, comprise a plurality of the live-tree stocking.
(COmmon associates include hemlock, elm, basswood,           Mortality of sawtimber.--The      net board-foot
white pine, and white and yellow birch.) Locally this      volume of sawtimber trees dying annually from natu-
type is called "northern hardwoods."                       ral causes.
   Aspen.--Forests in which a mixture of quaking or
bigtooth aspen or balsam poplar, singly or in combina-                  Timber        Removals
tion, Comprise a plurality of the live-tree stocking.
(Common associates include maple, white birch, bal-           Timber removals from growing stock.--The
sam fir, red and northern pin oak, and cherry.)            volume of sound wood in growing-stock trees removed
                                                           annually for forest products (including roundwood
  Paper birch.--Forests in which paper birch corn-         products and logging residues) and for other removals.
prises a plurality of the live-tree stocking. (Common      Roundwood products are logs, bolts, or other round
associates include aspen, maple, balsam fir, red and       sections cut and used from trees. Logging residues are
northern pin oak, and cherry.)                             the unused portions of cut trees plus unused trees
                                                           killed by logging. Other removals are growing-stock
               Timber       Volume                         trees removed but not utilized for products or trees
                                                           left standing but "removed" from the commercial
  Volume     of growing      stock.--The   volume of       forest land classification by land use change--exam-
sound wood in the bole of growing-stock trees 5 inches     pies are removals from cultural operations such as
d.b.h, and over, from a 1-foot stump to a minimum of       timber stand improvement work, land clearing, and
4-inch top diameter outside bark, or to the point          changes in land use.
where the central stem breaks into limbs. Growing-            Timber removals from sawtimber.--The            net
stock volumes are shown in cubic feet. Conversion to       board-foot volume of live sawtimber trees removed for
standard Cordsmay be accomplished by a factor of 79        forest products annually (including roundwood prod-
cubic feet per solid wood cord.                            ucts and logging residues) and for other removals.
    Volume of sawtimber.--Net         volume of the saw       Timber products output.--All timber products
 log portion of live sawtimber trees in board feet,        cut from roundwood, and byproducts of wood manu-
 International 1/4-inch rule, from stump to a minimum      facturing plants. Roundwood products include logs,
•7 inches top diameter outside bark for softwoods and 9    bolts, or other round sections cut from growing-stock
inches for hardwoods,                                      trees, cull trees, salvable dead trees, trees on nonforest
    Upper stem portion.--That        part of the bole of   land, noncommercial species, sapling-size trees, and
 sawtimber trees above the merchantable sawtimber          limbwood. Byproducts from primary manufacturing
 top to a minimum top diameter of 4 inches outside         plants include slabs, edgings, trimmings, miscuts,
   .




                                                                                                                  9
sawdust, Shavings, veneer cores and clippings, and                             Northern pin oak ................. Quercus ellipsoidalis
pulpmill screenings that are used as pulpwood chips
or other products.                                                          Hickory:
                                                                              Bitternut hickory ....................... Carya cordiformis
  Plant byproducts.--Wood        products, such as                            Shagbark hickory .................................. Carya ovata
pulpwood chips, obtained incidental to production of
                                                                            Yellow birch ............................. Betula   alleghaniensis
other manufactured products. Plant residues.--Wood
materials from manufacturing plants not utilized for                        Hard maple:
some product.                                                                Black maple .......................................... Acer nigrum
                                                                             Sugar maple ................................... Acer saccharum

   PRINCIPAL TREE SPECIES                                                   Softmaple:
                                                                               Red maple ............................................ Acer rubrum
        IN WISCONSIN                                                           Silver maple ................................ Acer saccharinum

Softwoods:                                                                  American beech ............................... Fagus grandifolia

