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									      Research Digest
Volume 2 Issue 4                                                                                                                                            June 2009

     Research Digest is a quarterly online publication (www.                                            All Hazards
colorado.edu/hazards/rd) that compiles recent research into
an easily accessible format to advance and communicate                                                  Anastario, Michael, Nadine Shehab, and Lynn Lawry. 2009.
knowledge on hazard mitigation and disaster preparedness,                                                       Increased gender-based violence among women
response, and recovery within an all-hazard, interdisciplin-
                                                                                                                internally displaced in Mississippi two years post-
ary framework for the hazards and disasters community. It
provides complete references and abstracts (when available)                                                     Hurricane Katrina. Disaster Medicine and Public
for current research in the field. The issues are compiled by                                                   Health Preparedness 3 (1): 18-26.
Center staff and include abstracts from peer-reviewed publica-                                                  Although different types of gender-based violence
tions.                                                                                                          (GBV) have been documented in disaster-affected
     Research Digest articles are categorized into 25 differ-                                                   populations, no studies have documented a quanti-
ent topic areas, though not every topic may appear in each                                                      tative increase in rates of GBV among populations
issue. Abstracts are lightly edited to match Natural Hazards                                                    living in protracted displacement after a disaster. The
Center style. Most articles are cataloged as part of the Natural                                                authors assessed the change in rates of GBV after
Hazards Center’s library holdings. Check with your local
                                                                                                                Hurricane Katrina among internally displaced people
institution for article availability. The Natural Hazards Center
Library (subject to copyright laws and conventions) will copy                                                   (IDPs) living in travel trailer parks in Mississippi. The
otherwise difficult to obtain material for the cost of reproduc-                                                study design included successive cross-sectional ran-
tion and shipping. For inquiries and feedback, send e-mails to                                                  domized surveys, conducted in 2006 and 2007, among
hazlib@colorado.edu.                                                                                            IDPs in Mississippi using a structured questionnaire.
                                                                                                                The authors sampled 50 travel trailer parks in nine
                                   Table of Contents                                                            counties in Mississippi in 2006, and 69 parks in 20
                                                                                                                counties in 2007. A total of 420 female respondents
All Hazards ...................................................................................1
                                                                                                                comprised the final sample. The authors measured
Business Continuity .....................................................................5
                                                                                                                respondent demographics, forms of GBV including
Climate Change, Drought, and El Niño ...................................6
                                                                                                                sexual and physical violence further subtyped by
Critical Infrastructure ..................................................................12
                                                                                                                perpetrator, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and
Disaster and Emergency Management .....................................12
                                                                                                                Patient Health Questionnaire-assessed depression.
Disaster Relief ...............................................................................18
                                                                                                                Respondents had a mean age of 42.7 years. The crude
Earthquakes ..................................................................................19
                                                                                                                rate of new cases of GBV among women increased
Floods.............................................................................................22
                                                                                                                from 4.6/100,000 per day to 16.3/100,000 per day in
Gender and Vulnerable Populations .........................................27
                                                                                                                2006, and remained elevated at 10.1/100,000 per day
Homeland Security and Terrorism ............................................33
                                                                                                                in 2007. The increase was primarily driven by the
Hurricanes and Coastal Hazards ..............................................35
                                                                                                                increase in intimate partner violence. GBV experi-
Information and Spatial Technology.........................................41
                                                                                                                ence was significantly associated with increased risk
Insurance and Economic Impacts..............................................44
                                                                                                                for poor mental health outcomes. Overall, the rate of
Landslides and Avalanches ........................................................48
                                                                                                                GBV, particularly intimate partner violence, increased
Near Earth Objects .......................................................................--
                                                                                                                within the year following Hurricane Katrina and did
Public Health, Mental Health, and Emergency Medicine .....51
                                                                                                                not return to baseline during the protracted phase
Risk and Decision Making ..........................................................58
                                                                                                                of displacement. Disaster planning efforts should
Technological Hazards ................................................................67
                                                                                                                incorporate plans to decrease the incidence of GBV
Tornadoes ......................................................................................68
                                                                                                                following a disaster, and to ensure adequate services
Tsunamis........................................................................................69
                                                                                                                to people with post-disaster GBV experience.
Volcanoes .......................................................................................70
Warnings and Evacuations .........................................................71
                                                                                                        Angeletti, Michelle A. 2009. Breastfeeding support in emer-
Wildfires ........................................................................................73
                                                                                                                gencies: Policy implications for humanitarian relief
Wind Storms, Winter Storms, and Other Severe Weather.....75
                                                                                                                agencies. Journal of Emergency Management 7 (1):
                                                                                                                39-44.
The Natural Hazards Center is funded through a National Science
                                                                                                                While breastfeeding provides numerous benefits
Foundation grant and supplemented by contributions from a con-
                                                                                                                to infants and young children, these benefits are
sortium of federal agencies and nonprofit organizations dedicated to
                                                                                                                especially evident during and after emergencies.
reducing vulnerability to disasters. Visit the Center at www.colorado.
                                                                                                                This article describes the benefits of breastfeeding
edu/hazards/.
         in emergencies and provides guidelines that can be                    ing rates of congregation of population, production,
         implemented by humanitarian relief agencies to pro-                   and wealth, thus becoming more vulnerable and
         tect, promote, and support breastfeeding.                             fragile when facing sudden accidents and disasters.
                                                                               Hence there is an urgent necessity for innovation to
Aziz, Zeeshan, Feniosky Pena-Mora, Albert Chen, and                            provide better quantitative assessment techniques
        Timothy Lantz. 2009. Supporting urban emergency                        for evaluating the capacity of a city or region to carry
        response and recovery using RFID-based building                        accidents and disasters. The paper aims to put for-
        assessment. Disaster Prevention and Management 18                      ward a quantitative evaluation approach for urban &
        (1): 35-48.                                                            regional disaster carrying capacity (UR-DCC) from
        This paper focuses on improving mobile comput-                         the viewpoint of disaster prevention, resistance,
        ing support during a disaster response and recovery                    rescue, and recovery. Based on the analysis of urban
        operation to aid in the assessment of building dam-                    and regional disaster theory, and influencing factors
        age, as well as making assessments available for to                    of carrying capacity, a structured, layered evaluation
        ensure a safe, efficient and effective disaster response               index system was established. Through multi-factor
        process. The research method involved the use of                       modeling theory, the weight of each factor as well as
        scenario-based, user needs analysis for studying                       its influence on the whole system was analyzed, the
        end-user needs and requirements. The Rational                          method of index weight analysis was also improved,
        Unified Process for software design and implementa-                    and an evaluation model for disaster carrying capac-
        tion was also used. An IT-supported collaboration                      ity (DCC) was found. Finally, an application of the
        platform was developed to enable first responders                      model was demonstrated to determine the param-
        to communicate using hand-held devices and lap-                        eters of all indices by using numerous first-hand data
        tops, as well as to share critical building evaluation                 and information obtained from field investigations.
        information using a ad hoc mobile network. A trial                     It’s proven that the results of the research correspond
        of the system was conducted at Illinois Fire Services                  with reality, reflecting the weakest points during the
        Institute. Mobile devices with Radio Frequency                         process of disaster management. The model can be of
        Identification (RFID) and tags can be used for post-                   significant value to improve UR-DCC.
        ing, gathering, storing, and sharing assessments with
        fewer errors, which leads to improved emergency                Kessler, Ronald C., Terence M. Keane, Robert J. Ursano, Ali
        response effectiveness. The key research contribution                   Mokdad, and Alan M. Zaslavsky. 2008. Sample and
        includes analysis of the first responder information                    design considerations in post-disaster mental health
        needs, development of a collaborative framework                         needs assessment tracking surveys. International
        for urban preparedness and emergency response,                          Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research -
        demonstration using realistic disaster scenarios, and                   Special Issue: Post-Disaster Mental Health Needs
        implementation and validation of the prototype sys-                     Assessment Surveys 17 (S2): S6-S20.
        tem.                                                                    Although needs assessment surveys are carried
                                                                                out after many large natural and man-made disas-
Currion, Paul. 2009. Only connect: Problem sciences,                            ters, synthesis of findings across these surveys and
         information systems and humanitarian reform.                           disaster situations about patterns and correlates
         International Journal of Information Systems for                       of need is hampered by inconsistencies in study
         Crisis Response and Management 1 (1): 29-40.                           designs and measures. Recognizing this problem, the
         The introduction of information systems and the                        U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services
         humanitarian reform process have a tremendous                          Administration (SAMHSA) assembled a task force in
         impact on how humanitarian assistance is delivered,                    2004 to develop a model study design and interview
         yet the two processes are weakly connected. As a                       schedule for use in post-disaster needs assessment
         result, the humanitarian community fails to realize                    surveys. The U.S. National Institute of Mental Health
         the potential of information technology in supporting                  subsequently approved a plan to establish a center to
         key reform aspects and doesn’t recognize technology                    implement post-disaster mental health needs assess-
         is likely to render many reform discussions moot.                      ment surveys in the future using an integrated series
         The balance of knowledge is shifting toward those                      of measures and designs of the sort proposed by the
         affected by disaster, implying that technology will                    SAMHSA task force. A wide range of measurement,
         increasingly empower them to cope more effectively                     design, and analysis issues will arise in developing
         with disaster impact. Traditional actors in the human-                 this center. Given that the least widely discussed
         itarian community must incorporate this reality into                   of these issues concerns study design, the current
         its processes or risk being overtaken by newer and                     report focuses on the most important sampling and
         more agile institutions that might not be concerned                    design issues proposed for this center based on our
         with humanitarian principles.                                          experiences with the SAMHSA task force, subsequent
                                                                                Katrina surveys, and earlier work in other disaster
Gyo-hua, Chen, Liang Tao, and Zhang Hua-wen. 2009. Study                        situations.
       on the methodology for evaluating urban and
       regional disaster carrying capacity and its applica-            Kessler, Ronald C., and Hans-Ulrich Wittchen. 2008. Post-
       tion. Safety Science 47 (1): 50-58.                                      disaster mental health needs assessment surveys:
       During the past several decades, most cities and                         The challenge of improved future research.
       regions in the world have experienced constant grow-                     International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric



                                                                   2
         Research - Special Issue: Post-Disaster Mental                          disasters and for developing appropriate strategies to
         Health Needs Assessment Surveys 17 (S2): S1-S5.                         manage risk. The framework permits the main sourc-
         Disasters are very common occurrences, becoming                         es of uncertainty that affect building performance to
         increasingly prevalent throughout the world. The                        be identified, and provides insight on strategies for
         number of natural disasters either affecting more                       effective multihazard mitigation efforts.
         than 100 people or resulting in a call for international
         assistance, increased from roughly 100 per year                Pathiraja, Milinda, and Paolo Tombesi. 2009. Towards a
         worldwide in the late 1960s, to over 500 per year in                    more “robust” technology? Capacity building in
         the past decade. Population growth, environmen-                         post-tsunami Sri Lanka. Disaster Prevention and
         tal degradation, and global warming all play parts                      Management 18 (1): 55-65.
         in accounting for these increases. There is also the                    In fast urbanizing economies such as Sri Lanka,
         possibility of a pandemic. This paper covers a topic                    the construction industry tends to fragment into
         of growing worldwide importance: mental health                          almost separate spheres of production with little or
         needs assessment in the wake of large-scale disas-                      no reciprocation in training, know-how, and career
         ters. Although natural and human-made disasters                         development. Consequently internal knowledge dis-
         are known to have substantial effects on the mental                     semination and technology transfer are limited. This
         health of the people who experience them, research                      type of industrial compartmentalization is detrimen-
         shows that the prevalence of post-disaster psycho-                      tal to the social acquisition of skills and restricts the
         pathology varies enormously from one disaster to                        operational frameworks of given technologies, espe-
         another in ways that are difficult to predict merely by                 cially in low-cost sectors. Against this backdrop, this
         knowing the objective circumstances of the disaster.                    paper speculated on how design can act as an engine
         Mental health needs assessment surveys are conse-                       of social and economic growth for those involved in
         quently carried out after many large-scale natural                      its production. Based on government statistics and
         and human-made disasters to provide information                         building output analysis, the paper argues architects
         for service planners on the nature and magnitude of                     can build labor policy-making into the design of their
         need for services. These surveys vary greatly, though,                  buildings. Such an agenda would have to be devel-
         in the rigor with which they assess disaster-related                    oped strategically, by examining a region’s industrial
         stressors and post-disaster mental illness. Synthesis of                base and by defining a design and technological
         findings across surveys is hampered by these incon-                     vocabulary that feeds off the analysis of place-
         sistencies. The typically limited focus of these surveys                specific conditions, limitations, and ambitions. The
         with regard to the inclusion of risk factors, follow-up                 integration of technological development and broad
         assessments, and evaluations of treatment, also limit                   socioeconomic growth can be facilitated by “open”
         insights concerning post-disaster mental illness and                    (or incremental) industrial design strategies that con-
         treatment response. The papers in this issue discuss                    nect construction markets. To this end, it is posited
         methodological issues in the design and implementa-                     that technological contamination and compromise
         tion of post-disaster mental health needs assessment                    can help the labor force increase skills progres-
         surveys aimed at improving on the quality of previ-                     sively. In practical terms, this objective translates to
         ous such surveys. The many recommendations in                           the definition of building techniques that adapt to
         these papers will help to foster improvements in the                    the complexity required and expenditure possible
         next generation of post-disaster mental health sur-                     without compromising the expected performance of
         veys.                                                                   the building, i.e. they must be inherently robust—as
                                                                                 opposed to precise—and therefore more sensitive.
Li, Yue, and Bruce R. Ellingwood. 2009. Framework for                            The paper is the initial result of a thesis-in-progress
          multihazard risk assessment and mitigation for                         that, on the basis of a technical review carried out on
          wood-frame residential construction. Journal of                        a small sample of ideal-type projects in Sri Lanka, is
          Structural Engineering 135 (2): 159-168.                               considering ways to create and link labor develop-
          Wood-frame residential construction represents a                       ment opportunities through architectural design.
          major investment in the United States which, when
          exposed to hurricanes, earthquakes, and other                 Rosborough, Stephanie, Jennifer L. Chan, and Parveen
          natural hazards, may sustain substantial damage.                     Parmar. 2009. Responding to gender-based violence
          Although in many parts of the country one natural                    in disasters: Grappling with research methods to
          hazard dominates, in certain areas multiple hazards                  clear the way for planning. Disaster Medicine and
          may pose a significant threat to buildings. Building                 Public Health Preparedness 3 (1): 8-10.
          design and construction practices should address the
          overall risk to residential construction from multiple        Schwartz, Jeffrey A. 2009. Planning for the last disaster:
          hazards to achieve design strategies and risk levels                  Correctional facilities and emergency preparedness.
          that are consistent with occupant expectations and                    Journal of Emergency Management 7 (1): 75-79.
          social objectives. This paper presents a framework                    This study uses hurricanes Katrina and Rita to
          for multihazard risk assessment using hurricane and                   illustrate the phenomenon of “planning for the last
          earthquake hazards as an example. Structural reli-                    disaster,” in which public agencies become so trans-
          ability-based methods that describe natural hazard                    fixed by a profound crisis or disaster that they begin
          and structural system response probabilistically are                  to prepare for another occurrence of the same event.
          essential for quantifying expected losses from natural                In doing so, they abandon or ignore their ongoing



                                                                    3
         and more generic emergency planning and deny the                       and synthesizing the accumulated data, information
         obvious, that the next emergency or disaster has a                     and knowledge, storing, and organizing would be
         high probability of being a very different situation.                  the main challenge faced by these organizations. It is
         The same counterproductive results can be obtained                     evident that a more concerted and formal approach
         if an organization is swept up in media hype and                       will improve disaster housing reconstruction. Since
         public concern about an “emergency du jour,” such                      knowledge gatekeepers have extensive tacit and
         as Y2K or pandemic flu. Although this article exam-                    explicit knowledge, the organizations must use it.
         ines these issues in correctional organizations, the                   Even though the majority of the donors and consult-
         same principles apply to almost all public agencies.                   ing organizations used competencies and repositories
                                                                                as main sources of knowledge, the identification and
Somers, Scott. 2009. Measuring resilience potential: An adap-                   exploitation of a variety of appropriate sources are
        tive strategy for organizational crisis planning.                       of central importance. Organizations must focus on a
        Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 17                       variety of IT tools to store knowledge for future use.
        (1): 12-23.                                                             Finally, the organizations have to provide an appro-
        There are questions whether a causal relationship                       priate rewards system to encourage their employees
        exists between crisis planning and effective adap-                      in participating in KM. Disaster housing reconstruc-
        tive behaviors in crisis. Traditional planning has                      tion will not end on a certain point. It is a continuous
        viewed the plan as an outcome of a process to be                        process. Formal KM systems will improve the present
        utilized in a step-by-step fashion during a crisis. This                state and provide proper knowledge in the future.
        article challenges this orthodox view suggesting a                      There should be a standardized practice to improve
        new paradigm, focusing on creating organizational                       the performance and provide value for beneficiaries.
        structures and processes to build organizational                        Proper KM will improve the status of post-disaster
        resilience potential. The objective is to develop a                     housing reconstruction.
        scale to measure latent resilience in organizations.
        This exploratory research builds a critical foundation         Youmans, Jeff. 2009. An introduction to netcentric operations
        of knowledge to consider a move towards a new                         and services-oriented architectures for emergency
        paradigm in disaster planning, one based on build-                    managers. Journal of Emergency Management 7 (1):
        ing organizational resilience potential as the focus of               71-74.
        future research.                                                      The winds of change are upon us (once again). In
                                                                              the computer world, it seems changes like this hap-
Thanurjan, Rajendram, and Indunil P. Seneviratne. 2009.                       pen every other day. In this case, however, it really is
        The role of knowledge management in post-disaster                     revolutionary. The flow of information within your
        housing reconstruction. Disaster Prevention and                       department and within other departments is going
        Management 18 (1): 66-77.                                             to move faster than ever before. It’s a wholesale
        A disaster is a serious disruption for the operation of               architectural change that, for once, will not affect
        a society, causing extensive life and property losses.                the computer in your car or on your desk, but will
        Since construction activities are highly knowledge                    affect how the data are accessed. The objective of the
        intensive, knowledge management (KM) practices                        services-oriented architecture is to obtain the overall
        will encourage continuous improvement, distribute                     goal of netcentric operations and speed the flow of
        best practices, quick response to beneficiaries, share                data. The end goal is to resolve disastrous situations,
        valuable tacit knowledge, reduce rework, improve                      get help to the victims, and track suspects faster than
        competitiveness and innovations, and reduce com-                      ever before.
        plexities in post-disaster housing reconstruction.
        This research explores the degree to which KM is
                                                                       Business Continuity
        involved in post-disaster housing reconstruction
        and the effect that KM has on post-disaster hous-
                                                                       Alpaslan, Can M., Sandy E. Green, and Ian I. Mitroff. 2009.
        ing reconstruction in the Sri Lanka. The study was
        conducted by systematically reviewing the literature                   Corporate governance in the context of crises:
        in KM to highlight the basic principles. Data collec-                  Towards a stakeholder theory of crisis management.
        tion mode for the study was close-end questionnaires                   Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 17
        and semi-structured interviews. Data were collected                    (1): 38-49.
        from donor and consultancy organizations which are
                                                                               This article takes a step towards developing a stake-
        involved in post-disaster housing reconstruction in
        Sri Lanka. The results show that most of the donors                    holder theory of crisis management. It argues that,
        and consultancy organizations carry out permanent                      in the context of crises, adopting the principles of a
        disaster housing reconstruction for tsunami devasta-                   stakeholder model of corporate governance will lead
        tion. Further, the study reveals that organizations use                companies to engage more frequently in proactive
        competencies and repositories as the main sources of
                                                                               and/or accommodating crisis management behavior
        knowledge internal and external to the organization.
        Project reviews, task teams, face-to-face interactions,                even if these crisis management behaviors are not per-
        and electronic mail systems were greatly used to                       ceived to maximize shareholder value. The article also
        support KM. Even though the performance of the                         proposes a mechanism to explain why the stakeholder
        work was improved through KM, lack of compiling                        model may be associated with more successful crisis



                                                                   4
         management outcomes. It concludes by challenging                       the relationship between health status (mental health,
         the efficacy of the shareholder view in crisis situa-                  perceived general health, and disability) and disaster
         tions, and calls for further theoretical and empirical                 preparedness (home disaster supplies and family
         research.                                                              communication plan). A random digit-dial telephone
                                                                                survey of the Los Angeles County population was
Doocy, Shannon, Amy Daniels, and Daniel Aspilcueta.                             conducted from October 2004 to January 2005 in 6
        2009. Mortality and injury following the 2007 Ica                       languages. Separate multivariate regressions modeled
        earthquake in Peru. American Journal of Disaster                        determinants of disaster preparedness, adjusting for
        Medicine 4 (1): 15-22.                                                  sociodemographic covariates then sociodemographic
        This paper quantifies earthquake injury and mortal-                     variables and health status variables. Only 40.7
        ity from the 2007 Ica earthquake in Peru and assesses                   percent of people who rated their health as fair/poor
        earthquake-related risk and vulnerability. The design                   have disaster supplies compared with 53.1 percent
        was a population-based cluster survey of house-                         of those who rate their health as excellent (P < 0.001).
        holds in the region most affected by the quake. A                       Only 34.8 percent of people who rated their health as
        stratified cluster survey design was used to allow for                  fair/poor have an emergency plan compared with 44.8
        comparison between urban, peri-urban, and rural                         percent of those who rate their health as excellent (P
        areas, where different outcomes were anticipated as                     < 0.01). Only 29.5 percent of people who have a seri-
        a result of variation in building practices and access                  ous mental illness have disaster supplies compared
        to post-earthquake assistance. A total of 42 clusters of                with 49.2 percent of those who do not have a seri-
        16 households were planned to allow for comparison                      ous mental illness (P < 0.001). People with fair/poor
        between the location types and to ensure adequate                       health remained less likely to have disaster supplies
        spatial coverage. The four affected provinces are in                    (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.69, 95 percent confi-
        southern Peru: Ica, Pisco, Chincha, and Canete. A total                 dence interval [CI] 0.500.96) and less likely to have an
        of 672 randomly selected households with a combined                     emergency plan (AOR 0.68, 95 percent CI 0.510.92)
        population of 3,608 individuals, of which 3,484 (97                     compared with those who rate their health as excel-
        percent) were reported as household members on the                      lent, after adjusting for the sociodemographic covari-
        day of the earthquake. Mortality and injury rates in                    ates. People with serious mental illness remained less
        the four most affected provinces were estimated at 1.4                  likely to have disaster supplies after adjusting for the
        deaths per 1,000 exposed (95 CI: 0.5-3.3) and 29 inju-                  sociodemographic covariates (AOR 0.67, 95 percent
        ries per 1,000 exposed (95 CI: 6-52). Older adults and                  CI 0.480.93). Disability status was not associated with
        members of households of lower socioeconomic status                     lower rates of disaster supplies or emergency com-
        faced increased risk of injury. No significant differenc-               munication plans in bivariate or multivariate analy-
        es in injury rates were observed between rural, urban,                  ses. Finally, adjusting for the sociodemographic and
        and peri-urban residence areas. Populations of lower                    other health variables, people with fair/poor health
        socioeconomic status faced increased risk of injury.                    remained less likely to have an emergency plan (AOR
        However, no differences in injury rates were observed                   0.66, 95 percent CI 0.480.92) and people with serious
        between rural, urban, and peri-urban communities.                       mental illness remained less likely to have disaster
        Study findings suggest that earthquake preparedness                     supplies (AOR 0.67, 95 percent CI 0.470.95). People
        and mitigation efforts should focus on population                       who report fair/poor general health and probable seri-
        subgroups of lower socioeconomic in both rural and                      ous mental illness are less likely to report household
        urban areas of earthquake-prone regions.                                disaster preparedness and an emergency communica-
                                                                                tion plan. The results could add to our understand-
Eisenman, David P., Qiong Zhou, Michael Ong, Steven Asch,                       ing of why people with preexisting health problems
       Deborah Glik, and Amy Long. 2009. Variations in                          suffer disproportionately from disasters. Public health
       disaster preparedness by mental health, perceived                        may consider collaborating with community partners
       general health, and disability status. Disaster                          and health services providers to improve prepared-
       Medicine and Public Health Preparedness 3 (1): 33-40.                    ness among people with chronic illness and people
       Chronic medical problems, mental illness, and dis-                       who are mentally ill.
       ability increase vulnerability to disasters. National
       efforts have focused on preparing people with dis-               Hochrainer, Stefan, Reinhard Mechler, and Georg Pflug.
       abilities. Studies find them to be increasingly pre-                     2008. Climate change and financial adaptation in
       pared, but less is known about people with chronic                       Africa: Investigating the impact of climate change
       mental and medical illnesses. The authors examined                       on the robustness of index-based microinsurance in



                                                                    5
         Malawi. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for                        Major catastrophes appear to be inevitable given
         Global Change 14 (3): 231-250.                                          the growth of mega-cities in disaster hotspots, the
         This paper discusses the applicability of crop insur-                   predicted effects of global climate change, and the
         ance for the case of Malawi. It explores the poten-                     crucial relationship between natural disasters and
         tial impact of climate change on the viability of                       complex political emergencies. Disaster prevention,
         the Malawi weather insurance program, using of                          preparedness, and contingency planning will be effec-
         scenarios of climate change-induced variations in                       tive only if trained personnel are available to develop
         rainfall patterns. By combining catastrophe insurance                   these plans and implement them in a timely manner.
         modeling with climate modeling, the methodology                         Workforce migration— driven by poverty, insecurity,
         demonstrates the feasibility, albeit with large uncer-                  and lack of opportunity—creates a vacuum of leader-
         tainties, of estimating the effects of climate variabil-                ship and skills that increases the remaining popula-
         ity and climate change on the near- and long-term                       tion’s vulnerability even further. Sustainable solutions
         future of microinsurance schemes serving the poor.                      to the problems of disasters and development will
         By providing a model-based estimate of insurance                        only be achieved when poor people have local access
         back-up capital necessary to avoid ruin under climate                   to fair training.
         variability and climate change, along with the associ-
         ated uncertainties and data limitations, this method-          Climate Change, Drought & El Nino
         ology can quantitatively demonstrate the need for              Bissell, Richard A., Andrew Bumbak, Matthew Levy, and
         financial assistance to protect micro-insurance pools                    Patrick Echebi. 2009. Long-term global threat
         against climate-induced insolvency. This is of major                     assessment: Challenging new roles for emergency
         concern to donors, nongovernmental organizations                         managers. Journal of Emergency Management 7 (1):
                                                                                  19-37.
         and others supporting these innovative systems, those
                                                                                  Based on currently available published data and
         actually at-risk and insurers providing insurance. A                     literature from multiple disciplines, this article intro-
         quantitative estimate of the additional burden that                      duces medium- and long-term global developments
         climate change imposes on weather insurance for                          and changes that will likely impact human society in
         poor regions is of interest to organizations funding                     disastrous or even catastrophic fashion, with signifi-
                                                                                  cant impact on the roles and challenges of emergency
         adaptation. Further, by linking catastrophe modeling
                                                                                  managers. Some of the phenomena described include
         to regionalized climate modeling, the analysis identi-                   the following: (1) loss of fresh water, (2) significant
         fies key modeling inputs necessary as well as impor-                     sea level rise with resultant flooding, (3) increased
         tant constraints. The article ends with a discussion of                  heat leading to desertification and crop losses, (4)
         the opportunities and limits to similar modeling and                     storms that are both more frequent and more vio-
                                                                                  lent, (5) massive food emergencies as crops fail for
         weather predictability for Sub-Saharan Africa beyond
                                                                                  lack of water and/or saltwater inundation, (6) loss
         the case of Malawi.                                                      of the petroleum-based economy, and (7) massive
                                                                                  population relocations on a level the world has never
Nakamura, Karen. 2009. Disability, destitution, and disaster:                     experienced. The perspective used is global, in that
      Surviving the 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake in                              the trends described do not respect political boundar-
      Japan. Human Organization 68 (1): 82-88.                                    ies. We also recognize that mitigation and response
                                                                                  activities may well involve many nations simultane-
      On the morning of January 17, 1995, a magnitude 7.3
                                                                                  ously. The article concludes with suggestions of steps
      earthquake struck the port city of Kobe, Japan. 6,400                       emergency management should take in preparing to
      people died and over $80 billion in property dam-                           serve new and more complex tasks to meet coming
      age occurred. Among those rendered homeless was a                           challenges, and a “call to action” for emergency man-
      small group of people with severe disabilities. Over                        agers to assume a more active role in confronting the
      the next decade, this group leveraged discourses sur-                       risks imposed by forces that are now underway.
      rounding civil society, disability, poverty, and the role         Blennow, Kristina, and Johannes Persson. 2009. Climate
      of government in natural disasters, to become one of                     change: Motivation for taking measure to adapt.
      the most powerful and vocal proponents of disability                     Global Environmental Change 19 (1): 100-104.
      rights in Japan. This article discusses what lessons                     The authors tested two consequences of a currently
      we can learn to make disability advocacy a leading,                      influential theory based on the notion of seeing adap-
                                                                               tations to climate change as local adjustments to deal
      rather than trailing, element of social policy.                          with changing conditions within the constraints of
                                                                               the broader economic, social, and political arrange-
O’Dempsey, Tim. 2009. Fair training: A new direction in                        ments. The notion leaves no explicit role for the
      humanitarian assistance. Progress in Development                         strength of personal beliefs in climate change and
      Studies 9 (1): 81-86.                                                    adaptive capacity. The consequences were: (1) adap-




                                                                    6
         tive action to climate change taken by an individual                   adaptive capacity. Historically, vulnerability assess-
         who is exposed to and sensitive to climate change                      ments focused on analyzing the hazard without
         is not influenced to a considerable degree by their                    considering causes or mitigation. The vulnerability
         strength of belief in climate change, and; (2) adaptive                assessment method (VAM), presented here, acquires
         action to climate change taken by an individual who                    data and information from affected stakeholders to
         is exposed to and sensitive to climate change is not                   assess not only the hazard, but also the causes of vul-
         influenced to a considerable degree by their strength                  nerability, potential for adaptation, previous impacts,
         of belief in an adaptive capacity. Data from a 2004                    and ways to mitigate future impacts. Researchers
         questionnaire of 1,950 Swedish private individual                      applied the VAM to a case study of Washington State
         forest owners, who were assumed exposed to and                         that assessed drought vulnerability across 34 subsec-
         sensitive to climate change, were used. Strength of                    tors. Results indicate the highest vulnerability for
         belief in climate change and adaptive capacities were                  dry land farmers, farmers with junior water rights,
         found to be crucial factors for explaining observed                    fisheries, ski area operators, berry farmers, and the
         differences in adaptation among Swedish forest own-                    green industry. Through validation exercises, they
         ers.                                                                   demonstrate the VAM’s internal consistency and
                                                                                external applicability. Contributions of the VAM
Chang, Heejun, Jon Franczyk, and Changhwan Kim. 2009.                           include incorporation of stakeholder data, integrated
        What is responsible for increasing flood risks? The                     and quantitative assessments of vulnerability compo-
        case of Gangwon Province, Korea. Natural Hazards                        nents, and applicability to other regions, scales, and
        48 (3): 339-354.                                                        types of hazards.
        The authors examined the anthropogenic and natu-
        ral causes of flood risks in six representative cities         Forbes, Bruce C., and Florian Stammler. 2009. Arctic cli-
        in the Gangwon Province of Korea. Flood damage                          mate change discourse: The contrasting politics
        per capita is mostly explained by cumulative upper                      of research agendas in the West and Russia. Polar
        five percent summer precipitation amount and the                        Research 28 (1): 28-42.
        year. The increasing flood damage is also associated                    This paper explores how Western scientific concepts
        with deforestation in upstream areas and intensive                      and attitudes towards indigenous knowledge, as
        land use in lowlands. Human encroachment on                             they pertain to resource management and climate
        floodplains made these urban communities more                           change, differ from the prevailing view in modern
        vulnerable to floods. Without changes in the current                    Russia. Western indigenous leaders representing the
        flood management systems of these cities, their vul-                    Inuit and Saami peoples are actively engaged in the
        nerability to flood risks will remain and may even                      academic and political discourse surrounding cli-
        increase under changing climate conditions.                             mate change, whereas their Russian colleagues tend
                                                                                to focus more on legislation and self-determination,
Chhibber, Ajay, and Rachid Laajaj. 2008. Disasters, climate                     as a post-Soviet legacy. The article contributes to the
       change and economic development in Sub-Saharan                           debate with data from the Nenets tundra, showing
       Africa: Lessons and directions. Journal of African                       how different research has employed the three crucial
       Economics 17 (2): 7-49.                                                  Western research paradigms of climate change, wild-
       This paper explores the links among natural disas-                       life management, and indigenous knowledge on the
       ters, climate change, and economic development and                       ground. It suggests that the daily practice of tundra
       attempts to outline a framework for their consider-                      nomadism involves permanent processes of negotiat-
       ation. The paper summarizes the limited knowledge                        ing one’s position in a changing environment, which
       of long-term economic impacts of natural disasters.                      is why “adaptation” is woven into the society and
       Linking disasters, resource management, conflicts,                       cosmology as a whole, rather than being separable
       and other transmission channels is necessary to                          into distinct “bodies” of knowledge or Western-
       develop an appropriate response. The paper argues                        designed categories. The article also argues that
       African governments, along with their development                        research agendas should be placed in their proper
       partners, need to develop a more robust disaster                         local and regional context, and temporal framework:
       adaptation and response capability as part of devel-                     for example, by collaborating with herders on the
       opment planning. The paper makes the case for more                       topics of weather instead of climate change; herding
       market-based financing mechanisms and for empha-                         skills instead of wildlife management; and ways of
       sizing forecasting research. It also argues for more                     engaging with the tundra instead of traditional eco-
       work linking climate change and disasters and for                        logical knowledge.
       looking at disaster resilience as a continuum to devel-
       opment strategy.                                                Geertsema, M., J.W. Schwab, A. Blais-Stevens, and M.E.
                                                                               Sakals. 2009. Landslides impacting linear infra-
Fontaine, Matthew M., and Anne C. Steinemann. 2009.                            structure in west central British Columbia. Natural
        Assessing vulnerability to natural hazards: Impact-                    Hazards 48 (1): 59-72.
        based method and application to drought in                             Destructive landslides are common in west central
        Washington State. Natural Hazards Review 10 (1):                       British Columbia. Landslides include debris flows
        11-18.                                                                 and slides, earth flows and flowslides, rock falls,
        This article presents a vulnerability assessment tech-                 slides, and avalanches, and complex landslides
        nique using measures of exposure, sensitivity, and                     involving both rock and soil. Pipelines, hydrotrans-



                                                                   7
         mission lines, roads, and railways have all been              Heltberg, Rasmus, Paul Bennett Siegel, and Steen Lau
         impacted by these landslides, disrupting service to                   Jorgensen. 2009. Addressing human vulnerability
         communities. This article provides examples of the                    to climate change: Toward a ‘no-regrets’ approach.
         destructive landslides, their impacts, and the climatic               Global Environmental Change 19 (1): 89-99.
         conditions associated with the failures. It also con-                 This paper presents and applies a conceptual frame-
         siders future landsliding potential for west central                  work to address human vulnerability to climate
         British Columbia under climate change scenarios.                      change. Drawing upon social risk management and
                                                                               asset-based approaches, the conceptual framework
Gonen, Amnon, and Naomi Zeitouni. 2008. Using risk man-                        provides a unifying lens to examine links between
       agement to increase the flexibility of transboundary                    risks, adaptation, and vulnerability. The result is
       water conflict resolutions. International Journal of                    an integrated approach to increase the capacity of
       Risk Assessment and Management 10 (4): 373-385.                         society to manage climate risks to reduce the vulner-
       With the increase in world population and the                           ability of households and to maintain or increase the
       diminishing water quality and quantity, water scar-                     opportunities for sustainable development. It identi-
       city is increasing. As access to water is essential to                  fies ‘no-regrets’ adaptation interventions, meaning
       the prosperity of communities, the threat of conflict                   actions that generate net social benefits under all
       over the use of transboundary water is increasing.                      future scenarios of climate change and impacts. The
       Surface and groundwater that cross international                        article also makes the case for greater support for
       boundaries present increased challenges to regional                     community-based adaptation and social protection
       stability because hydrologic needs can often be over-                   and propose a research agenda.
       whelmed by political considerations. The success of
       an agreement over water conflicts greatly depends               Hochrainer, Stefan, Reinhard Mechler, and Georg Pflug.
       on the flexibility of the agreement in the presence                     2008. Climate change and financial adaptation in
       of new risks and challenges. This flexibility may be                    Africa: Investigating the impact of climate change
       accomplished through the establishment of formal                        on the robustness of index-based microinsurance in
       institutions and/or legislation set up for the purpose                  Malawi. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for
       of problem solving. These institutions are essential                    Global Change 14 (3): 231-250.
       for the maintenance of cooperative interactions over                    This paper discusses the applicability of crop
       water. This work suggests the use of the risk man-                      insurance for the case of Malawi. It explores the
       agement method most commonly utilized in the                            potential impact of climate change on the viability
       planning and developing of complex industrialized                       of the Malawi weather insurance program, using of
       projects to increase the flexibility of transboundary                   scenarios of climate change-induced variations in
       agreements.                                                             rainfall patterns. By combining catastrophe insurance
                                                                               modeling with climate modeling, the methodology
Haruvy, Nava, Sarit Shalhevet, and Yehunda Bachmat. 2008.                      demonstrates the feasibility, albeit with large uncer-
        Risk management of transboundary water resourc-                        tainties, of estimating the effects of climate variability
        es: Sustainable water management of the River                          and climate change on the near- and long-term future
        Jordan basin area. International Journal of Risk                       of microinsurance schemes serving the poor. By pro-
        Assessment and Management 10 (4): 339-356.                             viding a model-based estimate of insurance back-up
        The River Jordan basin suffers from regional water                     capital necessary to avoid ruin under climate vari-
        scarcity, wide economic discrepancies, and a long-                     ability and climate change, along with the associated
        lasting dispute over land ownership. Prolonged,                        uncertainties and data limitations, this methodology
        widespread unsustainable management has sig-                           can quantitatively demonstrate the need for financial
        nificantly decreased the water flow and aggravated                     assistance to protect micro-insurance pools against
        water pollution. The river is now seriously at risk                    climate-induced insolvency. This is of major concern
        of drying up, with the loss of a unique ecosystem                      to donors, nongovernmental organizations and others
        with important religious and cultural significance.                    supporting these innovative systems, those actually
        Sustainable management practices are needed, based                     at-risk and insurers providing insurance. A quantita-
        on the local physical and hydrological conditions,                     tive estimate of the additional burden that climate
        the available technologies, the economic costs, and                    change imposes on weather insurance for poor
        the potential policy options. Our multidimensional                     regions is of interest to organizations funding adap-
        model incorporates these factors. It provides a                        tation. Further, by linking catastrophe modeling to
        decision-making tool that supports urban and agri-                     regionalized climate modeling, the analysis identifies
        cultural water supply planning, with predetermined                     key modeling inputs necessary as well as important
        water quality for each use. A case study in Israel                     constraints. The article ends with a discussion of the
        yielded a framework for application of the model to                    opportunities and limits to similar modeling and
        transboundary water management, by adjusting it                        weather predictability for Sub-Saharan Africa beyond
        for the differing costs and technologies in the various                the case of Malawi.
        countries involved. A variety of potential interna

         tional agreements were considered as scenarios for            Islam, Tanveerul, and Richard E. Peterson. 2009. Climatology
         the model.                                                             of landfalling tropical cyclones in Bangladesh
                                                                                1877-2003. Natural Hazards 48 (1): 115-135.



