Ch. 7

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					        Ch. 7

Animal Adaptations to the
*Adaptations Animals Must Make for Their
   1. Acquisition & digestion of food
   2. Maintenance of body temp.
   3. Maintenance of water balance
   4. Adaptations to variation in light
I. Acquiring Energy & Nutrients
   A. Animal Use of Plants
      1. The ultimate source of energy for
           ALL animals is               .
      2. Animals must convert plant tissue
           into animal tissue.
        *Animals are high in proteins, but
           plants are low in proteins.
B. Animal Classification Based on Food
 1.           - feed only on plant tissue.
    EX: ???
 2.           - feed only on other animals.
    EX: ???
 3.           - feed on both plant & animal
    EX: ???
 4.           - feed on dead plant &
    animal matter.
    EX: ???
C. Mouth Parts

1. Piercing
  EX: mosquito
2. Chewing
  EX: grasshopper
3. Strong conical
  EX: cardinal
4. Straining Beak
  EX: flamingo
5. Tearing beak
  EX: raptors
6. Grinding molars
  EX: deer
7. Canine/Shearing
  EX: coyote
D. Herbivory
 *Types of Herbivores:
    1.             - feed only on leafy
         materials, such as grasses.
         EX: ???
    2.             - feed on woody
         EX: ???
    3.             - feed on seeds.
         EX: ???
    4. Frugivores- feed only on fruit.
5. Avian sapsuckers- feed on plant
6. Nectivores- feed on nectar.
     EX: ???
Grazers & Browsers
Granivores & Frugivores
Sapsuckers & Nectivores
E. Grazers & Browsers
  1. Diets are high in indigestible
  2. Depend on special              &
     protozoans to digest the cellulose.

