Education and Grid Services - PowerPoint Presentation by liuhongmei


									Education and Grid Services
                  Geoffrey Fox
Professor of Computer Science, Informatics, Physics
        Pervasive Technology Laboratories
     Indiana University Bloomington IN 47404

                  Who is Geoffrey Fox?
   Undergraduate degree in math, PhD Theoretical Physics at Cambridge
   Theory, Experiment, Computation, Phenomenology of particle physics
    Caltech for 20 years
     • Worked with Feynman, Hey, Wolfram
   Dean for educational computing and associate provost for computing Caltech;
    Professor of Physics; department chair
   Developed parallel computers for science
   Computer Science Syracuse, Florida State, Indiana
     • Main area of research last 20 years
   Interdisciplinary work in computational science with many fields – Earth
    Science/Biology at moment
   Chief technologist Anabas corporation (WebEx done right)
     • Technology for distance education on the Grid
     • Teaching class from Indiana to Jackson State this semester
   Informatics, Computer Science, Physics at Indiana
     • Pervasive Technology Lab Information technology initiative at Indiana University
       funded by Lilly
     • Director Community Grids Laboratory
    What is a MLE Managed Learning Environment
   An MLE is the full range of information systems and
    processes of an institution that contributes directly or
    indirectly to learning and the management of learning
   A Virtual Learning Environment VLE is the subset of
    MLE components that provide online learning
    interactions for learners and teachers
   MLE Components include enrollment, security, portal,
    digital library functions on learning resources, access to
    administrative material, payment, attendance tracking,
    authoring curriculum, learning planners, quizzes,
    homework, grading, assessment, distance teaching,
    computer-aided instruction, collaboration tools
    Some Players with Education Grid like Capabilities
   IMS and ADL in the USA have set standards for some of the
    special learning metadata structures
   CHEF (Michigan) and Colloquia (Bangor) are academic
    groupware projects aimed at education
     • Access Grid from Argonne is Audio-Video conferencing
   Sakai and OKI are Mellon Foundation projects implementing
    electronic learning capabilities
   Blackboard and WebCT are popular (some places) academic e-
    learning support systems
     • Several inhouse efforts like OnCourse at Indiana
   Docent, Topclass etc. are learning content management systems
    LCMS mainly selling to corporate training market
   Centra, Interwise, Placeware, WebEx, GrooveNetworks are well
    known collaboration systems that might support distance
    learning/tutoring and participatory education
                Grids in a Nutshell
   Grids are by definition the best of HPCC, Web Services, Agents,
    Distributed Objects, Peer-to-peer networks, Collaborative
   Grid applications are typically zero or one very large
    supercomputers, lots of conventional machines, with unlimited
    data and/or people supporting an electronic (virtual) community
     • Data sources and people are latency tolerant …
     • Multiple supercomputers (or clusters) on same Grid as in
       TeraGrid/ETF largely for sharing of data and by people
   Grids are supported by Global Grid Forum, W3C, OASIS …
    setting standards
   Grids are a “service oriented architecture” hiding irrelevant
     • Services are electronic resources communicating by messages
     • Message based architecture gives scalable loosely coupled
       component model
     Information/Knowledge Grids
   Distributed (10’s to 1000’s) of data sources (instruments,
    file systems, curated databases …)
   Data Deluge: 1 (now) to 100’s petabytes/year (2012)
    • Moore’s law for Sensors
   Possible filters assigned dynamically (on-demand)
     • Run image processing algorithm on telescope image
     • Run Gene sequencing algorithm on compiled data
   Needs decision support front end with “what-if”
   Metadata (provenance)
    critical to annotate data
   Integrate across experiments
     as in multi-wavelength
Data Deluge comes from pixels/year available
             A typical Web Service
   In principle, services can be in any language (Fortran .. Java ..
    Perl .. Python) and the interfaces can be method calls, Java RMI
    Messages, CGI Web invocations, totally compiled away (inlining)
   The simplest implementations involve XML messages (SOAP) and
    programs written in net friendly languages like Java and Python

       Web Services                                     Payment
                                                       Credit Card
                              WSDL interfaces