                                                                   8
         Bangladesh is highly susceptible to tropical cyclones.                 Canada: Health hazards and health outcomes.
         Unfortunately, there is a dearth of climatological                     International Journal of Risk Assessment and
         studies on the tropical cyclones there. The Global                     Management 11 (3/4): 299-318.
         Tropical Cyclone Climatic Atlas (GTCCA) lists his-                     The focus of this article is a descriptive account of the
         torical storm track information for all the seven                      perceptions of five health hazards (motor vehicles,
         tropical cyclone ocean basins including the North                      climate change, recreational physical activity, cellu-
         Indian Ocean. Using GIS, tropical cyclones that made                   lar phones, and terrorism) and five health outcomes
         landfall in Bangladesh between 1877 and 2003 are                       (cancer, long-term disabilities, asthma, heart dis-
         identified and examined from the climatological                        ease, and depression) from a recent survey of 1,503
         perspective. For the convenience of study, the coast                   Canadians. To shed light on factors that influence
         of Bangladesh is divided into five segments and                        risk perception in Canada, the extent to which these
         comparisons are made among the coastal segments                        exemplars are perceived as high in risk and control-
         in terms of cyclone landfall and vulnerability. There                  lability, as well as the extent to which knowledge and
         is a large variability in the year-to-year occurrence of               uncertainty surrounding them is high, was examined.
         landfalling tropical cyclones in Bangladesh. Most of                   The degree to which these exemplars are deemed
         the tropical cyclones (70 percent) hit in the months                   acceptable and generate worry among Canadians was
         of May-June and October-November. They generally                       also examined. Variation was observed in the extent
         show the well-known pattern of pre- and post-mon-                      to which different health hazards and outcomes are
         soon cyclone seasons in that region.                                   perceived on the various dimensions. Perceptions of
                                                                                health hazards and outcomes also vary significantly
Keskitalo, E. Carina H., and Antonina A. Kulyasova. 2009.                       by gender, age, and education. Findings are com-
        The role of governance in community adaptation to                       pared to existing research on risk perception.
        climate change. Polar Research 28 (1): 60-70.
        The capacity to adapt to challenges such as climate             Kron, W. 2009. Flood insurance: From clients to global finan-
        change can be seen as largely determined by socio-                      cial markets. Journal of Flood Risk Management 2
        economic context or social vulnerability. This article                  (1): 68-75.
        examines the adaptive capacity of local actors in                       Weather-related natural catastrophes are increas-
        response to globalization and climate change, asking:                   ing worldwide in number and intensity, and losses
        how much of the desirable adaptation can be under-                      have reached new levels. This represents a challenge
        taken at a local level, and how much is determined                      that must be faced by governments, the people con-
        by actors at other levels, for instance, when resource                  cerned, and the financial sector, both nationally and
        conflicts occur? Drawing on case studies of fishing in                  globally. Flood insurance is rare in most countries,
        northern Norway and north-west Russia, the paper                        but the development of solutions to make flood
        shows that adaptive capacity beyond the immediate                       risk more insurable has gained momentum. There
        economic adaptations available to local actors is, to                   is no ideal flood insurance scheme, as each situa-
        a considerable extent, politically determined within                    tion is influenced by factors such as risk-adequate
        larger governance networks.                                             premium structure, adverse selection, and general
                                                                                risk awareness. Solutions tailored to the situation in
Kiker, Gregory A., Rafael Munoz-Carpena, Piotr Wolski,                          each respective country must be found. While rich
        Anna Cathey, Andrea Gaughan, and Jongbum Kim.                           countries have to find ways to handle record losses
        2008. Incorporating uncertainty into adaptive, trans-                   of $100 billion and more, poor countries need micro-
        boundary water challenges: A conceptual design for                      insurance to provide people with at least a minimum
        the Okavango River basin. International Journal of                      of financial security. The insurance industry has
        Risk Assessment and Management 10 (4): 312-338.                         through the reinsurance sector established a system
        The authors present a review and conceptual design                      to pay local monetary losses globally. In the wake of
        to integrate hydrological/ecological models, global                     extremely expensive catastrophes, a system involving
        uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, integrative                       the whole financial market has great potential.
        modeling, and decision analysis for complex and
        adaptive transboundary challenges. The research uses            Levner, Eugene, David Alcaide Lopez de Pablo, and Jacques
        the transboundary issues within the Okavango River                       Ganoulis. 2008. Risk management of transbound-
        basin, a shared water resource among the nations of                      ary water resources using the green supply chain
        Angola, Namibia and Botswana, as an example for                          approach. International Journal of Risk Assessment
        constructing these integrated tools. The objective of                    and Management 10 (4): 357-372.
        this paper is to present a design that integrates a set                  The problem considered is the coordination of the
        of tools that builds systematically on past basin mod-                   ecological risks of all stakeholders in a transbound-
        eling research to incorporate the inherent uncertainty                   ary river basin using the “green” (environmental)
        within the system and its application for answering                      Supply Chain (SC) approach. Using a combination of
        practical management questions.                                          two managerial concepts “the environmental SC” and
                                                                                 “the house-of-quality,” a decision-making model that
Krewski, Daniel, Louise Lemyre, Michelle C. Turner,                              quantitatively estimates the integrated risk level is
       Jennifer E.C. Lee, Christine Dallaire, Louise                             constructed. A mathematical model is proposed that
       Bouchard, Kevin Brand, and Pierre Mercier. 2009.                          allows the integrated risk to population and society
       Public perception of population health risks in                           in a transboundary river basin under geo-hydrologi-



                                                                    9
         cal, economic, technological and social constraints to be                   dence collected from Funafuti to challenge the widely
         mitigated.                                                                  held assumption that climate change is, will, or should
                                                                                     result in large-scale migration from Tuvalu. It shows
Li, Geraldine M. 2009. Tropical cyclone risk perceptions in                          that for most people climate change is not a reason for
         Darwin, Australia: A comparison of different residen-                       concern, let alone a reason to migrate, and that would-be
         tial groups. Natural Hazards 48 (3): 365-382.                               migrants do not cite climate change as a reason to leave.
         Different individuals and groups perceive risk differ-                      People in Funafuti wish to stay in Funafuti for reasons
         ently. This can significantly affect risk management                        of lifestyle, culture, and identity. Concerns about the
         and mitigation practices and requirements. This paper                       impacts of climate change are not currently a significant
         presents findings from a study of tropical cyclone                          driver of migration from Funafuti, and do not appear to
         risk perceptions in the city of Darwin in the Northern                      be a significant influence on those who intend to migrate
         Territory of Australia. Primary in-depth interview data                     in the future.
         and other secondary data are analyzed, focusing in par-
         ticular on wind damage, storm surge, and life safety risk          Nelson, Valerie, and Tanya Stathers. 2009. Resilience, power,
         perceptions of residents since Cyclone Tracy—which                         culture, and climate: A case study from semi-arid
         struck in 1974—and perceptions of future climate                           Tanzania, and new research directions. Gender &
         change as it relates to tropical cyclone risk. The analysis                Development 17 (1): 81-94.
         reveals that a number of perceptions prevail. In particu-                  Rapid changes to the climate are predicted over the next
         lar, the study reveals a wide difference of perceptions                    few years, presenting challenges for women’s empower-
         between short-term residents (Group 1) and long-term                       ment and gender equality on a completely new scale.
         and expert residents (Group 2) in relation to wind dam-                    There is little evidence or research to provide a reliable
         age, storm surge and life safety risk. It also reveals a                   basis for gender-sensitive approaches to agricultural
         large division between laypersons (Group 3) and expert                     adaptation to climate change. This article explores the
         residents’ (Group 4) perceptions of climate change                         gender dimensions of climate change, in relation to
         risk as it relates to tropical cyclone risk. The author                    participation in decision-making, divisions of labor,
         recommends that flexible, multiple and integrative man-                    access to resources, and knowledge systems. It draws on
         agement and mitigation approaches are required to deal                     insights from recent research on agricultural adaptation
         with such different perceptions and divisions in the resi-                 to climate change in Tanzania. The article then explains
         dent population.                                                           why future gender-sensitive climate-adaptation efforts
                                                                                    should draw upon insights from “resilience thinking,”
Moreno, Alvaro, and Susanne Becken. 2009. A climate change                          “political ecology,” and environmental anthropology as
        vulnerability assessment methodology for coastal tour-                      a way of embedding analysis of power struggles and
        ism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism (ePub).                                 cultural norms in the context of the overall socio-ecolog-
        Coastal and marine environments are among the most                          ical system.
        popular areas for outdoor recreation and tourism.
        Coastal areas have also been identified as the most                 Pearce, Tristan D., James D. Ford, Gita J. Laidler, Barry Smit,
        vulnerable to climate change, for example as a result of                     Frank Duerden, Mishak Allarut, Mark Andrachuk,
        extreme events and sea-level rise. It will be increasingly                   Steven Baryluk, Andre Dialla, Pootoogoo Elee, Annie
        important for coastal tourism destination managers to                        Goose, Theo Ikummaq, Eric Joamie, Fred Kataoyak,
        understand their vulnerability to climatic changes and                       Eric Loring, Stephanie Meakin, Scott Nickels, Kip
        to devise appropriate adaptation. This paper presents a                      Shappa, Jamal Shirley, and Johanna Wandel. 2009.
        five-step vulnerability assessment methodology for tour-                     Community collaboration and climate change research
        ism in coastal areas. The five steps include (1) system                      in the Canadian Arctic. Polar Research 28 (1): 10-27.
        analysis, (2) identification of activity and hazard sub-                     Research on climate change impacts, vulnerability, and
        systems, (3) vulnerability assessments for the different                     adaptation—particularly projects aiming to contribute to
        sub-systems at risk, (4) integration for the destination                     practical adaptation initiatives—requires active involve-
        as a whole and scenario analysis and (5) communica-                          ment and collaboration with community members along
        tion. The framework is illustrated by an example of how                      with local, regional, and national organizations that use
        it might be applied to Fiji. The paper concludes that                        this research for policy making. Arctic communities
        a consistent methodology, like the one proposed, will                        are already experiencing and adapting to environmen-
        facilitate vulnerability assessments in a range of coastal                   tal and socio-cultural changes, and researchers have a
        destinations, allow comparison to be made of vulner-                         practical and ethical responsibility to engage with com-
        abilities across different situations, provide a basis for                   munities that are the focus of the research. This paper
        more research into specific adaptation measures and                          draws on the experiences of researchers working with
        assist destinations to develop a more sustainable tour-                      communities across the Canadian Arctic, together with
        ism industry.                                                                the expertise of Inuit organizations, northern research
                                                                                     institutes, and community partners, to outline key
Mortreux, Colette, and Jon Barnett. 2009. Climate change,                            considerations for effectively engaging Arctic commu-
       migration and adaptation in Funafuti, Tuvalu. Global                          nities in collaborative research. These considerations
       Environmental Change 19 (1): 105-112.                                         include: initiating early and ongoing communication
       This paper shows the extent to which people in                                with communities, and regional and national contacts;
       Funafuti, the main island of Tuvalu, are intending to                         involving communities in research design and develop-
       migrate in response to climate change. It presents evi-                       ment; facilitating opportunities for local employment;



                                                                       10
         and disseminating research findings. Examples of each                       and Amy Lauren Lovecraft. 2009. Vulnerability and
         consideration are drawn from climate change research                        adaptation to climate-related fire impacts in rural and
         conducted with communities in the Canadian Arctic.                          urban interior Alaska. Polar Research 28 (1): 100-118.
                                                                                     This paper explores whether fundamental differences
Preston, B.L., C. Brooke, T.G. Measham, T.F. Smith, and R.                           exist between urban and rural vulnerability to climate-
         Gorddard. 2009. Igniting change in local government:                        induced changes in the fire regime of interior Alaska.
         Lessons learned from a bushfire vulnerability assess-                       It examines how communities and fire managers have
         ment. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global                       responded to these changes and what additional adapta-
         Change 14 (3): 251-283.                                                     tions could be put in place. It also engages a variety of
         Local governments and communities have a critical role                      social science methods, including demographic analysis,
         to play in adapting to climate variability and change.                      semi-structured interviews, surveys, workshops, and
         Spatial vulnerability assessment is one tool that can                       observations of public meetings. This work is part of
         facilitate engagement between researchers and local                         an interdisciplinary study of feedback and interactions
         stakeholders through the visualization of climate vul-                      between climate, vegetation, fire, and human compo-
         nerability and the integration of its biophysical and                       nents of the boreal forest social-ecological system of
         socio-economic determinants. This has been demon-                           interior Alaska. Findings show that although urban
         strated by a case study from Sydney, Australia, where                       and rural communities in interior Alaska face similar
         a bushfire vulnerability assessment was undertaken as                       increased exposure to wildfire as a result of climate
         the first step in a project to investigate local government                 change, important differences exist in their sensitiv-
         perceptions of climate vulnerability and adaptive capac-                    ity to these biophysical, climate-induced changes. In
         ity. A series of relevant biophysical and socioeconomic                     particular, reliance on wild foods, delayed suppression
         indicators was identified that represented the region’s                     response, financial resources, and institutional connec-
         exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity with respect                   tions vary between urban and rural communities. These
         to bushfires. These indicators were then combined to                        differences depend largely on social, economic, and
         develop maps of net landscape vulnerability to bushfire.                    institutional factors, and are not necessarily related to
         When presented in a workshop setting, vulnerability                         biophysical climate impacts per se. Fire management
         maps were successful in capturing the attention of                          and suppression action motivated by political, economic,
         stakeholders while simultaneously conveying informa-                        or other pressures can serve as unintentional or indirect
         tion about the diversity of vulnerability contributors.                     adaptation to climate change. However, this indirect
         Stakeholders, however, were reluctant to embrace repre-                     response alone may not sufficiently reduce vulnerability
         sentations of vulnerability that differed from their own                    to a changing fire regime. More deliberate and strategic
         understanding of hazard, necessitating the demonstra-                       responses may be required, given the magnitude of the
         tion of agreement between the vulnerability assessment                      expected climate change and the likelihood of an intensi-
         and more conventional hazard assessment tools. This                         fication of the fire regime in interior Alaska.
         validation opened the door for public dissemination of
         vulnerability maps, the use of the assessment in local
         government risk planning, and more focused case stud-              Wenzel, George W. 2009. Canadian Inuit subsistence and eco-
         ies on barriers to adaptation.                                             logical instability if the climate changes, must the
                                                                                    Inuit? Polar Research 28 (1): 89-99.
Stringer, Lindsay C., S. Serban Scrieciu, and Mark S. Reed.                         Considerable attention has been devoted to the possible
         2009. Biodiversity, land degradation, and climate                          effects of global climate change on the environment of
         change: Participatory planning in Romania. Applied                         the circumpolar world. With regard to the Inuit, the
         Geography 29 (1): 77-90.                                                   aboriginal culture of Arctic Canada, research interest has
         This paper considers the role of stakeholder participa-                    focused principally on the vulnerability of the hunting
         tion in drawing together the three Rio Conventions,                        and harvesting component of the traditional food sys-
         exploring how participatory activities to combat deser-                    tem, otherwise frequently referred to as the subsistence
         tification in southern Romania can both support and                        system, if wild terrestrial and marine resources become
         hinder efforts to conserve biodiversity and mitigate the                   less available. Although also concerned with the tradi-
         effects of climate change. It suggests that Romania’s                      tional Inuit food economy, this paper concentrates on
         growing civil society sector has a potentially vital role                  the customary institutional mechanisms by which the
         to play in promoting synergy through participation, and                    Inuit distribute and share the products obtained from
         that participatory pact as an important mechanism for                      hunting. After analyzing this social economy, a review
         harnessing multiple benefits. The paper argues that par-                   of the data on recent climate-related range changes of
         ticipation needs to be further institutionalized within the                a number of Arctic animal populations is carried out,
         Romanian context and in doing so, should emphasize                         in terms of how projected environmental changes may
         empowerment, equity, trust and learning, integrating                       affect this other aspect of Inuit subsistence. After ten-
         different knowledge bases to allow the development of                      tatively concluding that some species substitution and/
         sustainable and synergistic environmental solutions.                       or replacement will occur, the final aspect of the paper
                                                                                    considers the potential for the possible exclusion of these

Trainor, Sarah F., Monika Calef, David Natcher, F. Stuart                            “replacements” as a result of the political aspect of cli-
         Chaplin, A. David McGuire, Orville Huntington, Paul                         mate change.
         Duffy, T. Scott Rupp, La’Ona DeWilde, Nancy Fresco,



                                                                       11
Critical Infrastructure                                                             these crisis management behaviors are not perceived to
                                                                                    maximize shareholder value. The article also proposes a
Escudero, Laureano F., and Juan F. Monge. 2008. A model                             mechanism to explain why the stakeholder model may
        for risk minimization on water resource usage fail-                         be associated with more successful crisis management
        ure. International Journal of Risk Assessment and                           outcomes. It concludes by challenging the efficacy of the
        Management 10 (4): 386-403.                                                 shareholder view in crisis situations, and calls for fur-
        The authors present a framework for solving the strate-                     ther theoretical and empirical research.
        gic problem of assigning transboundary water resources
        to demand centers under uncertainty in the water exog-             Bass, Ellen J., Leigh Baumgart, Kevin Kloesel, Kathleen
        enous inflow in the reservoirs and other segments of the                    Dougherty, Havidan Rodriguez, Walter Diaz, William
        basin system along the time horizon. The function to                        Donner, Jennifer Santos, and Michael Zink. 2009.
        maximize is the probability of satisfying different targets                 Incorporating emergency management needs in the
        on the stored water and different demands over a set of                     development of weather radar networks. Journal of
        scenarios. A scenario tree-based scheme is used to rep-                     Emergency Management 7 (1): 45-52.
        resent the Deterministic Equivalent Model (DEM) of the                      The Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the
        stochastic mixed 0-1 program with complete recourse.                        Atmosphere (CASA) is developing networks of low-
        The constraints are modeled by a splitting variable rep-                    power, low-cost radars that adaptively collect, process,
        resentation via scenarios and, so, a Stochastic Integer                     and visualize high-resolution data in the lowest portion
        Programming (SIP) scheme can be used to exploit the                         of the atmosphere. CASA researchers are working with
        excess probability functional structure as well as the                      emergency managers, ensuring the network concept is
        non-anticipativity constraints for the water assignment.                    designed with their needs in mind. Interviews, surveys,
                                                                                    product usage log analysis, and simulated scenarios
Ganoulis, Jacques, and Eugene Levner. 2008. Risk-based inte-                        are used to solicit input. Results indicate the need for
        grated management of transboundary water resources:                         products for both high- and low-bandwidth, velocity
        A general framework. International Journal of Risk                          products that are more easily interpreted, and enhanced
        Assessment and Management 10 (4): 291-311.                                  training. CASA researchers are developing interventions
        Integrated management of transboundary surface                              to address these needs.
        waters and groundwater aquifers faces not only dif-
        ficult problems and uncertainties at a national level,             Bedford, Jennifer, and James Kendra. 2009. Security as subver-
        but also because these water bodies cross international                    sion: Undermining access, agency, and voice through
        borders. After showing the importance of internation-                      the discourse of security. Journal of Emergency
        ally shared waters at the global scale in terms of spatial                 Management 7 (1): 53-63.
        extension, quantity, and water uses, this paper devel-                     This article describes a case in which local emergency
        ops an integrated risk-based framework for managing                        planning was thwarted by indifference and concern
        shared waters at the basin scale. The definition of risk                   about security. It argues that excessive security concerns
        as a performance index in achieving four different                         can impede the cooperation and information shar-
        objectives—technical reliability, environmental security,                  ing that is essential to good planning, suggesting that
        economic efficiency, and social equity—allows differ-                      concerns about less likely terrorist attacks undercut
        ent management options to be compared and the most                         preparation for more likely emergencies arising from
        sustainable one to be selected. The Risk-based Integrated                  natural or technological sources.
        Transboundary Water Resources Management
        (RITWRM) framework is based on the quantification                  Benn, Suzanne, Dexter Dunphy, and Andrew Martin. 2009.
        of the four different risk indices, which can be evalu-                    Governance of environmental risk: New approaches
        ated by combining expert opinions, available data and                      to managing stakeholder involvement. Journal of
        information, and mathematical modeling. The RITWRM                         Environmental Management 90 (4): 1567-1575.
        problem can be set as a multiportfolio choice problem,                     Disputes concerning industrial legacies such as the
        which allows a scientifically motivated compromise to                      disposal of toxic wastes illustrate changing pressures
        be found between the individual interests of stakehold-                    on corporations and governments. Businesses and
        ers where technological, economic and social conditions                    governments are now confronted with managing the
        are taken into account.                                                    expectations of a society increasingly aware of the social
                                                                                   and environmental impacts and risks associated with
Disaster & Emergency Management                                                    economic development, demanding more equitable dis-
                                                                                   tribution and democratic management of such risks. The
Alpaslan, Can M., Sandy E. Green, and Mitroff Ian I. 2009.                         closed managerialist decision making of the powerful
        Corporate governance in the context of crises: Towards                     bureaucracies and corporations of the industrial era is
        a stakeholder theory of crisis management. Journal of                      informed by traditional management theory which can-
        Contingencies and Crisis Management 17 (1): 38-49.                         not provide a framework for the adequate governance
        This article takes a step towards developing a stake-                      of these risks. Recent socio-political theories have con-
        holder theory of crisis management. It argues that,                        ceptualized some key themes that must be addressed in
        in the context of crises, adopting the principles of a                     a more appropriate approach to governance. This article
        stakeholder model of corporate governance will lead                        identifies recent management and governance theory
        companies to engage more frequently in proactive and/                      addressing these themes and develops a process-based
        or accommodating crisis management behavior even if                        approach to governance of environmental disputes,



                                                                      12
         allowing for the evolving nature of stakeholder relations                      the latter development of the PRE-EMPT toolkit and
         in a highly complex multiple stakeholder arena.                                raise some important considerations about flood resil-
                                                                                        ience in the UK. The findings presented reveal how
Bissell, Richard A., Andrew Bumbak, Matthew Levy, and                                   stakeholders should be more involved, and what issues
          Patrick Echebi. 2009. Long-term global threat assess-                         must be addressed regarding the integration of built-in
          ment: Challenging new roles for emergency managers.                           resilience into construction decision making.
          Journal of Emergency Management 7 (1): 19-37.
          Based on currently available published data and litera-              Broz, Dita, Elise C. Levin, Amy P. Mucha, Darlene Pelzel,
          ture from multiple disciplines, this article introduces                       William Wong, Victoria Persky, and Ronald C.
          medium- and long-term global developments and                                 Hershow. 2009. Lessons learned from Chicago’s
          changes that will likely impact human society in disas-                       emergency response to mass evacuations caused by
          trous or even catastrophic fashion, with significant                          Hurricane Katrina. American Journal of Public Health
          impact on the roles and challenges of emergency man-                          99 (8): 1-9.
          agers. Some of the phenomena described include the                            This article analyzes the response of the Chicago
          following: (1) loss of fresh water, (2) significant sea level                 Department of Public Health with respect to its effec-
          rise with resultant flooding, (3) increased heat leading to                   tiveness in providing health care to Hurricane Katrina
          desertification and crop losses, (4) storms that are both                     evacuees arriving in the city. Between September 12
          more frequent and more violent, (5) massive food emer-                        and October 21, 2005, researchers conducted a real-time
          gencies as crops fail for lack of water and/or saltwater                      qualitative assessment of a medical unit in Chicago’s
          inundation, (6) loss of the petroleum-based economy,                          Hurricane Victim Welcome and Relief Center. A semi-
          and (7) massive population relocations on a level the                         structured guide was used to interview 33 emergency
          world has never experienced. The perspective used                             responders to identify key operational successes and
          is global, in that the trends described do not respect                        failures. The medical unit functioned at a relatively high
          political boundaries. The article also recognizes that mit-                   level, primarily as a result of the flexibility, creativity,
          igation and response activities may well involve many                         and dedication of its staff and the presence of strong
          nations simultaneously. It concludes with suggestions of                      leadership. Chronic health care services and prescrip-
          steps emergency management should take in preparing                           tion refills were the most commonly mentioned services
          to serve new and more complex tasks to meet coming                            provided, and collaboration with a national pharmacy
          challenges, and a “call to action” for emergency manag-                       proved instrumental in reconstructing medication
          ers to assume a more active role in confronting the risks                     histories. The lack of a comprehensive and well-com-
          imposed by forces that are now underway.                                      municated emergency response plan resulted in several
                                                                                        preventable inefficiencies. Findings highlight the need
Bosher, Lee, Andrew Dainty, Patricia Carillo, Jacqueline Glass,                         for improved planning for care of evacuee populations
         and Andrew Price. 2009. Attaining improved resilience                          after a major emergency event and the importance of
         to floods: A proactive multi-stakeholder approach.                             ensuring continuity of care for the most vulnerable. The
         Disaster Prevention and Management 18 (1): 9-22.                               article provides an emergency response preparedness
         There is a need to proactively address strategic weak-                         checklist for local public health departments.
         nesses in protecting the built environment from a range
         of hazards. This paper seeks to focus on the mitigation               Byrne, Gerry. 2009. I-Zone planning: Supporting frontline
         for flood hazards in the United Kingdom, particularly                         firefighters. The Australian Journal of Emergency
         in understanding the extent of the problem, collating                         Management 24 (1): 17-24.
         key guidance and legislation related to flood hazard                          This paper focuses on bushfires that impact on the built
         mitigation, identifying who the key construction deci-                        environment in the bushland-urban interface or I-Zone.
         sion makers are, and the most opportune stages of the                         These fires are transitional by nature with the fuel
         design-construction-operation process when key deci-                          source of the fire changing from vegetation to structural,
         sions are needed. A pluralistic research design was                           as the fire travels from a bushfire prone area to an urban
         adopted for the study, which included a UK-wide ques-                         area. It is this transitional nature that causes the great-
         tionnaire survey and a set of semi-structured interviews                      est challenges for a largely urban fire service such as the
         involving a range of professionals from construction,                         NSW Fire Brigades. A simple definition of an interface
         planning, insurance, emergency management and local/                          area is “any area where structures (whether residential,
         national government agencies was undertaken. Despite                          industrial, recreational or agricultural) are located adja-
         the publication of a range of guidance on flood hazard                        cent to or among combustible (bushland) fuels.” NSW
         mitigation in the UK, there is still insufficient evidence                    Fire Brigades use I-Zone as an abbreviated term for any
         that key construction stakeholders are playing an active                      bushland urban interface.
         role in mitigating flood risk. The preconstruction phase
         of a building’s life cycle is identified as the critical stage        Calver, A., E. Stewart, and G. Goodsell. 2009. Comparative anal-
         at which key stakeholders must adopt flood hazard                              ysis of statistical and catchment modeling approaches
         mitigation strategies. The socio-institutional constraints                     to river flood frequency estimation. Journal of Flood
         to the proactive attainment of built-in resilience are                         Risk Management 2 (1): 24-31.
         highlighted, as are recommendations about how these                            This paper compares the quantification of British river
         constraints can be addressed. The paper reports on the                         floods using two approaches—the Flood Estimation
         provisional findings of an ongoing project but these                           Handbook (FEH) flood peak and event-based method
         findings nonetheless provide essential foundations for                         and recently developed continuous simulation tech-



                                                                          13
         niques that use parameter-sparse modeling of flood                          emergency plan resilience. Recommendations are also
         catchment flood runoff. The methods were applied to                         made for improving lessons learned in organizations.
         over 100 sites in Britain and treated as if there were
         no flow data. Although such observations did exist;                Cruz, Ana Maria, and E. Krausman. 2009. Hazardous-materials
         they were used only for testing. Errors of =20 per-                        releases from offshore oil and gas facilities and emer-
         cent in peak flows at ungauged sites are very good in                      gency response following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.
         this hydrologically challenging context; errors of up                      Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 22
         to around 35 percent might have to be addressed by                         (1): 59-65.
         flood management practice. The results from the FEH                        Hurricanes Katrina and Rita triggered numerous haz-
         statistical method reinforced its established role in peak-                ardous materials releases from industrial and storage
         flow estimation. The emerging continuous simulation                        facilities on shore, as well as from offshore oil and gas
         approaches show considerable potential for peaks and                       facilities in the Gulf of Mexico. This paper identifies and
         flow time series. The errors associated with the FEH-unit                  analyze over 600 hazardous materials releases triggered
         hydrograph approach reflect the additional challenge                       by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita from offshore platforms
         of incorporating ungauged rainfall estimation and                          and pipelines. The results of the study could assist off-
         ungauged discharge.                                                        shore industry owners/operators, government officials,
                                                                                    and policy makers by providing lessons learned and
Chaffee, Mary. 2009. Willingness of health care personnel to                        recommendations for better disaster planning for major
         work in a disaster: An integrative review of the litera-                   storms and flood events.
         ture. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
         3 (1): 42-56.                                                      Eisenman, David P., Qiong Zhou, Michael Ong, Steven Asch,
         Effective hospital surge response in disaster depends                     Deborah Glik, and Amy Long. 2009. Variations in
         largely on an adequate number of personnel to provide                     disaster preparedness by mental health, perceived gen-
         care. Studies appearing since 1991 indicate health care                   eral health, and disability status. Disaster Medicine and
         personnel may not be willing to work in all disaster                      Public Health Preparedness 3 (1): 33-40.
         situations. If so, this could degrade surge response.                     Chronic medical problems, mental illness, and disabil-
         A systematic review of the literature was conducted                       ity increase vulnerability to disasters. National efforts
         to determine the state of the evidence concerning the                     have focused on preparing people with disabilities.
         willingness of health care personnel to work in disaster.                 Studies find them to be increasingly prepared, but less
         This review collates and assesses the literature concern-                 is known about people with chronic mental and medi-
         ing willingness of health care personnel to work during                   cal illnesses. The authors examined the relationship
         a disaster, to identify gaps in the literature as areas for               between health status (mental health, perceived general
         future investigation, and to facilitate evidence-based                    health, and disability) and disaster preparedness (home
         disaster planning. Twenty-seven studies met inclusion                     disaster supplies and family communication plan). A
         criteria (25 quantitative and two qualitative studies). The               random digit-dial telephone survey of the Los Angeles
         current evidence indicates there may be certain factors                   County population was conducted from October 2004
         related to willingness to work (or lack of willingness)                   to January 2005 in 6 languages. Separate multivariate
         in disaster including the type of disaster, concern for                   regressions modeled determinants of disaster prepared-
         family, and concerns about personal safety. Barriers to                   ness, adjusting for sociodemographic covariates then
         willingness to work have been identified including pet                    sociodemographic variables and health status variables.
         care needs and the lack of personal protective equip-                     Only 40.7 percent of people who rated their health as
         ment. This review describes the state of an emerging                      fair/poor have disaster supplies compared with 53.1
         area of science. These findings have significant impli-                   percent of those who rate their health as excellent (P
         cations for community and organizational emergency                        < 0.001). Only 34.8 percent of people who rated their
         planning and policy making in an environment defined                      health as fair/poor have an emergency plan compared
         by limited resources.                                                     with 44.8 percent of those who rate their health as excel-
                                                                                   lent (P < 0.01). Only 29.5 percent of people who have a
Crichton, Margaret T., Cameron G. Ramsay, and Terence Kelly.                       serious mental illness have disaster supplies compared
        2009. Enhancing organizational resilience through                          with 49.2 percent of those who do not have a serious
        emergency planning: Learnings from cross-sectoral les-                     mental illness (P < 0.001). People with fair/poor health
        sons. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management                       remained less likely to have disaster supplies (adjusted
        17 (1): 24-37.                                                             odds ratio [AOR] 0.69, 95 percent confidence interval
        Reports that attempt to identify lessons learned are                       [CI] 0.500.96) and less likely to have an emergency plan
        generally circulated after most emergency exercises                        (AOR 0.68, 95 percent CI 0.510.92) compared with those
        and incidents. This paper identifies recurring themes                      who rate their health as excellent, after adjusting for
        that can be applied across sectors. Typically, lessons                     the sociodemographic covariates. People with serious
        are expressed in a form specific to the event, the sector                  mental illness remained less likely to have disaster sup-
        where it occurred, and the aim of the reporting organi-                    plies after adjusting for the sociodemographic covariates
        zation. Reports were reviewed from seven international                     (AOR 0.67, 95 percent CI 0.480.93). Disability status
        incidents, covering a range of sectors with varying                        was not associated with lower rates of disaster sup-
        parameters. The authors concluded that organizations                       plies or emergency communication plans in bivariate or
        can gain insight by examining incidents outside their                      multivariate analyses. Finally, adjusting for the sociode-
        sector and by using recurring themes to explore their                      mographic and other health variables, people with fair/



