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Bones_ Bones and more bones

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Bones_ Bones and more bones Powered By Docstoc
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Created by Heath Plaxton Spring 2003

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NEWS BULLETIN

Explorer Elementary student discovers human bones while digging in sand box at recess.
Head archeologist, Mr. Plaxton, has determined the bones to have been buried in the sand box for more than 300 years. They are thought to be the remains of the first Fit for Life teacher in Williamston. It is likely the teacher died from doing too many pushups. All the bones have been retrieved from the sand box and now Mr. Plaxton needs your help to identify them and put them back together. Please continue on to the next page to find out how you can help.

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Mr. Plaxton has been called out of town to help paint the M’s on M & M candies, so he is unable to use the bones to reconstruct the skeleton of the Fit for Life teacher. In order for you to be able to assist Mr. Plaxton, you need to become a junior archeologist. To do this, you must first learn the basics of the human skeletal system. In addition, you need to be able to identify the location of various bones within the human body. Good luck as you begin your quest to be a junior archeologist.
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Click on the boxes to learn more.

Overview of the Human Skeleton

Diagram of the Human Skeleton

Take the Junior Archeologist Quiz

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How many bones are there?

Osteology is the science that deals with the study of bones. Each bone is an organ that plays a part in how the skeletal system functions. The skeletal system of an adult human is made up of 206 bones. This number of bones can very depending on a person’s age. For example, at birth, our bodies consist of about 270 bones. Over the first three to five years of our life the number of bones actually increases to around 300. At your age, the number of bones actually decreases because some of them fuse (connect) together.
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What function do bones have?
Click below for more information

Support
Protection

Body Movement
Production of Blood Cells Mineral Storage
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Support
One function of the skeletal system is to provide support for your body. The skeleton forms the base to which muscles and other soft tissues attach. Without the support of bones, like your vertebral column (backbone), you would not be able to stand up. You would simply be like a puddle on the floor.

Did you know that humans and giraffes have the same number of bones in their necks?
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Protection
A second function of the skeletal system is to provide protection for the soft, delicate parts of your body. For example, your cranium (skull) and spine protect your central nervous system while your rib cage protects your heart, lungs, and other internal organs. The skeletal system protects all the systems of the body.

Did you know that your jawbone is the hardest bone in your body.
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Body Movement
The third function of the skeletal system deals with body movement. In order to move, muscles need to pull on bones. When muscles contract, the bones to which they are attached act as levers and cause different body parts to move. The movement takes place at the connection between bones which is called a joint. There are different kinds of joints in the body. A hinged joint, like the one in your knee, allows you to move your leg back and forth just like a door hinge. A fixed joint, such as in the skull, has very little movement at all. Finally, the ball-and-socket joint, like the one in your shoulder or leg, enable you to move your arm or leg 360 degrees like a shower head.

Did you know that the longest bone in our body is the femur (thigh bone).
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Production of Blood Cells
Bones are also important in the production of blood cells. It is in the hollow center of many bones that bone marrow makes new red and white blood cells. The red blood cells ensure that oxygen is distributed to all parts of your body. The white blood cells are responsible for fighting off germs and disease.
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Mineral Storage
Bones are storage sites for many minerals. These minerals give bone its rigidity (hardness) and much of its weight. Bones contain a lot of calcium (an element found in milk, broccoli, and other foods). Calcium is important for bone growth and development. It is also important for muscle contractions.

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As you review the bones listed on this diagram, point them out on your body to a friend.
Sternum Humerus Spine Ulna Metacarpals
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Cranium Mandible
Clavicle Scapula Ribs Radius Pelvis Carpals Phalanges Femur
Click on the name of the bone that you would like to learn more about.

Patella Tibia
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Fibula Metatarsals Phalanges Tarsals

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How many bones does an adult human skeleton have? A. 100 B. 206

C. 164

D. 370

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Which of the following is not a function of the skeletal system? A. Protection B. Movement

C. Support

D. Mineral Breakdown

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Which is the longest bone in the body? A. Femur C. Tibia B. Humerus D. Clavicle

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What science deals with the study of bones? A. Zoology B. Boneology

C. Osteology

D. Biology

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End Quiz

What bone is between the radius and the clavicle?