White and red pines                                                         Ash:
                                                                              Black ash.......................................... Fraxinus nigra
 Eastern white pine ............................ Pinus strobus                White ash ................................ Fraxinus americana
 Red pine ............................................ Pinus resinosa
                                                                              Green ash ......................... Fraxinus pennsylvanica
Jack pine             ................................. Pinus   banksiana
                                                                            Cottonwood and aspen:
Spruce and balsam fir:                                                        Balsam poplar ....................... Populus balsamifera
  White spruce ....................................... Picea glauca           Bigtooth aspen .................. Populus grandidentata
  Black spruce ..................................... Picea mariana            Quaking aspen ....................... Populus tremuloides
  Balsam fir ....................................... Abies balsamea           Eastern cottonwood ................... Populus deltoides
Eastern hemlock ............................ Tsuga canadensis               American basswood .......................... Tilia americana
Other eastern softwoods:                                                    Black walnut ......................................... Juglans nigra
  Tamarack ............................................ Larix laricina      Black cherry ...................................... Prunus serotina
  Northern white-cedar ............... Thuja occidentalis                   American elm ................................. Ulmus americana
                                                                            Rock elm ............................................ Ulmus thomasii
Other softwoods:                                                            Slippery elm ............................................ Ulmus rubra
  Scotch pine ..................................... Pinus sylvestris        Paper birch ..................................... Betula papyrifera
  Eastern redcedar .................. Juniperus virginiana                  Butternut ............................................. Juglans cinerea
  Norway spruce........................................ Picea abies
                                                                            Other hardwoods:
Hardwoods:                                                                    Hackberry ................................... Celtis occidentalis
White oaks:                                                                   American sycamore ..............Platanus occidentalis
 White oak ............................................. Quercus alba         Red mulberry ....................................... Morus rubra
 Bur oak................................... Quercus macrocarpa                Blackgum ......................................... Nyssa sylvatica
 Chinkapin oak ................... Quercus muehlenbergii                      Black willow ........................................... Salix nigra
 Swamp white oak .......................... Quercus bicolor                   Boxelder .............................................. Acer negundo
                                                                              Honeylocust ........................... Gleditsia triacanthos
Select red oaks:                                                              Black locust ......................... Robinia pseudoacacia
  Northern red oak ............................ Quercus rubra                 River birch ............................................ Betula nigra
Other red oaks:                                                               Northern catalpa .......................... Catalpa speciosa
  Black oak ...................................... Quercus velutina




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 25
26
29
                     Table 25.--Net volume of all live trees on commercial forest land by tree class and species,Wisconsin, 1979_

                                                             (In thousand cubic feet)


                                                                                          Tree class
                                                  Al I                                    Rough        Short-log     Rotten
                     Species                    classes     Desirable     Acceptable       cull           cull        cull
                     SOFTWOODS-          o

                       White pine               525,006       26,211        470,715       17,302         8,708        2,070
                       Red pine                 453,147       16,641        433,319        2,405           529          253
                       Jack pine                616,064        5,353        580,517       26,029         2,295        1,869
        .              White spruce             155,152            0        154,238          665           200           49
                       Black spruce             147,030        1,597        144,103        1,035           106          190
                       Balsam fir               552,472        1,335        548,138        2,453           117          429
                       Hemlock                  366,835       19,041        339,132        3,891         2,249        2,522
                       Tamarack                 148,925        1,535        143,810        1,735         1,190          657
                       N. white-cedar           500,544        4,255        476,043        9,366         3,719        7,161
                       Other softwoods            2,332            0          1,757          451             0          124
                           Total              3,467,508       75,968      3,291,773       65,332        19,113       15,322
                •    HARDWOODS"
                       White oak                544,778       12,087        441,012       58,156        28,781        4,742
                       Select red oak         1,115,306       66,721        981,236       39,331        20,451        7,567
                       Other red oak            600,068        9,163        435,144      115,039        30,704       10,018
    .                  Hickory                  133,873        3,232        122,574        5,596         1,332        1,138
                       Yellow birch             233,347        8,577        202,177        8,589         3,874       10,131
                       Hard maple             1,264,949       38,245      1,105,429       70,896        27,237       23,141
                       Soft maple               903,752       20,472        783,416       67,433        16,087       16,344
                       Beech                     24,985          498         18,032        2,484         2,764        1,207
                       Ash                      567,116       20,886        517,047       21,252         5,093        2,838
                       Balsam poplar             24,586        1,781         20,095        1,080           556        1,074
                       Cottonwood                26,486          945         22,482          886         1,635          539
                       Paper birch              974,797       17,267        904,089       42,685         4,463        6,292
                       Bigtooth aspen           506,412       39,706        454,114        7,443         1,733        3,416
                       Quaking aspen          1,762,798       36,431      1,597,801       87,358         6,180       35,028
            •          Basswood                 701,185       51,087        599,112       30,999        12,180        7,807
                       Butternut                 23,891          254         13,967        6,857         1,601        1,212
                       Black walnut               9,859          574          6,562        2,103           192          428
                       Black cherry             102,006        1,245         72,035       24,924         1,515     .. 2,288
                       Elm                      796,920       26,740        675,845       56,405        31,574        6,355
•                      Other hardwoods           43,369        1,508         33,083        6,662         1,439          677
    •                  Noncommercial
                         species                 38,976           0              0       38,700             0           276
                           Total             10,399,459      357,419      9,005,253     694,877        199,392      142,518