                                                                       14
         poor health remained less likely to have an emergency                      (M = 350.8). Qualitative content analysis revealed a lack
         plan (AOR 0.66, 95 percent CI 0.480.92) and people with                    of parent-child identification and family reunification
         serious mental illness remained less likely to have disas-                 systems, ineffective communication strategies, lack of
         ter supplies (AOR 0.67, 95 percent CI 0.470.95). People                    pediatric resources and specific training, and unfamil-
         who report fair/poor general health and probable seri-                     iarity with altering standards of pediatric care during
         ous mental illness are less likely to report household                     a disaster. Although many organizations are perform-
         disaster preparedness and an emergency communication                       ing disaster exercises, most do not include pediatric
         plan. The results could add to our understanding of why                    concerns. More work is needed to understand the basis
         people with preexisting health problems suffer dispro-                     of this emergency preparedness gap. Overall, pediatric
         portionately from disasters. Public health may consider                    emergency planning should be a high priority for this
         collaborating with community partners and health ser-                      vulnerable population.
         vices providers to improve preparedness among people
         with chronic illness and people who are mentally ill.             French, Simon, Clare Bayley, and Nan Zhang. 2009. Web-
                                                                                    based group decision support for crisis management.
El-Anwar, Omar, Khaled El-Rayes, and Amr Elnashai. 2009.                            International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis
       Optimizing large-scale temporary housing arrange-                            Response and Management 1(1): 41-53.
       ments after natural disasters. Journal of Computing in                       The early designs for crisis management decision
       Civil Engineering 23 (2): 110-118.                                           support systems used data-based or model-based meth-
       Natural disasters—hurricanes, earthquakes, and tsuna-                        odologies and architectures. This article argues that the
       mis—often cause large-scale destruction in residential                       complexity of crisis management situations means that a
       areas. In the aftermath of these disasters, emergency                        greater emphasis on collaboration is needed. Moreover,
       management agencies must rapidly develop and imple-                          modern interactive Web 2.0 technologies allow group
       ment a temporary housing plan providing displaced                            decision support to be offered to geographically dis-
       families with satisfactory and safe accommodations. This                     persed teams. Given that crisis management often
       paper presents the computational implementation of a                         requires teams to be drawn together from a number
       newly developed multi-objective optimization model                           of organizations sited at different locations, the article
       to support decision makers in emergency management                           reflects upon the potential of these technologies to sup-
       agencies in optimizing large-scale temporary housing                         port the early stages of crisis management without
       arrangements. The model is capable of simultaneously                         the need to draw the team together at a common loca-
       minimizing: (1) post-disaster social and economic dis-                       tion. It also reports on a small scale experiment using
       ruptions suffered by displaced families; (2) temporary                       GroupSystems ThinkTank to manage an emerging food
       housing vulnerabilities to post-disaster hazards; (3)                        safety event. Such systems have potential and deserve
       adverse environmental impacts on host communities;                           more careful evaluation.
       and (4) public expenditures on temporary housing.
       The model is implemented in four main phases. It                    Harrald, John R. 2009. Achieving agility in disaster manage-
       incorporates four modules to optimize each of the afore-                     ment. International Journal of Information Systems for
       mentioned objectives. A large-scale temporary housing                        Crisis Response and Management 1 (1): 1-11.
       application example is presented to demonstrate the                          A significant body of social science research has con-
       unique capabilities of the model and illustrate the com-                     cluded that improvisation in distributed, collaborative,
       putations performed in each of the implementation                            open systems is the key to success in responding to
       phases.                                                                      and recovering from extreme events. The evolution of
                                                                                    emergency management in the United States since the
Ferrer, Rizaldy R., Marizen Ramirez, Kori Sauser, Ellen Iverson,                    September 11, 2001, attacks has emphasized the develop-
         and Jeffrey S. Upperman. 2009. Emergency drills and                        ment of doctrine, process, and structure. In earlier work,
         exercises in healthcare organizations: Assessment of                       the author concluded that both the agility desired by the
         pediatric population involvement using after-action                        social sciences and the discipline created by the profes-
         reports. American Journal of Disaster Medicine 4 (1):                      sional practitioners are essential. This article explores
         23-32.                                                                     how agility can be developed within a disciplined sys-
         The evaluation of pediatric disaster preparation is                        tem and concludes that the keys are the development of
         often lacking, even though the Joint Commission on                         outcome-based goals, adaptive leadership, and technol-
         Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO)                          ogy that supports collaborative decision making in open,
         requires healthcare organizations to demonstrate disas-                    organizational systems.
         ter preparedness through the use of disaster exercises.
         This investigation identified, described, and assessed            Ikeda, Keiko. 2009. How women’s concerns are shaped in
         the involvement of pediatric victims in healthcare orga-                  community-based disaster risk management in
         nization disaster drills using data from the after-action                 Bangladesh. Contemporary South Asia 17 (1): 65-78.
         reports generated by healthcare organizations per                         This article elaborates on how concerns regarding gen-
         JCAHO regulations. Forty-nine reports were voluntarily                    der in community-based disaster risk management are
         supplied. The authors analyzed the data using quan-                       shaped through interaction between local agents of
         titative and qualitative approaches. Only nine reports                    development and communities in Bangladesh. Since
         suggested pediatric involvement. Hospitals with large                     women and men have different experiences in disaster,
         bed capacity (M = 465.6) tended to include children in                    gender concerns should be fully addressed by the com-
         exercises more often compared with smaller facilities                     munity and integrated into the action they take up to



                                                                      15
         reduce disaster risks. The term “local agents of develop-
         ment” refers to individuals engaged in implementation                McAdoo, Brian, Andrew Moore, and Jennifer Baumwoll. 2009.
         of development policy in their own community. Recent                       Indigenous knowledge and the near field population
         trends in community-based disaster risk manage-                            response during the 2007 Solomon Islands tsunami.
         ment policy seek what is called a “whole community                         Natural Hazards 48 (1): 73-82.
         approach,” engaging various stakeholders such as tra-                      The magnitude 8.1 earthquake and subsequent tsu-
         ditional village elite, “local civil society,” and leaders of              nami killed 52 people when it hit the Solomon Islands
         community-based organizations—mostly poor villagers                        on April 2, 2007. That number would have likely been
         supported by non-governmental organizations. Within                        higher were it not for the appropriate reaction of the
         the context of the historical evolution of community                       indigenous coastal populations and a helpful physi-
         development approaches in Bangladesh, this is quite                        cal geography. Buffering coral reefs reflected some
         new in terms of bringing together traditional leaders                      wave energy back to sea, reducing the power of the
         and poor target groups, including women’s groups. By                       wave. Hills a short distance behind the coastal villages
         drawing from the experience of women and focusing on                       provided accessible havens. Despite this beneficial
         the functioning of local agents of development during                      physiography, immigrant populations died at dispro-
         the flood of 2004, the author assesses the gaps between                    portionately high rates in comparably damaged areas
         the primary concerns of women and those taken up in                        because they did not recognize the signs of the impeding
         the risk-reduction action, to see whether, why, and when                   tsunami. The indigenous population of Tapurai, which
         they have widened or been bridged.                                         lacks a steep barrier reef to reflect the incoming energy,
                                                                                    experienced a much more powerful wave, and the popu-
Kapucu, Naim, Maria-Elena Augustin, and Vener Garayev.                              lation suffered heavy losses. Indigenous knowledge as
        2009. Interstate partnerships in emergency man-                             an integral tool in basin wide tsunami warning systems
        agement: Emergency management assistance                                    has the potential to mitigate disasters in the near field.
        compact in response to catastrophic disasters. Public                       Community-based disaster management plans must be
        Administration Review 69 (2): 297-313.                                      cognizant of educating diverse populations that have
        The Emergency Management Assistance Compact                                 different understandings of their environment.
        (EMAC) is a mutual aid agreement and partnership
        allowing states to assist one another in responding to                McGuirl, J., N. Sarter, and D. Woods. 2009. Effects of real-time
        natural and man-made disasters, often in advance of                          imaging on decision-making in a simulated incident
        federal disaster assistance. This article examines EMAC’s                    command task. International Journal of Information
        response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in order to                          Systems for Crisis Response and Management 1 (1):
        address the significant need for analysis of emergency                       54-69.
        management at the state level. A content analysis of                         Eight incident commanders (ICs) took part in a simu-
        news reports, government documents, and reports from                         lation exercise to determine the impact of real-time
        a number of institutions was performed to determine the                      imaging feedback on situation assessment and decisio-
        volume and direction of EMAC’s performance and its                           making in an uncertain and high tempo environment.
        transactions during the response operations. The authors                     The imaging feedback simulated the video feed from
        find a lack of EMAC training among responders, poten-                        an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that allows incident
        tially reducing communication and coordination and the                       command centers to monitor developments at the cri-
        efficiency and effectiveness of response operations. A                       sis site. Nearly all of the ICs failed to detect important
        network analysis assessed the relationships among the                        changes in the situation that were not captured in the
        responding organizations to coordinate their emergency                       imaging but that were available via other, more tradi-
        response operations.                                                         tional data sources. It appears that the ICs placed an
                                                                                     inappropriately high level of trust in the imaging data,
Lazar, Eliot J., Nicholas V. Cagliuso, and Kristine M. Gebbie.                       resulting in a narrowing of their data search activities
         2009. Are we ready and how do we know? The urgent                           and limited cross-checking between the data sources
         need for performance metrics in hospital emergency                          being used. This research helps anticipate and guard
         management. Disaster Medicine and Public Health                             against undesirable effects of introducing similar tech-
         Preparedness 3 (1): 57-60.                                                  nologies on training and operational procedures in a
         An extraordinary number of health care quality and                          variety of domains.
         patient safety indicators have been developed for hos-
         pitals and other health care institutions. However, few              Nicolopoulos, Nick, and Emily Hansen. 2009. How well pre-
         meaningful indicators exist for comprehensive assess-                        pared are Australian communities for natural disasters
         ment of hospital emergency management. Although                              and fire emergencies? The Australian Journal of
         health care institutions have invested considerable                          Emergency Management 24 (1): 60-66.
         resources in emergency management preparedness,                              Results from the Australian Bureau of Statistics surveys
         the need for universally accepted, evidence-based                            on household and community preparedness for natural
         performance metrics to measure these efforts remains                         disasters and fire emergencies are presented within the
         largely unfulfilled. The authors suggest that this can be                    context of published research into factors that influence
         remediated through the application of traditional health                     preparedness. The results provide a better understand-
         care quality paradigms, coupled with novel analytic                          ing of the characteristics of householders who prepare
         approaches to develop meaningful performance data in                         for natural disasters and fire emergencies, and how pre-
         hospital emergency management.                                               pared householders are in the event of an emergency.



                                                                         16
                                                                                      model as it may relate to future training needs.
Palm, Jenny. 2009. Emergency management in the Swedish elec-
        tricity grid from a household perspective. Journal of                Somers, Scott, and James H. Svara. 2009. Assessing and manag-
        Contingencies and Crisis Management 17 (1): 55-63.                           ing environmental risk: Connecting local government
        This article focuses on household action space and                           management with emergency management. Public
        perceived responsibilities during power outages, as                          Administration Review 69 (2): 181-193.
        well as how municipalities and grid companies under-                         Ensuring that a community is prepared to deal with a
        stand their and the households’ responsibilities and                         disaster is among the many tasks public managers are
        action space. Results from a case study in the county of                     charged with addressing. Disaster preparedness and
        Östergötland showed households were unclear about                            response requires adherence to standard planning prac-
        their responsibility for outage preparedness. Both                           tices, yet disasters are typically unpredictable. Dealing
        municipalities and grid companies expect households to                       with disasters, therefore, requires a blend of traditional
        be somewhat prepared. Households, however, believed                          management skills and improvisation. Furthermore,
        they were not responsible for being prepared for power                       like other aspects of administrative leadership, the top
        outages, even though they need to be prepared to sur-                        administrator must blend initiation and responsiveness
        vive. Often the preparedness concerns material factors,                      in interactions with elected officials and a careful delin-
        such as investment in auxiliary generating capacity.                         eation of responsibility in handling actual emergencies.
        How the households perceive outages is important to                          This article discusses how local administrators assess
        their ability to handle and feel comfortable in such situa-                  risk and balance preparedness needs within a universe
        tions.                                                                       of daily operational needs. Managing environmental risk
                                                                                     is also explored from a political and legal context.
Slattery, Cole, Robert Syvertson, and Stephen Krill. 2009. The
          eight step training model: Improving disaster manage-              Turoff, Murray, Starr Roxanne Jiltz, Connie White, Linda
          ment leadership. Journal of Homeland Security and                           Plotnick, Art Hendela, and Xiang Yao. 2009. The past
          Emergency Management (ePub).                                                as the future of emergency preparedness and manage-
          In the aftermath of public tragedies such as the terrorist                  ment. International Journal of Information Systems for
          attacks of 9/11 and Hurricane Katrina, intense scrutiny                     Crisis Response and Management 1 (1): 12-28.
          was placed upon the emergency management com-                               Emergency preparedness, planning, and response suffer
          munity throughout all levels of government. Clearly,                        from shortcomings that impede the potential for effec-
          it is imperative that emergency managers understand                         tiveness. This article provides an overview of emergency
          the scope and scale of these events and subsequently                        preparedness and management, including insights into
          the depth of planning required to execute coordinated                       the shortcomings of current practices, a discussion of
          preparedness, response, and relief efforts. However,                        relevant theories (e.g., High Reliability Organizations,
          plans are merely a step in the overarching requirement                      muddling through), and recommendations to promote
          of coordinating disaster response and delivering relief.                    more effective planning, management, and response.
          One method for emergency managers to achieve success                        The recommendations include system support for the
          may be through the implementation of a disciplined                          principles of High Reliability Organizations, muddling
          training methodology, developed in the United States                        through, and rethinking risk analysis to have a longer-
          Army, known as the “Eight Step Training Model.” At its                      term view. They reflect more than just monetary loss,
          essence, the eight step training model provides a logi-                     creating ways to better inform and involve the public
          cal, structured and repeatable framework for developing                     and encouraging collaboration and collective intelligence
          and executing training that is designed to build confi-                     through such means as a dynamic Delphi voting system.
          dent and competent emergency managers and improve
          the individual and collective training proficiency of pri-         Youmans, Jeff. 2009. An introduction to netcentric operations
          mary and secondary responders (training participants).                    and services-oriented architectures for emergency man-
          A time investment in this planning and training method-                   agers. Journal of Emergency Management 7 (1): 71-74.
          ology will increase preparedness, response and recovery                   The winds of change are upon us (once again). In the
          efforts and desired outcomes immeasurably. The model                      computer world, it seems changes like this happen every
          can focus upon local, state or federal levels, incorporat-                other day. In this case, however, it really is revolutionary.
          ing private volunteer organizations, nongovernmental                      The flow of information within your department and
          organizations or industry whether local, regional, or                     within other departments is going to move faster than
          national. The steps are as follows: 1. Study/teach the                    ever before. It’s a wholesale architectural change that,
          literature/doctrine (certify leaders); 2. Survey the train-               for once, will not affect the computer in your car or on
          ing site; 3. Develop the training plan; 4. Issue the plan;                your desk, but will affect how the data are accessed. The
          5. Rehearse the plan (tabletop exercise); 6. Execute the                  objective of the services-oriented architecture is to obtain
          training; 7. Evaluate the training; and 8. Retrain as need-               the overall goal of netcentric operations and speed the
          ed to meet goals. At a minimum, the model acquaints                       flow of data. The end goal is to resolve disastrous situ-
          participants with divergent organizational roles and                      ations, get help to the victims, and track suspects faster
          missions and at its best instills confidence in participat-               than ever before.
          ing organizations’ ability to work together in a simulated
          setting before they are forced to collaborate during               Disaster Relief
          emergency response. The article describes the steps in
          detail and provides a fundamental understanding of the             Angeletti, Michelle A. 2009. Breastfeeding support in emer-



                                                                        17
         gencies: Policy implications for humanitarian relief                      security. Immediate outreach to foreign nations in times
         agencies. Journal of Emergency Management 7 (1): 39-44.                   of violent instability or natural disaster fosters security
         While breastfeeding provides numerous benefits to                         and stability both for the affected country and for the
         infants and young children, these benefits are espe-                      United States. Foreign humanitarian assistance (FHA)
         cially evident during and after emergencies. This article                 is a rapidly evolving military mission that addresses
         describes the benefits of breastfeeding in emergencies                    conflict prevention, conflict, post-conflict, and natu-
         and provides guidelines that can be implemented by                        ral disasters. With DOD’s extensive global medical
         humanitarian relief agencies to protect, promote, and                     resources, it is often uniquely qualified to play a criti-
         support breastfeeding.                                                    cal role in relief and/or public health efforts. When and
                                                                                   how the American military will act in FHA and disas-
Cuddeback, Marsha R., and Frank M. Bosworth. 2008.                                 ter relief is a still-evolving doctrine with three issues
       Rebuilding community block by block. Cityscape:                             deserving particular attention: aligning operations with
       A Journal of Policy Development and Research 10 (3):                        host government leadership; preserving humanitarian
       77-100.                                                                     space; and tailoring the military’s unique resources to
       In 2003, the Louisiana State University (LSU) Office of                     the specific political and medical situation at hand. The
       Community Design and Development was awarded a                              DOD’s response to a large-scale earthquake in Peru sug-
       U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development                            gests useful approaches to these three issues, provides a
       grant to investigate new prototypes for sustainable                         template for future FHA mission, and points to strategic
       affordable housing. Following Hurricane Katrina, the                        decisions and operational capabilities that need further
       grant focus shifted to developing a home-building train-                    development to establish the FHA mission firmly within
       ing program for New Orleans residents, which resulted                       DOD’s repertoire of security engagement activities.
       in constructing the first new post-Hurricane Katrina
       houses on the north side of the Lower 9th Ward. The                Lee, A.C.K. 2008. Local perspectives on humanitarian aid in
       work was completed by a team of previously unskilled                       Sri Lanka after the tsunami. Public Health 122 (12):
       workers and 13 fourth-year undergraduate architecture                      1410-1417.
       students. This enterprise is discussed in the context of                   This article examines the impact of humanitarian aid
       community participation, service learning, and the capi-                   from the perspective of local stakeholders in Sri Lanka
       tal market for affordable housing in New Orleans at the                    following the tsunami disaster of December, 2004. Key
       time of the project. The demonstration project has not                     informant and focus group interviews were conducted
       secured funding for continuation at this timebut was                       with tsunami survivors, community leaders, the local
       considered successful. The authors suggest six actions                     authorities, and aid workers. Collected data were ana-
       for replicating the program.                                               lyzed using thematic analysis. Researchers found that
                                                                                  aid aggravated social tensions and the lack of communi-
Currion, Paul. 2009. Only connect: Problem sciences, informa-                     ty engagement led to grievances. There was a perceived
         tion systems and humanitarian reform. International                      lack of transparency, beneficiary expectations were not
         Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and                   always met, and it was difficult to match aid to needs.
         Management 1 (1): 29-40.                                                 Rapid participatory approaches to obtain beneficiary
         The introduction of information systems and the                          feedback in post-disaster settings are possible but have
         humanitarian reform process have a tremendous impact                     limitations due to respondent bias. In order to mitigate
         on how humanitarian assistance is delivered, yet the                     adverse social impacts of their programs, humanitarian
         two processes are weakly connected. As a result, the                     aid agencies need to better understand the context in
         humanitarian community fails to realize the potential                    which aid is delivered. Beneficiary feedback is essen-
         of information technology in supporting key reform                       tial in disaster planning and response so that disaster
         aspects and doesn’t recognize technology is likely to                    response can be better matched to the needs of beneficia-
         render many reform discussions moot. The balance of                      ries.
         knowledge is shifting toward those affected by disaster,
         implying that technology will increasingly empower               Moss, Mitchell, Charles Schellhamer, and David A. Berman.
         them to cope more effectively with disaster impact.                     2009. The Stafford Act and priorities for reform.
         Traditional actors in the humanitarian community must                   Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency
         incorporate this reality into its processes or risk being               Management 6 (1): 1-21.
         overtaken by newer and more agile institutions that                     During the past fifty years, federal disaster policy in the
         might not be concerned with humanitarian principles.                    United States has been shaped by an ongoing conflict
                                                                                 between proponents who favor federal intervention
Laraby, Patrick R., Margaret Bourdeaux, S. Ward Casscells,                       following a disaster and those who believe disaster
         David J. Smith, and Lynn Lawry. 2009. Humanitarian                      response should be the responsibility of state and local
         assistance and disaster relief: Changing the face of                    governments and charities. This article explores the
         defense. American Journal of Disaster Medicine 4 (1):                   existing federal disaster policy landscape within the
         33-40.                                                                  United States with a focus on the Stafford Act, the cul-
         The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is evolving to                     tural and political forces that produced it, and how the
         meet new security challenges in the twenty-first cen-                   current system is ill equipped to aid in the response
         tury. Today’s challenges result from growing political,                 and recovery from major catastrophes. The Stafford Act
         environmental, and economic instability in important                    defines how federal disasters are declared, determines
         areas of the globe that threaten national and global                    the types of assistance to be provided by the federal



                                                                     18
         government, and establishes cost sharing arrange-                           present investigation is slightly lower (but comparable)
         ments among federal, state, and local governments.                          than the PGA values obtained from the deterministic
         The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)                              seismic hazard analysis (DSHA) for the same area.
         carries out the provisions of the Stafford Act and distrib-                 However, the PGA value obtained in the current investi-
         utes much of the assistance provided by the Act. With                       gation is higher than PGA values reported in the global
         the establishment of the U.S. Department of Homeland                        seismic hazard assessment program (GSHAP) maps of
         Security, the threat of domestic terrorism, and large-scale                 Bhatia et al. (1999) for the shield area.
         natural disasters like Hurricane Katrina, the limits of the
         Stafford Act and FEMA have been shown. The article                 Dai, J., Y. Zhao, and G. Li. 2009. Wenchuan earthquake:
         looks at several areas where the shortcomings of the                         Response of Chinese dental professionals. British
         Stafford Act have emerged and propose directions for                         Dental Journal 206 (5): 273-276.
         reform.                                                                      On May 12, 2008, an earthquake with a magnitude of
                                                                                      8.0 on the Richter scale hit Wenchuan, China. In the
O’Dempsey, Tim. 2009. Fair training: A new direction in                               aftermath of this disaster, Chinese dental profession-
      humanitarian assistance. Progress in Development                                als actively participated in the first emergency medical
      Studies 9 (1): 81-86.                                                           response team, definitive dental treatment, oral health
      Major catastrophes appear to be inevitable given the                            services and education, and the recovery of local oral
      growth of mega-cities in disaster hotspots, the pre-                            care infrastructure and resources. Learning from the
      dicted effects of global climate change, and the crucial                        experience and first-hand data of the Wenchuan earth-
      relationship between natural disasters and complex                              quake, dental professionals can increase their awareness
      political emergencies. Disaster prevention, prepared-                           of the importance of collaborative emergency response
      ness, and contingency planning will be effective only if                        health services in mass casualty events. Further research
      trained personnel are available to develop these plans                          and emphasis is needed to encourage the participation
      and implement them in a timely manner. Workforce                                of dental professionals in disaster preparation training
      migration— driven by poverty, insecurity, and lack of                           and practice.
      opportunity—creates a vacuum of leadership and skills
      that increases the remaining population’s vulnerability               Doocy, Shannon, Amy Daniels, and Daniel Aspilcueta. 2009.
      even further. Sustainable solutions to the problems of                        Mortality and injury following the 2007 Ica earthquake
      disasters and development will only be achieved when                          in Peru. American Journal of Disaster Medicine 4 (1):
      poor people have local access to fair training.                               15-22.
                                                                                    This paper quantifies earthquake injury and mortal-
Earthquake                                                                          ity from the 2007 Ica earthquake in Peru and assesses
                                                                                    earthquake-related risk and vulnerability. The design
Anbazhagan, P., J.S. Vinod, and T.G. Sitharam. 2009.                                was a population-based cluster survey of households
       Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Bangalore.                         in the region most affected by the quake. A stratified
       Natural Hazards 48 (2): 145-166.                                             cluster survey design was used to allow for comparison
       This article presents the results of probabilistic seismic                   between urban, peri-urban, and rural areas, where dif-
       hazard analysis (PSHA) for Bangalore, South India.                           ferent outcomes were anticipated as a result of variation
       Analyses have been carried out considering the seismo-                       in building practices and access to post-earthquake
       tectonic parameters of the region covering a radius of                       assistance. A total of 42 clusters of 16 households were
       350 kilometers keeping Bangalore as the center. Seismic                      planned to allow for comparison between the loca-
       hazard parameter “b” has been evaluated considering                          tion types and to ensure adequate spatial coverage.
       the available earthquake data using (1) Gutenberg-                           The four affected provinces are in southern Peru: Ica,
       Richter (GR) relationship, and (2) Kijko and Sellevoll                       Pisco, Chincha, and Canete. A total of 672 randomly
       (1989, 1992) method utilizing extreme and complete                           selected households with a combined population of
       catalogs. The “b” parameter was estimated to be 0.62                         3,608 individuals, of which 3,484 (97 percent) were
       to 0.98 from GR relation and 0.87±0.03 from Kijko                            reported as household members on the day of the
       and Sellevoll method. The results obtained are a little                      earthquake. Mortality and injury rates in the four most
       higher than the ‘b” values published earlier for south-                      affected provinces were estimated at 1.4 deaths per 1,000
       ern India. Further, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis                    exposed (95 CI: 0.5-3.3) and 29 injuries per 1,000 exposed
       for Bangalore region has been carried out consider-                          (95 CI: 6-52). Older adults and members of households
       ing six seismogenic sources. From the analysis, mean                         of lower socioeconomic status faced increased risk of
       annual rate of exceedance and cumulative probability                         injury. No significant differences in injury rates were
       hazard curve for peak ground acceleration (PGA) and                          observed between rural, urban, and peri-urban resi-
       spectral acceleration (Sa) have been generated. The                          dence areas. Populations of lower socioeconomic status
       quantified hazard values in terms of the rock level peak                     faced increased risk of injury. However, no differences
       ground acceleration (PGA) are mapped for 10 percent                          in injury rates were observed between rural, urban, and
       probability of exceedance in 50y ears on a grid size of                      peri-urban communities. Study findings suggest that
       0.5km×0.5km. In addition, Uniform Hazard Response                            earthquake preparedness and mitigation efforts should
       Spectrum (UHRS) at rock level is also developed for                          focus on population subgroups of lower socioeconomic
       the 5 percent damping corresponding to 10 percent                            in both rural and urban areas of earthquake-prone
       probability of exceedance in 50 years. The peak ground                       regions.
       acceleration (PGA) value of 0.121g obtained from the



                                                                       19
Fritsche, Stefan, Donat Fah, Brian Steiner, and Domencio                             lesser degree, loss of a father is a significant risk factor
          Giardini. 2009. Damage field and site effects:                             for depression, but not for PTSD. This study extends
          Multidisciplinary studies of the 1964 earthquake                           prior findings documenting post-disaster chronicity of
          series in Central Switzerland. Natural Hazards 48 (2):                     depression and PTSD among bereaved adolescents, and
          203-227.                                                                   underscores the need for post-disaster mental health and
          Central Switzerland shows comparatively high seismic                       social programs, especially for those who suffer the loss
          activity by Swiss standards. Many historical earth-                        of both parents.
          quakes are known and several of them caused damage.
          The last major event dates back to 1964 and has the               Heidarzadeh, Mohammad, Moharram D. Pirooz, Nasser H.
          characteristics of an earthquake swarm. Among dozens                      Zaker, and Ahmet C. Yalciner. 2009. Preliminary esti-
          of felt shocks were two main shocks (Mw=5 and 5.7)                        mation of the tsunami hazards associated with the
          that moderately damaged a limited area with hun-                          Makran subduction zone at the northwestern Indian
          dreds of buildings suffering loss. Our aim here was to                    Ocean. Natural Hazards 48 (2): 229-243.
          reconstruct the damage field and to analyze whether it                    The authors present a preliminary estimation of tsunami
          was influenced by site effects. Given the existence of a                  hazard associated with the Makran subduction zone
          contemporary damage assessment and other historical                       (MSZ) at the northwestern Indian Ocean. Makran is
          sources, we could describe the damage field in detail.                    one of the two main tsunamigenic zones in the Indian
          For about 95 percent of the affected buildings, we could                  Ocean, producing some tsunamis in the past. The north-
          reconstruct the location and extent of loss, using assess-                western Indian Ocean remains one of the least studied
          ments from the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS 98).                      regions in the world in terms of tsunami hazard assess-
          Spatial analysis of the resulting data showed that most                   ment. Hence, a scenario-based method is employed to
          losses were concentrated in the villages of Sarnen and                    provide an estimation of tsunami hazard in this region
          Kerns. Damage to residential houses and barns was                         for the first time. The numerical modeling of tsunami is
          by far most frequent (90 percent), but expensive losses                   verified using historical observations of the 1945 Makran
          to the relatively few sacral buildings were responsible                   tsunami. Then, a number of tsunamis each resulting
          for almost 50 percent of the repair costs. We compared                    from a 1945-type earthquake and spaced evenly along
          the damage data with deposit thickness and soil com-                      the MSZ are simulated. The results indicate that by mov-
          position and carried out field experiments using H/V                      ing a 1945-type earthquake along the MSZ, the southern
          spectral ratios to measure the fundamental frequency of                   coasts of Iran and Pakistan will experience the largest
          ground resonance at 75 sites to estimate the frequency                    waves with heights of between 5 and 7 meters, depend-
          band in which amplification occurs. Our results show                      ing on the location of the source. The tsunami will
          that locations on both thick fluviatile sediments and                     reach a height of about 5 m and 2 m in northern coast
          large alluvial cones showed higher intensities than did                   of Oman and eastern coast of the United Arab Emirates,
          other ground types. Moreover, at some sites, intensity                    respectively.
          was probably increased by a layer of weathered rock
          below thin deposits.                                              Jaiswal, R.K., A.P. Singh, and B.K. Rastogi. 2009. Simulation of
                                                                                     the Arabian Sea Tsunami propagation generated due
Goenjian, Amen K., David Walling, Alan M. Steinberg,                                 to 1945 Makran Earthquake and its effect on west-
        Alexandra Roussos, Haig A. Goenjian, and Robert S.                           ern parts of Gujarat (India). Natural Hazards 48 (2):
        Pynoos. 2009. Depression and PTSD symptoms among                             245-258.
        bereaved adolescents 6½ years after the 1988 Spitak                          The 1945 tsunami generated due to Makran Earthquake
        earthquake. Journal of Affective Disorders 112 (1-3):                        in the Arabian Sea was the most devastating tsunami in
        81-84.                                                                       the history of the Arabian Sea, causing severe damage
        This article compares depression and post-traumatic                          to property and loss of life. The earthquake occurred
        stress syndrome symptoms of parentally bereaved ado-                         on November 28, 1945, 21:56 UTC (03:26 IST) with a
        lescents and a comparison group after a catastrophic                         magnitude of 8.0, originating off the Makran Coast
        natural disaster. Six and a half years after the Spitak                      of Pakistan in the Arabian Sea. It impacted as far as
        earthquake, 48 parentally bereaved adolescents and                           Mumbai in India and was noticed up to Karvar Coast,
        a comparison group of 44 subjects with no parental                           Karnataka. More than 4,000 people were killed as a
        loss were evaluated using the Depression Self-Rating                         result of the earthquake and the tsunami. In this paper
        Scale (DSRS) and Child Posttraumatic Stress Disorder                         an attempt is made for a numerical simulation of the
        Reaction Index (CPTSD-RI). Orphans scored signifi-                           tsunami generation from the source, its propagation
        cantly higher on depression than those who lost a father,                    into the Arabian Sea, and its effect on the western coast
        who in turn scored significantly higher than those who                       of India through the use of a numerical model, referred
        lost a mother. Depression scores for orphans fell above                      to as Tsunami-N2. The present simulation is carried
        the cutoff for clinical depression, while those who lost                     out for a duration of 300 minutes. It is observed from
        a father scored slightly below. PTSD scores within each                      the results that the simulated arrival time of tsunami
        group fell in the moderate range of severity, with girls                     waves at the western coast of India is in good agreement
        scoring higher than boys. As self-report instruments                         with the available data sources. The paper also presents
        were used, responses may have been over or under-                            run-up elevation maps prepared using Shuttle Radar
        reported. Participants belonged to the same ethnic                           Topographic Mission (SRTM) data, showing the possible
        group and therefore the results may not be generaliz-                        area of inundation due to various wave heights along
        able to other populations. Loss of both parents and, to a                    different parts of the Gujarat Coast. These results will



                                                                       20
         be useful in planning protection measures against inun-                    investment in the United States which, when exposed to
         dation due to tsunami and in the implementation of a                       hurricanes, earthquakes, and other natural hazards, may
         warning system.                                                            sustain substantial damage. Although in many parts of
                                                                                    the country one natural hazard dominates, in certain
Kasapoglu, Aytul, Feryal Turan, and Ali Donmez. 2009. Impacts                       areas multiple hazards may pose a significant threat to
       of disasters: Comparisons of several worries in Turkey.                      buildings. Building design and construction practices
       Stress and Health 25 (1): 63-70.                                             should address the overall risk to residential construc-
       This paper defines respondents’ levels of worries to find                    tion from multiple hazards to achieve design strategies
       out the main predictors of each worry factor by compar-                      and risk levels that are consistent with occupant expec-
       ing the results of earthquake (2001) and bird flu (2006)                     tations and social objectives. This paper presents a
       studies carried out in Turkey. Assuming that the criti-                      framework for multi-hazard risk assessment using hur-
       cal power-conflict perspective was appropriate; several                      ricane and earthquake hazards as an example. Structural
       types of worries, namely, traffic accidents, natural disas-                  reliability-based methods that describe natural hazard
       ters, unemployment, health and sickness, nuclear plants,                     and structural system response probabilistically are
       war and terrorism, and environmental problems defined                        essential for quantifying expected losses from natural
       by Kamano have been analyzed using parametric and                            disasters and for developing appropriate strategies to
       non-parametric statistical significance tests. The results                   manage risk. The framework permits the main sources
       revealed that earthquake hazards affected respondents’                       of uncertainty that affect building performance to be
       level of worries more than bird flu disease, mainly                          identified, and provides insight on strategies for effec-
       because of the enormous economic and human losses                            tive multi-hazard mitigation efforts.
       of the 1999 earthquake. It was also found that the main
       predictors were not the same for both studies: the educa-            Miles, S.B., and D.K. Keefer. 2009. Toward a comprehensive
       tion variable was more effective on the level of worries                      areal model of earthquake-induced landslides. Natural
       of earthquake survivors, and gender was more influen-                         Hazards Review 10 (1): 19-28.
       tial for the bird flu study.                                                  This paper provides a review of regional scale modeling
                                                                                     of earthquake-induced landslide hazard with respect
Laraby, Patrick R., Margaret Bourdeaux, S. Ward Casscells,                           to the needs for disaster risk reduction and sustainable
         David J. Smith, and Lynn Lawry. 2009. Humanitarian                          development. It sets out important research themes
         assistance and disaster relief: Changing the face of                        and suggests computing with words (CW), a method-
         defense. American Journal of Disaster Medicine 4 (1):                       ology that includes fuzzy logic systems, as a fruitful
         33-40.                                                                      modeling methodology for addressing many of these
         The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is evolving to                         research themes. A range of research, reviewed here,
         meet new security challenges in the twenty-first cen-                       has been conducted applying CW to various aspects
         tury. Today’s challenges result from growing political,                     of earthquake-induced landslide hazard zonation, but
         environmental, and economic instability in important                        none facilitate comprehensive modeling of all types of
         areas of the globe that threaten national and global                        earthquake-induced landslides. A new comprehensive
         security. Immediate outreach to foreign nations in times                    areal model of earthquake-induced landslides CAMEL
         of violent instability or natural disaster fosters security                 is introduced here that was developed using fuzzy logic
         and stability both for the affected country and for the                     systems. CAMEL provides an integrated framework for
         United States. Foreign humanitarian assistance (FHA)                        modeling all types of earthquake-induced landslides
         is a rapidly evolving military mission that addresses                       using geographic information systems. CAMEL is
         conflict prevention, conflict, post-conflict, and natu-                     designed to facilitate quantitative and qualitative rep-
         ral disasters. With DOD’s extensive global medical                          resentation of terrain conditions and knowledge about
         resources, it is often uniquely qualified to play a criti-                  these conditions on the likely areal concentration of
         cal role in relief and/or public health efforts. When and                   each landslide type. CAMEL is highly modifiable and
         how the American military will act in FHA and disas-                        adaptable. New knowledge can be easily added, while
         ter relief is a still-evolving doctrine with three issues                   existing knowledge can be changed to better match local
         deserving particular attention: aligning operations with                    knowledge and conditions. As such, CAMEL should not
         host government leadership; preserving humanitarian                         be viewed as a complete alternative to other earthquake-
         space; and tailoring the military’s unique resources to                     induced landslide models. CAMEL provides an open
         the specific political and medical situation at hand. The                   framework for incorporating other models, such as
         DOD’s response to a large-scale earthquake in Peru sug-                     Newmark’s displacement method, together with previ-
         gests useful approaches to these three issues, provides a                   ously incompatible empirical and local knowledge.
         template for future FHA mission, and points to strategic
         decisions and operational capabilities that need further           Nakamura, Karen. 2009. Disability, destitution, and disaster:
         development to establish the FHA mission firmly within                   Surviving the 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake in
         DOD’s repertoire of security engagement activities.                      Japan. Human Organization 68 (1): 82-88.
                                                                                  On the morning of January 17, 1995, a magnitude 7.3
Li, Yue, and Bruce R. Ellingwood. 2009. Framework for                             earthquake struck the port city of Kobe, Japan. 6,400
          multi-hazard risk assessment and mitigation for wood-                   people died and over $80 billion in property damage
          frame residential construction. Journal of Structural                   occurred. Among those rendered homeless was a small
          Engineering 135 (2): 159-168.                                           group of people with severe disabilities. Over the next
          Wood-frame residential construction represents a major                  decade, this group leveraged discourses surrounding



                                                                       21
         civil society, disability, poverty, and the role of govern-                 ings, including the inability to make point predictions
         ment in natural disasters, to become one of the most                        of rainfall or create a warning threshold. Meteorological
         powerful and vocal proponents of disability rights in                       Office communications followed a top-to-bottom flow
         Japan. This article discusses what lessons we can learn                     and messages were not clearly understood by institu-
         to make disability advocacy a leading, rather than trail-                   tions, nor did they reach potential recipients in an
         ing, element of social policy.                                              appropriate time frame. A comprehensive response plan
                                                                                     with adequate exercises was needed and no evaluation
Rosset, P., and L.E. Chouinard. 2009. Characterization of site                       framework existed. Golestan EWS is in dire need of
         effects in Montreal, Canada. Natural Hazards 48 (2):                        improvement. To fill in the gaps and ensure local people
         295-308.                                                                    receive timely warnings, the authors propose a com-
         Recent destructive earthquakes have clearly shown                           munity-based model called Village Disaster Taskforce
         that near-surface geological conditions play a major                        (VDT), in which individual villages act as operational
         role in the level of ground shaking in urban areas. In                      units but are interlinked with other villages and the
         Canada, Montreal is ranked second for seismic risk                          PDT.
         after Vancouver considering its population and regional
         seismic hazard. The city is largely built on recent                Berenbrock, C., R.R. Mason, and S.F. Blanchard. 2009. Mapping
         unconsolidated marine and river deposits and most                          Hurricane Rita inland storm tide. Journal of Flood Risk
         of its infrastructure is old and deteriorated. A seismic                   Management 2 (1): 76-82.
         risk project that includes a combined methodology                          Flood inundation data are most useful for decision mak-
         for site effects zoning in large cities, using micro-                      ers when presented in the context of maps of affected
         tremor measurements (H/V method) coupled with 1D                           communities and areas. But because the data are scarce
         numerical modeling (SHAKE91), has been initiated. The                      and rarely cover the full extent of flooding, interpolation
         experimental approach gives good estimates of the fun-                     and extrapolation of the information are needed. Many
         damental frequency of soft deposits, while the numerical                   geographic information systems provide various inter-
         approach provides good estimates of the soil response                      polation tools, but these tools often ignore the effects of
         in terms of amplification factor related to frequency.                     the topographic and hydraulic features that influence
         Main mechanical properties of soft soils were compiled                     flooding. A barrier mapping method was developed
         from various data available, and a sample of input rock                    to improve maps of storm tide produced by Hurricane
         motions from real and synthetic earthquakes was used                       Rita. Maps were developed for the maximum storm tide
         to compute soil response. The influence of marine clays                    and at three hour intervals from midnight (00:00 hours)
         on soil response is significant and is well correlated with                through noon (12:00 hours) on September 24, 2005. The
         thickness of these deposits. PGA amplification factors                     improved maps depict storm tide elevations and the
         range from 2 to 4 at frequencies from 2 to 7Hz, with                       extent of flooding. The extent of storm tide inunda-
         some occasional larger values. The results demonstrate                     tion from the improved maximum storm tide map was
         that the methodology used for our study is both fast and                   compared with the extent of flood inundation from a
         efficient to determine the influence of soft soils in urban                map prepared by the Federal Emergency Management
         environments. Such studies are essential for the effective                 Agency (FEMA). The boundaries from these two maps
         deployment of seismic instrumentation, land-use plan-                      generally compared quite well especially along the
         ning and seismic mitigation.                                               Calcasieu River. Also a cross-section profile that parallels
                                                                                    the Louisiana coast was developed from the maximum
Flood                                                                               storm tide map and included FEMA high-water marks.