A. Cranium

B. Humerus

C. Fibula

D. Patella

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Great Job!
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Please try again.

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You are now a junior archeologist.
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What the project is about?
Bones, Bones, and More Bones was designed to help students learn about the characteristics of the skeletal system as well as identifying the location of human bones.

Intended Audience:
• • • All third grade students New students to our district to help catch them up on information about the skeletal system For teachers as an additional resource

Pedagogy:
• • • • • • Self-guided/individualized exploration of human skeletal system Immediate feedback for correct and incorrect responses Knowledge is presented in a logical, step-by-step order Promotion of student interest through graphics and audio Reinforcement through kinesthetic awareness Students have choice with deductive and inductive learning (i.e. inductive – question first,deductive – information first) Teacher page continued

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Manubrium Sternum Body

Xiphoid Process

The "sternum" is the medical name for the breastbone. This is a long, narrow, flat plate that forms the center of the front of the chest. It develops in three parts: an upper portion (manubrium), a middle portion (body), and a lower portion (xiphoid process) that projects down. The sternum assists the ribs in protecting the chest cavity.
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Scapula Humerus

Ulna Radius

The humerus is the bone of the upper arm. The smooth, dome-shaped head of the bone socket of the scapula (shoulder blade) to form the shoulder joint. It joins with the bones of the lower arm (the ulna and radius) to make up the elbow. Some people say the "funny bone" is named because it is next to the humerus. It really isn't a bone at all, but is a nerve, which passes under a of the humerus, where it is vulnerable.
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Spine

Individual Vertebrae

The spine is a column of bone and cartilage that extends from the base of the skull to the pelvis. It encloses and protects the spinal cord and supports the trunk of the body and the head. The spinal cord is a column of nerve tracts running from every area of the body to the brain. The spine is made up of approximately thirty-three bones called "vertebrae.“
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Humerus Ulna Radius Carpals

The ulna is the longer of the two bones of the forearm; the other being the radius. When the palm faces forward, the ulna is the inner bone (the one nearest the body – pinky finger side). The upper end of the ulna joins with the radius and fits around the lower end of the humerus (the upper arm bone). This forms the elbow joint. The lower end of the ulna is rounded and forms a joint with the wrist bones (carpals).
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Carpals
Metacarpals

Metacarpals

Phalanges

The metacarpal is one of five, long cylinder shaped bones in the body of the hand. The bones run from the carpal bones of the wrist to the base of each digit (phalange) of the hand. On the palm of the hand, these are padded by a thick layer of fibrous, connective tissue; on the back of the hand, they can be seen and felt through the skin. The heads of the metacarpal bones form the knuckles.
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Femur Patella Tibia

Fibula
Tarsals

Patella is the technical name for the kneecap, the triangular-shaped bone at the front of the knee joint. The patella is held in place by muscles and is located between the femur and the lower leg bones (tibia and fibula). The patella helps to protect the knee joint.
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Femur Patella Tibia

Fibula
Tarsals

The fibula is the outer and thinner of the two long bones of the lower leg. It is much narrower than the other bone (tibia or shin), to which it runs parallel to. The upper end of the fibula does not reach the knee, but the lower end descends below the shin and forms part of the ankle. Its main function is to provide attachment for muscles. It doesn't give much support or strength to the leg.
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Fibula Tibia

Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges

Metatarsals

The metatarsal is one of five long, cylinder shaped bones in the foot. The bones make up the central skeleton of the foot and are held in an arch formation by surrounding ligaments. The metatarsal bones are joined to the toe bones (phalanges) and the ankle bones (tarsals).
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Fibula Tibia

Distal Phalange Middle Phalange

Tarsals

Proximal Phalange

Metatarsals

Phalanges

The phalanges are the small bones that make up the skeleton of the toes. Each toe has three phalanges except for the big toe. It has two. The phalange nearest the body of the foot is call the "proximal" phalange; the one at the end of each digit is the "distal" phalange; and, of course, when there are three, the middle one is called the "middle" phalange.
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Cranium