*                - process of converting
    sugars into inorganic acids & alcohols
* 2 Types of Digestive Tracts:
     1. Foregut fermentors/Ruminants-
          have a 4-compartment stomach
          & chew regurgitated cud.
          EX: cow & deer
          *4 Guts: rumen, reticulum,
               omasum, & abomasum
   2. Hindgut fermentor/Nonruminant-
             have long intestines & well-
                 developed caecum.
        EX: horses & termites
        a. caecum- pouch attached to
                 the colon where
                 fermentation takes
*Other Types of Herbivores:
1. Lagomorphs- ingest fecal material for
   further digestion. (corpography)
        EX: rabbits & hares
2. Seed-eating Birds- have 3 separate
   stomach chambers.
        EX: chickens, pigeons, & doves
*3 Chambers:
   a.            - pouch in the
        esophagus that holds food
        before passing to the stomach.
   b.            - secretes enzymes to
        begin digestion.
   c.            - contains small
        pebbles to grind the food.
* Some coral, algae-eating fish use a
   similar mechanism.
F. Carnivory
  *Do not have to worry about digestion of
     cellulose, so the tract is       .
  1. Mammals: stomach stores & mixes
  2. Birds: small gizzards that catch
     bones, hair, & feathers to be
G. Omnivory
 1. Food habits vary with seasons, stage
    of their life cycle, & size & growth
    EX: Red fox- berries, apples,
    cherries, acorns, grasses,
    grasshoppers, crickets, beetles, &
    small rodents
II. Animals Have Various Nutritional Needs
   A. Mineral & Amino Acids Needed
      1. Animals require many minerals
            such as K, Ca, Na, Mg, ect…
      2. Animals also require 20 amino
        a. nonessential amino acid- made by
            the body.
        b. essential amino acid- must be
            supplied by the diet.
B. Quality & Quantity of Nutrients
 *3 Things Animals Might Suffer From
    When Nutrients Are Low:
    1. Malnutrition
    2. Leaving their habitat
    3. Starvation
 *3 Things That May Happen When
    Nutrient Quality Is Low:
    1. Poor reproduction
    2. Poor health
    3. Lifespan
1. The plants highest in quality are those
   high in nitrogen such as growing leaf
   tips & buds.
2. This is why most animals have
   offspring in the spring.
III. Affects of Mineral Availability On
      Growth & Reproduction
   A. Sodium Deficiency
      1. Herbivores usually get an
            inadequate supply of sodium
            because their diets consists of
            vegetation only, which is low in
            EX: deer, cows, & elephants
      2. Mineral licks are used to
            supplement the sodium.
IV. Animals Require Oxygen To Release
     Energy Stores in Food
  A. Aerobic Respiration
     1. Animals release energy stored in
          food primarily by aerobic
          respiration, which requires
B. Ways of Taking In Oxygen:
 1. Diffusion across the skin (cutaneous
         EX: some salamanders
 2. Small openings called spiracles in the
    body wall.
         EX: insects & arachnids
 3. Lungs
         EX: mammals, birds, & reptiles
4. Both lungs & cutaneous respiration
         EX: frogs & turtles
5. Gills
         EX: fish & amphibian larvae
V. Regulation of Internal Conditions
  A.           - maintenance of a relatively
     constant internal environment despite
     changing external environment.
     1. Negative Feedback System- when a
          system changes from a normal
          state, the organism restores the
          system to a regular state.
               EX: thermostat & sweating
VI. Exchange of Energy With Their
  *Animal heat regulation differs from
     plants because they can produce heat
     by metabolism & can move to seek
     heat & cold.
  A. Animal Body Structure
     1. Body Surface Temp.- differs from
          the surrounding air temp.
          a. Contains hair, feathers, scales,
               muscle, fat, ect…
     2. Core body temp. is higher than the
VII. Three Groups of Animals Based on
      Temp. Regulation
  A. 3 Temp. Regulation Groups:
      1.            - maintain a fairly
          constant body temp. independent
          of external temperatures.
          EX: ???
      2.            - acquire heat from the
          external environment.
          EX: ???
3.             - regulate body temp.
     by endothermy & ectothermy.
     EX: bats, bees, & hummingbirds
VIII. Poikilotherms Depend on
      Environmental Temps.
  A. Changes in Metabolism With Temp.
      1. For every 10°C the temp. rises, the
           metabolic rate               .
      2. When temp. fall, activity         .
  B. Maintenance of Constant Body Temp.
      1. Poikilotherms maintain a constant
           body temp. by seeking
           &              .
           EX: basking & burrowing
C. Aerobic vs. Anaerobic
 1. During normal daily activity,
    poikilotherms use
 2. During stressful situations & while
    pursuing prey, they use
IX. Homeotherms Escape Environmental
  A. Maintenance of High Body Temps.
     1. Homeotherms maintain high body
           temps. by burning energy.
     2. 3 forms of insulation in
           homeotherms: fur, feathers, & fat
     3. Mechanisms for body temp.
           maintenance: shivering,
           sweating, & panting
X. Endothermy & Ectothermy Trade-offs
  A. Advantages of Endothermy:
     1. Can remain active at all times.
     2. Can maintain large body masses.
  B. Advantages of Ectothermy:
     1. Do not have to use energy to
          maintain body temp.
     2. Can survive long periods of time
          without eating or drinking.
XI. Heterotherms
  A. Insects
     1. Insects are             .
     2. In the adult stage, flying insects
           may be heterothermic.
     3. While flying, they have a very high
           metabolism, so they are
     4. Most insects cannot fly unless their
           body temp. is between 30-44°C.
     5. They must warm up before flight.
XII. Torpor & Conserving Energy
  A. Torpor
      Def: temporary periods of inactivity
           during unfavorable
           environmental conditions in
           which animals greatly reduce
           their metabolic rate.
           EX: hummingbirds, bats, & mice
      1. Nocturnal = torpor during the day
      2. Diurnal = torpor at night
B. Hibernation
 Def: winter dormancy in animals
     characterized by very low
         EX: groundhogs, chipmunks,
                    reptiles, & amphibians
     *Bears do not go into true
 1. Decrease body temp., heart rate,
     respiration, & oxygen levels.
 2. Feed heavily in the summer or store
     food for the winter.
XIII. Physiological Means of Thermal
  A. Supercooling- body temps. fall below
      freezing without actually freezing.
           EX: Arctic marine fish & some
      *Some species actually freeze & thaw
           out when they wake up.
  B. Countercurrent heat exchange-
      conserves heat in vital parts of the
      body during cold situations.
XIV. Maintenance of Water Balance
  A. Water Balance
     1. Water makes up about       -   % of
          living things.
     2. Water loss must be offset by
          uptake from the environment.
     3. Gain water by: eating, drinking, &
     4. Lose water by: urine, feces, &
          evaporation from skin.
XV. Aquatic Animal Water Balance
 A. Freshwater vs. Saltwater
     1. Freshwater:
          a.             - have a high salt
               concentration in their body.
     2. Marine:
          a.             - have a low salt
               concentration in their body.
          b. Must try to keep salt levels
               high to prevent dehydration.
XVI. Buoyancy of Aquatic Organisms
 A. Mechanisms For Buoyancy:
     1.             - regulates the amount
               of gas to increase or
 decrease                buoyancy.
     2. Some have high levels of lipids
               under the skin, which is
 less               dense than saltwater.
          EX: sharks, mackerel, & seals
XVII. Influence of Light & Dark Cycles
 A. Internal Biological Clock
     Def: animals natural response to
               changing light. (Circadian
     1. Influences hormones that play a
               role in sleep, metabolic rate,
 &             metabolism.
XVIII. Animal Activity Influenced By Light &
 A. Classification of Animals Based on
     Light/Dark Cycles:
     1.             - are not controlled by
          day length but some other factor.
     2.             - stimulated by shorter
          day lengths.
     3.             - stimulated by longer
          day lengths.
     *Day length stimulates growth,
          reproduction, migration, ect…
XIX. Marine Organisms Follow Tidal Cycles
  A. Tidal Cycle
     1. Based on the lunar cycle which
          lasts 24.8 hrs.
     2. Tides change every 12.4 hrs.
  *Organisms become active & inactive
     based on the changing of tides.

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