Ardalan, Ali, Kourosh Holakouie Naieni, Mohamad-Javad                       Bissell, Richard A., Andrew Bumbak, Matthew Levy, and
        Kabir, Ali-Mohamad Zanganeh, Abbas-Ali Keshtkar,                              Patrick Echebi. 2009. Long-term global threat assess-
        Mohamad-Reza Honarvar, Hanieh Khodaie, and                                    ment: Challenging new roles for emergency managers.
        Mehdi Osooli. 2009. Evaluation of Golestan Province’s                         Journal of Emergency Management 7 (1): 19-37.
        early warning system for flash floods, Iran, 2006-2007.                       Based on currently available published data and litera-
        International Journal of Biometeorology (ePub).                               ture from multiple disciplines, this article introduces
        Golestan, a province located in northeastern Iran, is well                    medium- and long-term global developments and
        known for deadly flash floods. This study evaluated the                       changes that will likely impact human society in disas-
        region’s early warning system (EWS) for flash floods                          trous or even catastrophic fashion, with significant
        using an adapted version of the questionnaire developed                       impact on the roles and challenges of emergency man-
        by the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster                     agers. Some of the phenomena described include the
        Reduction (UNISDR). Golestan EWS documents were                               following: (1) loss of fresh water, (2) significant sea level
        reviewed and a qualitative study using interviews of                          rise with resultant flooding, (3) increased heat leading to
        experts and affected people in Kalaleh and Minoodasht,                        desertification and crop losses, (4) storms that are both
        was conducted. Results were discussed by an expert                            more frequent and more violent, (5) massive food emer-
        panel. Risk knowledge included a hazard map at the                            gencies as crops fail for lack of water and/or saltwater
        Provincial Disaster Taskforce (PDT), although no risk                         inundation, (6) loss of the petroleum-based economy,
        analysis was available. Local people were aware of expo-                      and (7) massive population relocations on a level the
        sure to flooding, but not aware of the hazard map or                          world has never experienced. The perspective used
        their vulnerability. In terms of monitoring and warning,                      is global, in that the trends described do not respect
        PDT faced serious limitations in issuing early warn-                          political boundaries. We also recognize that mitigation



                                                                       22
         and response activities may well involve many nations                          igation policies in Florida from 1999 to 2005. It tracks 18
         simultaneously. The article concludes with suggestions                         different mitigation activities organized into four series
         of steps emergency management should take in pre-                              of activities under the Federal Emergency Management
         paring to serve new and more complex tasks to meet                             Agency’s (FEMA) Community Rating System (CRS)
         coming challenges, and a “call to action” for emergency                        for every local jurisdiction in Florida participating in
         managers to assume a more active role in confronting                           the FEMA program on a yearly time step. The article
         the risks imposed by forces that are now underway.                             then identifies the major factors contributing to policy
                                                                                        changes based on CRS scores over the seven-year study
Bosher, Lee, Andrew Dainty, Patricia Carillo, Jacqueline Glass,                         period. Using multivariate statistical models to ana-
         and Andrew Price. 2009. Attaining improved resilience                          lyze both natural and social science data, the effects of
         to floods: A proactive multi-stakeholder approach.                             several variables are isolated and categorized into the
         Disaster Prevention and Management 18 (1): 9-22.                               following groups: hydrologic conditions, flood disaster
         There is a need to proactively address strategic weak-                         history, and socioeconomic and human capital controls.
         nesses in protecting the built environment from a range                        Results indicate that local jurisdictions do in fact learn
         of hazards. This paper seeks to focus on the mitigation                        from histories of flood risk and this process is expedited
         for flood hazards in the United Kingdom, particularly                          under specific conditions.
         in understanding the extent of the problem, collating
         key guidance and legislation related to flood hazard                  Calver, A., E. Stewart, and G. Goodsell. 2009. Comparative anal-
         mitigation, identifying who the key construction deci-                         ysis of statistical and catchment modeling approaches
         sion makers are, and the most opportune stages of the                          to river flood frequency estimation. Journal of Flood
         design-construction-operation process when key deci-                           Risk Management 2 (1): 24-31.
         sions are needed. A pluralistic research design was                            This paper compares the quantification of British river
         adopted for the study, which included a UK-wide ques-                          floods using two approaches—the Flood Estimation
         tionnaire survey and a set of semi-structured interviews                       Handbook (FEH) flood peak and event-based method
         involving a range of professionals from construction,                          and recently developed continuous simulation tech-
         planning, insurance, emergency management and local/                           niques that use parameter-sparse modeling of flood
         national government agencies was undertaken. Despite                           catchment flood runoff. The methods were applied to
         the publication of a range of guidance on flood hazard                         over 100 sites in Britain and treated as if there were
         mitigation in the UK, there is still insufficient evidence                     no flow data. Although such observations did exist;
         that key construction stakeholders are playing an active                       they were used only for testing. Errors of =20 per-
         role in mitigating flood risk. The preconstruction phase                       cent in peak flows at ungauged sites are very good in
         of a building’s life cycle is identified as the critical stage                 this hydrologically challenging context; errors of up
         at which key stakeholders must adopt flood hazard                              to around 35 percent might have to be addressed by
         mitigation strategies. The socio-institutional constraints                     flood management practice. The results from the FEH
         to the proactive attainment of built-in resilience are                         statistical method reinforced its established role in peak-
         highlighted, as are recommendations about how these                            flow estimation. The emerging continuous simulation
         constraints can be addressed. The paper reports on the                         approaches show considerable potential for peaks and
         provisional findings of an ongoing project but these                           flow time series. The errors associated with the FEH-unit
         findings nonetheless provide essential foundations for                         hydrograph approach reflect the additional challenge
         the latter development of the PRE-EMPT toolkit and                             of incorporating ungauged rainfall estimation and
         raise some important considerations about flood resil-                         ungauged discharge.
         ience in the UK. The findings presented reveal how
         stakeholders should be more involved, and what issues                 Carroll, Bob, Hazel Morbey, Ruth Balogh, and Gonzalo Araoz.
         must be addressed regarding the integration of built-in                        2009. Flooded homes, broken bonds, the meaning of
         resilience into construction decision making.                                  home, psychological processes and their impact on
                                                                                        psychological health in a disaster. Health and Place 15
Brody, Samuel D., Sammy Zahran, Wesley E. Highfield, Sarah                              (2): 540-547.
        P. Bernhardt, and Arnold Vedlitz. 2009. Policy learning                         In 2005, Carlisle suffered severe flooding that affected
        for flood mitigation: A longitudinal assessment of the                          1,600 houses. Social and health impacts were examined
        Community Rating System in Florida. Risk Analysis                               in a qualitative study that interviewed those whose
        (ePub).                                                                         homes had been flooded, as well as the workers who
        Floods continue to inflict the most damage upon human                           supported them. The findings showed many people
        communities among all natural hazards in the United                             suffered from severe disruption to their lives, dam-
        States. Because localized flooding tends to be spatially                        age to their homes, and psychological health issues.
        repetitive over time, local decision makers often have                          Phenomenological and transactional perspectives were
        an opportunity to learn from previous events and make                           used in analyzing the psychological processes (identity,
        proactive policy adjustments to reduce the adverse                              attachment, alienation, and dialectics) that underlay
        effects of a subsequent storm. Despite the importance                           the meaning of home and its impact on psychological
        of understanding the degree to which local jurisdictions                        health. Proposals for policy and practice are made.
        learn from flood risks and under what circumstances,
        little if any empirical, longitudinal research has been                Chang, Heejun, Jon Franczyk, and Changhwan Kim. 2009. What
        conducted along these lines. This article addresses the                        is responsible for increasing flood risks? The case of
        research gap by examining the change in local flood mit-                       Gangwon Province, Korea. Natural Hazards 48 (3):



                                                                          23
         339-354.                                                          Golding, B.W. 2009. Uncertainty propagation in a London flood
         The authors examined the anthropogenic and natural                        simulation. Journal of Flood Risk Management 2 (1):
         causes of flood risks in six representative cities in the                 2-15.
         Gangwon Province of Korea. Flood damage per capita                        Following recent costly flood events in the United
         is mostly explained by cumulative upper five percent                      Kingdom, there is considerable societal and political
         summer precipitation amount and the year. The increas-                    pressure to reduce flooding and improve warnings. In
         ing flood damage is also associated with deforestation                    response to this, the Flood Risk Management Research
         in upstream areas and intensive land use in lowlands.                     Consortium (FRMRC) has been created to investigate
         Human encroachment on floodplains made these urban                        the potential of several areas of existing research to be
         communities more vulnerable to floods. Without chang-                     brought into operational use. In this paper, the estima-
         es in the current flood management systems of these                       tion of flood impact and probability is analyzed and
         cities, their vulnerability to flood risks will remain and                illustrated with examples from a simulated forecast of
         may even increase under changing climate conditions.                      a Thames Estuary flood event carried out at a FRMRC
                                                                                   workshop. The forecast modeling chain consisted of
De Brujin, K.M., and F. Klijn. 2009. Risky places in the                           meteorology, storm surge, estuary hydrodynamics,
        Netherlands: A first approximation for floods. Journal                     defense failure and inundation. The workshop con-
        of Flood Risk Management 2 (1): 58-67.                                     cluded that end-to-end propagation of probability was
        Flood risk maps are considered useful tools for flood                      feasible in an integrated real-time flood forecasting
        risk management, including spatial planning. In the                        system, and that the basis of such a system had been
        Netherlands, flood risk is usually assessed for large                      demonstrated.
        geographical units at the dike-ring scale. Flood risk
        differences within dike rings can be large, however.               Heidari, A. 2009. Structural master plan of flood mitigation
        Maps providing information on flood risks and a more                        measures. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences
        detailed spatial scale of risk can help prioritize flood                    9 (1): 61-75.
        control measures or land-use planning. This paper                           Flood protection is one of the practical methods in dam-
        focuses on the identification of risky places in the                        age reduction. Although it not possible to be completely
        Netherlands, i.e. places where many flood fatalities can                    protected from flood disaster, a major part of the dam-
        be expected because of their hazards and vulnerability.                     age can be reduced by mitigation plans. In this paper,
        The method factors the likelihood and number of fatali-                     the optimum flood mitigation master plan is determined
        ties into hazard, vulnerability, and exposure factors.                      by economic evaluation, trading off construction costs
                                                                                    and the expected value of damage reduction as the bene-
Freudenburg, William R., Robert Gramling, Shirley Laska, and                        fit. Size of certain mitigation alternatives is also obtained
       Kai T. Erikson. 2008. Organizing hazards, engineering                        from risk analysis by accepting the possibility of flood
       disasters? Improving the recognition of political-eco-                       overtopping. Different flood mitigation alternatives are
       nomic factors in the creation of disasters. Social Forces                    investigated from various aspects in the Dez and Karun
       87 (2): 1015-1038.                                                           river floodplain areas as a case study in southwest
       Disaster studies have made important progress in rec-                        Iran. The results show that detention dam and flood
       ognizing the unequally distributed consequences of                           diversion are the best alternatives of flood mitigation
       disasters, but there has been less progress in analyz-                       methods, along with enforcing the flood control pur-
       ing social factors that help create “natural” disasters.                     pose of upstream multipurpose reservoirs. Dike and
       Even well-known patterns of hazard creation tend to                          levees are not justifiable because of negative impact on
       be interpreted generically—as representing “economic                         downstream by enhancing routed flood peak discharge
       development” or “capitalism”—rather than through                             magnitude and flood damages as well.
       focusing on the more specific dynamics involved. This
       article illustrates this point with two recent and well-            Heitz, Carine, Sandrine Spaeter, Anne-Veronique Auzet, and
       known cases of flooding—those in the upper Mississippi                       Sandrine Glatron. 2009. Local stakeholders’ perception
       River Valley and in the Katrina-related devastation of                       of muddy flood risk and implications for management
       New Orleans. In the former case, damage was caused in                        approaches: A case study in Alsace (France). Land Use
       part by building the very kinds of higher and stronger                       Policy 26 (2): 443-451.
       flood walls that were shown to be inadequate in the                          The inventory of muddy floods in France indicates that
       latter. In the New Orleans case, a more important fac-                       the occurrence of these events seriously increased in the
       tor in the death and destruction was the excavation of                       northwest and east of the country. Muddy floods trigger-
       a transportation canal. In both cases, and many more,                        ing can largely be explained by physical characteristics
       the underlying causes of damage to humans as well as                         such as a hilly topography, soils prone to crust, or heavy
       to the environment has involved a three-part pattern,                        rainfall in spring. Although the physical processes are
       supported by the political system: spreading the costs;                      well known, and despite increasing information about
       concentrating the economic benefits; and hiding the real                     the need of mitigation measures, no significant reduc-
       risks. In very real senses, these have been floods of folly,                 tion of these disasters has been registered. Therefore,
       created not just by extreme weather events, but by dead-                     this should be explained by factors others than scientific
       ly and avoidable patterns of political-economic choices.                     reasons or technical knowledge acquisition difficul-
       Comparable patterns appear to deserve greater attention                      ties. This paper deals with a study of muddy flood risk
       in other contexts, as well.                                                  in five municipalities belonging to three catchments
                                                                                    (AlsaceNE France). These catchments have suffered



                                                                      24
         from several muddy flood events in the past 20 years,                        study found that neither university library in the study
         and, despite the implementation of mitigation measures,                      had a disaster plan at the time of the flood and still don’t
         no decrease of their frequency has occurred. This study                      have plans in place for future disasters.
         focuses on risk perception. The authors assume that
         obtaining information on risk perception contributes to             Kron, W. 2009. Flood insurance: From clients to global financial
         the understanding of the main social factors that should                    markets. Journal of Flood Risk Management 2 (1): 68-75.
         be taken into account in an efficient muddy flood risk                      Weather-related natural catastrophes are increasing
         management policy. To gather data, they used surveys                        worldwide in number and intensity, and losses have
         based on individuals’ interviews and questionnaires,                        reached new levels. This represents a challenge that
         focusing on the local stakeholders in charge of the risk                    must be faced by governments, the people concerned,
         management. A sampling strategy based on a spatial                          and the financial sector, both nationally and globally.
         distinction of runoff areas was used to select the areas                    Flood insurance is rare in most countries, but the devel-
         to be surveyed. The survey results highlight significant                    opment of solutions to make flood risk more insurable
         differences in perception among respondents. These dif-                     has gained momentum. There is no ideal flood insurance
         ferences depend in particular on their location within                      scheme, as each situation is influenced by factors such as
         the catchment (i.e., erosion or sedimentation area).                        risk-adequate premium structure, adverse selection, and
         Moreover, almost the half of the respondents trust infor-                   general risk awareness. Solutions tailored to the situa-
         mation provided by the local authorities. The results                       tion in each respective country must be found. While
         provide some insights about the type and the source                         rich countries have to find ways to handle record losses
         of information related to risk mitigation that should be                    of $100 billion and more, poor countries need micro-
         considered when implementing an efficient regulation                        insurance to provide people with at least a minimum of
         policy.                                                                     financial security. The insurance industry has through
                                                                                     the reinsurance sector established a system to pay local
Karrasch, B., M. Mehrens, and U. Link. 2009. Increased inci-                         monetary losses globally. In the wake of extremely
        dence of saprophytic bacteria, coliforms and E. coli                         expensive catastrophes, a system involving the whole
        following severe flooding requires risk assessment                           financial market has great potential.
        for human health: Results of the River Elbe flood in
        August 2002. Journal of Flood Risk Management 2 (1):                 Kurian, N.P., N. Nirupama, M. Baba, and K.V. Thomas. 2009.
        16-23.                                                                       Coastal flooding due to synoptic scale, meso-scale and
        In August 2002, flooding in the Elbe valley caused severe                    remote forcings. Natural Hazards 48 (2): 259-273.
        damage of sewage treatment plants and networks.                              Coastal flooding occurs due to storm surges generated
        This article investigates the impact of flooding on the                      by tropical and extra-tropical cyclones on the globe.
        bacteriological water quality (colony-forming units of                       The meteorological forcing fields for the generation of
        saprophytic bacteria, coliform bacteria and Escherichia                      storm surges are the tangential surface wind stress on
        coli) compared with levels from previous and subse-                          the ocean surface and the normal atmospheric pres-
        quent years. The flood introduced organic matter and                         sure gradients associated with the weather systems.
        elevated saprophytic bacteria levels, and a general                          The large scale forcing from the cyclones is referred to
        increase of coliform bacteria. Markedly high loads of                        as the synoptic scale. Storm surge prediction from syn-
        coliforms and E. coli were detected in the water column                      optic scale forcing is well developed and is reasonably
        in areas where damage to sewage treatment plants was                         satisfactory around the world. However, coastal flood-
        rife, exceeding the European Commission’s Bathing                            ing also occurs from weather systems, with forcing on a
        Water Directive. The rapid disappearance from the water                      meso-scale and also from remote forcing. It is proposed
        column may partly be caused by sedimentation creat-                          here that the term “storm surge” be used to only refer
        ing deposits on pasture, farmland and in built-up areas,                     to coastal flooding from synoptic scale forcing and the
        which could represent a health hazard. Future flood risk                     terminology “rissaga” be used for coastal flooding from
        reduction should therefore be focused on the protection                      meso-scale forcing. For flooding due to remote forcing, a
        of sewage systems and hygienic monitoring of floodwa-                        new term “kallakkadal” is proposed.
        ter and flood sediments.
                                                                             Lein, Haakon. 2009. The poorest and most vulnerable? On
Kaur, Trishanjit. 2009. Disaster planning in university libraries                    hazards, livelihoods and labeling of riverine com-
         in India: A neglected area. New Library World 110 (3/4):                    munities in Bangladesh. Singapore Journal of Tropical
         175-187.                                                                    Geography 30 (1): 98-113.
         This paper looks into the neglected area of disaster plan-                  Within the field of hazard research, vulnerability studies
         ning in university libraries in India. It is a case study of                have been central to inducing a shift in the perspective
         two university libraries in Punjab that were impacted by                    on disasters as being primarily inflicted by geophysical
         flooding in July 1993. Their experiences with the disas-                    events to that of apprehending disasters as destructive
         ter, losses incurred, and action taken in the libraries is                  outcomes of particular social as well as hazardous envi-
         discussed. Annual reports of the universities were used                     ronmental conditions. However, the inherent tendency
         along with face-to-face interviews with the librarian and                   within vulnerability studies to classify certain areas or
         the deputy librarian of the two university libraries who                    people as “vulnerable” may in some cases also serve
         had experienced the floods. One university library lost                     to reinforce popular or ingrained prejudices, negative
         just over 70 per cent of its collection in flood. The other                 stereotypes, dubious explanations of living conditions,
         was fortunate and only minor loss was reported. The                         and the fate of specific communities that become so



                                                                        25
         labeled. The riverbanks and islands in river courses of            Sheng, Jingfen, and John P. Wilson. 2009. Watershed urban-
         Bangladesh have long been portrayed as home to the                          ization and changing flood behavior across the Los
         “poorest” and most vulnerable communities, the wide-                        Angeles metropolitan region. Natural Hazards 48 (1):
         spread assumption being that people would only live in                      41-57.
         such riverine environments because they have no other                       This article examines the effects of watershed urban-
         options. Drawing on an examination of existing litera-                      ization on stream flood behavior in the Los Angeles
         ture on char settlements in Bangladesh and data from                        metropolitan region. Stream gauge data, spatially dis-
         a field site in the Jamuna River, this paper argues that                    tributed rainfall data, land use/land cover, and census
         the prevailing perceptions and labeling of char dwellers                    population data were used to quantify change in flood
         as “vulnerable” people is based on a far too simplistic                     behavior and urbanization in multiple watersheds.
         understanding of both rural migration patterns and the                      Increase in flood discharge started at the very early stage
         livelihoods obtained in these riverine areas.                               of the urbanization when the population density was
                                                                                     relatively low but the rate of increase of flood discharge
Maantay, Juliana, and Andrew Maroko. 2009. Mapping urban                             varied across watersheds depending on the distribu-
       risk: Flood hazards, race, and environmental justice in                       tion of the imperviousness surface and flood mitigation
       New York. Applied Geography 29 (1): 111-124.                                  practices. This spatial variability in rainfall-runoff
       This paper demonstrates the importance of disaggre-                           indices and the increasing flood risk across the metro-
       gating population data aggregated by census tracts or                         politan region has posed a challenge to conventional
       other units, for more realistic population distribution                       flood emergency management, which usually responds
       and location. A newly developed mapping method, the                           to flood damages rather than being concerned with the
       Cadastral-based Expert Dasymetric System (CEDS),                              broader issues of land use, land cover, and planning.
       calculates population in hyper-heterogeneous urban                            This study points out that alternative land use planning
       areas better than traditional mapping techniques. A case                      and flood management practices could mitigate urban
       study estimating population potentially impacted by                           flood hazard.
       flood hazard in New York City compares the impacted
       population determined by CEDS with that derived by                   Veerbeek, W., and C. Zevenbergen. 2009. Deconstructing urban
       centroid-containment method and filtered areal-weight-                       flood damages: Increasing the expressiveness of flood
       ing interpolation. Compared to CEDS, 37 percent and                          damage models combining a high level of detail with a
       72 percent fewer people are estimated to be at risk from                     broad attribute set. Journal of Flood Risk Management
       floods citywide, using conventional areal weighting of                       2 (1): 45-57.
       census data, and centroid-containment selection, respec-                     Climate change increases uncertainty regarding the
       tively. Undercounting of impacted population could                           frequency and severity of flood events, posing new chal-
       have serious implications for emergency management                           lenges for urban areas often located along major rivers.
       and disaster planning. Ethnic and racial populations                         Current flood damage assessment methods often ignore
       are also spatially disaggregated to determine any envi-                      the level of differentiation found in the urban fabric.
       ronmental justice impacts with flood risk. Minorities                        Their level of detail is too coarse and limits possibilities
       are disproportionately undercounted using traditional                        of tailor-made solutions based on refined insights on the
       methods. Underestimating more vulnerable subpopula-                          severity, distribution, and horizon of expected impacts.
       tions impairs preparedness and relief efforts.                               As part of the Urban Flood Management project for
                                                                                    the city of Dordrecht, the Netherlands, a flood damage
Meyer, Volker, Sebastian Scheuer, and Dagmar Haase. 2009. A                         assessment model was developed using a substantially
        multicriteria approach for flood risk mapping exempli-                      higher level of detail than used in current practice. The
        fied at the Mulde River, Germany. Natural Hazards 48                        model incorporates methods of analysis linking the
        (1): 17-39.                                                                 spatial distribution of flood damages, flood damage
        This paper develops a GIS-based multicriteria flood                         composition, age of the building stock, and a range of
        risk assessment and mapping approach. This approach                         other attributes to gain a comprehensive view on the
        includes flood risks which are not measured in mon-                         financial consequences of urban flooding. The output
        etary terms. It shows the spatial distribution of multiple                  provides a foundation for integration of flood proofing
        risks, and it is able to deal with uncertainties in criteria                schemes into urban development and redevelopment.
        values to show their influence on the overall flood risk
        assessment. The approach demonstrates the spatial                   Gender & Vulnerable Populations
        allocation of the flood effects if risk reduction measures
        are implemented. The approach is applied to a pilot                 Anastario, Michael, Nadine Shehab, and Lynn Lawry. 2009.
        study for the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany, heavily                       Increased gender-based violence among women
        affected by the hazardous flood in 2002. A GIS database                     internally displaced in Mississippi two years post-
        of economic, social, and environmental risk criteria was                    Hurricane Katrina. Disaster Medicine and Public Health
        created. Two different multicriteria decision rules—a                       Preparedness 3 (1): 18-26.
        disjunctive and an additive weighting approach—are                          Although different types of gender-based violence
        utilized for an overall flood risk assessment in the area.                  (GBV) have been documented in disaster-affected
        For implementation, a software tool (FloodCalc) was                         populations, no studies have documented a quantita-
        developed supporting both, the risk calculation of the                      tive increase in rates of GBV among populations living
        single criteria as well as the multicriteria analysis.                      in protracted displacement after a disaster. The authors
                                                                                    assessed the change in rates of GBV after Hurricane



                                                                       26
         Katrina among internally displaced people (IDPs) living           Doocy, Shannon, Amy Daniels, and Daniel Aspilcueta. 2009.
         in travel trailer parks in Mississippi. The study design                  Mortality and injury following the 2007 Ica earthquake
         included successive cross-sectional randomized surveys,                   in Peru. American Journal of Disaster Medicine 4 (1):
         conducted in 2006 and 2007, among IDPs in Mississippi                     15-22.
         using a structured questionnaire. The authors sampled                     This paper quantifies earthquake injury and mortal-
         50 travel trailer parks in nine counties in Mississippi in                ity from the 2007 Ica earthquake in Peru and assesses
         2006, and 69 parks in 20 counties in 2007. A total of 420                 earthquake-related risk and vulnerability. The design
         female respondents comprised the final sample. The                        was a population-based cluster survey of households
         authors measured respondent demographics, forms of                        in the region most affected by the quake. A stratified
         GBV including sexual and physical violence further sub-                   cluster survey design was used to allow for comparison
         typed by perpetrator, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt,                 between urban, peri-urban, and rural areas, where dif-
         and Patient Health Questionnaire-assessed depression.                     ferent outcomes were anticipated as a result of variation
         Respondents had a mean age of 42.7 years. The crude                       in building practices and access to post-earthquake
         rate of new cases of GBV among women increased from                       assistance. A total of 42 clusters of 16 households were
         4.6/100,000 per day to 16.3/100,000 per day in 2006,                      planned to allow for comparison between the loca-
         and remained elevated at 10.1/100,000 per day in 2007.                    tion types and to ensure adequate spatial coverage.
         The increase was primarily driven by the increase in                      The four affected provinces are in southern Peru: Ica,
         intimate partner violence. GBV experience was signifi-                    Pisco, Chincha, and Canete. A total of 672 randomly
         cantly associated with increased risk for poor mental                     selected households with a combined population of
         health outcomes. Overall, the rate of GBV, particularly                   3,608 individuals, of which 3,484 (97 percent) were
         intimate partner violence, increased within the year fol-                 reported as household members on the day of the
         lowing Hurricane Katrina and did not return to baseline                   earthquake. Mortality and injury rates in the four most
         during the protracted phase of displacement. Disaster                     affected provinces were estimated at 1.4 deaths per 1,000
         planning efforts should incorporate plans to decrease                     exposed (95 CI: 0.5-3.3) and 29 injuries per 1,000 exposed
         the incidence of GBV following a disaster, and to ensure                  (95 CI: 6-52). Older adults and members of households
         adequate services to people with post-disaster GBV                        of lower socioeconomic status faced increased risk of
         experience.                                                               injury. No significant differences in injury rates were
                                                                                   observed between rural, urban, and peri-urban resi-
Angeletti, Michelle A. 2009. Breastfeeding support in emer-                        dence areas. Populations of lower socioeconomic status
        gencies: Policy implications for humanitarian relief                       faced increased risk of injury. However, no differences
        agencies. Journal of Emergency Management 7 (1): 39-44.                    in injury rates were observed between rural, urban, and
        While breastfeeding provides numerous benefits to                          peri-urban communities. Study findings suggest that
        infants and young children, these benefits are espe-                       earthquake preparedness and mitigation efforts should
        cially evident during and after emergencies. This article                  focus on population subgroups of lower socioeconomic
        describes the benefits of breastfeeding in emergencies                     in both rural and urban areas of earthquake-prone
        and provides guidelines that can be implemented by                         regions.
        humanitarian relief agencies to protect, promote, and
        support breastfeeding.                                             Ebert, Annemarie, Norman Kerle, and Alfred Stein. 2009. Urban
                                                                                   social vulnerability assessment with physical proxies
Bhushan, Braj, and J. Sathya Kumar. 2009. Emotional distress                       and spatial metrics derived from air- and spaceborne
       and posttraumatic stress in children: The impact of                         imagery and GIS data. Natural Hazards 48 (2): 275-294.
       direct versus indirect exposure. Journal of Loss and                        Risk management in urban planning is of increasing
       Trauma 14 (1): 35-45.                                                       importance to mitigate the growing amount of dam-
       This study examined whether familiarity with the                            age and the increasing number of casualties caused by
       physical environment and verbal/pictorial exposure                          natural disasters. Risk assessment to support manage-
       to a tsunami also induced posttraumatic stress symp-                        ment requires knowledge about present and future
       toms in adolescents. The Impact of Event Scale (IES)                        hazards, elements at risk, and different types of vulner-
       and Pediatric Emotional Distress Scale (PEDS) were                          ability. This article deals with the assessment of social
       administered to 231 subjects (130 directly exposed and                      vulnerability (SV). In the past this has been neglected
       101 indirectly exposed). The directly exposed group                         because of a lack of data and assessment difficulties.
       scored high on the IES and PEDS. A significant sex dif-                     Existing approaches for SV assessment, primarily based
       ference was observed on all three dimensions of the IES,                    on community-based methods or on census data, have
       and fearful and traumatic event-related dimensions of                       limited efficiency and transferability. In this article a
       PEDS, with females at a higher risk compared to males.                      new method based on contextual analysis of image and
       In the indirectly exposed group, no sex difference was                      GIS data is presented. An approach based on proxy vari-
       observed for the IES (avoidance and total impact score)                     ables that were derived from high-resolution optical and
       or the fearful, acting out, or traumatic experience related                 laser scanning data was applied, in combination with
       dimensions of the PEDS. Significant sex differences were                    elevation information and existing hazard data. Object-
       observed in this group on the IES intrusion and PEDS                        oriented image analysis was applied for the definition
                                                                                   and estimation of those variables, focusing on SV indi-
         withdrawal scores, with males higher on intrusion and                     cators with physical characteristics. A reference Social
         females higher on withdrawal.                                             Vulnerability Index (SVI) was created from census data
                                                                                   available for the study area on a neighborhood level and



