Forklifts Forklifts What is a Forklift by liuhongmei


                                            What is a Forklift

• A forklift (also called a lift truck,
  high/low, stacker-truck, trailer loader,
  side-loader, fork truck, tow-motor, or a
  fork hoist) is a powered industrial truck
  used to lift and transport materials.
• In county roadwork, it could be used to
  load or unload materials as well as for
  short-distance transportation both in
  warehouse and on field.

                                            History of the Forklift

• First developed in 1920s by various
  companies, due to the labor shortages
  caused by the World War I.
• World War II also spurred the use of
  forklift trucks that were with more
  maneuverability and could reach
  greater heights.

                                            Components of a Forklift
• The operator sits in the cab which is mounted on a truck frame and moves the forks up
  and down to lift and transport pallets or other materials.

                                                                              Rear wheel
                                                                    Types of Forklifts
  • Two basic types:
     • Electric Forklifts- For indoor use and the
       lowest total operating costs, electric forklifts
       are the best choice for heavy lifting

          • Internal Combustion (IC) Forklifts- For
            outdoor use and ease of refueling, uses
            diesel / gasoline / LP gas

• Specialized Forklifts:
   • Narrow Aisle Forklifts- available to work in spaces as
     small as 6’ wide

          • Rough Terrain Forklifts- available to work outdoors with
            uneven ground

          • Variable Reach Forklifts- available to work outdoors
            with uneven ground with long reach
                                         Special Safety Concerns
• A forklift has its LIMITS!
   • Forklift can overturn from being overloaded.

• A forklift has REAR-WHEEL STEERING!
   • Drivers are used to traditional experience with
      other wheeled vehicles that are front-wheel
      steering, causing inexperienced danger when
      using a forklift.

• A forklift is UNSTABLE!
   • This becomes a concern especially when
      loaded (especially when load is raised to
      elevation) and when turning.
                     Forklift Accidents Really Happen!
                     All industries not just construction

• Forklifts results in 100 deaths and over 20,000
  serious injuries annually in the United States
• Each year, an additional 94,750 injuries related to
  forklift accidents are reported.
• The costs incurred due to forklift accidents are
  estimated to be over a hundred million dollars.
• OSHA estimates that 85 fatalities per year occur
  because of forklifts.
• 34,900 accidents result in serious injury.
• 61,800 are classified as non-serious.

NIOSH Publication 2001-109
                                                                            Top Forklift Killers
     •      #1- Forklift Overturns
     •      #2- Nearby Workers Struck by Forklift
     •      #3- Victim Crushed by Forklift
     •      #4- Fall from Forklifts

     • Note: This is general data and not for the
       construction industry only.

NIOSH Publication 2001-109
                                           Top Forklift Killers Distribution

                                       Note: This is general and not for the construction industry only.

NIOSH Publication 2001-109
                                               Top Forklift Killers: OSHA
                                              Construction Data 1990-2007
                         Operator or other people                                Other
                                                                                                                     Note: This is for construction industry.
                                                                                                                   Total: 227, about 2% of all listed fatalities.
   Load falling
  off the forklift
   and hitting
      people                                                                             Forklift tip over


                                                    People fall off
                                                     the forklift

                                                                                                               People struck or
                                                                                                              run over by forklift

                                                                                                   People crushed by
                                                                                                  forklift to other things
 Information extracted from OSHA construction worker fatality data (1990-2007)
                                                                      Typical Case Report:
                                                                      Overturn on Turning

         • A man was backing a
           forklift down an incline.
           While on the incline, the
           employee turned his
           wheels, causing the forklift
           to become top-heavy and
           overturn. He attempted to
           jump from the overturning
           forklift, but the overhead
           protection struck him
           behind the head. He died.

Information extracted from OSHA construction worker fatality data (1990-2007)
                                                                      Typical Case Report:
                                                                       Overturn on Grade
            • A man was operating a
              forklift to unload roofing
              materials from a flatbed
              trailer that was positioned
              on a slight grade. He fully
              extended the hydraulic
              boom and forks. Although
              the forks were not loaded,
              the fully extended boom
              and the slight grade
              caused the forklift to
              overturn. He was thrown
              from the forklift, pinned
              under the forklift cage,
              and killed.

Information extracted from OSHA construction worker fatality data (1990-2007)
                                                                      Typical Case Report:
                                                                           People Fall

            • A man was installing
              additional conduit in the
              ceiling. He asked a
              coworker to elevate him
              up to the ceiling in a
              forklift. The wooden
              box/crate personnel lifting
              device was not secured to
              the forks or to the vertical
              mast. He had been
              elevated 11 ft when he
              and the box fell off the left
              side of the forks to the
              concrete floor. He died.