            Service        Security         Catalog

                          WSDL interfaces              Warehouse
        Web Services                                   Shipping
                                              Each service should be
 Typical Grid Architecture                    able to run independently
                                              on separate machines
 Re-use          Services         Portal

 Application                    Application
                  Application                        Application
Customization                     Service
                    Service                            Service

                System           System                 System
                Services         Services               Services
  Grid                                  Raw (HPC)
                                        Resources           Database
            Some Technical Issues
   All IT approaches support systems with multiple
    • They often reveal and/or standardize interfaces
    • They could be different method calls, Java classes, or
      Web/Grid service interfaces
   We will ONLY use the word Service when interface can
    be efficiently accessed by messages with service as an
    isolated single service
    • Grids build systems from message-based services

     Capabilities often called services even if NOT using a
      Module   Module             Service            Service
        B        Service Oriented Architecture
                 A                  B                  A
          Method Calls                10 to 1000 millisecond latency
      1 to 10 microseconds
Message-based or Method-based
   Method-based interfaces are most efficient but can only
    be run in that fashion in a single monolithic
     • One service with multiple ports
     • i.e. each interface might be accessed via message but
       all capabilities need to be co-located
     • Technologies like Java RMI allow distributed objects
       but requires serialization (often non trivial) and
       unclear if application supports performance loss
   “Message-based services” support standards and
    distributed deployment with easy use of standards
    compliant services from different implementers.

   The University of Michigan, Indiana University, MIT, Stanford,
    and the uPortal consortium are joining forces to integrate and
    synchronize their considerable educational software into a pre-
    integrated collection of open source tools.
   Sakai builds on OKI – Open Knowledge Initiative – interfaces
   These Open Service Interface Definitions were developed
    outside the Grid process but appear to have overlaps with
    many Web service and Grid standards
     • Note OGSA-DAI, Security, Workflow, WS-Notification,
       Grid monitoring, WebDAV overlaps
   Although they are called “services”, I think they are being
    developed initially inside a (single) Java container
   Does not address real-time collaboration except for chat
   These are used rather inconsistently for
    • A general term for the whole user experience with an interface to multiple
    • Narrow specification of certain capabilities such as customization, server
      side support for web page generation, aggregation of document fragments
      (one per service), security
    • Broad specification to include both user interface and services
   Note portals tend to be monolithic frameworks because that’s
    how one used to build such things
    • Jetspeed and CHEF’s modification of it are both frameworks
   Portals need to be broken up into distributed message based
    services for security, customization, layout, rendering
    • Shouldn’t invest too much in today’s frameworks although they have
      some wonderful features
   However Portals do encourage “component” model for user
    interfaces and so this fits service model so every service can be
    packaged with its (document fragment) user interface
    • So portlets are good even if containers primitive
   The OGCE Computing Grid Portal
• Provides Portlets for
   – Management of user proxy
   – Remote file Management via
     Grid FTP
   – News/Message systems
        • for collaborations
   –   Grid Event/Logging service
   –   Access to OGSA services
   –   Access to directory services
   –   Specialized Application Factory
        • Distributed applications
        • Workflow
   – Access to Metadata Index tools
        • User searchable index
   – Real Time
        • Audio/Video Conferencing
 Example Capability: File Management

• Grid FTP portlet– Allow                                User

  User to manage remote file
  – Uses stored proxy for
                                                  Jetspeed Portal Server
    authentication                         1 of many Portlets
  – Upload and download files
  – Third party file transfer                                         Service
    • Request that GridFTP server A send a    GridFTP
      file to GridFTP server B                Server A          GridFTP
    • Does not involve traffic through portal                   Server B

                 Education Grids
   Education Grids can be considered from at least two
    points of view
   1) Exploiting e-Science and other relevant research
    government or business grids whose resources can be
    adapted for use in education
    • Opportunity to make education more “real” and to give
      students an idea what scientific research is like
   2) Support the virtual organization that is the teacher
    and learner community
    • Actually this community is heterogeneous with teachers,
      learners, parents, employers, publishers, informal education,
      university staff ….
   Build the Education Grid as a Grid of Grids
                                                           Typical Science Grid
                                                           Service such as Research
                                                           Database or simulation
                                   Science Grids           Transformed by Grid Filter
      Campus or                    Bioinformatics          to form suitable for education
      Enterprise                 Earth Science …….
         Grid                                                   Publisher
Learning Management
     or LMS Grid               Education Grid
                                                                Student/Parent …
          Digital                                                Community Grid
          Library                                   Informal
           Grid       Inservice Teachers            Education
                      Preservice Teachers
                      School of Education          (Museum)
                      Teacher Educator                 Grid