                                                                      27
        tested for parts of Tegucigalpa, Honduras. For the evalu-                 plan. The results could add to our understanding of why
        ation of the proxy variables, a stepwise regression model                 people with preexisting health problems suffer dispro-
        to select the best explanatory variables for changes in                   portionately from disasters. Public health may consider
        the SVI was applied. Eight out of 47 variables explained                  collaborating with community partners and health ser-
        almost 60 percent of the variance, whereby the slope                      vices providers to improve preparedness among people
        position and the proportion of built-up area in a neigh-                  with chronic illness and people who are mentally ill.
        borhood were found to be the most valuable proxies.
        This work shows that contextual segmentation-based               Ferrer, Rizaldy R., Marizen Ramirez, Kori Sauser, Ellen Iverson,
        analysis of geospatial data can substantially aid in SV                   and Jeffrey S. Upperman. 2009. Emergency drills and
        assessment and, when combined with field-based infor-                     exercises in healthcare organizations: Assessment of
        mation, leads to optimization in terms of assessment                      pediatric population involvement using after-action
        frequency and cost.                                                       reports. American Journal of Disaster Medicine 4 (1):
                                                                                  23-32.
Eisenman, David P., Qiong Zhou, Michael Ong, Steven Asch,                         The evaluation of pediatric disaster preparation is
       Deborah Glik, and Amy Long. 2009. Variations in                            often lacking, even though the Joint Commission on
       disaster preparedness by mental health, perceived gen-                     Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO)
       eral health, and disability status. Disaster Medicine and                  requires healthcare organizations to demonstrate disas-
       Public Health Preparedness 3 (1): 33-40.                                   ter preparedness through the use of disaster exercises.
       Chronic medical problems, mental illness, and disabil-                     This investigation identified, described, and assessed
       ity increase vulnerability to disasters. National efforts                  the involvement of pediatric victims in healthcare orga-
       have focused on preparing people with disabilities.                        nization disaster drills using data from the after-action
       Studies find them to be increasingly prepared, but less                    reports generated by healthcare organizations per
       is known about people with chronic mental and medi-                        JCAHO regulations. Forty-nine reports were voluntarily
       cal illnesses. The authors examined the relationship                       supplied. The authors analyzed the data using quan-
       between health status (mental health, perceived general                    titative and qualitative approaches. Only nine reports
       health, and disability) and disaster preparedness (home                    suggested pediatric involvement. Hospitals with large
       disaster supplies and family communication plan). A                        bed capacity (M = 465.6) tended to include children in
       random digit-dial telephone survey of the Los Angeles                      exercises more often compared with smaller facilities
       County population was conducted from October 2004                          (M = 350.8). Qualitative content analysis revealed a lack
       to January 2005 in 6 languages. Separate multivariate                      of parent-child identification and family reunification
       regressions modeled determinants of disaster prepared-                     systems, ineffective communication strategies, lack of
       ness, adjusting for sociodemographic covariates then                       pediatric resources and specific training, and unfamil-
       sociodemographic variables and health status variables.                    iarity with altering standards of pediatric care during
       Only 40.7 percent of people who rated their health as                      a disaster. Although many organizations are perform-
       fair/poor have disaster supplies compared with 53.1                        ing disaster exercises, most do not include pediatric
       percent of those who rate their health as excellent (P                     concerns. More work is needed to understand the basis
       < 0.001). Only 34.8 percent of people who rated their                      of this emergency preparedness gap. Overall, pediatric
       health as fair/poor have an emergency plan compared                        emergency planning should be a high priority for this
       with 44.8 percent of those who rate their health as excel-                 vulnerable population.
       lent (P < 0.01). Only 29.5 percent of people who have a
       serious mental illness have disaster supplies compared            Fontaine, Matthew M., and Anne C. Steinemann. 2009.
       with 49.2 percent of those who do not have a serious                      Assessing vulnerability to natural hazards: Impact-
       mental illness (P < 0.001). People with fair/poor health                  based method and application to drought in
       remained less likely to have disaster supplies (adjusted                  Washington State. Natural Hazards Review 10 (1):
       odds ratio [AOR] 0.69, 95 percent confidence interval                     11-18.
       [CI] 0.500.96) and less likely to have an emergency plan                  This article presents a vulnerability assessment tech-
       (AOR 0.68, 95 percent CI 0.510.92) compared with those                    nique using measures of exposure, sensitivity, and
       who rate their health as excellent, after adjusting for                   adaptive capacity. Historically, vulnerability assessments
       the sociodemographic covariates. People with serious                      focused on analyzing the hazard without consider-
       mental illness remained less likely to have disaster sup-                 ing causes or mitigation. The vulnerability assessment
       plies after adjusting for the sociodemographic covariates                 method (VAM), presented here, acquires data and infor-
       (AOR 0.67, 95 percent CI 0.480.93). Disability status                     mation from affected stakeholders to assess not only the
       was not associated with lower rates of disaster sup-                      hazard, but also the causes of vulnerability, potential
       plies or emergency communication plans in bivariate or                    for adaptation, previous impacts, and ways to mitigate
       multivariate analyses. Finally, adjusting for the sociode-                future impacts. Researchers applied the VAM to a case
       mographic and other health variables, people with fair/                   study of Washington State that assessed drought vulner-
       poor health remained less likely to have an emergency                     ability across 34 subsectors. Results indicate the highest
       plan (AOR 0.66, 95 percent CI 0.480.92) and people with                   vulnerability for dry land farmers, farmers with junior
       serious mental illness remained less likely to have disas-                water rights, fisheries, ski area operators, berry farmers,
       ter supplies (AOR 0.67, 95 percent CI 0.470.95). People                   and the green industry. Through validation exercises,
       who report fair/poor general health and probable seri-                    they demonstrate the VAM’s internal consistency and
       ous mental illness are less likely to report household                    external applicability. Contributions of the VAM include
       disaster preparedness and an emergency communication                      incorporation of stakeholder data, integrated and quan-



                                                                    28
         titative assessments of vulnerability components, and                      earthquake, 48 parentally bereaved adolescents and
         applicability to other regions, scales, and types of haz-                  a comparison group of 44 subjects with no parental
         ards.                                                                      loss were evaluated using the Depression Self-Rating
                                                                                    Scale (DSRS) and Child Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Gerber, Elaine. 2009. Describing tragedy: The information                           Reaction Index (CPTSD-RI). Orphans scored signifi-
         access needs of blind people in emergency-related cir-                     cantly higher on depression than those who lost a father,
         cumstances. Human Organization 68 (1): 73-81.                              who in turn scored significantly higher than those who
         Audio description is a technique used for “translating”                    lost a mother. Depression scores for orphans fell above
         visual material to aural readers/blind people. In this                     the cutoff for clinical depression, while those who lost
         article, exploratory research on audio description (AD) is                 a father scored slightly below. PTSD scores within each
         presented, which raises important questions in the field                   group fell in the moderate range of severity, with girls
         of applied anthropology and emergency planning: How                        scoring higher than boys. As self-report instruments
         does one translate visual material for a non-seeing audi-                  were used, responses may have been over- or under-
         ence? From the point of view of blind consumers, what                      reported. Participants belonged to the same ethnic
         constitutes “good” description? What specific informa-                     group and therefore the results may not be generaliz-
         tion access needs do they have in event of emergencies?                    able to other populations. Loss of both parents and, to a
         Selected results are presented from three telephone                        lesser degree, loss of a father is a significant risk factor
         focus groups on AD, conducted with 39 blind or visually                    for depression, but not for PTSD. This study extends
         impaired people nationwide in the United States dur-                       prior findings documenting post-disaster chronicity of
         ing September and October 2005. This paper addresses                       depression and PTSD among bereaved adolescents, and
         emergency planning, audio description, and the need                        underscores the need for post-disaster mental health and
         for more accurate information access for blind people                      social programs, especially for those who suffer the loss
         during public warning broadcasts and in delivering the                     of both parents.
         news. Further, it examines existing guidelines for the
         inclusion of blind people in the provision of emergency           Hirsch, Arnold R., and A. Lee Levert. 2009. The Katrina conspir-
         information, concluding that successful emergency pre-                     acies: The problem of trust in rebuilding an American
         paredness must include first-hand expertise of disabled                    city. Journal of Urban History 35 (2): 207-219.
         people themselves.                                                         The desolation of New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina
                                                                                    necessitated the evacuation, repopulation, and recon-
Ginige, Kanchana, Dilanthi Amaratunga, and Richard Haigh.                           struction of the city. Historic social, economic, and
        2009. Mainstreaming gender in disaster reduction:                           political divisions conditioned that process, both
        Why and how? Disaster Prevention and Management 18                          reflecting and exacerbating racial tensions. The lack
        (1): 23-34.                                                                 of trust between blacks and whites generated rumors
        This paper highlights the importance of gender main-                        and, for many, explanations for the slow response to
        streaming into disaster reduction decision making as a                      cries for relief, the attempts to restrict black mobility
        way of reducing the disaster vulnerabilities of women,                      in the immediate aftermath of the storm, and fears of
        a group highly vulnerable to disasters. It builds a dis-                    exclusion or other-race domination in the post-Katrina
        cussion around disaster reduction, the importance                           political era. Contemporary opportunists and exploiters
        of gender mainstreaming in disaster reduction, and                          of such racial divisions lent their weight to the support
        the ways of mainstreaming gender based on a litera-                         of traditional racial reactions. The strategy, tactics, and
        ture review. It reviews academic literature as well as                      outcomes of the first post-Katrina elections thus revealed
        papers and reports produced by the United Nations                           the deep influence of pre-Katrina values and behavior
        International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UN/                          in the rebuilding process. Under such conditions, that
        ISDR) and other institutions. The paper emphasizes the                      process remains halting, mired in racial and political
        need for enhancing gender balance in disaster reduction                     conflict, and seemingly unable to make a break with a
        decision making in order to understand the possible                         racially burdened past.
        effects of policies and measures developed for disaster
        reduction on gender roles. It paves the way forward to             Ikeda, Keiko. 2009. How women’s concerns are shaped in
        identify how gender mainstreaming could be achieved                        community-based disaster risk management in
        in the context of construction since construction has a                    Bangladesh. Contemporary South Asia 17 (1): 65-78.
        significant relationship with development that could cre-                  This article elaborates on how concerns regarding gen-
        ate or reduce disaster risk.                                               der in community-based disaster risk management are
                                                                                   shaped through interaction between local agents of
Goenjian, Amen K., David Walling, Alan M. Steinberg,                               development and communities in Bangladesh. Since
        Alexandra Roussos, Haig A. Goenjian, and Robert S.                         women and men have different experiences in disaster,
        Pynoos. 2009. Depression and PTSD symptoms among                           gender concerns should be fully addressed by the com-
        bereaved adolescents 6½ years after the 1988 Spitak                        munity and integrated into the action they take up to
        earthquake. Journal of Affective Disorders 112 (1-3):                      reduce disaster risks. The term “local agents of develop-
        81-84.                                                                     ment” refers to individuals engaged in implementation
        This article compares depression and post-traumatic                        of development policy in their own community. Recent
        stress syndrome symptoms of parentally bereaved ado-                       trends in community-based disaster risk manage-
        lescents and a comparison group after a catastrophic                       ment policy seek what is called a “whole community
        natural disaster. Six and a half years after the Spitak                    approach,” engaging various stakeholders such as tra-



                                                                      29
         ditional village elite, “local civil society,” and leaders of                 by Kamano have been analyzed using parametric and
         community-based organizations—mostly poor villagers                           non-parametric statistical significance tests. The results
         supported by non-governmental organizations. Within                           revealed that earthquake hazards affected respondents’
         the context of the historical evolution of community                          level of worries more than bird flu disease, mainly
         development approaches in Bangladesh, this is quite                           because of the enormous economic and human losses
         new in terms of bringing together traditional leaders                         of the 1999 earthquake. It was also found that the main
         and poor target groups, including women’s groups. By                          predictors were not the same for both studies: the educa-
         drawing from the experience of women and focusing on                          tion variable was more effective on the level of worries
         the functioning of local agents of development during                         of earthquake survivors, and gender was more influen-
         the flood of 2004, the author assesses the gaps between                       tial for the bird flu study.
         the primary concerns of women and those taken up in
         the risk-reduction action, to see whether, why, and when             Lein, Haakon. 2009. The poorest and most vulnerable? On
         they have widened or been bridged.                                           hazards, livelihoods and labeling of riverine com-
                                                                                      munities in Bangladesh. Singapore Journal of Tropical
Kanter, Robert K., John S. Andrake, Nancy M. Boeing, James                            Geography 30 (1): 98-113.
         Callahan, Arthur Cooper, Christine A. Lopez-Dwyer,                           Within the field of hazard research, vulnerability studies
         James P. Marcin, Folafouuwa O. Odetola, Anne E.                              have been central to inducing a shift in the perspective
         Ryan, Thomas E. Terndrup, and Joseph R. Tobin. 2009.                         on disasters as being primarily inflicted by geophysical
         Developing consensus on appropriate standards of                             events to that of apprehending disasters as destructive
         disaster care for children. Disaster Medicine and Public                     outcomes of particular social as well as hazardous envi-
         Health Preparedness 3 (1): 27-32.                                            ronmental conditions. However, the inherent tendency
         Neither professional consensus nor evidence exists to                        within vulnerability studies to classify certain areas or
         guide the choice of essential hospital disaster interven-                    people as “vulnerable” may in some cases also serve
         tions. This study demonstrates a method for developing                       to reinforce popular or ingrained prejudices, negative
         consensus on hospital disaster interventions that                            stereotypes, dubious explanations of living conditions,
         should be regarded as essential, quantitatively balanc-                      and the fate of specific communities that become so
         ing needs and resources. A panel of pediatric acute                          labeled. The riverbanks and islands in river courses of
         care practitioners developed consensus using a modi-                         Bangladesh have long been portrayed as home to the
         fied Delphi process. Interventions were chosen such                          “poorest” and most vulnerable communities, the wide-
         that workload per staff member would not exceed                              spread assumption being that people would only live in
         the previously validated maximum according to the                            such riverine environments because they have no other
         Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System. Based on pub-                       options. Drawing on an examination of existing litera-
         lished models, it was assumed that the usual numbers                         ture on char settlements in Bangladesh and data from a
         of staff would care for a disaster surge of four times the                   field site in the Jamuna River, this paper argues that the
         usual number of intensive care and non-intensive care                        prevailing perceptions and labeling of char dwellers as
         hospital patients. Using a single set of assumptions on                      “vulnerable” people is based on a far too simplistic
         constrained resources and overwhelming needs, the                            understanding of both rural migration patterns and the
         panel ranked and agreed on essential interventions. A                        livelihoods obtained in these riverine areas.
         number of standard interventions would exceed crisis
         workload constraints, including detailed recording of                Lommen, Mirian J.J., Angelique Sanders, Nicole Buck, and
         vital signs and fluid balance, administration of vasoac-                   Arnoud` Arntz. 2009. Psychosocial predictors of
         tive agents, invasive monitoring of pressures (central                     chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Sri Lankan
         venous, intraarterial, and intracranial), dialysis, and tube               tsunami survivors. Behavior Research and Therapy 47
         feedings. The quantitative methodology and consensus                       (1): 60-65.
         development process described in the present report                        This study aimed to determine whether psychological
         may have utility in future planning. Groups with appro-                    factors associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
         priate expertise must develop action plans according                       (PTSD) identified in Western samples generalize to
         to authority within each jurisdiction, addressing likely                   low Social-Economical-Status (SES) populations in an
         disaster scenarios, according to the needs in each medi-                   underdeveloped Asian country. The study included 113
         cal service region, using available regional resources,                    survivors of the 2004 tsunami on the south coast of Sri
         and accounting for the capabilities of each institution.                   Lanka, recruited from four preschools and 10 villages for
                                                                                    displaced persons. With logistic regressions the relations
Kasapoglu, Aytul, Feryal Turan, and Ali Donmez. 2009. Impacts                       between interview-based PTSD diagnosis and psycho-
       of disasters: Comparisons of several worries in Turkey.                      logical factors were assessed, controlling for putative
       Stress and Health 25 (1): 63-70.                                             confounders. Fifteen months post-trauma the prevalence
       This paper defines respondents’ levels of worries to find                    of PTSD was 52.2 percent. Multivariate analyses indi-
       out the main predictors of each worry factor by compar-                      cated that negative interpretation of tsunami memories
       ing the results of earthquake (2001) and bird flu (2006)                     was significantly (P <0.005) related to PTSD. Of the
       studies carried out in Turkey. Assuming that the criti-                      putative confounders, gender and (non-replaced) lost
       cal power-conflict perspective was appropriate; several                      work equipment were related to current PTSD (P <0.05).
       types of worries, namely, traffic accidents, natural disas-                  The results indicate that the relation between negative
       ters, unemployment, health and sickness, nuclear plants,                     interpretation of trauma memories and PTSD is quite
       war and terrorism, and environmental problems defined                        universal, suggesting that interventions focusing on this



                                                                         30
         factor may be important in treatment of tsunami survi-                    authorities related to risk management; and analysis
         vors who are suffering from chronic PTSD.                                 of documentation, maps, pictures, photographs, video
                                                                                   collections, and other visual material. The in-depth inter-
Maantay, Juliana, and Andrew Maroko. 2009. Mapping urban                           views with people living with risk contained more than
       risk: Flood hazards, race, and environmental justice in                     120 questions; those related to risk, emergencies, and
       New York. Applied Geography 29 (1): 111-124.                                hazards were purposefully open-ended to see whether
       This paper demonstrates the importance of disaggre-                         the theme appeared by itself in the interviewee’s dis-
       gating population data aggregated by census tracts or                       course and concerns. In this respect, the interview guide
       other units, for more realistic population distribution                     took into account advances in sociology, anthropology,
       and location. A newly developed mapping method, the                         and applied human security studies, focusing on what
       Cadastral-based Expert Dasymetric System (CEDS),                            really mattered for the research subjects. This is a hybrid
       calculates population in hyper-heterogeneous urban                          method combining the advantages of questionnaires,
       areas better than traditional mapping techniques. A case                    semistructured interviews, and life stories. It is adaptive
       study estimating population potentially impacted by                         and flexible but also allows for future statistical analysis.
       flood hazard in New York City compares the impacted
       population determined by CEDS with that derived by                 Nelson, Valerie, and Tanya Stathers. 2009. Resilience, power,
       centroid-containment method and filtered areal-weight-                     culture, and climate: A case study from semi-arid
       ing interpolation. Compared to CEDS, 37 percent and                        Tanzania, and new research directions. Gender &
       72 percent fewer people are estimated to be at risk from                   Development 17 (1): 81-94.
       floods citywide, using conventional areal weighting of                     Rapid changes to the climate are predicted over the next
       census data, and centroid-containment selection, respec-                   few years, presenting challenges for women’s empower-
       tively. Undercounting of impacted population could                         ment and gender equality on a completely new scale.
       have serious implications for emergency management                         There is little evidence or research to provide a reliable
       and disaster planning. Ethnic and racial populations                       basis for gender-sensitive approaches to agricultural
       are also spatially disaggregated to determine any envi-                    adaptation to climate change. This article explores the
       ronmental justice impacts with flood risk. Minorities                      gender dimensions of climate change, in relation to
       are disproportionately undercounted using traditional                      participation in decision-making, divisions of labor,
       methods. Underestimating more vulnerable subpopula-                        access to resources, and knowledge systems. It draws on
       tions impairs preparedness and relief efforts.                             insights from recent research on agricultural adaptation
                                                                                  to climate change in Tanzania. The article then explains
Nakamura, Karen. 2009. Disability, destitution, and disaster:                     why future gender-sensitive climate-adaptation efforts
      Surviving the 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake in                              should draw upon insights from “resilience thinking,”
      Japan. Human Organization 68 (1): 82-88.                                    “political ecology,” and environmental anthropology as
      On the morning of January 17, 1995, a magnitude 7.3                         a way of embedding analysis of power struggles and
      earthquake struck the port city of Kobe, Japan. 6,400                       cultural norms in the context of the overall socio-ecolog-
      people died and over $80 billion in property damage                         ical system.
      occurred. Among those rendered homeless was a small
      group of people with severe disabilities. Over the next             Othelia Lee, Eun-Kyoung, Ce Shen, and Thanh V. Tran. 2009.
      decade, this group leveraged discourses surrounding                         Coping with Hurricane Katrina: Psychological distress
      civil society, disability, poverty, and the role of govern-                 and resilience among African American evacuees.
      ment in natural disasters, to become one of the most                        Journal of Black Psychology 35 (1): 5-23.
      powerful and vocal proponents of disability rights in                       Hurricane Katrina was one of the most devastating
      Japan. This article discusses what lessons we can learn                     natural disasters in U.S. history. Although this natural
      to make disability advocacy a leading, rather than trail-                   disaster affected all racial groups, low-income African
      ing, element of social policy.                                              Americans experienced disproportionate suffering. This
                                                                                  study examines factors related to psychological resil-
Nathan, Fabien. 2008. Risk perception, risk management and                        ience in the Hurricane Katrina a 363-evacuee sample
        vulnerability to landslides in the hill slopes in the city                drawn from the Kaiser Washington Post Harvard Poll.
        of La Paz, Bolivia: A preliminary statement. Disasters                    The structural equation model used explains 34 percent
        32 (3): 337-357.                                                          of the total variance of Katrina victims’ resilience was
        This article is drawn from preliminary findings of the                    measured by their perceived sense of recovery. Findings
        author’s PhD. Most of the results are still being analyzed                suggest those evacuees who reported psychological
        and thus those discussed here are not definitive and are                  distress as a reaction to the disaster were less likely to
        subject to revision. Conclusions have been drawn from                     report they would recover fully. All three Hurricane
        almost two years fieldwork in the western hill slope of                   Katrina experience-related variables—being insured,
        La Paz, using various techniques for data collection: con-                home destruction, and human loss—significantly affect
        stant participant observation with the inhabitants and                    psychological distress, with human loss being strongest.
        their neighborhood representatives; in-depth interviews                   Implications for practice and research are discussed.
        with more than 30 families at risk; informal interviews
        with other people at risk and with disaster victims;
        semi-directed interviews with dozens of ‘old inhabitants’         Pfefferbaum, Betty, and Carol S. North. 2008. Research with
        of the neighborhoods; in-depth interviews with dozens                     children exposed to disasters. International Journal of
        of “neighborhood presidents” and with many local                          Methods in Psychiatric Research - Special Issue: Post-



                                                                     31
        Disaster Mental Health Needs Assessment Surveys
        17 (S2): S49-S56.                                             Soeteman, Rik J.H., C. Joris Yzermans, M.M.
        A number of logistical issues complicate child disas-                Spreeuwenberg, Tina Dorn, Jan J. Kerssens, Wil
        ter research. Like adult studies, much child research                J.H.M. van de Bosch, and Jouke van der Zee. 2009.
        has used a single cross-sectional assessment of non-                 Does disaster affect immigrant victims more than
        representative samples, fails to consider pre-disaster               non-immigrant victims in Dutch general practice:
        contribution to post-disaster problems, and leaps to                 A matched cohort study. Journal of Public Health 17
        unwarranted causal conclusions from results that                     (1): 27-32.
        provide mere associations. Despite concern about the                 In the literature, immigrant victims appear to be
        accuracy of parental reports and concern about chil-                 more vulnerable to health effects of a disaster than
        dren’s understanding of terms, most child studies use                indigenous victims. Most of these studies were
        a single source of information—either the children                   performed without pre-disaster measurement and
        themselves or their parents. As the field matures,                   without using a control group. The aim of this study
        greater attention to the sophistication of research                  is to monitor differences between two groups of
        methods and design will increase our understanding                   victims—Turkish immigrants and indigenous Dutch,
        of children in the context of disasters.                             in utilization and morbidity as presented in general
                                                                             practice after a human-caused disaster. A matched
Reardon, Kenneth M., Marcel Ionescu-Heroiu, and Andrew                       cohort study was performed with pre-disaster (one
       J. Rumbach. 2008. Equity planning in post-Hurri-                      year) and post-disaster (four years) measurements
       cane Katrina New Orleans: Lessons from the Ninth                      of patients from 30 general practices in Enschede.
       Ward. Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development                      Turkish victims (N=303) and Dutch victims (N=606),
       and Research 10 (3): 57-76.                                           matched on age, gender and socioeconomic status,
       This article describes how grassroots activists and                   were included. Main outcome measures were psycho-
       community leaders representing poor and work-                         logical problems and physical symptoms as recorded
       ing class residents of New Orleans, together with                     by the general practitioner, using the International
       planning students and faculty from three research                     Classification of Primary Care. The Turkish victims
       universities, overcame racial, class, and cultural                    showed higher utilization than the Dutch victims
       barriers to collaboration to create and promote a com-                prior to the disaster. In the first post-disaster year,
       prehensive Hurricane Katrina recovery plan for the                    both groups of victims showed an increase in utili-
       neighborhoods that make up the city’s Ninth Ward.                     zation, but the increases did not differ significantly.
                                                                             The Turkish group showed no significantly greater
Rosborough, Stephanie, Jennifer L. Chan, and Parveen                         increase than the Dutch group in the five most
       Parmar. 2009. Responding to gender-based violence                     prevalent clusters of health problems (psychological,
       in disasters: Grappling with research methods to                      respiratory, skin, musculoskeletal, and digestive). The
       clear the way for planning. Disaster Medicine and                     Turkish victims in general practice were as vulnerable
       Public Health Preparedness 3 (1): 8-10.                               as the Dutch victims for the effects on their health of
                                                                             this man-made disaster. Differences between Turkish
Ruwanpura, Kanchana N. 2008. Temporality of disasters:                       and native Dutch victims of this man-made disaster
      The politics of women’s livelihoods ‘after’ the 2004                   can largely be explained by the differences that exist-
      tsunami in Sri Lanka. Singapore Journal of Tropical                    ed already before the disaster.
      Georgraphy 29 (3): 325-340.
      The devastation caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean                 Terranova, Andrew M., Paul Boxer, and Amanda Sheffield
      tsunami in Sri Lanka is represented as a “natural                       Morris. 2009. Changes in children’s peer interac-
      disaster.” Yet the tsunami did not occur in a sociopo-                  tions following a natural disaster: How pre-disaster
      litical and historical vacuum. How people responded                     bullying and victimization rates changed following
      to the tsunami, the challenges of and attitudes to                      Hurricane Katrina. Psychology in the Schools 46 (4):
      relocation and post-tsunami livelihoods were shaped                     333-347.
      by uneven development, social exclusion, and eth-                       Youth exposed to disasters experience stress and
      nonationalist war. All these responses are embedded                     adjustment difficulties, which likely influence their
      in structures of gender, caste, class, and ethnicity.                   interactions with peers. In this study, the authors
      The tsunami brought to the forefront preexisting                        examined changes in bullying and peer victimiza-
      inequalities, showing up complexities in the tem-                       tion in two cohorts of children. Youth from an area
      porality of disasters. Drawn from fieldwork in two                      affected by Hurricane Katrina were assessed pre
      coastal areas in the southern and eastern provinces,                    and post-disaster (n = 96, mean [M] = 10.9 years old,
      this paper shows how gendered structures within                         53 percent female), and a comparison group from a
      the local political economy influenced the ways that                    nearby area was assessed over the same time interval
      institutional actors as well as the displaced communi-                  one year prior (n = 120, M = 10.2 years old, 52 per-
      ties and women initially devised livelihood strategies.                 cent female). Within the hurricane group, relations
      These reactions show how place matters as much as                       between symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder
      preexisting gendered political economy conditions                       with bullying and victimization also were examined.
      and reveal the complex ways in which women con-                         Following the hurricane, the hurricane group report-
      tinue to mediate and negotiate everyday responses in                    ed increased relational and overt bullying relative to
      the aftermath of a “natural” disaster.                                  the nonhurricane group, and PTSD symptoms pre-



                                                                 32
         dicted increased victimization. Thus, school personnel                    This article examines the process of post-disaster recov-
         should be vigilant and prepared to respond to increased                   ery and rebuilding in New York City since 9/11 and in
         bullying following disasters and for increased victimiza-                 New Orleans since the Hurricane Katrina disaster. As
         tion in youth experiencing PTSD symptoms.                                 destabilizing events, 9/11 and Katria forced a rethink-
                                                                                   ing of the major categories, concepts, and theories that
Zoraster, Richard M. 2009. “Social Worth” will not affect allo-                    long dominated disaster research. The authors analyze
         cation of scarce resources in a pandemic or disaster:                     the form, trajectory, and problems of reconstruction in
         Political correctness, sophistry, or reality? American                    the two cities with special emphasis on the implemen-
         Journal of Disaster Medicine 4 (1): 5-7.                                  tation of the Community Development Block Grant
                                                                                   Program, the Liberty Zone and the Gulf Opportunity
Homeland Security & Terrorism                                                      Zone, and tax-exempt private activity bonds to finance
                                                                                   and promote reinvestment. Drawing on a variety of data
Bedford, Jennifer, and James Kendra. 2009. Security as subver-                     sources, they show that New York and New Orleans
        sion: Undermining access, agency, and voice through                        have become important laboratories for entrepreneurial
        the discourse of security. Journal of Emergency                            city and state governments seeking to use post-disaster
        Management 7 (1): 53-63.                                                   rebuilding as an opportunity to push through far-
        This article describes a case in which local emergency                     reaching neoliberal policy reforms. The emphasis on
        planning was thwarted by indifference and concern                          using market-centered approaches for urban recovery
        about security. It argues that excessive security concerns                 and rebuilding in New York and New Orleans should be
        can impede the cooperation and information shar-                           seen not as coherent or sustainable responses to urban
        ing that is essential to good planning, suggesting that                    disaster but rather as deeply contradictory restructuring
        concerns about less likely terrorist attacks undercut                      strategies that are intensifying the problems they seek to
        preparation for more likely emergencies arising from                       remedy.
        natural or technological sources.
                                                                          Krewski, Daniel, Louise Lemyre, Michelle C. Turner, Jennifer
Goffman, Thomas E. 2009. Bioterrorism versus radiological                        E.C. Lee, Christine Dallaire, Louise Bouchard, Kevin
       terrorism: Notes from a bio/nuclear epidemiologist.                       Brand, and Pierre Mercier. 2009. Public perception of
       American Journal of Disaster Medicine 4 (1): 9-14.                        population health risks in Canada: Health hazards
       The antiterrorism and disaster planning communities                       and health outcomes. International Journal of Risk
       often speak of the high potential for bioterrorism and                    Assessment and Management 11 (3/4): 299-318.
       possible potential for radioterrorism, specifically the                   The focus of this article is a descriptive account of the
       explosion of a fission device on U.S. soil. Information                   perceptions of five health hazards (motor vehicles,
       gained from an epidemiologist’s work in the national                      climate change, recreational physical activity, cellular
       and international scene, which inevitably involves intel-                 phones, and terrorism) and five health outcomes (can-
       ligence regarding the cultures and subcultures being                      cer, long-term disabilities, asthma, heart disease, and
       studied, suggest that bioterrorism is far less likely to                  depression) from a recent survey of 1,503 Canadians.
       be a major threat, that it has been over-emphasized at                    To shed light on factors that influence risk perception
       the state level due to warnings from the Department of                    in Canada, the extent to which these exemplars are per-
       Homeland Security, and that Homeland Security itself                      ceived as high in risk and controllability, as well as the
       appears biased toward bioterrorism with very little                       extent to which knowledge and uncertainty surrounding
       available rational basis.                                                 them is high, was examined. The degree to which these
                                                                                 exemplars are deemed acceptable and generate worry
Goffman, Thomas E. 2009. The current state of affairs for disas-                 among Canadians was also examined. Variation was
       ter planning for a nuclear terrorist attack. American                     observed in the extent to which different health hazards
       Journal of Disaster Medicine 4 (1): 59-64.                                and outcomes are perceived on the various dimensions.
       The author presents current thinking on the effects of                    Perceptions of health hazards and outcomes also vary
       an atomic bomb blast from a medical point of view. He                     significantly by gender, age, and education. Findings are
       argues current U.S. federal plans for a nuclear disaster                  compared to existing research on risk perception.
       are crude, insufficient, disarticulated, and rely on mar-
       tial law as a means of crowd control. The physics of a             Laraby, Patrick R., Margaret Bourdeaux, S. Ward Casscells,
       fusion reaction bomb are discussed along with the plans                     David J. Smith, and Lynn Lawry. 2009. Humanitarian
       of other countries. Apparently “secret” American plans                      assistance and disaster relief: Changing the face of
       show poor understanding of the physics of nuclear                           defense. American Journal of Disaster Medicine 4 (1):
       bombs along with poor insight into what will be needed                      33-40.
       to help the maximum number of citizens. An alternative                      The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is evolving to
       plan involving computer modeling and educating the                          meet new security challenges in the twenty-first century.
       public to the effects of a fission explosion is presented.                  Today’s challenges result from growing political, envi-
       The key issue of statewide planning is discussed, since                     ronmental, and economic instability in important areas
       the federal government has dumped medical problems                          of the globe that threaten national and global security.
       on “the local level.”                                                       Immediate outreach to foreign nations in times of vio-
Gotham, Kevin Fox, and Miriam Greenberg. 2008. From 9/11                           lent instability or natural disaster fosters security and
       to 8/29: Post-disaster recovery and rebuilding in New                       stability both for the affected country and for the United
       York and New Orleans. Social Forces 87 (2): 1039-1062.                      States. Foreign humanitarian assistance (FHA) is a rap-



                                                                     33
         idly evolving military mission that addresses conflict                    semi-structured interviews with civilian and mili-
         prevention, conflict, post-conflict, and natural disas-                   tary decision makers from public health, emergency
         ters. With DOD’s extensive global medical resources,                      management, hazardous material response, law
         it is often uniquely qualified to play a critical role in                 enforcement, and military health in the San Diego
         relief and/or public health efforts. When and how the                     area. Decision makers used a software tool that simu-
         American military will act in FHA and disaster relief                     lated a hypothetical anthrax attack, which allowed
         is a still-evolving doctrine with three issues deserv-                    them to assess the effects of a variety of response
         ing particular attention: aligning operations with host                   actions (e.g., issuing warnings to the public, establish-
         government leadership; preserving humanitarian                            ing prophylaxis distribution centers) on performance
         space; and tailoring the military’s unique resources                      metrics. From these interviews, the authors charac-
         to the specific political and medical situation at hand.                  terized the information sources, technologies, plans,
         The DOD’s response to a large-scale earthquake in                         and communication channels that would be used for
         Peru suggests useful approaches to these three issues,                    bioterrorism planning and responses. The authors
         provides a template for future FHA mission, and                           used influence diagram notation to describe the key
         points to strategic decisions and operational capabili-                   bioterrorism response decisions, the probabilistic
         ties that need further development to establish the                       factors affecting these decisions, and the response
         FHA mission firmly within DOD’s repertoire of secu-                       outcomes. Results: The authors present an overview
         rity engagement activities.                                               of the response framework and provide a detailed
                                                                                   assessment of two key phases of the decision-making
Lowe Steffen, Seana, and Alice Fothergill. 2009. 9/11 vol-                         process: (1) pre-event planning and investment; and
        unteerism: A pathway to personal healing and                               (2) incident characterization and initial responsive
        community engagement. The Social Science Journal                           measures. The framework enables planners to articu-
        46 (1): 29-46.                                                             late current conditions; identify gaps in existing
        This paper is a longitudinal analysis of the impacts of                    policies, technologies, information resources, and
        spontaneous volunteerism on those who responded                            relationships with other response organizations; and
        to emergency needs immediately following the                               explore the implications of potential system enhance-
        September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World                          ments. Use of this framework could help decision
        Trade Center in New York City. Our qualitative study                       makers execute a locally coordinated response by
        investigates the long-term implications for the volun-                     identifying the critical cues of a potential bioterror-
        teers who participated in helping behaviors ranging                        ism event, the information needed to make effective
        from working on the bucket brigade to serving food                         response decisions, and the potential effects of vari-
        to rescue workers to working as translators for vic-                       ous decision alternatives.
        tims’ families. This project consists of two waves of
        data collection. The first set of in-depth interviews             Masterson, Lori, Christel Steffen, Michael Brin, Mary
        with 23 volunteers was conducted in the weeks fol-                        Frances Kordick, and Steve Christos. 2009.
        lowing the attacks in the fall of 2001. In the second                     Willingness to respond: Of emergency department
        wave of interviews over three years later, the authors                    personnel and their predicted participation in mass
        interviewed 20 volunteers, nearly half of whom were                       casualty terrorist events. The Journal of Emergency
        original respondents in the first wave. Through their                     Medicine 36 (1): 43-49.
        analysis, they found that taking action facilitated                       In May, 2003, the TOPOFF 2 national disaster drill
        meaningful therapeutic recovery from feelings of                          demonstrated inadequate preparedness for mass
        victimization following the event. In addition to the                     casualty terrorist events and failed to address the
        apparent long-term impact on personal healing, the                        willingness of Emergency Department (ED) person-
        opportunity to volunteer had lasting impacts on self-                     nel to assist with these events. The objective of this
        concept that translated to significant changes in life                    study was to examine ED personnel willingness
        choices. The second wave of research also reveals                         to respond to various multiple casualty events. A
        that the experience of action impacted the volunteers’                    prospective voluntary survey of ED personnel from
        community sentiment by fostering new levels of                            multiple hospitals was randomly administered in the
        identification with and affinity for members of their                     form of vignette-based questionnaires. The survey
        community. In addition, community response work                           of 204 participants at eight hospitals in the Chicago
        in the aftermath of a disaster appeared to increase                       area revealed that staff members were more willing
        community engagement in non-disaster times.                               to work additional hours for victims of an airplane
                                                                                  crash (98.0 percent), than for a radioactive bomb
Manley, Dawn K., and Dena M. Bravata. 2009. A decision                            (85.3 percent), or a biologic agent (54.0 percent). For
        framework for coordinating bioterrorism planning:                         the biologic agent only, men were significantly more
        Lessons from the BioNet program. American Journal                         likely to respond than women. Hospital management
        of Disaster Medicine 4 (1): 49-57.                                        should anticipate significant reductions in workforce
        Effective disaster preparedness requires coordination                     during biologic and radioactive disaster events.
        across multiple organizations. This article describes                     Employees’ willingness to respond was not augment-
        a detailed framework developed through the BioNet                         ed by any incentives offered by hospitals, although
        program to facilitate coordination of bioterrorism                        enhanced financial remuneration and disability cov-
        preparedness planning among military and civilian                         erage showed the most potential to increase response.
        decision makers. The authors conducted a series of