Mandible

The cranium or skull is the bony section of the head. The skull encases and protects the brain, houses the brain senses, provides attachments for muscles of the head and neck, and helps to form the first portions of the respiratory and digestive tracts. The skull rests on the first vertebra.
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Cranium

Mandible

The mandible is also known as the jaw bone. It is the hardest bone in the human body. It also assists in chewing and laughing.
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Scapula Clavicle

Humerus Sternum Ribs

The clavicle is the collarbone. There are two of these bones, each curved a little like an "f," that join the top of the breastbone (sternum) to the shoulder blade (scapula). The clavicles support the arms and transmit force from the arms into the central skeleton.
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Scapula Humerus

Ulna Radius

"Scapula" is the technical name for the shoulder blade. It is a flat, triangular bone that lies over the back of the upper ribs. The rear surface can be felt under the skin. It serves as an attachment for some of the muscles and tendons of the arm, neck, chest and back and aids in the movements of the arm and shoulder. It is well padded with muscle so that great force is required to fracture it.
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Sternum Ribs

Cartilage Ribs are flat, curved bones that form the framework of the chest and make up a cage to protect the heart, lungs and other upper organs. There are twelve pairs of ribs, each joined at the back of the cage to a vertebra in the spine. Between the ribs, and attached to them, are thin sheets of muscle that help to expand and relax the chest during breathing. There are seven true ribs attached to the sternum directly by their costal cartilages. The remaining five pairs are called "false ribs," because their cartilages do not reach the sternum directly.
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Radius Humerus Ulna Radius Carpals

The radius is the shorter of the two long bones of the forearm. The other is the ulna. The radius is the bone on the thumb side of the arm. The radius has a broad base that joins the lower end of the ulna and the upper bones of the wrist. The upper end of the radius, which is smaller than the base, joins the lower end of the humerus (bone in the upper arm) to form the elbow joint.
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Pelvis

Hip Bone

Coccyx (Tail Bone)

The pelvis is a ring of bones in the lower trunk of the body, which is bounded by the coccyx (tail bone) and the hip bones. The pelvis protects abdominal organs such as the bladder and reproductive organs. The pelvis also helps to support the weight of the body.
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Carpals
Metacarpals

Phalanges

The skeleton of the wrist consists of eight small "carpal bones" that are firmly bound in two rows of four bones each. The resulting mass is called the "carpus.“ The carpal bones are often referred to as the wrist bones because they make the connection between the forearm bones (radius and ulna) and the metacarpals or the first joint of the fingers.
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Carpals
Metacarpals

Proximal Phalange Phalanges Middle Phalange

Distal Phalange

The phalanges are the small bones that make up the skeleton of the fingers and thumb. Each finger has three phalanges; the thumb has two. The phalange nearest the body of the hand or foot is call the "proximal" phalange; the one at the end of each digit is the "distal" phalange; and, of course, when there are three, the middle one is called the "middle" phalange.
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Femur

Patella Tibia

Fibula
Tarsals

The "femur" is the thigh bone, the longest bone in the body. The lower end joins the tibia (shin) to form the knee joint. The upper end is rounded into a ball that fits into a socket in the pelvis. This makes up the hip joint. The top or ball of the femur gives the hip joint a wide range of movement.
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Femur Patella

Tibia

Fibula Tarsals

The tibia or shin bone is the inner and thicker of the two long bones in the lower leg. The tibia is the supporting bone of the lower leg and runs parallel to the other, smaller bone (the fibula). The front of the tibia lies just below the skin and can easily be felt. The upper end joins the femur to form the knee joint, and the lower end forms part of the ankle joint.
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Fibula
Tibia

Tarsals

Metatarsals

Phalanges

The foot consists of an ankle, an instep, and five toes. The ankle is composed of seven "tarsal bones," forming a group called the tarsus. These bones are arranged so that one of them, the "talus," can move freely where it joins the tibia and fibula (lower leg bones). The remaining tarsal bones are bound firmly together, forming a mass on which the talus rests.
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What is the flexible connection between bones that allows movement to occur called?