Information extracted from OSHA construction worker fatality data (1990-2007)
                                                                      Typical Case Report:
                                                                           Load Fall

            • A man was supervising
              the unloading of large
              pieces of electrical
              equipment using a forklift.
              When the third cabinet
              was being unloaded it fell
              off the forks as it was
              being lowered. The
              cabinet struck and pinned
              the worker. He died.

Information extracted from OSHA construction worker fatality data (1990-2007)
                                         A Not-So-Typical Case Report:
                                            Using Forklift as a Jack

                          • A man had the back end of the truck raised with the forks of
                            a forklift truck while lying face up under the right rear axle
                            to repair the rear end of the truck. The bumper of the truck
                            slid off the forks, causing the weight of the truck to fall on
                            his chest. He died of massive chest injuries.

Information extracted from OSHA construction worker fatality data (1990-2007)
                                                      Current OSHA Standards

                         • OSHA
                                   – 1926.452: Power systems used to propel mobile-
                                     scaffolds shall be designed for such use: Forklifts,
                                     trucks, similar motor vehicle or add on motors shall not
                                     be used to propel scaffolds unless the scaffold is
                                     designed for such propulsion systems.

                                   – There are more OSHA standards on forklift operations
                                     contained in the 1910 OSHA regulations.
                                                      Key Safety Procedures:

                         •       Hard hat
                         •       Safety gloves
                         •       Safety goggles
                         •       Safety footwear
                         •       High visibility shirt or vest
                                                      Key Safety Procedures:
                                                          Before Starting

                         • Properly maintain the vehicle.
                         • Inspect vehicle condition before each shift.
                         • Do NOT operate a forklift without proper training
                           and being licensed.
                         • Know where the operation manual is located on the
                           forklift, and refer it whenever necessary.
                         • Always use seatbelts on sit-down rider forklifts.
                                                       Key Safety Procedures:
                                                      Pre-Start Inspection Detail
•      Operating and emergency controls
•      Safety devices, including seatbelt & horn
•      Personal protective devices
•      Air, hydraulic, and fuel system leaks
•      Cables and wiring harnesses
•      Loose or missing parts
•      Tires and wheels
•      Warning, control markings, and operation manuals
•      Forks and fork attachment points
        • No welds or holes allowed
        • Check for and replace bent forks
        • Forks should be marked as to there capacity
        • Forks are to be replaced as sets only.
                                                      Key Safety Procedures:
                                                          When Starting

                         • Tilt the load back and make sure it is stable and
                         • Raise the load only as far as needed to clear the
                           road surface, ie. keep it as low as possible.
                         • Inspect the surrounding area, especially when
                           backing up.
                         • Look forward the travel path and keep a clear view.
                                                      Key Safety Procedures:
                                                           On the Move

                         • If view is blocked by load, travel in reverse direction.
                         • Accelerate and brake gently, especially with a load.
                         • Operate only at a speed that will permit it to be stopped
                         • Do NOT raise or lower the forks while moving.
                         • Use extreme caution on grades or ramps.
                         • Slow down and use the horn at cross aisles or corners or
                           other vision--obstructed locations.
                         • Do NOT drive toward anyone standing in front of a fixed
                                                      Key Safety Procedures:
                                                      In Case of Overturning

        • Do NOT jump from
          the forklift.
        • Stay under the
          covered guard.
        • Hold on firmly.
        • Lean in the opposite
          direction of the
                                              Key Safety Procedures:
                                            When Loading and Unloading
     • Neutralize the controls and set the parking brake.
     • Level the frame prior to lifting a load.
     • Do NOT handle loads that are heavier than the weight capacity
       of the forklift.
     • Never allow people under the load.
     • Tilt forks forward to deposit load.
     • Observe the area where the load is being placed.
                                                      Key Safety Procedures:
                                                      If People are Elevated

           • Do NOT allow workers standing on the forks, use specially
             designed platform.
           • Place the vehicle directly below the work area.
           • Secure the elevating platform to the lifting carriage or forks.
           • Use a restraining means or deceleration device for the workers
             on the platform.
           • Do NOT drive to another location with the work platform
                                                        Key Safety Procedures:
                                                      If People are Transported

                             • Do NOT allow
                               passengers to ride
                               on the vehicle
                               unless a seat is
                                                 Key Safety Procedures:
                                                      After it Stops

                           • Lower forks to the ground when parking.
                           • Exit from a stand-up forklift with rear-entry access by
                             stepping backward if a lateral tip over occurs.
                           • Report any damage or problems occurred.
                           • NO smoking in refueling or charging areas.
                           • Chock wheels in maintenance, especially when
                             operating under the vehicle.
Always Read Caution Signs!
Think Safety

Work Safely
Always Read Caution Signs!
Think Safety

Work Safely

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