                                                                        Planning Grid

                    Education as a Grid of Grids
         Education Grid of Grids
   Services in an Education Grid fall into three classes
   1) Those that special to Education such as quiz (as in
    IMS), learning plan or grading services
   2) Those that are important but can be taken from
    other Grids such as collaboration and security
   3) Those that come from other Grids and are
    refactored for education
    • The simulation is reduced in size
    • The bioinformatics database interface is simplified

       e-Science                       Education Grid View
       Resource                        of e-Science Resource

                               Education Grid
     Repositories        Sensors      Streaming         Field Trip Data
  Federated Databases                    Data

Database      Database

            Research      SERVOGrid                    Education

 Filter                                              Customization

                                                      to Education
                                     Analysis and                    Education
                                     Visualization                   Grid
Geoscience Research and              Portal
Education Grids                                                      Computer
 XGSP Web Service MCU Architecture
    Use Multiple Media servers to scale to many codecs and many
    versions of audio/video mixing

       Session Server                            Media Servers
     XGSP-based Control            Web              Filters

NB Scales as               All Messaging               High Performance (RTP)
distributed                                            and XML/SOAP and ..

  Admire            SIP           H323           Access Grid     Native XGSP

               Gateways convert to uniform XGSP Messaging
  Requirements or Issues to be Addressed I
• Interoperability: Several standards – e.g.
  H323, T120, SIP, Access Grid – which are
  inconsistent with themselves and with modern
  Web standards
• Integration: Integrate all forms of collaboration
  – instant messenger, audio-video conferencing,
  application sharing
• Life-cycle costs: use commodity software
• Extensibility: Interfaces defined for adding
  new capabilities
    Requirements or Issues to be Addressed II
•   Performance: Allow maximum performance
    with given network with no unnecessary client
    or server overheads
•   Fault Tolerance: Fault tolerant session control
•   Security: Support multiple levels of security for
    clients, servers and communication traffic
•   Scalability: Current systems are often limited
    by architecture or implementation (such as a
    single server) in number of simultaneous
•   Pervasive Access: Need to support wide
    range of clients from hand-held devices to
    sophisticated desktop system.
•   Ease of Use: Simple web portal interface; no
         Collaboration Architecture
• Use Grid and Web Service base architecture
• Define XML-based Collaboration Interface specification
  capturing semantics of existing standards
• Define open interfaces allowing both third party services to be
  developed and to allow competitive implementation of base
• Use software overlay network to support needed dynamic
  routing and message-based architecture
• Use active measurements to find network performance and
  network or server/broker faults N logN servers to support
   • Web Service architecture with
• Use Web Service message based security
   N participants
   • 1000 simultaneous streams needs around 50 low-end
• Use publish/subscribe paradigm for all messaging to support
  multi-participant sessions and archiving
   Linux servers
   • Does not need scalable fault-tolerant middleware including
• Use distributed multi-cast; supports web-cams
   • Supports Polycom and Access Messaging)
  WS-RM (Web Service ReliableGrid clients or equivalent
   Grids are inevitably important for Education
   Grid of Grids interesting way to build “new Grids” that might be
    accepted by skeptical participants and enhance re-use
   IMS has set data but not many service standards
     • Partial step to interoperability
   Sakai is building modern (probably wonderful) open e-learning
    capabilities but appears not to be a Grid/WS standards compliant
    service architecture
   Current academic/commercial systems are successful but
    monolithic and perhaps are too education-specific
   Opportunity to build service-based Education Grid
    Infrastructure interacting with broad community (from Grids to
    WS to Schools of Education) exploiting other Grids
   Can build collaboration – A/V Conferencing, Shared applications,
    groupware – in Grid/WS architecture
   Can develop best practice and tools to allow e-Science grids to be
    linked to education
   Can encourage use of component-based portals

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