A. Internet C. Marrow

B. Joints D. Sternum

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What is another name for the knee cap?

A. Patella C. Tibia

B. Femur D. Radius

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Which of the following bones help to protect vital areas of the body?

A. Cranium

B. Spine

C. Ribs

D. All of the above

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What part of a bone is responsible for making red and white blood cells?

A. The Ends C. The Hollow Center

B. The Outside D. The Joint

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What is the most common mineral found in all bones? A. Sodium C. Potassium B. Calcium D. Iron

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What is another name for the jaw bone? A. Mandible C. Tibia B. Clavicle D. Ulna

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What is the name of the bone that is on the thumb side of the forearm?

A. Tibia C. Fibula

B. Ulna D. Radius

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What is the technical name for the fingers and toes?

A. Femurs

B. Ribs

C. Phalanges

D. Fibulas

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What is the technical name for the shoulder blade? A. Scapula B. Ulna

C. Clavicle

D. Tarsal

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Which bone is not part of the foot or ankle? A. Tarsal B. Phalanges

C. Metatarsals

D. Carpals

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What is the name of the bone that the red arrow is pointing at?

A. Cranium
C. Clavicle

B. Mandible
D. Carpal

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What is the technical name for the shin bone? A. Fibula B. Radius

C. Ulna

D. Tibia

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What is the name of the bone that the red arrow is pointing at?

A. Femur
C. Radius
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B. Sternum
D. Metatarsal
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What is the technical name for the collar bone? A. Scapula B. Tibia

C. Clavicle

D. Patella

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What is the name of the bone that the red arrow is pointing at?

A. Femur

B. Spine D. Tibia

C. Humerus

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Instructional Objectives:
The learner will be able to identify human bones and their characteristics
Growth & Development component of the Michigan Model for Comprehensive School Health Education Curriculum.
• • • • Characteristics of human beings Recognition of six body systems Functions of six body systems Parts and functions of skeletal system

Life Science - Elementary
Organization of Living Things Standard SCI.III.2
All students will use classification systems to describe groups of living things; compare and contrast differences in the life cycles of living things; investigate and explain how living things obtain and use energy; and analyze how parts of living things are adapted to carry out specific functions.

All Elementary Resources for Standard SCI.III.2 Benchmark SCI.III.2.E.1 Explain characteristics and functions of observable body parts in a variety of animals. Resources for Benchmark SCI.III.2.E.1 Teacher page continued Back to beginning of teacher page.

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Active Response:
• • • Learner can choose to take a self-guided tour of the skeletal system to learn about the location and function of various bones and then take a quiz demonstrating their understanding (inductive) Learners can choose to take the quiz first and then read the information provided (deductive) Overt responses are used in the form of kinesthetic actions by pointing out various bones on the learner’s body

Feedback:
• Immediate feedback is provided in the form of a correct or incorrect response on the quiz. – Correct responses signal the students to progress to the next question – Incorrect responses allow the students the opportunity to try again or review more information Graphics and sounds are utilized to keep the students interested in continuing with the project Teacher page continued Back to beginning of teacher page.

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Teacher Resources:
1. The PE Central site has great lesson plan ideas for teachers - http://pecentral.org/lessonideas/ViewLesson.asp?ID=1075

2. This Gettysburg site is an excellent resource for teachers - http://www.gettysburg.edu/academics/hes/Unit/skeletal_system_lesson_plans.html
3. Teach-nology has wonderful teacher links that pertain to the skeletal system - http://teachers.teach-nology.com/themes/science/humanb/

Student Resources:
1. This eskeletons site provides useful information pertaining to individual bones - http://www.eskeletons.org/ 2. Medtropolis is a great site that allows for exploration of a virtual body - http://www.medtropolis.com/VBody.asp 3. Teach-nology has wonderful student links that pertain to the skeletal systemhttp://teachers.teach-nology.com/themes/science/humanb/

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