                                                                     34
Moss, Mitchell, Charles Schellhamer, and David A. Berman.                          any resulting policy decisions. This empirical question
       2009. The Stafford Act and priorities for reform.                           would benefit from further study.
       Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency
       Management 6 (1): 1-21.                                            Wood, Karen M. 2009. Community health centers: The
       During the past fifty years, federal disaster policy in the               untapped resource for public health and medical pre-
       United States has been shaped by an ongoing conflict                      paredness. Homeland Security Affairs 5 (1): 1-39
       between proponents who favor federal intervention                         HSPD-21 was recently released to the public call-
       following a disaster and those who believe disaster                       ing for a transformation in the national approach to
       response should be the responsibility of state and local                  public health and medical preparedness in the United
       governments and charities. This article explores the                      States. The latest deliberations, as prioritized by this
       existing federal disaster policy landscape within the                     strategy, are to bolster the nation’s ability to manage
       United States with a focus on the Stafford Act, the cul-                  a public health crisis by stimulating improvements in
       tural and political forces that produced it, and how the                  the areas of biosurveillance, countermeasure distribu-
       current system is ill equipped to aid in the response                     tion, mass casualty care, and community resilience. The
       and recovery from major catastrophes. The Stafford Act                    objective is to create a much more tightly integrated
       defines how federal disasters are declared, determines                    systems approach toward public health and medical
       the types of assistance to be provided by the federal                     preparedness. Community Health Centers (CHCs), by
       government, and establishes cost sharing arrange-                         philosophic orientation, geographic location, and as
       ments among federal, state, and local governments.                        publicly-funded entities, are well-positioned to provide
       The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)                            medical services, education, and other human services
       carries out the provisions of the Stafford Act and distrib-               to prevent, prepare for, respond to, mitigate, and recover
       utes much of the assistance provided by the Act. With                     from the public health impact of a bioterrorist event or
       the establishment of the U.S. Department of Homeland                      other biological disease outbreak. Aggressive investment
       Security, the threat of domestic terrorism, and large-scale               in CHCs and their emergency management programs
       natural disasters like Hurricane Katrina, the limits of the               serves a dual purpose that will: (1) create greater social
       Stafford Act and FEMA have been shown. The article                        equity by reducing health disparities and make pub-
       looks at several areas where the shortcomings of the                      lic health emergency management more accessible to
       Stafford Act have emerged and propose directions for                      special needs populations; and (2) support many of the
       reform.                                                                   objectives identified in the Public Health and Medical
                                                                                 Preparedness Strategy.
Rubin, G. James, Richard Amlot, Lisa Page, and Simon Wessely.
        2008. Methodological challenges in assessing general              Hurricanes & Coastal Hazards
        population reactions in the immediate aftermath of
        a terrorist attack. International Journal of Methods              Anastario, Michael, Nadine Shehab, and Lynn Lawry. 2009.
        in Psychiatric Research - Special Issue: Post-Disaster                    Increased gender-based violence among women
        Mental Health Needs Assessment Surveys 17 (S2):                           internally displaced in Mississippi two years post-
        S29-S35.                                                                  Hurricane Katrina. Disaster Medicine and Public Health
        Assessing mental health needs following a disaster is                     Preparedness 3 (1): 18-26.
        important, particularly within high-risk groups like                      Although different types of gender-based violence
        first responders or individuals directly caught up in                     (GBV) have been documented in disaster-affected
        the incident. Following events involving widespread                       populations, no studies have documented a quantita-
        destruction, ingenuity and hard work are required                         tive increase in rates of GBV among populations living
        to study these issues. When considering responses                         in protracted displacement after a disaster. The authors
        among the general population following less devastat-                     assessed the change in rates of GBV after Hurricane
        ing events such as a conventional terrorist attack, or                    Katrina among internally displaced people (IDPs) living
        following an event involving a chemical, biological,                      in travel trailer parks in Mississippi. The study design
        radiological, or nuclear agent, other variables may                       included successive cross-sectional randomized surveys,
        become more relevant for determining the population’s                     conducted in 2006 and 2007, among IDPs in Mississippi
        overall psychosocial well-being. Trust, perceived risk,                   using a structured questionnaire. The authors sampled
        sense of safety, willingness to take prophylaxis and                      50 travel trailer parks in nine counties in Mississippi in
        unnecessary attendance at medical facilities will all be                  2006, and 69 parks in 20 counties in 2007. A total of 420
        important in determining the overall psychological,                       female respondents comprised the final sample. The
        medical, economic, and political impact of such attacks.                  authors measured respondent demographics, forms of
        Assessing these variables can help government agen-                       GBV including sexual and physical violence further sub-
        cies and nongovernmental organizations adjust their                       typed by perpetrator, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt,
        communication and outreach efforts. To provide these                      and Patient Health Questionnaire-assessed depression.
        data quickly, telephone surveys using short time win-                     Respondents had a mean age of 42.7 years. The crude
        dows for data collection or which use quota samples                       rate of new cases of GBV among women increased from
        are often required. It is unclear whether slower, more                    4.6/100,000 per day to 16.3/100,000 per day in 2006, and
        conventional, and more expensive survey methods with                      remained elevated at 10.1/100,000 per day in 2007. The
        better response rates would produce different results                     increase was primarily driven by the increase in inti-
        compared to these quicker and cheaper methods, and                        mate partner violence. GBV experience was significantly
        whether those differences would have a major impact on                    associated with increased risk for poor mental health



                                                                     35
         outcomes. Overall, the rate of GBV, particularly                             able inefficiencies. Findings highlight the need for
         intimate partner violence, increased within the year                         improved planning for care of evacuee populations
         following Hurricane Katrina and did not return to                            after a major emergency event and the importance
         baseline during the protracted phase of displacement.                        of ensuring continuity of care for the most vulner-
         Disaster planning efforts should incorporate plans to                        able. The article provides an emergency response
         decrease the incidence of GBV following a disaster,                          preparedness checklist for local public health depart-
         and to ensure adequate services to people with post-                         ments.
         disaster GBV experience.
                                                                             Brunsma, David, and J. Steven Picou. 2008. Disasters in the
Berenbrock, C., R.R. Mason, and S.F. Blanchard. 2009.                               twenty-first century: Modern destruction and future
        Mapping Hurricane Rita inland storm tide. Journal                           instruction. Social Forces 87 (2): 983-991.
        of Flood Risk Management 2 (1): 76-82.
        Flood inundation data are most useful for decision                   Changnon, Stanley A. 2009. Characteristics of severe Atlantic
        makers when presented in the context of maps of                             hurricanes in the United States: 1949–2006. Natural
        affected communities and areas. But because the data                        Hazards 48 (3): 329-337.
        are scarce and rarely cover the full extent of flooding,                    Property insurance data available for 1949 to 2006
        interpolation and extrapolation of the information are                      were assessed to get definitive measures of hurricane
        needed. Many geographic information systems pro-                            losses in the United States. Catastrophes—events
        vide various interpolation tools, but these tools often                     causing more than $1 million in losses—were most
        ignore the effects of the topographic and hydraulic                         frequent in the southeast and south climate regions.
        features that influence flooding. A barrier mapping                         Losses in these two regions totaled $127 billion, 85
        method was developed to improve maps of storm                               percent of the nation’s total losses. During the study
        tide produced by Hurricane Rita. Maps were devel-                           period, there were 79 hurricane catastrophes, causing
        oped for the maximum storm tide and at three hour                           $150.6 billion in losses and averaging $2.6 billion per
        intervals from midnight (00:00 hours) through noon                          year. All aspects of these hurricanes showed increases
        (12:00 hours) on September 24, 2005. The improved                           in post-1990 years. Sizes of loss areas averaged one
        maps depict storm tide elevations and the extent of                         state between 1949 and 1967, but grew to three states
        flooding. The extent of storm tide inundation from                          between 1990 and 2006. Seven of the 10 most damag-
        the improved maximum storm tide map was com-                                ing hurricanes came in 2004 (four) and 2005 (three).
        pared with the extent of flood inundation from a map                        The number of hurricanes also peaked between 1984
        prepared by the Federal Emergency Management                                and 2006, increasing from an annual average of 1.2
        Agency (FEMA). The boundaries from these two                                from 1949 to 1983 to 2.1 per year. Losses were $49.3
        maps generally compared quite well especially along                         billion from 1991 to 2006, 32 percent of the 58-year
        the Calcasieu River. Also a cross-section profile that                      total. Various reasons have been offered for such
        parallels the Louisiana coast was developed from the                        recent increases in hurricane losses including more
        maximum storm tide map and included FEMA high-                              hurricanes, more intense tropical storms, increased
        water marks.                                                                societal vulnerability in storm-prone areas, and a
                                                                                    change in climate due to global warming, although
Broz, Dita, Elise C. Levin, Amy P. Mucha, Darlene Pelzel,                           this is debatable.
         William Wong, Victoria Persky, and Ronald C.
         Hershow. 2009. Lessons learned from Chicago’s                       Chowdhury, Arindam Gan, F. Emil Simiu, and Stephen
         emergency response to mass evacuations caused                             P. Leatherman. 2009. Destructive testing under
         by Hurricane Katrina. American Journal of Public                          simulated hurricane effects to promote hazard miti-
         Health 99 (8): 1-9.                                                       gation. Natural Hazards Review 10 (1): 1-10.
         This article analyzes the response of the Chicago                         The human and financial toll of hurricanes on
         Department of Public Health with respect to its                           the Eastern and Gulf Coast communities in the
         effectiveness in providing health care to Hurricane                       United States has been immense. The International
         Katrina evacuees arriving in the city. Between                            Hurricane Research Center at Florida International
         September 12 and October 21, 2005, researchers                            University focuses on a first-of-its-kind, full-scale
         conducted a real-time qualitative assessment of a                         destructive testing method that could lead to a better
         medical unit in Chicago’s Hurricane Victim Welcome                        understanding of interaction between hurricanes and
         and Relief Center. A semistructured guide was used                        structures and develop effective mitigation measures.
         to interview 33 emergency responders to identify key                      This hurricane engineering research will improve
         operational successes and failures. The medical unit                      building resiliency through full-scale destructive
         functioned at a relatively high level, primarily as a                     testing and raise public awareness of the need for
         result of the flexibility, creativity, and dedication of its              improved building safety and how to achieve it. This
         staff and the presence of strong leadership. Chronic                      paper describes the full-scale destructive testing con-
         health care services and prescription refills were                        cept, details application in pilot tests, illustrates the
         the most commonly mentioned services provided,                            scientific approach underlying the current testing,
         and collaboration with a national pharmacy proved                         and discusses plans to develop techniques to mitigate
         instrumental in reconstructing medication histories.                      hurricane destruction. This research is necessary for
         The lack of a comprehensive and well-communicated                         available and affordable insurance, which is needed
         emergency response plan resulted in several prevent-                      to sustain the economy of the U.S. coastal states.



                                                                        36
                                                                                     lowing the devastation that Hurricane Katrina brought
Colten, Craig E., and Amy R. Sumpter. 2009. Social memory                            to the community in August 2005. The participants
         and resilience in New Orleans. Natural Hazards 48 (3):                      developed solutions to several critical problems involved
         355-364.                                                                    in rebuilding efforts. The article addresses methods of
         A key concept in resilience studies is that human                           engaging community members in a participatory plan-
         societies can learn from hazard events, using their accu-                   ning process, structures for supporting student learning
         mulated social memory to better contend with future                         for future efforts, and the challenges of overcoming local
         catastrophes. This article explores the deliberate referral                 residents’ perceptions of outsiders’ participation in their
         to historical records complied after Hurricane Betsy in                     process. The article concludes by proposing measures
         1965 and how they were used to prepare for tropical                         for evaluating the merit of a planning process.
         storms at the time of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Despite
         proclamations that Louisiana would not repeat its mis-             Gotham, Kevin Fox, and Miriam Greenberg. 2008. From 9/11
         takes, hazards planners seriously neglected the historical                to 8/29: Post-disaster recovery and rebuilding in New
         record.                                                                   York and New Orleans. Social Forces 87 (2): 1039-1062.
                                                                                   This article examines the process of post-disaster recov-
Cruz, Ana Maria, and E. Krausman. 2009. Hazardous-materials                        ery and rebuilding in New York City since 9/11 and in
        releases from offshore oil and gas facilities and emer-                    New Orleans since the Hurricane Katrina disaster. As
        gency response following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.                      destabilizing events, 9/11 and Katria forced a rethink-
        Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 22                    ing of the major categories, concepts, and theories that
        (1): 59-65.                                                                long dominated disaster research. The authors analyze
        Hurricanes Katrina and Rita triggered numerous haz-                        the form, trajectory, and problems of reconstruction in
        ardous materials releases from industrial and storage                      the two cities with special emphasis on the implemen-
        facilities on shore, as well as from offshore oil and gas                  tation of the Community Development Block Grant
        facilities in the Gulf of Mexico. In this paper, we iden-                  Program, the Liberty Zone and the Gulf Opportunity
        tify and analyze over 600 hazardous materials releases                     Zone, and tax-exempt private activity bonds to finance
        triggered by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita from offshore                     and promote reinvestment. Drawing on a variety of data
        platforms and pipelines. The results of the study could                    sources, they show that New York and New Orleans
        assist offshore industry owners/operators, government                      have become important laboratories for entrepreneurial
        officials, and policy makers by providing lessons learned                  city and state governments seeking to use post-disaster
        and recommendations for better disaster planning for                       rebuilding as an opportunity to push through far-
        major storms and flood events.                                             reaching neoliberal policy reforms. The emphasis on
                                                                                   using market-centered approaches for urban recovery
Cuddeback, Marsha R., and Frank M. Bosworth. 2008.                                 and rebuilding in New York and New Orleans should be
       Rebuilding community block by block. Cityscape:                             seen not as coherent or sustainable responses to urban
       A Journal of Policy Development and Research 10 (3):                        disaster but rather as deeply contradictory restructuring
       77-100.                                                                     strategies that are intensifying the problems they seek to
       In 2003, the Louisiana State University (LSU) Office of                     remedy.
       Community Design and Development was awarded a
       U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development                     Grace, Martin F., and Robert W. Klein. 2009. The perfect
       grant to investigate new prototypes for sustainable                          storm: Hurricanes, insurance and regulation. Risk
       affordable housing. Following Hurricane Katrina, the                         Management and Insurance Review 12 (1): 81-124.
       grant focus shifted to developing a home-building train-                     The intense hurricane seasons of 2004 and 2005 caused
       ing program for New Orleans residents, which resulted                        considerable instability in property insurance markets
       in constructing the first new post-Hurricane Katrina                         in coastal states with the greatest problems occurring in
       houses on the north side of the Lower 9th Ward. The                          Florida and the Southeast. Insurers have substantially
       work was completed by a team of previously unskilled                         raised rates and decreased their exposures. While no
       workers and 13 fourth-year undergraduate architecture                        severe hurricanes struck the United States in 2006 and
       students. This enterprise is discussed in the context of                     2007, market pressures remain strong given the high risk
       community participation, service learning, and the capi-                     still facing coastal states. These developments generate
       tal market for affordable housing in New Orleans at the                      considerable concern and controversy among various
       time of the project. The demonstration project has not                       stakeholder groups. Government responses have var-
       secured funding for continuation at this time but was                        ied. In Florida, political pressures prompted a wave
       considered successful. The authors suggest six actions                       of legislation and regulations to expand government
       for replicating the program.                                                 underwriting and subsidization of hurricane risk and
                                                                                    constrain insurers’ rates and market adjustments. Other
Evans-Cowley, Jennifer S., and Meghan Zimmerman Gough.                              states’ actions seem more moderate. In this context, it is
       2008. Citizen engagement in post-Hurricane Katrina                           important to understand how property insurance mar-
       planning in Harrison County, Mississippi. Cityscape:                         kets have been changing and governments have been
       A Journal of Policy Development and Research 10 (3):                         responding to increased catastrophe risk. This article
       21-38.                                                                       examines important market developments and evaluates
       This article describes an empowerment planning process                       associated government policies. The article comments on
       that brought residents, public officials, and university                     how regulation is affecting the equilibration of insurance
       students together in Harrison County, Mississippi, fol-                      markets and offer opinions on policies that are helpful



                                                                       37
         and harmful.                                                            fears of exclusion or other-race domination in the
                                                                                 post-Katrina political era. Contemporary opportun-
Hamilton, Douglas R., Thomas F. Gavagan, Kieran T. Smart,                        ists and exploiters of such racial divisions lent their
       Lori A. Upton, Nancy F. Weller, Umalr A. Shah,                            weight to the support of traditional racial reactions.
       Avirm Fishkind, David Persse, Paul Shank, and                             The strategy, tactics, and outcomes of the first post-
       Kenneth Mattox. 2008. Houston’s medical disaster                          Katrina elections thus revealed the deep influence
       response to Hurricane Katrina: Part 1: The initial                        of pre-Katrina values and behavior in the rebuilding
       medical response from Trauma Service Area Q.                              process. Under such conditions, that process remains
       Annals of Emergency Medicine (ePub).                                      halting, mired in racial and political conflict, and
       After Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast on August                      seemingly unable to make a break with a racially bur-
       29, 2005, thousands of ill and injured evacuees were                      dened past.
       transported to Houston, TX. Houston’s regional
       disaster plan was quickly implemented, leading to                Islam, Tanveerul, and Richard E. Peterson. 2009. Climatology
       the activation of the Regional Hospital Preparedness                      of landfalling tropical cyclones in Bangladesh
       Council’s Catastrophic Medical Operations Center                          1877-2003. Natural Hazards 48 (1): 115-135.
       and the rapid construction of a 65-examination-room                       Bangladesh is highly susceptible to tropical cyclones.
       medical facility within the Reliant Center. A plan                        Unfortunately, there is a dearth of climatological
       for triage of arriving evacuees was quickly devel-                        studies on the tropical cyclones there. The Global
       oped and the Astrodome/Reliant Center Complex                             Tropical Cyclone Climatic Atlas (GTCCA) lists his-
       megashelter was created. This article discusses major                     torical storm track information for all the seven
       elements of the regional disaster response, including                     tropical cyclone ocean basins including the North
       regional coordination, triage and emergency medi-                         Indian Ocean. Using GIS, tropical cyclones that made
       cal service transfers into the region’s medical centers,                  landfall in Bangladesh between 1877 and 2003 are
       medical care in population shelters, and community                        identified and examined from the climatological
       health challenges.                                                        perspective. For the convenience of study, the coast
                                                                                 of Bangladesh is divided into five segments and
Hamilton, Douglas R., Thomas F. Gavagan, Kieran T. Smart,                        comparisons are made among the coastal segments
       Lori A. Upton, Nancy F. Weller, Umalr A. Shah,                            in terms of cyclone landfall and vulnerability. There
       Avirm Fishkind, David Persse, Paul Shank, and                             is a large variability in the year-to-year occurrence of
       Kenneth Mattox. 2008. Houston’s medical disaster                          landfalling tropical cyclones in Bangladesh. Most of
       response to Hurricane Katrina: Part II: Transitioning                     the tropical cyclones (70 percent) hit in the months
       from emergency evacuee care to community health                           of May-June and October-November. They generally
       care. Annals of Emergency Medicine (ePub).                                show the well-known pattern of pre- and post-mon-
       After Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast on August                      soon cyclone seasons in that region.
       29, 2005, thousands of ill and injured evacuees were
       transported to Houston, TX. Houston’s regional                   Kapucu, Naim, Maria-Elena Augustin, and Vener Garayev.
       disaster plan was quickly implemented, leading to                        2009. Interstate partnerships in emergency man-
       the activation of the Regional Hospital Preparedness                     agement: Emergency management assistance
       Council’s Catastrophic Medical Operations Center                         compact in response to catastrophic disasters. Public
       and the rapid construction of a 65-examination-room                      Administration Review 69 (2): 297-313.
       medical facility within the Reliant Center. A plan                       The Emergency Management Assistance Compact
       for triage of arriving evacuees was quickly devel-                       (EMAC) is a mutual aid agreement and partnership
       oped and the Astrodome/Reliant Center Complex                            allowing states to assist one another in responding
       mega-shelter was created. Herein, we discuss major                       to natural and man-made disasters, often in advance
       elements of the regional disaster response, including                    of federal disaster assistance. This article examines
       regional coordination, triage and emergency medi-                        EMAC’s response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in
       cal service transfers into the region’s medical centers,                 order to address the significant need for analysis of
       medical care in population shelters, and community                       emergency management at the state level. A content
       health challenges.                                                       analysis of news reports, government documents,
                                                                                and reports from a number of institutions was per-
Hirsch, Arnold R., and A. Lee Levert. 2009. The Katrina                         formed to determine the volume and direction of
         conspiracies: The problem of trust in rebuilding                       EMAC’s performance and its transactions during
         an American city. Journal of Urban History 35 (2):                     the response operations. The authors find a lack
         207-219.                                                               of EMAC training among responders, potentially
         The desolation of New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina                     reducing communication and coordination and the
         necessitated the evacuation, repopulation, and recon-                  efficiency and effectiveness of response operations.
         struction of the city. Historic social, economic, and                  A network analysis assessed the relationships among
         political divisions conditioned that process, both                     the responding organizations to coordinate their
         reflecting and exacerbating racial tensions. The lack                  emergency response operations.
         of trust between blacks and whites generated rumors
         and, for many, explanations for the slow response to           Kessler, Ronald C., and Hans-Ulrich Wittchen. 2008. Post-
         cries for relief, the attempts to restrict black mobil-                 disaster mental health needs assessment surveys:
         ity in the immediate aftermath of the storm, and                        The challenge of improved future research.



                                                                   38
         International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric                    Li, Geraldine M. 2009. Tropical cyclone risk perceptions in
         Research - Special Issue: Post-Disaster Mental Health                       Darwin, Australia: A comparison of different residen-
         Needs Assessment Surveys 17 (S2): S1-S5.                                    tial groups. Natural Hazards 48 (3): 365-382.
         Disasters are very common occurrences, becoming                             Different individuals and groups perceive risk differ-
         increasingly prevalent throughout the world. The num-                       ently. This can significantly affect risk management
         ber of natural disasters either affecting more than 100                     and mitigation practices and requirements. This paper
         people or resulting in a call for international assistance,                 presents findings from a study of tropical cyclone
         increased from roughly 100 per year worldwide in                            risk perceptions in the city of Darwin in the Northern
         the late 1960s, to over 500 per year in the past decade.                    Territory of Australia. Primary in-depth interview data
         Population growth, environmental degradation, and                           and other secondary data are analyzed, focusing in par-
         global warming all play parts in accounting for these                       ticular on wind damage, storm surge, and life safety risk
         increases. There is also the possibility of a pandemic.                     perceptions of residents since Cyclone Tracy—which
         This paper covers a topic of growing worldwide impor-                       struck in 1974—and perceptions of future climate
         tance: mental health needs assessment in the wake of                        change as it relates to tropical cyclone risk. The analysis
         large-scale disasters. Although natural and human-                          reveals that a number of perceptions prevail. In particu-
         made disasters are known to have substantial effects                        lar, the study reveals a wide difference of perceptions
         on the mental health of the people who experience                           between short-term residents (Group 1) and long-term
         them, research shows that the prevalence of post-                           and expert residents (Group 2) in relation to wind dam-
         disaster psychopathology varies enormously from one                         age, storm surge and life safety risk. It also reveals a
         disaster to another in ways that are difficult to predict                   large division between laypersons (Group 3) and expert
         merely by knowing the objective circumstances of the                        residents’ (Group 4) perceptions of climate change
         disaster. Mental health needs assessment surveys are                        risk as it relates to tropical cyclone risk. The author
         consequently carried out after many large-scale natural                     recommends that flexible, multiple and integrative man-
         and human-made disasters to provide information for                         agement and mitigation approaches are required to deal
         service planners on the nature and magnitude of need                        with such different perceptions and divisions in the resi-
         for services. These surveys vary greatly, though, in the                    dent population.
         rigor with which they assess disaster-related stressors
         and post-disaster mental illness. Synthesis of findings            Li, Yue, and Bruce R. Ellingwood. 2009. Framework for
         across surveys is hampered by these inconsistencies. The                     multihazard risk assessment and mitigation for wood-
         typically limited focus of these surveys with regard to                      frame residential construction. Journal of Structural
         the inclusion of risk factors, follow-up assessments, and                    Engineering 135 (2): 159-168.
         evaluations of treatment, also limit insights concerning                     Wood-frame residential construction represents a major
         post-disaster mental illness and treatment response. The                     investment in the United States which, when exposed to
         papers in this issue discuss methodological issues in                        hurricanes, earthquakes, and other natural hazards, may
         the design and implementation of post-disaster mental                        sustain substantial damage. Although in many parts of
         health needs assessment surveys aimed at improving                           the country one natural hazard dominates, in certain
         on the quality of previous such surveys. The many                            areas multiple hazards may pose a significant threat to
         recommendations in these papers will help to foster                          buildings. Building design and construction practices
         improvements in the next generation of post-disaster                         should address the overall risk to residential construc-
         mental health surveys.                                                       tion from multiple hazards to achieve design strategies
                                                                                      and risk levels that are consistent with occupant expec-
Landy, Marc. 2008. Mega-disasters and federalism. Public                              tations and social objectives. This paper presents a
        Administration Review 68: S186-S198.                                          framework for multihazard risk assessment using hur-
        Measured in dollar terms, Hurricane Katrina was the                           ricane and earthquake hazards as an example. Structural
        worst natural disaster in American history. Megadisaster                      reliability-based methods that describe natural hazard
        response recovery and mitigation put federalism to                            and structural system response probabilistically are
        an especially difficult test because they require speed,                      essential for quantifying expected losses from natural
        efficiency, decisiveness, and effective coordination. This                    disasters and for developing appropriate strategies to
        essay focuses on the response to and recovery from                            manage risk. The framework permits the main sources
        Katrina in order to probe the implications of mega-                           of uncertainty that affect building performance to be
        disasters for federalism. It understands federalism as                        identified, and provides insight on strategies for effec-
        being composed off our dimensions: the three levels of                        tive multihazard mitigation efforts.
        government, and the civic realm. It tests key defenses of
        federalism against civic and government performance                 Moreno, Alvaro, and Susanne Becken. 2009. A climate change
        during Katrina. It offers examples of successes and                         vulnerability assessment methodology for coastal tour-
        failures involving all four dimensions and provides                         ism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism (ePub).
        specific recommendations for improving megadisaster                         Coastal and marine environments are among the most
        mitigation, response, and recovery while maintaining an                     popular areas for outdoor recreation and tourism.
        appropriate constitutional balance among the three lev                      Coastal areas have also been identified as the most
                                                                                    vulnerable to climate change, for example as a result of
         els of government, and between the civilian government                     extreme events and sea-level rise. It will be increasingly
         and the military.                                                          important for coastal tourism destination managers to
                                                                                    understand their vulnerability to climatic changes and



                                                                       39
         to devise appropriate adaptation. This paper presents                    tion to the disaster were less likely to report they
         a five-step vulnerability assessment methodology for                     would recover fully. All three Hurricane Katrina
         tourism in coastal areas. The five steps include (1)                     experience-related variables—being insured, home
         system analysis, (2) identification of activity and haz-                 destruction, and human loss—significantly affect psy-
         ard sub-systems, (3) vulnerability assessments for the                   chological distress, with human loss being strongest.
         different sub-systems at risk, (4) integration for the                   Implications for practice and research are discussed.
         destination as a whole and scenario analysis and (5)
         communication. The framework is illustrated by an               Quale, John, and Kristina L. Iverson. 2008. A sustainable
         example of how it might be applied to Fiji. The paper                    housing response to Hurricane Katrina. Cityscape:
         concludes that a consistent methodology, like the one                    A Journal of Policy Development and Research 10 (3):
         proposed, will facilitate vulnerability assessments in                   101-112.
         a range of coastal destinations, allow comparison to                     This article describes the collaborative experience
         be made of vulnerabilities across different situations,                  of the ecoMOD project at the University of Virginia
         provide a basis for more research into specific adap-                    (UVA) and Habitat for Humanity International as
         tation measures and assist destinations to develop a                     they developed a prototypical ecological, prefabricat-
         more sustainable tourism industry.                                       ed, and affordable home for a family along the Gulf
                                                                                  Coast of Mississippi after Hurricane Katrina made
Moss, Mitchell, Charles Schellhamer, and David A. Berman.                         landfall in August of 2005. Since 2004, ecoMOD has
       2009. The Stafford Act and priorities for reform.                          created five affordable housing units, four of them in
       Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency                                 Charlottesville, Virginia. The project is a partnership
       Management 6 (1): 1-21.                                                    of the UVA School of Architecture and the School of
       During the past fifty years, federal disaster policy                       Engineering and Applied Science. The project’s aim
       in the United States has been shaped by an ongoing                         is to create well-designed, high-quality homes that
       conflict between proponents who favor federal inter-                       minimize living costs and environmental impact.
       vention following a disaster and those who believe
       disaster response should be the responsibility of state           Reardon, Kenneth M., Marcel Ionescu-Heroiu, and Andrew
       and local governments and charities. This article                        J. Rumbach. 2008. Equity planning in post-Hurri-
       explores the existing federal disaster policy landscape                  cane Katrina New Orleans: Lessons from the Ninth
       within the United States with a focus on the Stafford                    Ward. Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development
       Act, the cultural and political forces that produced it,                 and Research 10 (3): 57-76.
       and how the current system is ill equipped to aid in                     This article describes how grassroots activists and
       the response and recovery from major catastrophes.                       community leaders representing poor and work-
       The Stafford Act defines how federal disasters are                       ing class residents of New Orleans, together with
       declared, determines the types of assistance to be pro-                  planning students and faculty from three research
       vided by the federal government, and establishes cost                    universities, overcame racial, class, and cultural
       sharing arrangements among federal, state, and local                     barriers to collaboration to create and promote a com-
       governments. The Federal Emergency Management                            prehensive Hurricane Katrina recovery plan for the
       Agency (FEMA) carries out the provisions of the                          neighborhoods that make up the city’s Ninth Ward.
       Stafford Act and distributes much of the assistance
       provided by the Act. With the establishment of the                Rumpf, Jonas, Helga Weindl, Peter Hoppe, Ernst Rauch,
       U.S. Department of Homeland Security, the threat of                       and Volker Schmidt. 2009. Tropical cyclone hazard
       domestic terrorism, and large-scale natural disasters                     assessment using model-based track simulation.
       like Hurricane Katrina, the limits of the Stafford Act                    Natural Hazards 48 (3): 383-398.
       and FEMA have been shown. The article looks at sev-                       A method is introduced for assessing the probabili-
       eral areas where the shortcomings of the Stafford Act                     ties and intensities of tropical cyclones at landfall
       have emerged and propose directions for reform.                           and applied to data from the North Atlantic. First,
                                                                                 a recently developed model for the basin-wide
Othelia Lee, Eun-Kyoung, Ce Shen, and Thanh V. Tran.                             Monte Carlo simulation of tropical cyclone tracks is
        2009. Coping with Hurricane Katrina: Psychological                       enhanced and transferred to the North Atlantic basin.
        distress and resilience among African American                           Subsequently, a large number of synthetic tracks is
        evacuees. Journal of Black Psychology 35 (1): 5-23.                      generated by means of an implementation of this
        Hurricane Katrina was one of the most devastating                        model. This synthetic data is far more comprehensive
        natural disasters in U.S. history. Although this natural                 than the available historical data, while exhibiting
        disaster affected all racial groups, low-income African                  the same basic characteristics. It, thus, creates a more
        Americans experienced disproportionate suffering.                        sound basis for assessing landfall probabilities than
        This study examines factors related to psychologi-                       previously available, especially in areas with a low
        cal resilience in the Hurricane Katrina a 363-evacuee                    historical landfall frequency.
        sample drawn from the Kaiser Washington Post
        Harvard Poll. The structural equation model used
        explains 34 percent of the total variance of Katrina             Schwartz, Jeffrey A. 2009. Planning for the last disaster:
        victims’ resilience was measured by their perceived                      Correctional facilities and emergency preparedness.
        sense of recovery. Findings suggest those evacuees                       Journal of Emergency Management 7 (1): 75-79.
        who reported psychological distress as a reac-                           This study uses hurricanes Katrina and Rita to illus-



                                                                    40
         trate the phenomenon of “planning for the last disaster,”                 Thus, school personnel should be vigilant and prepared
         in which public agencies become so transfixed by a                        to respond to increased bullying following disasters and
         profound crisis or disaster that they begin to prepare                    for increased victimization in youth experiencing PTSD
         for another occurrence of the same event. In doing so,                    symptoms.
         they abandon or ignore their ongoing and more generic
         emergency planning and deny the obvious, that the next           Zandbergen, Paul A. 2009. Exposure of U.S. counties to Atlantic
         emergency or disaster has a high probability of being                   tropical storms and hurricanes, 1851-2003. Natural
         a very different situation. The same counterproductive                  Hazards 48 (1): 83-99.
         results can be obtained if an organization is swept up in               Exposure of counties in the continental United States
         media hype and public concern about an “emergency du                    to tropical storm and hurricane conditions was deter-
         jour,” such as Y2K or pandemic flu. Although this article               mined using the historic record of storm tracks for the
         examines these issues in correctional organizations, the                period 1851-2003. Two approaches were used to deter-
         same principles apply to almost all public agencies.                    mine exposure: (1) cumulative number of hits, with a
                                                                                 hit occurring when the storm’s path crosses a county
Smith, Stanley K., and Chris McCarty. 2009. Fleeing the                          and (2) cumulative exposure factor, which describes
        storm(s): An examination of evacuation behavior                          how much of the county has been exposed to tropical
        during Florida’s 2004 hurricane. Demography 46 (1):                      storm, hurricane, and intense hurricane-force winds. In
        127-145.                                                                 both approaches the top 10 counties in terms of cumu-
        The 2004 hurricane season was the worst in Florida’s                     lative exposure are in coastal Florida, North Carolina,
        history, with four hurricanes causing at least 47 deaths                 and Louisiana. An explanatory model was developed
        and some $45 billion in damages. To collect information                  to describe the patterns in the documented exposure,
        on the demographic impact of those hurricanes, this                      which included distance to coast, latitude, longitude,
        study surveyed households throughout the state and                       size, and shape of the counties. Multivariate linear
        in the local areas that sustained the greatest damage.                   regression confirmed that much of the spatial variability
        It is estimated that one-quarter of Florida’s population                 in exposure to storm conditions can be explained with
        evacuated prior to at least one hurricane. In some areas,                these simple parameters.
        well over one-half of the residents evacuated at least
        once, and many evacuated several times. Most evacu-               Information & Spatial Technology
        ees stayed with family or friends and were away from
        home for only a few days. Through logistic regression             Aziz, Zeeshan, Feniosky Pena-Mora, Albert Chen, and Timothy
        analysis, the study found that the strength of the hur-                   Lantz. 2009. Supporting urban emergency response
        ricane and the vulnerability of the housing unit had the                  and recovery using RFID-based building assessment.
        greatest impact on evacuation behavior; additionally,                     Disaster Prevention and Management 18 (1): 35-48.
        several demographic variables had significant effects on                  This paper focuses on improving mobile computing
        the probability of evacuating and the choice of evacua-                   support during a disaster response and recovery opera-
        tion lodging (family/friends, public shelters, or hotels/                 tion to aid in the assessment of building damage, as well
        motels). With continued population growth in coastal                      as making assessments available for to ensure a safe,
        areas and the apparent increase in hurricane activity                     efficient and effective disaster response process. The
        caused by global warming, threats posed by hurricanes                     research method involved the use of scenario-based,
        are rising and this study will help government officials                  user needs analysis for studying end-user needs and
        plan more effectively for future hurricane evacuations.                   requirements. The Rational Unified Process for soft-
                                                                                  ware design and implementation was also used. An
Terranova, Andrew M., Paul Boxer, and Amanda Sheffield                            IT-supported collaboration platform was developed to
        Morris. 2009. Changes in children’s peer interactions                     enable first responders to communicate using hand-held
        following a natural disaster: How predisaster bullying                    devices and laptops, as well as to share critical building
        and victimization rates changed following Hurricane                       evaluation information using a ad hoc mobile network.
        Katrina. Psychology in the Schools 46 (4): 333-347.                       A trial of the system was conducted at Illinois Fire
        Youth exposed to disasters experience stress and                          Services Institute. Mobile devices with Radio Frequency
        adjustment difficulties, which likely influence their                     Identification (RFID) and tags can be used for posting,
        interactions with peers. In this study, the authors exam-                 gathering, storing, and sharing assessments with fewer
        ined changes in bullying and peer victimization in                        errors, which leads to improved emergency response
        two cohorts of children. Youth from an area affected                      effectiveness. The key research contribution includes
        by Hurricane Katrina were assessed pre and post-                          analysis of the first responder information needs,
        disaster (n = 96, mean [M] = 10.9 years old, 53 percent                   development of a collaborative framework for urban
        female), and a comparison group from a nearby area                        preparedness and emergency response, demonstration
        was assessed over the same time interval one year prior                   using realistic disaster scenarios, and implementation
        (n = 120, M = 10.2 years old, 52 percent female). Within                  and validation of the prototype system.
        the hurricane group, relations between symptoms of
        post-traumatic stress disorder with bullying and victim-
        ization also were examined. Following the hurricane,              Bass, Ellen J., Leigh Baumgart, Kevin Kloesel, Kathleen
        the hurricane group reported increased relational and                      Dougherty, Havidan Rodriguez, Walter Diaz, William
        overt bullying relative to the non-hurricane group, and                    Donner, Jenniffer Santos, and Michael Zink. 2009.
        PTSD symptoms predicted increased victimization.                           Incorporating emergency management needs in the