                     A11 species             13,866,967      433,386     12,297,026     760,209        218,505      157,840

                         _/Table may not add to total due to rounding.




                    30
33
34
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    36
3T
-




                  Table 34.--AII live tree biomass on commercial forest land by species and Component, Wisconsin, 19791_/

                                                         (In thousand green tons)

                                                           \


                  "                                                                    component
                                                                                          T                       '
                                       AI1            Growing-    Growing-stock           CulI           CulI tops     1- to 5-inch

            SOFTWOODS"
            Species                  components     stock boles   tops and limbs         boles     •     and limbs        trees
              White pine _             19,173          11,140         5,214               741                556          1,523

              Red pine
              jack pine                37,851
                                       22,354          11,991
                                                       17,383        6,582
                                                                     8,280                 122
                                                                                         1,202               141
                                                                                                           1,368           3,517
                                                                                                                           9,619
              Wh}te spruce              5,934           3,100        1,545                  25                37           1,226
              B1ack spruce             11,674           2,734        1,339                  33                38           7,530
              Balsam fir               33,155          14,108        6,817                 105               147          11,978
            . Hemlock                  15,112           9,157        4,356                 296               319             983
              Tamarack                  8,098           3,769        2,075                 107               145           2,002
              N. white-cedar           18,943           8,079        4,276                 434               484           5,670
              Other softwoods             149              46           21                  18                15              49
                   Total              172,442          81,508       40,504              3,083             3,250          44,097
            HARDWOODS-
             White oak                 32,954          16,246         7,245             3,667              2,807           2,990
               Select red oak          60,561          37,025        16,951             2,611              2,027           1,946
               Other red oak           37,682          16,013         7,372             6,126              4,435           3,736
               Hickory      .           8,533           4,572         1,952               330                255           1,423
              Yel low birch            14,127           6,845         3,377               880                953           2,072
               Hard-maple              83,817          36,346        16,864             4,224              3,325         23,058
        .      Soft maple              54,849          22,064        10,071             2,999              2,311         17,404
               Beech "                  1,217             539           239               208                149              81
               Ash                     29,731          15,545         7,400               943                784           5,059
               Balsam pOplar              990             529           270                73                 56              62
               Cottonwood               1,132             657           309                86                 41              39
               Paper birch             52,830          26,025        12,642             1,613              1,185         11,364
               Bigtooth aspen          20,779          12,920         5,888               376                275         . 1,320
               Quaking aspen           80,908          42,095        20,467             3,705              2,814         11,828
              Basswood                 29,237          17,071         7,489             1,453                912           2,311
               Butternut                1,159             435           191               308                167              58
               B1ack waInut               440             217            95                85                 42               0
               B1ack cherry             6,100           2,252           977               gO7                449           1,515
               EIm                     40,955          21,627         g,725             3,123              2,201           4,280
               Other hardwoods          2,158           1,016           452               297                235             158
               Noncommercial
                 species               8,994               0             0               1,218     , ,       672   ,      7,105
    • .      ..       Total      _    569,155     . • 280,040     L 129,977 .      .    35,233           26,093           97,812

            All species               741,597         361,548       170,481             38,316           29,343         141,909
    '             _l/Tablemay not acldto total due to rounding.




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