History of Methamphetamine

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					      History of
Creation, usage, and perspectives
      Sharon Zandman-Zeman, RN
  Anchorage Neighborhood Health Center
         Detective Kurt Kornchuk
      Anchorage Police Department
The Alaska Forum on Crystal Methamphetamine
  The History of Methamphetamine
• Amphetamine was first synthesized in 1887 by
  German chemist L. Edeleano.

• Methamphetamine was first synthesized in 1919 by
  Japanese chemist A. Ogata
  – Method of production was ephedrine reduction using
    red phosphorous and iodine
  – Easily injectable
 The History of Methamphetamine

• 1930’s – Marketed as an over-the-counter
  treatment for asthmatics
• By 1937 a prescription was required
  – Reducing activity in hyperactive children
  – Treating narcolepsy patients
  – Appetite suppressant (a major clinical use)
   The History of Methamphetamine

• World War II – Distributed to allied and
  axis troops for use as a stimulant
  – Provided to some American forces
  – Widely distributed by Germans to SS troops to
    increase efficiency of soldiers
  – Also provided to Japanese soldiers in large quantities
The History of Methamphetamine

Post-war Japanese military surplus of
  amphetamines flooded the market
   causing skyrocketing addiction.
 The History of Methamphetamine

• The 1950’s saw the use of amphetamine &
  methamphetamine spread and so did the
  abuse and addiction.
  – Widely prescribed by doctors under loose
    government controls.
  – Obtained by prescription for use as a diet pill
    and also the treatment of narcolepsy.
  – Large scale diversion, used non-medically by
    college students, truck drivers, and athletes.
 The History of Methamphetamine

• The 1960’s saw the beginning of
  methamphetamine produced in clandestine
  – West Coast phenomena
  – Drug culture expands
The History of Methamphetamine

   The 1960’s also saw the rise of outlaw
    motorcycle gangs who controlled the
clandestine manufacture and distribution of
methamphetamine in the U.S., primarily on
               the West Coast.
 The History of Methamphetamine

• In 1970 legal production of amphetamines
  reached an all-time high of 12 billion tablets
• The Controlled Substances Act of 1970 went
  into effect controlling the manufacture and
  distribution of amphetamines.
  – Legal production of amphetamine drops 80%
  – Black market created for methamphetamine
 The History of Methamphetamine

• On the West Coast, the number of
  clandestine methamphetamine laboratories
  – P2P (Phenyl-2-propanone) method
  – Fairly sophisticated process utilizing laboratory
    chemicals, apparatus and glassware
 The History of Methamphetamine

• In 1980 P2P becomes a controlled substance
• A black market emerges for P2P using
  – Phenylacetic Acid
  – Sodium Acetate
  – Acetic Anhydride
   The History of Methamphetamine

• The 1970’s to the 1980’s are considered the
  “Golden Years of Clandestine
  Methamphetamine Laboratories”
  – Biker groups manufacturing 5 to 25 lb batches
  – Drug laws lag behind methods of manufacturing
  – Violence
  The History of Methamphetamine

• In 1988 the Chemical Diversion and Trafficking
  Act created “listed chemicals” and federal
  requirements for threshold amounts.
  –   Ephedrine
  –   Bulk pseudoephedrine (not tablets)
  –   Phenylacetic Acid
  –   Hydriodic Acid
  –   Methylamine
  –   Ethyl Ether and other chemicals
    The History of Methamphetamine
• 1990’s – the proliferation of Mexican national
   – Large scale production (50 to 150 lb batches) using the
      ephedrine/pseudoephedrine reduction method
   – Use of established drug trafficking rings for distribution
   – Distribution expands to the North & Eastern parts of
      the U.S.
   – Control of methamphetamine
      trade shifts from OMG’s to
      Mexican criminal organizations
   – Rogue pseudoephedrine
     tablet industry emerges
      The History of Methamphetamine
• 1994, Expansion of the Federal Chemical
  Diversion and Trafficking Act
  –   Import/export thresholds
  –   Expansion of “Listed Chemicals”
  –   Import license and DEA registration

• Methamphetamine Control Act of 1996
  – Blister-pack requirements for retailers of
             The History of
• Mid 1990’s, brought chemical regulations and the
  expansion of the Internet.

• Continued expansion of Mexican national “Super Labs”.

• Explosion of smaller, less sophisticated methamphetamine
  laboratories using retail chemicals and improvised
  laboratory equipment.
   – Tweeker Labs
   – Small toxic labs
   – Mom and Pop labs
   – Addiction based labs
 The History of Methamphetamine
• Chemicals from retail stores used in the
  clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine
  –   Pseudoephedrine tablets
  –   Safety match book striker strips
  –   Iodine
  –   Denatured alcohol
  –   Coleman and other camp fuels
  –   Anhydrous ammonia thefts from industry/supply
 The History of Methamphetamine
• Smaller clandestine laboratories move North
  and East while the Mexican national “Super
  Labs” remained primarily in the West
• Mid-West and the Pacific Northwest
  become inundated with addiction based
• The Mid-West greatly impacted
  The History of Methamphetamine
• The first recent seizure
  of a methamphetamine
  laboratory in Alaska
  was in 1996 in       70
  Anchorage            60

                           '96   '98   '00   '02   '04
 The History of Methamphetamine
• With the increase in clandestine
  methamphetamine laboratories in Alaska
  came the increase in collateral damage
  –   Fires and explosions
  –   Severely burned individuals
  –   Health problems
  –   Addiction problems
  –   Massive property damage and contamination
  The History of Methamphetamine
              21st Century
• Pseudoephedrine legislation
  – Adopted by many states
  – Decrease in clandestine methamphetamine
    seizures and collateral damage
• Increase in Mexican criminal organization
  trafficking of “ICE” methamphetamine
• Increase in Canadian accountability of
 The History of Methamphetamine
• On-going campaign against
  methamphetamine with multiple fronts
  –   Courts, adequate bail and sentences
  –   Law enforcement
  –   Legislation
  –   Regulatory enforcement
  –   Treatment/Prevention
  –   Drug Endangered Children Protocols
 The History of Methamphetamine
• Current Battles
  – Pseudoephedrine industry and lobbyists
  – Developing effective pseudoephedrine legislation
  – Enforcement
     • Clandestine laboratories
     • Mexican criminal organizations
  – Education
     •   Children
     •   Adults
     •   Property Owners
     •   Retail operators
     •   The Courts
     •   Elected Officials