                                                                     41
         development of weather radar networks. Journal of
         Emergency Management 7 (1): 45-52.                                 Ebert, Annemarie, Norman Kerle, and Alfred Stein. 2009. Urban
         The Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the                       social vulnerability assessment with physical proxies
         Atmosphere (CASA) is developing networks of low-                           and spatial metrics derived from air- and spaceborne
         power, low-cost radars that adaptively collect, process,                   imagery and GIS data. Natural Hazards 48 (2): 275-294.
         and visualize high-resolution data in the lowest portion                   Risk management in urban planning is of increasing
         of the atmosphere. CASA researchers are working with                       importance to mitigate the growing amount of dam-
         emergency managers, ensuring the network concept is                        age and the increasing number of casualties caused by
         designed with their needs in mind. Interviews, surveys,                    natural disasters. Risk assessment to support manage-
         product usage log analysis, and simulated scenarios                        ment requires knowledge about present and future
         are used to solicit input. Results indicate the need for                   hazards, elements at risk, and different types of vulner-
         products for both high- and low-bandwidth, velocity                        ability. This article deals with the assessment of social
         products that are more easily interpreted, and enhanced                    vulnerability (SV). In the past this has been neglected
         training. CASA researchers are developing interventions                    because of a lack of data and assessment difficulties.
         to address these needs.                                                    Existing approaches for SV assessment, primarily based
                                                                                    on community-based methods or on census data, have
Berenbrock, C., R.R. Mason, and S.F. Blanchard. 2009. Mapping                       limited efficiency and transferability. In this article a
        Hurricane Rita inland storm tide. Journal of Flood Risk                     new method based on contextual analysis of image and
        Management 2 (1): 76-82.                                                    GIS data is presented. An approach based on proxy vari-
        Flood inundation data are most useful for decision mak-                     ables that were derived from high-resolution optical and
        ers when presented in the context of maps of affected                       laser scanning data was applied, in combination with
        communities and areas. But because the data are scarce                      elevation information and existing hazard data. Object-
        and rarely cover the full extent of flooding, interpolation                 oriented image analysis was applied for the definition
        and extrapolation of the information are needed. Many                       and estimation of those variables, focusing on SV indi-
        geographic information systems provide various inter-                       cators with physical characteristics. A reference Social
        polation tools, but these tools often ignore the effects of                 Vulnerability Index (SVI) was created from census data
        the topographic and hydraulic features that influence                       available for the study area on a neighborhood level and
        flooding. A barrier mapping method was developed                            tested for parts of Tegucigalpa, Honduras. For the evalu-
        to improve maps of storm tide produced by Hurricane                         ation of the proxy variables, a stepwise regression model
        Rita. Maps were developed for the maximum storm tide                        to select the best explanatory variables for changes in
        and at three hour intervals from midnight (00:00 hours)                     the SVI was applied. Eight out of 47 variables explained
        through noon (12:00 hours) on September 24, 2005. The                       almost 60 percent of the variance, whereby the slope
        improved maps depict storm tide elevations and the                          position and the proportion of built-up area in a neigh-
        extent of flooding. The extent of storm tide inunda-                        borhood were found to be the most valuable proxies.
        tion from the improved maximum storm tide map was                           This work shows that contextual segmentation-based
        compared with the extent of flood inundation from a                         analysis of geospatial data can substantially aid in SV
        map prepared by the Federal Emergency Management                            assessment and, when combined with field-based infor-
        Agency (FEMA). The boundaries from these two maps                           mation, leads to optimization in terms of assessment
        generally compared quite well especially along the                          frequency and cost.
        Calcasieu River. Also a cross-section profile that parallels
        the Louisiana coast was developed from the maximum                  French, Simon, Clare Bayley, and Nan Zhang. 2009. Web-
        storm tide map and included FEMA high-water marks.                           based group decision support for crisis management.
                                                                                     International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis
Currion, Paul. 2009. Only connect: Problem sciences, informa-                        Response and Management 1 (1): 41-53.
         tion systems and humanitarian reform. International                         The early designs for crisis management decision
         Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and                      support systems used data-based or model-based meth-
         Management 1 (1): 29-40.                                                    odologies and architectures. This article argues that the
         The introduction of information systems and the                             complexity of crisis management situations means that a
         humanitarian reform process have a tremendous impact                        greater emphasis on collaboration is needed. Moreover,
         on how humanitarian assistance is delivered, yet the                        modern interactive Web 2.0 technologies allow group
         two processes are weakly connected. As a result, the                        decision support to be offered to geographically dis-
         humanitarian community fails to realize the potential                       persed teams. Given that crisis management often
         of information technology in supporting key reform                          requires teams to be drawn together from a number
         aspects and doesn’t recognize technology is likely to                       of organizations sited at different locations, the article
         render many reform discussions moot. The balance of                         reflects upon the potential of these technologies to sup-
         knowledge is shifting toward those affected by disaster,                    port the early stages of crisis management without
         implying that technology will increasingly empower                          the need to draw the team together at a common loca-
         them to cope more effectively with disaster impact.                         tion. It also reports on a small scale experiment using
         Traditional actors in the humanitarian community must                       GroupSystems ThinkTank to manage an emerging food
         incorporate this reality into its processes or risk being                   safety event. Such systems have potential and deserve
         overtaken by newer and more agile institutions that                         more careful evaluation.
         might not be concerned with humanitarian principles.



                                                                       42
Lein, James K., and Nicole I. Stump. 2009. Assessing wildfire                       areas better than traditional mapping techniques. A case
         potential within the wildland-urban interface: A                           study estimating population potentially impacted by
         southeastern Ohio example. Applied Geography 29 (1):                       flood hazard in New York City compares the impacted
         21-34.                                                                     population determined by CEDS with that derived by
         Spreading cities and suburbs remain a common phe-                          centroid-containment method and filtered areal-weight-
         nomenon throughout the United States. Urban spread,                        ing interpolation. Compared to CEDS, 37 percent and
         and the desire to move beyond the subdivision for a                        72 percent fewer people are estimated to be at risk from
         more natural setting in the country, creates both oppor-                   floods citywide, using conventional areal weighting of
         tunities and challenges for natural resource managers.                     census data, and centroid-containment selection, respec-
         Perhaps no challenge is as great as those related to wild-                 tively. Undercounting of impacted population could
         fire risk within the lands describing the urban-wildland                   have serious implications for emergency management
         interface. The need to gain a better understanding of                      and disaster planning. Ethnic and racial populations
         the wildland-urban interface is critical to policy mak-                    are also spatially disaggregated to determine any envi-
         ers charged with risk reduction responsibilities. This                     ronmental justice impacts with flood risk. Minorities
         paper develops a methodology that characterizes the                        are disproportionately undercounted using traditional
         spatial distribution of wildfire risk potential in south-                  methods. Underestimating more vulnerable subpopula-
         eastern Ohio, using a geospatial technology solution to                    tions impairs preparedness and relief efforts.
         model critical hazard and risk variables associated with
         wildfire. The results demonstrate that the association of         McGuirl, J., N. Sarter, and D. Woods. 2009. Effects of real-time
         wildfire with hazard and risk variables can be exploited                 imaging on decision-making in a simulated incident
         to improve wildfire potential mapping and a validation                   command task. International Journal of Information
         assessment of the geographic information systems (GIS)-                  Systems for Crisis Response and Management 1 (1):
         based prescriptive model displays a strong agreement                     54-69.
         with the pattern of historic wildfire for the region.                    Eight incident commanders (ICs) took part in a simu-
                                                                                  lation exercise to determine the impact of real-time
Lu, George Y., Long S. Chiu, and David W. Wong. 2008.                             imaging feedback on situation assessment and decision
        Vulnerability assessment of rainfall-induced debris                       making in an uncertain and high tempo environment.
        flows in Taiwan. Natural Hazards 43 (2): 223-244.                         The imaging feedback simulated the video feed from
        A GIS-based decision support system, which incorpo-                       an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that allows incident
        rates local topographic and rainfall effects on debris                    command centers to monitor developments at the cri-
        flow vulnerability is developed. Rainfall at a scale com-                 sis site. Nearly all of the ICs failed to detect important
        patible with the digital elevation model resolution is                    changes in the situation that were not captured in the
        obtained using a neural network with a wind-induced                       imaging but that were available via other, more tradi-
        topographic effect and rainfall derived from satellite                    tional data sources. It appears that the ICs placed an
        rain estimates and an adaptive inverse distance weight                    inappropriately high level of trust in the imaging data,
        method (WTNN). The technique is tested using data                         resulting in a narrowing of their data search activities
        collected during the passage of typhoon Tori-Ji on July,                  and limited cross-checking between the data sources
        2001 over central Taiwan. Numerous debris flows trig-                     being used. This research helps anticipate and guard
        gered by the typhoon were used as control for the study.                  against undesirable effects of introducing similar tech-
        The results show that the WTNN technique outper-                          nologies on training and operational procedures in a
        forms other interpolation techniques including adaptive                   variety of domains.
        inversed distance weight (AIDW), simple kriging (SK),
        co-kriging, and multiple linear regression using gauge,            Nirupama, N. 2009. Analysis of the global tsunami data for vul-
        and topographic parameters. Multiple remotely-sensed,                     nerability and risk assessment. Natural Hazards 48 (1):
        fuzzy-based debris-flow susceptibility parameters                         11-16.
        are used to describe the characteristics of watersheds.                   Past tsunami observations are necessary for the assess-
        Non-linear, multi-variant regressions using the WTNN                      ment of tsunami risk and vulnerability. The U.S.
        derived rainfall and topography factors are derived                       National Geophysical Data Center has prepared the
        using self-organizing maps (SOM) for the debris flow                      world’s most comprehensive tsunami databases, with
        vulnerability assessment. An index of vulnerability                       Web site listings for oceans, as well as the Caribbean,
        representing the degrees of hazard is implemented in a                    Mediterranean, Black Sea, Red Sea, and the Gulf of
        GIS-based decision support system by which a decision                     Mexico. The dataset goes back as far as the first century
        maker can assess debris flow vulnerability.                               A.D. and lists events on a confidence rating scale of
                                                                                  0-4—zero being an erroneous entry and four being a
Maantay, Juliana, and Andrew Maroko. 2009. Mapping urban                          definite tsunami. Based on these different geographi-
       risk: Flood hazards, race, and environmental justice in                    cal datasets, this study created a comprehensive global
       New York. Applied Geography 29 (1): 111-124.                               dataset that included only tsunamis with confidence
       This paper demonstrates the importance of disaggre-                        ratings of 3-4, meaning either probable or definite. There
       gating population data aggregated by census tracts or                      geographic distinction in this database, nor is there dis-
       other units, for more realistic population distribution                    tiction based on a tsunami’s coastal impact strength. The
       and location. A newly developed mapping method, the                        simple and straightforward statistical analysis suggests
       Cadastral-based Expert Dasymetric System (CEDS),                           almost complete randomness. With a few minor excep-
       calculates population in hyper-heterogeneous urban                         tions, no patterns useful for future tsunami predictions



                                                                      43
        emerged.                                                              Hazards 48 (3): 329-337.
                                                                              Property insurance data available for 1949 to 2006
Osuchowski, Monica. 2009. Bringing information manage-                        were assessed to get definitive measures of hurricane
       ment practices to natural disaster risk reduction. The                 losses in the United States. Catastrophes—events
       Australian Journal of Emergency Management 24 (1):                     causing more than $1 million in losses—were most
       53-59.                                                                 frequent in the southeast and south climate regions.
       The important role of information management in                        Losses in these two regions totaled $127 billion, 85
       improving baseline data for natural hazards has been                   percent of the nation’s total losses. During the study
       demonstrated through a collaborative pilot project                     period, there were 79 hurricane catastrophes, causing
       between Geoscience Australia, Mineral Resources                        $150.6 billion in losses and averaging $2.6 billion per
       Tasmania and the University of Wollongong. The                         year. All aspects of these hurricanes showed increases
       result is a “virtual” landslide database that makes                    in post-1990 years. Sizes of loss areas averaged one
       full use of diverse data across three levels of govern-                state between 1949 and 1967, but grew to three states
       ment and has enabled landslide data to be collated                     between 1990 and 2006. Seven of the 10 most damag-
       and accessed from a single source. Such a system                       ing hurricanes came in 2004 (four) and 2005 (three).
       establishes the foundation for a very powerful and                     The number of hurricanes also peaked between 1984
       coordinated information resource in Australia and                      and 2006, increasing from an annual average of 1.2
       provides a suitable basis for greater investment in                    from 1949 to 1983 to 2.1 per year. Losses were $49.3
       data collection. This paper highlights the capacity                    billion from 1991 to 2006, 32 percent of the 58-year
       to extend the methodology across all hazards and                       total. Various reasons have been offered for such
       describes one solution in facilitating a sound knowl-                  recent increases in hurricane losses including more
       edge base on natural disasters and disaster risk                       hurricanes, more intense tropical storms, increased
       reduction.                                                             societal vulnerability in storm-prone areas, and a
                                                                              change in climate due to global warming, although
Sherrah, Meryl. 2009. A fresh approach to development                         this is debatable.
         assessment in Bushfire Protection Areas. The
         Australian Journal of Emergency Management 24 (1):           Chhibber, Ajay, and Rachid Laajaj. 2008. Disasters, climate
         11-16.                                                              change and economic development in Sub-Saharan
         In late 2006 and 2007, changes were made to the plan-               Africa: Lessons and directions. Journal of African
         ning and building requirements for new dwellings                    Economics 17 (2): 7-49.
         to be built in certain identified bushfire risk areas               This paper explores the links among natural disas-
         of South Australia. The changes affected 39 councils                ters, climate change, and economic development and
         located throughout SA, including Eyre Peninsula,                    attempts to outline a framework for their consider-
         Yorke Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, the South-East,                   ation. The paper summarizes the limited knowledge
         the Riverland, Murray Bridge, mid-North, Mt. Lofty                  of long-term economic impacts of natural disasters.
         Ranges and parts of the metropolitan Adelaide                       Linking disasters, resource management, conflicts,
         region. Under the changes, parts of these councils                  and other transmission channels is necessary to
         have now been designated as Bushfire Protection                     develop an appropriate response. The paper argues
         Areas. Each of these areas has been thoroughly                      African governments, along with their development
         assessed and categorized into one of three bushfire                 partners, need to develop a more robust disaster
         risk levels—high bushfire risk, medium bushfire risk,               adaptation and response capability as part of devel-
         or general bushfire risk. There are also areas which                opment planning. The paper makes the case for more
         are “excluded.” Different planning and building                     market-based financing mechanisms and for empha-
         requirements now apply depending on the designat-                   sizing forecasting research. It also argues for more
         ed level of bushfire risk. The Department of Planning               work linking climate change and disasters and for
         and Local Government has prepared an online search                  looking at disaster resilience as a continuum to devel-
         tool to assist people in identifying whether a par-                 opment strategy.
         ticular property in the 39 councils is in a Bushfire
         Protection Area and the property’s assigned bushfire         Chowdhury, Arindam Gan, F. Emil Simiu, and Stephen
         risk. A web mapping application to assist in devel-                P. Leatherman. 2009. Destructive testing under
         opment assessment in Bushfire Protection Areas                     simulated hurricane effects to promote hazard miti-
         has also been produced for Country Fire Service                    gation. Natural Hazards Review 10 (1): 1-10.
         and council staff involved in development assess-                  The human and financial toll of hurricanes on
         ment. The development of the online search tool                    the Eastern and Gulf Coast communities in the
         and the web mapping application was funded under                   United States has been immense. The International
         the Natural Disaster Mitigation Program and has                    Hurricane Research Center at Florida International
         received Australian and State Government financial                 University focuses on a first-of-its-kind, full-scale
         support.                                                           destructive testing method that could lead to a bet-
                                                                            ter understanding of interaction between hurricanes
Insurance & Economic Impact                                                 and structures and develop effective mitigation
                                                                            measures. This hurricane engineering research
Changnon, Stanley A. 2009. Characteristics of severe Atlantic               will improve building resiliency through full-scale
       hurricanes in the United States: 1949–2006. Natural                  destructive testing and raise public awareness of the



                                                                 44
         need for improved building safety and how to achieve                        regressions modeled determinants of disaster prepared-
         it. This paper describes the full-scale destructive testing                 ness, adjusting for sociodemographic covariates then
         concept, details application in pilot tests, illustrates the                sociodemographic variables and health status variables.
         scientific approach underlying the current testing, and                     Only 40.7 percent of people who rated their health as
         discusses plans to develop techniques to mitigate hurri-                    fair/poor have disaster supplies compared with 53.1
         cane destruction. This research is necessary for available                  percent of those who rate their health as excellent (P
         and affordable insurance, which is needed to sustain the                    < 0.001). Only 34.8 percent of people who rated their
         economy of the U.S. coastal states.                                         health as fair/poor have an emergency plan compared
                                                                                     with 44.8 percent of those who rate their health as excel-
Doocy, Shannon, Amy Daniels, and Daniel Aspilcueta. 2009.                            lent (P < 0.01). Only 29.5 percent of people who have a
        Mortality and injury following the 2007 Ica earthquake                       serious mental illness have disaster supplies compared
        in Peru. American Journal of Disaster Medicine 4 (1):                        with 49.2 percent of those who do not have a serious
        15-22.                                                                       mental illness (P < 0.001). People with fair/poor health
        This paper quantifies earthquake injury and mortal-                          remained less likely to have disaster supplies (adjusted
        ity from the 2007 Ica earthquake in Peru and assesses                        odds ratio [AOR] 0.69, 95 percent confidence interval
        earthquake-related risk and vulnerability. The design                        [CI] 0.500.96) and less likely to have an emergency plan
        was a population-based cluster survey of households                          (AOR 0.68, 95 percent CI 0.510.92) compared with those
        in the region most affected by the quake. A stratified                       who rate their health as excellent, after adjusting for
        cluster survey design was used to allow for comparison                       the sociodemographic covariates. People with serious
        between urban, peri-urban, and rural areas, where dif-                       mental illness remained less likely to have disaster sup-
        ferent outcomes were anticipated as a result of variation                    plies after adjusting for the sociodemographic covariates
        in building practices and access to post-earthquake                          (AOR 0.67, 95 percent CI 0.480.93). Disability status
        assistance. A total of 42 clusters of 16 households were                     was not associated with lower rates of disaster sup-
        planned to allow for comparison between the loca-                            plies or emergency communication plans in bivariate or
        tion types and to ensure adequate spatial coverage.                          multivariate analyses. Finally, adjusting for the sociode-
        The four affected provinces are in southern Peru: Ica,                       mographic and other health variables, people with fair/
        Pisco, Chincha, and Canete. A total of 672 randomly                          poor health remained less likely to have an emergency
        selected households with a combined population of                            plan (AOR 0.66, 95 percent CI 0.480.92) and people with
        3,608 individuals, of which 3,484 (97 percent) were                          serious mental illness remained less likely to have disas-
        reported as household members on the day of the                              ter supplies (AOR 0.67, 95 percent CI 0.470.95). People
        earthquake. Mortality and injury rates in the four most                      who report fair/poor general health and probable seri-
        affected provinces were estimated at 1.4 deaths per 1,000                    ous mental illness are less likely to report household
        exposed (95 CI: 0.5-3.3) and 29 injuries per 1,000 exposed                   disaster preparedness and an emergency communication
        (95 CI: 6-52). Older adults and members of households                        plan. The results could add to our understanding of why
        of lower socioeconomic status faced increased risk of                        people with preexisting health problems suffer dispro-
        injury. No significant differences in injury rates were                      portionately from disasters. Public health may consider
        observed between rural, urban, and peri-urban resi-                          collaborating with community partners and health ser-
        dence areas. Populations of lower socioeconomic status                       vices providers to improve preparedness among people
        faced increased risk of injury. However, no differences                      with chronic illness and people who are mentally ill.
        in injury rates were observed between rural, urban, and
        peri-urban communities. Study findings suggest that                  Freudenburg, William R., Robert Gramling, Shirley Laska, and
        earthquake preparedness and mitigation efforts should                       Kai T. Erikson. 2008. Organizing hazards, engineering
        focus on population subgroups of lower socioeconomic                        disasters? Improving the recognition of political-eco-
        in both rural and urban areas of earthquake-prone                           nomic factors in the creation of disasters. Social Forces
        regions.                                                                    87 (2): 1015-1038.
                                                                                    Disaster studies have made important progress in rec-
Eisenman, David P., Qiong Zhou, Michael Ong, Steven Asch,                           ognizing the unequally distributed consequences of
       Deborah Glik, and Amy Long. 2009. Variations in                              disasters, but there has been less progress in analyz-
       disaster preparedness by mental health, perceived gen-                       ing social factors that help create “natural” disasters.
       eral health, and disability status. Disaster Medicine and                    Even well-known patterns of hazard creation tend to
       Public Health Preparedness 3 (1): 33-40.                                     be interpreted generically—as representing “economic
       Chronic medical problems, mental illness, and disabil-                       development” or “capitalism”—rather than through
       ity increase vulnerability to disasters. National efforts                    focusing on the more specific dynamics involved. This
       have focused on preparing people with disabilities.                          article illustrates this point with two recent and well-
       Studies find them to be increasingly prepared, but less                      known cases of flooding—those in the upper Mississippi
       is known about people with chronic mental and medi-                          River Valley and in the Katrina-related devastation of
       cal illnesses. The authors examined the relationship                         New Orleans. In the former case, damage was caused in
       between health status (mental health, perceived general                      part by building the very kinds of higher and stronger
       health, and disability) and disaster preparedness (home                      flood walls that were shown to be inadequate in the
       disaster supplies and family communication plan). A                          latter. In the New Orleans case, a more important fac-
       random digit-dial telephone survey of the Los Angeles                        tor in the death and destruction was the excavation of
       County population was conducted from October 2004                            a transportation canal. In both cases, and many more,
       to January 2005 in 6 languages. Separate multivariate                        the underlying causes of damage to humans as well as



                                                                        45
         to the environment has involved a three-part pattern,                       natural disasters by using an endogenous business cycle
         supported by the political system: spreading the costs;                     (EnBC) model in which cyclical behavior arises from
         concentrating the economic benefits; and hiding the real                    the investment-profit instability. The authors’ model
         risks. In very real senses, these have been floods of folly,                exhibits a larger response to natural disasters during
         created not just by extreme weather events, but by dead-                    expansions than during recessions. This apparently par-
         ly and avoidable patterns of political-economic choices.                    adoxical result can be traced to the disasters amplifying
         Comparable patterns appear to deserve greater attention                     pre-existing disequilibria during expansions, while the
         in other contexts, as well.                                                 existence of unused resources during recessions damps
                                                                                     the exogenous shocks. It thus appears that high-growth
Grace, Martin F., and Robert W. Klein. 2009. The perfect                             periods are also highly vulnerable to supply-side shocks.
        storm: Hurricanes, insurance and regulation. Risk                            In their EnBC model, the average production loss due to
        Management and Insurance Review 12 (1): 81-124.                              a set of disasters distributed at random in time is highly
        The intense hurricane seasons of 2004 and 2005 caused                        sensitive to the dynamical characteristics of the impacted
        considerable instability in property insurance markets                       economy. Larger economic flexibility allows for a more
        in coastal states with the greatest problems occurring in                    efficient and rapid response to supply-side shocks and
        Florida and the Southeast. Insurers have substantially                       reduces production losses. On the other hand, too high
        raised rates and decreased their exposures. While no                         a flexibility can lead to vulnerability phases that cause
        severe hurricanes struck the United States in 2006 and                       average production losses to soar. These results raise
        2007, market pressures remain strong given the high risk                     questions about the assessment of climate change dam-
        still facing coastal states. These developments generate                     ages or natural disaster losses that are based purely on
        considerable concern and controversy among various                           long-term growth models.
        stakeholder groups. Government responses have var-
        ied. In Florida, political pressures prompted a wave                 Hochrainer, Stefan, Reinhard Mechler, and Georg Pflug. 2008.
        of legislation and regulations to expand government                          Climate change and financial adaptation in Africa:
        underwriting and subsidization of hurricane risk and                         Investigating the impact of climate change on the
        constrain insurers’ rates and market adjustments. Other                      robustness of index-based microinsurance in Malawi.
        states’ actions seem more moderate. In this context, it is                   Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global
        important to understand how property insurance mar-                          Change 14 (3): 231-250.
        kets have been changing and governments have been                            This paper discusses the applicability of crop insurance
        responding to increased catastrophe risk. This article                       for the case of Malawi. It explores the potential impact
        examines important market developments and evaluates                         of climate change on the viability of the Malawi weather
        associated government policies. The article comments on                      insurance program, using of scenarios of climate change-
        how regulation is affecting the equilibration of insurance                   induced variations in rainfall patterns. By combining
        markets and offer opinions on policies that are helpful                      catastrophe insurance modeling with climate modeling,
        and harmful.                                                                 the methodology demonstrates the feasibility, albeit
                                                                                     with large uncertainties, of estimating the effects of
Hallegatte, Stephane, and Patrice Dumas. 2009. Can natural                           climate variability and climate change on the near- and
        disasters have positive consequences? Investigating                          long-term future of microinsurance schemes serving the
        the role of embodied technical change. Ecological                            poor. By providing a model-based estimate of insurance
        Economics 8 (3): 777-786.                                                    back-up capital necessary to avoid ruin under climate
        It has been suggested that disasters might have positive                     variability and climate change, along with the associated
        economic consequences, through the accelerated replace-                      uncertainties and data limitations, this methodology
        ment of capital. This possibility is referred to as the                      can quantitatively demonstrate the need for financial
        “productivity effect.” This effect is investigated using a                   assistance to protect micro-insurance pools against
        model with embodied technical change. In this frame-                         climate-induced insolvency. This is of major concern
        work, disasters can influence the production level but                       to donors, nongovernmental organizations and others
        cannot influence the growth rate, in the same way than                       supporting these innovative systems, those actually at-
        the saving ratio in a Solow-like model. Depending on                         risk and insurers providing insurance. A quantitative
        reconstruction quality, indeed, accounting for embodied                      estimate of the additional burden that climate change
        technical change can either decrease or increase disaster                    imposes on weather insurance for poor regions is of
        costs, but is never able to turn disasters into positive                     interest to organizations funding adaptation. Further,
        events. Moreover, a better but slower reconstruction                         by linking catastrophe modeling to regionalized climate
        amplifies the short-term consequences of disasters, but                      modeling, the analysis identifies key modeling inputs
        pays off over the long-term. Regardless, the productivity                    necessary as well as important constraints. The article
        effect cannot prevent the existence of a bifurcation when                    ends with a discussion of the opportunities and limits
        disaster damages exceed the reconstruction capacity,                         to similar modeling and weather predictability for Sub-
        potentially leading to poverty traps.                                        Saharan Africa beyond the case of Malawi.


Hallegatte, Stephane, and Michael Ghil. 2008. Natural disasters              Kron, W. 2009. Flood insurance: From clients to global financial
        impacting a macroeconomic model with endogenous                              markets. Journal of Flood Risk Management 2 (1): 68-75.
        dynamics. Ecological Economics 68 (1-2): 582-592.                            Weather-related natural catastrophes are increasing
        This article investigates the macroeconomic response to                      worldwide in number and intensity, and losses have



                                                                        46
         reached new levels. This represents a challenge that                       Their level of detail is too coarse and limits possibilities
         must be faced by governments, the people concerned,                        of tailor-made solutions based on refined insights on the
         and the financial sector, both nationally and globally.                    severity, distribution, and horizon of expected impacts.
         Flood insurance is rare in most countries, but the devel-                  As part of the Urban Flood Management project for
         opment of solutions to make flood risk more insurable                      the city of Dordrecht, the Netherlands, a flood damage
         has gained momentum. There is no ideal flood insurance                     assessment model was developed using a substantially
         scheme, as each situation is influenced by factors such as                 higher level of detail than used in current practice. The
         risk-adequate premium structure, adverse selection, and                    model incorporates methods of analysis linking the
         general risk awareness. Solutions tailored to the situa-                   spatial distribution of flood damages, flood damage
         tion in each respective country must be found. While                       composition, age of the building stock, and a range of
         rich countries have to find ways to handle record losses                   other attributes to gain a comprehensive view on the
         of $100 billion and more, poor countries need micro-                       financial consequences of urban flooding. The output
         insurance to provide people with at least a minimum of                     provides a foundation for integration of flood proofing
         financial security. The insurance industry has through                     schemes into urban development and redevelopment.
         the reinsurance sector established a system to pay
         local monetary losses globally. In the wake of extremely          Zou, Le-Le, and Yi-Ming Wei. 2009. Impact assessment
         expensive catastrophes, a system involving the whole                      using DEA of coastal hazards on social-economy in
         financial market has great potential.                                     Southeast Asia. Natural Hazards 48 (2): 167-189.
                                                                                   Southeast Asian countries suffer from severe coastal
Nakamura, Karen. 2009. Disability, destitution, and disaster:                      hazards each year. A large number of these countries are
      Surviving the 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake in                               incurring consequential costs that impact their national
      Japan. Human Organization 68 (1): 82-88.                                     economies. It is crucial, therefore, to analyze the impact
      On the morning of January 17, 1995, a magnitude 7.3                          of such hazards on their economic development and
      earthquake struck the port city of Kobe, Japan. 6,400                        provide a solid basis for future development strategies.
      people died and over $80 billion in property damage                          The purpose of this paper is to assess the relationship
      occurred. Among those rendered homeless was a small                          between the economic development and the losses
      group of people with severe disabilities. Over the next                      from coastal disasters, and to identify both the impact
      decade, this group leveraged discourses surrounding                          of hazards on the development, as well as the function
      civil society, disability, poverty, and the role of govern-                  of such development on the resilience to hazards. The
      ment in natural disasters, to become one of the most                         data envelopment analysis (DEA) method is employed
      powerful and vocal proponents of disability rights in                        to build the assessment models. Data from 1995 to 2005
      Japan. This article discusses what lessons can we learn                      from eight Southeast countries are analyzed using the
      to make disability advocacy a leading, rather than trail-                    DEA models. A set of “resilience index” of these coun-
      ing, element of social policy.                                               tries are concluded from the results. It is found that
                                                                                   the economic development does not contribute to the
O’Dempsey, Tim. 2009. Fair training: A new direction in                            strengthening of national resilience to coastal hazards.
      humanitarian assistance. Progress in Development                             Inappropriate development could even impair the resil-
      Studies 9 (1): 81-86.                                                        ience. Additionally, the resilience to coastal hazards is
      Major catastrophes appear to be inevitable given the                         impacted by various factors such as the allocation of
      growth of mega-cities in disaster hotspots, the pre-                         resources and external assistance. From the analysis, a
      dicted effects of global climate change, and the crucial                     clear image is gained of the interaction between econom-
      relationship between natural disasters and complex                           ic development and coastal hazards, which provides a
      political emergencies. Disaster prevention, prepared-                        basis for future development strategies.
      ness, and contingency planning will be effective only if
      trained personnel are available to develop these plans               Landslides & Avalanches
      and implement them in a timely manner. Workforce
      migration— driven by poverty, insecurity, and lack of                Geertsema, M., J.W. Schwab, A. Blais-Stevens, and M.E. Sakals.
      opportunity—creates a vacuum of leadership and skills                        2009. Landslides impacting linear infrastructure in
      that increases the the remaining population’s vulnerabil-                    west central British Columbia. Natural Hazards 48 (1):
      ity even further. Sustainable solutions to the problems of                   59-72.
      disasters and development will only be achieved when                         Destructive landslides are common in west central
      poor people have local access to fair training.                              British Columbia. Landslides include debris flows and
                                                                                   slides, earth flows and flowslides, rock falls, slides, and
Veerbeek, W., and C. Zevenbergen. 2009. Deconstructing urban                       avalanches, and complex landslides involving both rock
        flood damages: Increasing the expressiveness of flood                      and soil. Pipelines, hydrotransmission lines, roads, and
        damage models combining a high level of detail with a                      railways have all been impacted by these landslides,
        broad attribute set. Journal of Flood Risk Management                      disrupting service to communities. This article provides
        2 (1): 45-57.                                                              examples of the destructive landslides, their impacts,
        Climate change increases uncertainty regarding the                         and the climatic conditions associated with the failures.
        frequency and severity of flood events, posing new chal-                   It also considers future landsliding potential for west
        lenges for urban areas often located along major rivers.                   central British Columbia under climate change scenarios.
        Current flood damage assessment methods often ignore
        the level of differentiation found in the urban fabric.            Gorum, T., B. Gonencgil, C. Gokceoglu, and H.A. Nefeslioglu.



                                                                      47
         2008. Implementation of reconstructed geomorphologic                        the major events in the last 50 years. Natural Hazards
         units in landslide susceptibility mapping: The Melen                        48 (3): 399-424.
         Gorge (NW Turkey). Natural Hazards 46 (3): 323-351.                         During the last 50 years, an average of 30 people per
         Although there are a considerable number of pub-                            year were killed by avalanches in Austria. About one-
         lications in the international literature on lanslide                       third of all avalanche fatalities occurred as a result of
         susceptibility mapping, geomorphology as a condition-                       so-called “catastrophic avalanches.” These are spon-
         ing factor is rarely used in these studies. The purpose                     taneously released avalanches that affect villages and
         of this paper is to implement the geomorphologic                            cause damage to property—buildings, roads and other
         parameters derived by reconstructed topography in                           infrastructure. The biggest avalanche events in Austria
         landslide susceptibility mapping. Terrain is generalized                    were in 1950/1951 (135 fatalities), in 1953/954 (143 fatali-
         by the contours passed through the convex slopes of the                     ties) and in February 1999, when 38 persons were killed
         valleys that were formed by fluvial erosion. Therefore                      in Galtür and Valzur. This article analyzes nine major
         slope conditions before landsliding can be obtained.                        avalanche cycles in the last 55 years. An avalanche cycle
         The reconstructed morphometric and geomorphologic                           is defined as 50 recorded avalanches of at least size three
         units are taken into account as a conditioning parameter                    in two days and/or 5 persons killed in villages within
         when assessing landslide susceptibility. Two different                      two days. The basis of this study is the well-documented
         data, one of which is obtained from the reconstructed                       records from Fliri (1998), who analyzed natural disasters
         DEM, have been employed to produce two landslide                            in the western part of Austria and the Trentino, includ-
         susceptibility maps. The binary logistic regression is                      ing floods, mudflows, earthquakes, and avalanches. The
         used to develop landslide susceptibility maps for the                       meteorological data were taken from two relevant obser-
         Melen Gorge in the northwestern part of Turkey. Due                         vation sites in the northern part of the Austrian Alps,
         to the high correct classification percentages and spatial                  from two sites in an intermediate and continental region,
         effectiveness of the maps, the landslide susceptibil-                       respectively, and from one site in the southern part of
         ity map comprised the reconstructed morphometric                            the Austrian Alps. Atmospheric patterns were analyzed
         parameters exhibits a better performance than the                           using weather charts for the relevant periods. Both
         other. Five different datasets are selected randomly to                     the meteorological data and the weather charts were
         apply proper sampling strategy. As a consequence of                         provided by the Central Institute for Meteorology and
         the analyses, the best outcomes are obtained from the                       Geodynamics. It was found that there was a major cycle
         dataset of the reconstructed topographical parameters                       every six years on average. Two-thirds of all investigated
         and geomorphologic units, and lithological variables                        cycles were characterized by a continuous increase of
         that are implemented together. Correct classification                       snow depth over a period of at least three days. In only
         percentage and root mean square error (RMSE) values                         three periods (1975, 1986, 1988), daily extreme values
         of the validation dataset are calculated as 86.28 percent                   could be observed. More than 40 percent of all the cycles
         and 0.35, respectively. Prediction capacity of the differ-                  occurred in January. In two-thirds, a northwesterly ori-
         ent datasets reveals that the landslide susceptibility map                  ented frontal zone was responsible for the formation of a
         obtained from the reconstructed parameters has a higher                     major cycle. The remaining cycles were released
         prediction capacity than the other. Moreover, the land-                     by low-pressure areas over Central Europe and the
         slide susceptibility map obtained from the reconstructed                    Mediterranean Sea, respectively.
         parameters produces logical results.
                                                                            Jeber, Faisal, Husaini Omar, Shattri Mansor, Noordin Ahmad,
Holler, Peter. 2007. Avalanche hazards and mitigation in                             and Mahdzir Mahmud. 2008. Satellite data potential
         Austria: A review. Natural Hazards 43 (1): 81-101.                          for landslide studies in tropical regions. Disaster
         At all times, natural hazards like torrents or avalanches                   Prevention and Management 17 (4): 470-477.
         pose a threat to settlements and infrastructures in the                     The purpose of this paper is to show that satellite data
         Austrian Alps. Since 1950 more than 1,600 persons                           applicability for landslide studies is given concentra-
         have been killed by avalanches in Austria, which is an                      tion in tropical regions, which have two limitations:
         average of about 30 fatalities per year. In particular, the                 regular cloud cover and thick vegetation. Landslide
         winter periods 1950/1951 and 1953/1954 stand out, with                      studies have three categories: mapping, zonation, and
         more than 100 fatalities. Those events led to an increase                   monitoring. High spatial resolution images are conve-
         of avalanche control programs in the following decades.                     nient for mapping. Since the slope and slope materials
         While from the 1950s to the 1970s emphasis was placed                       are the dominant parameters for slide potential, a high
         on permanent measures (technical structures, afforesta-                     resolution DEM produced from the above data with
         tions, hazard zoning, and so on), additional programs                       classification of multispectral data will be vital for zona-
         such as avalanche warning and forecasting have supple-                      tion. Weather-free and penetration are advantages that
         mented avalanche control measures in reecent decades.                       make radar images essential for monitoring. A composi-
         Current research is focused on avalanche simulation,                        tion of satellite data with support of aerial photography,
         risk management, and the influence of the forest on ava-                    with its high spatial resolution, will give an excellent
         lanche formation. An important area of future research                      spatial database for these studies, showing that satellite
         is to develop improved methods for avalanche forecast-                      remote sensing data are applicable for landslides studies
         ing and to intensify the investigation of the dynamics of                   in inaccessible mountainous tropical regions.
         avalanches.
                                                                            Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar A., Arlene Mae P. Tengonciang,
Holler, Peter. 2009. Avalanche cycles in Austria: An analysis of                    Raymond S. Rodolfo, Janneli Lea A. Soria, Eden G.



                                                                       48
         Baliatan, Engielle R. Paguican, John Burtkenley, T.                         has been conducted applying CW to various aspects
         Ong, Mark R. Lapus, Dan Ferdinand D. Fernandez,                             of earthquake-induced landslide hazard zonation, but
         Zareth P. Quimba, and Christopher L. Uichanco.                              none facilitate comprehensive modeling of all types of
         2008. Science guides search and rescue after the 2006                       earthquake-induced landslides. A new comprehensive
         Philippine landslide. Disasters 32 (3): 416-433.                            areal model of earthquake-induced landslides CAMEL
         A rockslide debris avalanche destroyed the remote vil-                      is introduced here that was developed using fuzzy logic
         lage of Guinsaugon in Southern Leyte, Philippines, on                       systems. CAMEL provides an integrated framework for
         February 17, 2006. Although search-and-rescue proce-                        modeling all types of earthquake-induced landslides
         dures were implemented immediately, the scale of the                        using geographic information systems. CAMEL is
         landslide and a lack of information about its nature                        designed to facilitate quantitative and qualitative rep-
         resulted in unfocused and imprecise efforts in the early                    resentation of terrain conditions and knowledge about
         days of the operation. Technical support was only intro-                    these conditions on the likely areal concentration of
         duced five days after the event, provided by a team of                      each landslide type. CAMEL is highly modifiable and
         volunteer geologists, geophysicists, and meteorologists.                    adaptable. New knowledge can be easily added, while
         By the time search and rescue operations were trans-                        existing knowledge can be changed to better match local
         ferred to specific target sites, however, the chances of                    knowledge and conditions. As such, CAMEL should not
         finding survivors trapped under the rubble had dimin-                       be viewed as a complete alternative to other earthquake-
         ished. In such critical situations, speed, accuracy, and                    induced landslide models. CAMEL provides an open
         the maximum appropriation of resources are crucial. We                      framework for incorporating other models, such as
         emphasize here the need for a systematic and techni-                        Newmark’s displacement method, together with previ-
         cally informed approach to search-and-rescue missions                       ously incompatible empirical and local knowledge.
         in large-scale landslide disasters, and the formulation of
         better disaster management policies in general. Standard           Nathan, Fabien. 2008. Risk perception, risk management and
         procedures must be developed and enforced to improve                       vulnerability to landslides in the hill slopes in the city
         how civil authorities respond to natural calamities.                       of La Paz, Bolivia: A preliminary statement. Disasters
                                                                                    32 (3): 337-357.
Leventhal, Andrew, and Geoff Withycombe. 2009. Landslide                            This article is drawn from preliminary findings of the
        risk management for Australia. The Australian Journal                       author’s PhD. Most of the results are still being analyzed
        of Emergency Management 24 (1): 39-52.                                      and thus those discussed here are not definitive and are
        The Australian Geomechanics Society published a suite                       subject to revision. Conclusions have been drawn from
        of guidelines in 2007 that have been recognized both                        almost two years fieldwork in the western hill slope of
        within Australia and internationally as world leading,                      La Paz, using various techniques for data collection: con-
        representing best practice in the field of landslide risk                   stant participant observation with the inhabitants and
        management. The three guidelines are supplemented by                        their neighborhood representatives; in-depth interviews
        two commentaries to collectively provide advice to the                      with more than 30 families at risk; informal interviews
        Australian public, government regulators responsible                        with other people at risk and with disaster victims;
        for the management of landslide risk, and geotechnical                      semi-directed interviews with dozens of ‘old inhabitants’
        practitioners who conduct assessments of landslide risk.                    of the neighborhoods; in-depth interviews with dozens
        As a consequence, these contribute to safer communi-                        of “neighborhood presidents” and with many local
        ties and therefore to a reduction in the costs of disasters.                authorities related to risk management; and analysis
        This paper discusses the development of the guidelines                      of documentation, maps, pictures, photographs, video
        and their applications in land use planning, risk assess-                   collections, and other visual material. The in-depth inter-
        ment, risk management, and the transfer of knowledge                        views with people living with risk contained more than
        to practitioners, regulators, and the broader Australian                    120 questions; those related to risk, emergencies, and
        public. The paper provides an overview of the status                        hazards were purposefully open-ended to see whether
        of landslide risk management in Australia. The land-                        the theme appeared by itself in the interviewee’s dis-
        slide zoning guideline for land use planning has been                       course and concerns. In this respect, the interview guide
        the template for an international version which was                         took into account advances in sociology, anthropology,
        published in late 2008 jointly by the three international                   and applied human security studies, focusing on what
        technical societies representing geomechanics interests                     really mattered for the research subjects. This is a hybrid
        on the global stage.                                                        method combining the advantages of questionnaires,
                                                                                    semistructured interviews, and life stories. It is adaptive
Miles, S.B., and D.K. Keefer. 2009. Toward a comprehensive                          and flexible but also allows for future statistical analysis.
         areal model of earthquake-induced landslides. Natural
         Hazards Review 10 (1): 19-28.                                      Osuchowski, Monica. 2009. Bringing information manage-
         This paper provides a review of regional scale modeling                   ment practices to natural disaster risk reduction. The
         of earthquake-induced landslide hazard with respect                       Australian Journal of Emergency Management 24 (1):
         to the needs for disaster risk reduction and sustainable                  53-59.
         development. It sets out important research themes                        The important role of information management in
         and suggests computing with words (CW), a method-                         improving baseline data for natural hazards has been
         ology that includes fuzzy logic systems, as a fruitful                    demonstrated through a collaborative pilot project
         modeling methodology for addressing many of these                         between Geoscience Australia, Mineral Resources
         research themes. A range of research, reviewed here,                      Tasmania and the University of Wollongong. The result



                                                                       49
         is a “virtual” landslide database that makes full                       information service within three seasons (1999 to
         use of diverse data across three levels of govern-                      2002, 497 days of observations) for model building.
         ment and has enabled landslide data to be collated                      Additionally we carried out a holdout validation
         and accessed from a single source. Such a system                        using data of the same type within two seasons (2002
         establishes the foundation for a very powerful and                      to 2004, 314 days of observation) in order to check the
         coordinated information resource in Australia and                       accuracy of the model. Our proposal shows a remark-
         provides a suitable basis for greater investment in                     able correlation with Munter’s method.
         data collection. This paper highlights the capacity
         to extend the methodology across all hazards and               Saunders, Wendy, and Phil Glassey. 2009. Taking a risk-
         describes one solution in facilitating a sound knowl-                 based approach for landslide planning: An outline
         edge base on natural disasters and disaster risk                      of the New Zealand landslide guidelines. The
         reduction.                                                            Australian Journal of Emergency Management 24 (1):
                                                                               32-38.
Pande, Ravindra K., and Neeta Pande. 2008. Nainital: A                         In December 2007, GNS Science released the pub-
        landslide town of Uttarakhand (India). Disaster                        lication ‘Guidelines for assessing planning policy
        Prevention and Management 17 (4): 478-487.                             and consent requirements for landslide prone land’
        This paper describes natural problems faced by                         (Saunders & Glassey, 2007). Primarily for land use
        Uttaranchal and proposes systematic studies to deal                    planners, the guidelines provide non-prescriptive
        with slope instability. Uttaranchal is a hilly state                   guidance on how the landslide hazard can be incor-
        in the Himalayan region. More than 80 percent of                       porated into risk-based planning policy and consent
        Uttaranchal is prone to slope instability because of                   requirements. Use of the guidelines is not a regula-
        weak and highly-folded and fractured rocks, steep                      tory requirement, but is recommended as good,
        slopes, high seismicity, and unfavorable hydro-                        evidence-based practice. The guidelines propose
        geological conditions. In addition, unsystematic                       a risk-based approach to land use planning and
        development contributes to the problem. The newly-                     consenting, based on the Australian/New Zealand
        formed Uttaranchal state is developing, which                          Risk Management Standard AS/NZS 4360:2004. This
        requires the expansion of existing infrastructure.                     approach considers landslide recurrence interval,
        The natural rate of creep—indicated by the bending                     and a Building Importance Category of the build-
        and disjointing of rock beds, disruption and drag-                     ing proposed for a site. This approach does not
        folding, and the tilted trees and poles on hills in and                guarantee that a building will not suffer damage
        around Nainital town—which normally stretches                          from a landslide, but it does establish if the risk of
        over thousands of years, is accelerated by clear-felling               damage is sufficiently low to be generally accepted.
        in forests and by construction on steeper slopes. The                  This paper is based on four planning principles: 1)
        depth of the creep movement is variable and depends                    gather accurate landslide hazard information; 2) plan
        largely on the nature and degree of rocks weather-                     to avoid landslide hazards before development and
        ing, subsurface structure, and the amount of water                     subdivision occurs; 3) take a risk-based approach in
        present. Construction has given rise to new landslide                  areas already developed or subdivided; and 4) com-
        problems or aggravated the existing slope instability.                 municate the risk of landslides in built-up areas. This
        To keep the landslide problems to a minimum, sys-                      paper provides an overview of this risk management
        tematic studies are needed.                                            process presented in the guidelines, and how it can
                                                                               be utilized by land use planners, based on the above
Pfeifer, Christian. 2009. On probabilities of avalanches                       four overarching planning principles.
          triggered by alpine skiers: An empirically driven
          decision strategy for backcountry skiers based on             Public Health, Mental Health, & Emergency
          these probabilities. Natural Hazards 48 (3): 425-438.         Medicine
          Most fatal avalanche accidents in the Alps are caused
          by skiers and snowboarders. It has been one aim               Barnhart, Stephanie, Patrick M. Cody, and David E. Hogan.
          from the beginning to give guidelines for back-                       2009. Multiple information sources in the analysis
          country skiers to avoid avalanche accidents. About                    of a disaster. American Journal of Disaster Medicine
          10 years ago, the mountain guide Werner Munter                        4 (1): 41-47.
          developed a strategy for backcountry skiers advising                  Disasters are complex events making epidemiologic
          whether or not to go on a skiing tour. His decision                   studies and determination of accurate denominators
          strategy lacked empirical evidence because he did                     difficult because of poor available records. However,
          not take into account incidents without avalanche                     these data are essential to perform useful calculations
          accidents. This article proposes a decision strategy                  and provide accurate descriptions of disaster medi-
          for backcountry skiers based on probabilities of a                    cal impacts. This study identifies the availability and
          logistic regression model using variables, such as                    utility of various information sources in the analysis
          danger level, incline of the slope and aspect of the                  of a mass casualty disaster. In addition, characteris-
          slope, which turned out to be the most important                      tics of cases presenting for care are described. This
          ones. Additional information on frequencies of skiers                 is a retrospective cohort study abstracting medical
          on slopes under specific conditions is included in the                records and other documents relating to an explosion
          model. The authors used accident data and avalanche                   and fire. Public domain documents are obtained by
          forecasts in Tyrol reported by the Tyrolean avalanche                 written request or by filing a Freedom of Information



                                                                   50
         Act (FOIA) request. the setting is a rural EMS and ter-                      histories. The lack of a comprehensive and well-com-
         tiary hospital, including individuals directly exposed                       municated emergency response plan resulted in several
         to the forces of the explosion. The number of cases was                      preventable inefficiencies. Findings highlight the need
         detected by various information sources. In addition, the                    for improved planning for care of evacuee populations
         demographics, dispositions, and nature of the physical                       after a major emergency event and the importance of
         injuries of the cases are reported. Seven sources of case                    ensuring continuity of care for the most vulnerable. The
         information were identified. The most cases were iden-                       article provides an emergency response preparedness
         tified by investigative agencies (33) and the fewest by                      checklist for local public health departments.
         medical records (18). Rates include; injury, 0.68; admis-
         sion, 0.20; and operative, 0.14, with no deaths. Case               Carroll, Bob, Hazel Morbey, Ruth Balogh, and Gonzalo Araoz.
         locations during the explosion were determined for all                       2009. Flooded homes, broken bonds, the meaning of
         cases. No association was noted between admission and                        home, psychological processes and their impact on
         location in the building. This study demonstrates the                        psychological health in a disaster. Health and Place 15
         availability and usefulness of data in the public domain.                    (2): 540-547.
         Using FOIA requests or partnerships with public or pri-                      In 2005, Carlisle suffered severe flooding that affected
         vate agencies may more clearly define denominator data                       1,600 houses. Social and health impacts were examined
         in epidemiologic evaluations of disasters.                                   in a qualitative study that interviewed those whose
                                                                                      homes had been flooded, as well as the workers who
Bhushan, Braj, and J. Sathya Kumar. 2009. Emotional distress                          supported them. The findings showed many people
       and posttraumatic stress in children: The impact of                            suffered from severe disruption to their lives, dam-
       direct versus indirect exposure. Journal of Loss and                           age to their homes, and psychological health issues.
       Trauma 14 (1): 35-45.                                                          Phenomenological and transactional perspectives were
       This study examined whether familiarity with the                               used in analyzing the psychological processes (identity,
       physical environment and verbal/pictorial exposure                             attachment, alienation, and dialectics) that underlay
       to a tsunami also induced posttraumatic stress symp-                           the meaning of home and its impact on psychological
       toms in adolescents. The Impact of Event Scale (IES)                           health. Proposals for policy and practice are made.
       and Pediatric Emotional Distress Scale (PEDS) were
       administered to 231 subjects (130 directly exposed and                Chaffee, Mary. 2009. Willingness of health care personnel to
       101 indirectly exposed). The directly exposed group                            work in a disaster: An integrative review of the litera-
       scored high on the IES and PEDS. A significant sex dif-                        ture. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
       ference was observed on all three dimensions of the IES,
       and fearful and traumatic event-related dimensions of                          3 (1): 42-56.
       PEDS, with females at a higher risk compared to males.                         Effective hospital surge response in disaster depends
       In the indirectly exposed group, no sex difference was                         largely on an adequate number of personnel to provide
       observed for the IES (avoidance and total impact score)                        care. Studies appearing since 1991 indicate health care
       or the fearful, acting out, or traumatic experience related                    personnel may not be willing to work in all disaster
       dimensions of the PEDS. Significant sex differences were                       situations. If so, this could degrade surge response.
       observed in this group on the IES intrusion and PEDS                           A systematic review of the literature was conducted
       withdrawal scores, with males higher on intrusion and                          to determine the state of the evidence concerning the
       females higher on withdrawal.                                                  willingness of health care personnel to work in disaster.
                                                                                      This review collates and assesses the literature concern-
Broz, Dita, Elise C. Levin, Amy P. Mucha, Darlene Pelzel,                             ing willingness of health care personnel to work during
         William Wong, Victoria Persky, and Ronald C.                                 a disaster, to identify gaps in the literature as areas for
         Hershow. 2009. Lessons learned from Chicago’s                                future investigation, and to facilitate evidence-based
         emergency response to mass evacuations caused by                             disaster planning. Twenty-seven studies met inclusion
         Hurricane Katrina. American Journal of Public Health                         criteria (25 quantitative and two qualitative studies). The
         99 (8): 1-9.                                                                 current evidence indicates there may be certain factors
         This article analyzes the response of the Chicago                            related to willingness to work (or lack of willingness)
         Department of Public Health with respect to its effec-                       in disaster including the type of disaster, concern for
         tiveness in providing health care to Hurricane Katrina                       family, and concerns about personal safety. Barriers to
         evacuees arriving in the city. Between September 12                          willingness to work have been identified including pet
         and October 21, 2005, researchers conducted a real-time                      care needs and the lack of personal protective equip-
         qualitative assessment of a medical unit in Chicago’s                        ment. This review describes the state of an emerging
         Hurricane Victim Welcome and Relief Center. A semi                           area of science. These findings have significant impli-
         structured guide was used to interview 33 emergency                          cations for community and organizational emergency
         responders to identify key operational successes and                         planning and policy making in an environment defined
         failures. The medical unit functioned at a relatively high                   by limited resources.
         level, primarily as a result of the flexibility, creativity,
         and dedication of its staff and the presence of strong              Dai, J., Y. Zhao, and G. Li. 2009. Wenchuan earthquake:
         leadership. Chronic health care services and prescrip-                        Response of Chinese dental professionals. British
         tion refills were the most commonly mentioned services                        Dental Journal 206 (5): 273-276.
         provided, and collaboration with a national pharmacy                          On May 12, 2008, an earthquake with a magnitude of
         proved instrumental in reconstructing medication                              8.0 on the Richter scale hit Wenchuan, China. In the



                                                                        51
        aftermath of this disaster, Chinese dental profession-                    Only 40.7 percent of people who rated their health as
        als actively participated in the first emergency medical                  fair/poor have disaster supplies compared with 53.1
        response team, definitive dental treatment, oral health                   percent of those who rate their health as excellent (P
        services and education, and the recovery of local oral                    < 0.001). Only 34.8 percent of people who rated their
        care infrastructure and resources. Learning from the                      health as fair/poor have an emergency plan compared
        experience and first-hand data of the Wenchuan earth-                     with 44.8 percent of those who rate their health as excel-
        quake, dental professionals can increase their awareness                  lent (P < 0.01). Only 29.5 percent of people who have a
        of the importance of collaborative emergency response                     serious mental illness have disaster supplies compared
        health services in mass casualty events. Further research                 with 49.2 percent of those who do not have a serious
        and emphasis is needed to encourage the participation                     mental illness (P < 0.001). People with fair/poor health
        of dental professionals in disaster preparation training                  remained less likely to have disaster supplies (adjusted
        and practice.                                                             odds ratio [AOR] 0.69, 95 percent confidence interval
                                                                                  [CI] 0.500.96) and less likely to have an emergency plan
Edwards, Janine C., JungEun Kang, and Rasa Silenas. 2008.                         (AOR 0.68, 95 percent CI 0.510.92) compared with those
       Promoting regional disaster preparedness among rural                       who rate their health as excellent, after adjusting for
       hospitals. The Journal of Rural Health 24 (3): 321-325.                    the sociodemographic covariates. People with serious
       Rural communities face substantial risks of natu-                          mental illness remained less likely to have disaster sup-
       ral disasters but they also face multiple obstacles to                     plies after adjusting for the sociodemographic covariates
       preparedness. This article creates and demonstrates                        (AOR 0.67, 95 percent CI 0.480.93). Disability status
       implementation of an effective training and planning                       was not associated with lower rates of disaster sup-
       exercise to assist individual rural hospitals in improving                 plies or emergency communication plans in bivariate or
       disaster preparedness, as well as to enhance regional                      multivariate analyses. Finally, adjusting for the sociode-
       collaboration among these hospitals. The exercise                          mographic and other health variables, people with fair/
       was offered to rural hospitals enrolled with the Rural                     poor health remained less likely to have an emergency
       and Community Health Institute of the Texas A&M                            plan (AOR 0.66, 95 percent CI 0.480.92) and people with
       University System Health Science Center. Seventeen                         serious mental illness remained less likely to have disas-
       hospitals participated in a three-hour tabletop exer-                      ter supplies (AOR 0.67, 95 percent CI 0.470.95). People
       cise emphasizing regional issues in a pandemic avian                       who report fair/poor general health and probable seri-
       influenza scenario followed by a one-hour debrief-                         ous mental illness are less likely to report household
       ing implemented in three geographic clusters of                            disaster preparedness and an emergency communication
       hospitals. Trained emergency preparedness evalu-                           plan. The results could add to our understanding of why
       ators documented observations of the exercise on a                         people with preexisting health problems suffer dispro-
       standard form. Participants were debriefed after the                       portionately from disasters. Public health may consider
       exercise and provided written feedback. Observations                       collaborating with community partners and health ser-
       included: insufficient staff for incident command; facil-                  vices providers to improve preparedness among people
       ity constraints; the need to further develop regional                      with chronic illness and people who are mentally ill.
       cooperation; and operational and ethical challenges in a
       pandemic. The tabletop exercise is a simple and accept-           Ferrer, Rizaldy R., Marizen Ramirez, Kori Sauser, Ellen Iverson,
       able tool for rural medical planners. It lends itself well                 and Jeffrey S. Upperman. 2009. Emergency drills and
       to improving medical preparedness, analysis of weak                        exercises in healthcare organizations: Assessment of
       spots, development of regional teamwork, and rapid                         pediatric population involvement using after-action
       response.                                                                  reports. American Journal of Disaster Medicine 4 (1):
                                                                                  23-32.
Eisenman, David P., Qiong Zhou, Michael Ong, Steven Asch,                         The evaluation of pediatric disaster preparation is
       Deborah Glik, and Amy Long. 2009. Variations in                            often lacking, even though the Joint Commission on
       disaster preparedness by mental health, perceived gen-                     Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO)
       eral health, and disability status. Disaster Medicine and                  requires healthcare organizations to demonstrate disas-
       Public Health Preparedness 3 (1): 33-40.                                   ter preparedness through the use of disaster exercises.
       Chronic medical problems, mental illness, and disabil-                     This investigation identified, described, and assessed
       ity increase vulnerability to disasters. National efforts                  the involvement of pediatric victims in healthcare orga-
       have focused on preparing people with disabilities.                        nization disaster drills using data from the after-action
       Studies find them to be increasingly prepared, but less                    reports generated by healthcare organizations per
       is known about people with chronic mental and medi-                        JCAHO regulations. Forty-nine reports were voluntarily
       cal illnesses. The authors examined the relationship                       supplied. The authors analyzed the data using quan-
       between health status (mental health, perceived general                    titative and qualitative approaches. Only nine reports
       health, and disability) and disaster preparedness (home                    suggested pediatric involvement. Hospitals with large
       disaster supplies and family communication plan). A                        bed capacity (M = 465.6) tended to include children in
       random digit-dial telephone survey of the Los Angeles                      exercises more often compared with smaller facilities
       County population was conducted from October 2004                          (M = 350.8). Qualitative content analysis revealed a lack
       to January 2005 in 6 languages. Separate multivariate                      of parent-child identification and family reunification
       regressions modeled determinants of disaster prepared-                     systems, ineffective communication strategies, lack of
       ness, adjusting for sociodemographic covariates then                       pediatric resources and specific training, and unfamil-
       sociodemographic variables and health status variables.                    iarity with altering standards of pediatric care during



                                                                    52
         a disaster. Although many organizations are perform-                      ter planning for a nuclear terrorist attack. American
         ing disaster exercises, most do not include pediatric                     Journal of Disaster Medicine 4 (1): 59-64.
         concerns. More work is needed to understand the basis                     The author presents current thinking on the effects of
         of this emergency preparedness gap. Overall, pediatric                    an atomic bomb blast from a medical point of view. He
         emergency planning should be a high priority for this                     argues current U.S. federal plans for a nuclear disaster
         vulnerable population.                                                    are crude, insufficient, disarticulated, and rely on mar-
                                                                                   tial law as a means of crowd control. The physics of a
                                                                                   fusion reaction bomb are discussed along with the plans
Galea, Sandro, Andrea R. Maxwell, and Fran Norris. 2008.
                                                                                   of other countries. Apparently “secret” American plans
        Sampling and design challenges in studying the men-
                                                                                   show poor understanding of the physics of nuclear
        tal health consequences of disasters. International
        Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research - Special                       bombs along with poor insight into what will be needed
        Issue: Post-Disaster Mental Health Needs Assessment                        to help the maximum number of citizens. An alternative
        Surveys 17 (S2): S21-S28.                                                  plan involving computer modeling and educating the
        Disasters are unpredictable and frequently lead to                         public to the effects of a fission explosion is presented.
        chaotic post-disaster situations, creating numerous                        The key issue of statewide planning is discussed, since
        methodological challenges for the study of their mental                    the federal government has dumped medical problems
        health consequences. In this article, the authors expand                   on “the local level.”
        on some of the issues addressed by Kessler and col-
        leagues, largely focusing on the particular challenges of:         Hamilton, Douglas R., Thomas F. Gavagan, Kieran T. Smart,
        (1) defining, finding, and sampling populations of inter-                 Lori A. Upton, Nancy F. Weller, Umalr A. Shah, Avirm
        est after disasters; and (2) designing studies in ways that               Fishkind, David Persse, Paul Shank, and Kenneth
        maximize the potential for valid inference. It discusses                  Mattox. 2008. Houston’s medical disaster response to
        these challenges drawing on specific examples and sug-                    Hurricane Katrina: Part 1: The initial medical response
        gests potential approaches to each that may be helpful                    from Trauma Service Area Q. Annals of Emergency
        as a guide for future work. The article further suggests                  Medicine (ePub).
        research directions that may be most helpful in moving                    After Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast on August
        the field forward.                                                        29, 2005, thousands of ill and injured evacuees were
                                                                                  transported to Houston, TX. Houston’s regional disaster
Ginzburg, Karni, and Zahava Solomon. 2008. Does one size                          plan was quickly implemented, leading to the activa-
       fit all? The challenges of establishing a coordinating                     tion of the Regional Hospital Preparedness Council’s
       center for research of post-disaster needs assess-                         Catastrophic Medical Operations Center and the rapid
       ment. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric                      construction of a 65-examination-room medical facility
       Research - Special Issue: Post-Disaster Mental Health                      within the Reliant Center. A plan for triage of arriving
       Needs Assessment Surveys 17 (S2): S36-S41.                                 evacuees was quickly developed and the Astrodome/
       Needs assessment in the wake of disasters is most sig-                     Reliant Center Complex megashelter was created. This
       nificant, yet highly complex and challenging. Kessler                      article discusses major elements of the regional disaster
       et al. propose a comprehensive disaster mental health                      response, including regional coordination, triage and
       research model. This model has several significant                         emergency medical service transfers into the region’s
       advantages: (1) Pre-prepared plans and resources allow                     medical centers, medical care in population shelters, and
       rapid deployment of skilled professionals; (2) Continuity                  community health challenges.
       will ensure that lessons learned from one disaster
       will be retained and used in subsequent disasters; (3)              Hamilton, Douglas R., Thomas F. Gavagan, Kieran T. Smart,
       Standardization will provide a solid basis for evaluation                  Lori A. Upton, Nancy F. Weller, Umalr A. Shah, Avirm
       and comparison across events; (4) Continuous monitor-                      Fishkind, David Persse, Paul Shank, and Kenneth
       ing of needs over time will enable the capture of a full                   Mattox.. 2008. Houston’s medical disaster response to
       range of responses including delayed effects; and (5) The                  Hurricane Katrina: Part II: Transitioning from emer-
       process will provide a valuable resource for research-                     gency evacuee care to community health care. Annals
                                                                                  of Emergency Medicine ePub.
       ers in the field. At the same time, there are a number of
                                                                                  After Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast on August
       challenges that must be considered before the establish-
                                                                                  29, 2005, thousands of ill and injured evacuees were
       ment and implementation of the proposed center and
                                                                                  transported to Houston, TX. Houston’s regional disaster
       use of standardized measures. These challenges are
                                                                                  plan was quickly implemented, leading to the activa-
       associated with the observation that different disasters
                                                                                  tion of the Regional Hospital Preparedness Council’s
       give rise to different problems and needs. There is con-
                                                                                  Catastrophic Medical Operations Center and the rapid
       siderable cultural variability, and differential power and
                                                                                  construction of a 65-examination-room medical facility
       agenda of stakeholders may result in a “tunnel vision”
                                                                                  within the Reliant Center. A plan for triage of arriving
       approach that may hamper new developments, creativ-
                                                                                  evacuees was quickly developed and the Astrodome/
       ity, and progress. Ways to overcome these challenges
                                                                                  Reliant Center Complex mega-shelter was created.
                                                                                  Herein, we discuss major elements of the regional disas-
         and difficulties that are involved in the implementation
                                                                                  ter response, including regional coordination, triage and
         of such a model are suggested.
                                                                                  emergency medical service transfers into the region’s
                                                                                  medical centers, medical care in population shelters, and
Goffman, Thomas E. 2009. The current state of affairs for disas-                  community health challenges.



                                                                      53
                                                                                      and accounting for the capabilities of each institution.
High, Erika H., Kay A. Lovelace, Bruce M. Gansneder, Robert
        W. Strack, Barbara Callahan, and Phillip Benson. 2008.               Karrasch, B., M. Mehrens, and U. Link. 2009. Increased inci-
        Promoting community preparedness: Lessons learned                            dence of saprophytic bacteria, coliforms and E. coli
        from the implementation of a chemical disaster table-                        following severe flooding requires risk assessment
        top exercise. Health Promotion Practice (ePub).
                                                                                     for human health: Results of the River Elbe flood in
        Health educators are frequently called on to facilitate
                                                                                     August 2002. Journal of Flood Risk Management 2 (1):
        community preparedness planning. One planning tool is
                                                                                     16-23.
        community-wide tabletop exercises. Tabletop exercises
                                                                                     In August 2002, flooding in the Elbe valley caused severe
        can improve the preparedness of public health system
                                                                                     damage of sewage treatment plants and networks.
        agencies to address disaster by bringing together indi-
                                                                                     This article investigates the impact of flooding on the
        viduals representing organizations with different roles
                                                                                     bacteriological water quality (colony-forming units of
        and perspectives in specific disasters. Thus, they have
                                                                                     saprophytic bacteria, coliform bacteria and Escherichia
        the opportunity to identify each other’s roles, capabili-
                                                                                     coli) compared with levels from previous and subse-
        ties, and limitations and to problem-solve about how to
                                                                                     quent years. The flood introduced organic matter and
        address the gaps and overlaps in a low-threat collabora-
                                                                                     elevated saprophytic bacteria levels, and a general
        tive setting. In 2005, the North Carolina Office of Public
                                                                                     increase of coliform bacteria. Markedly high loads of
        Health Preparedness and Response developed a series
                                                                                     coliforms and E. coli were detected in the water column
        of exercises to test the preparedness for chemical disas-
                                                                                     in areas where damage to sewage treatment plants was
        ters in a metropolitan region in the southeastern United
                                                                                     rife, exceeding the European Commission’s Bathing
        States. A tabletop exercise allowed agency heads to meet
                                                                                     Water Directive. The rapid disappearance from the water
        in an environment promoting inter- and intra-agency
                                                                                     column may partly be caused by sedimentation creat-
        public-private coordination and cooperation. The evalu-
                                                                                     ing deposits on pasture, farmland and in built-up areas,
        ation results reported here suggest ways in which any
                                                                                     which could represent a health hazard. Future flood risk
        tabletop exercise can be enhanced through recruitment,
                                                                                     reduction should therefore be focused on the protection
        planning, and implementation.
                                                                                     of sewage systems and hygienic monitoring of floodwa-
                                                                                     ter and flood sediments.
Kanter, Robert K., John S. Andrake, Nancy M. Boeing, James
         Callahan, Arthur Cooper, Christine A. Lopez-Dwyer,
                                                                             Kasapoglu, Aytul, Feryal Turan, and Ali Donmez. 2009. Impacts
         James P. Marcin, Folafouuwa O. Odetola, Anne E.                            of disasters: Comparisons of several worries in Turkey.
         Ryan, Thomas E. Terndrup, and Joseph R. Tobin. 2009.                       Stress and Health 25 (1): 63-70.
         Developing consensus on appropriate standards of                           This paper defines respondents’ levels of worries to find
         disaster care for children. Disaster Medicine and Public                   out the main predictors of each worry factor by compar-
         Health Preparedness 3 (1): 27-32.                                          ing the results of earthquake (2001) and bird flu (2006)
         Neither professional consensus nor evidence exists to                      studies carried out in Turkey. Assuming that the criti-
         guide the choice of essential hospital disaster interven-                  cal power-conflict perspective was appropriate; several
         tions. This study demonstrates a method for developing                     types of worries, namely, traffic accidents, natural disas-
         consensus on hospital disaster interventions that                          ters, unemployment, health and sickness, nuclear plants,
         should be regarded as essential, quantitatively balanc-                    war and terrorism, and environmental problems defined
         ing needs and resources. A panel of pediatric acute                        by Kamano have been analyzed using parametric and
         care practitioners developed consensus using a modi-                       non-parametric statistical significance tests. The results
         fied Delphi process. Interventions were chosen such                        revealed that earthquake hazards affected respondents’
         that workload per staff member would not exceed                            level of worries more than bird flu disease, mainly
         the previously validated maximum according to the                          because of the enormous economic and human losses
         Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System. Based on pub-                     of the 1999 earthquake. It was also found that the main
         lished models, it was assumed that the usual numbers                       predictors were not the same for both studies: the educa-
         of staff would care for a disaster surge of four times the                 tion variable was more effective on the level of worries
         usual number of intensive care and non-intensive care                      of earthquake survivors, and gender was more influen-
         hospital patients. Using a single set of assumptions on                    tial for the bird flu study.
         constrained resources and overwhelming needs, the
         panel ranked and agreed on essential interventions. A
         number of standard interventions would exceed crisis                Kessler, Ronald C., Terence M. Keane, Robert J. Ursano, Ali
         workload constraints, including detailed recording of                        Mokdad, and Alan M. Zaslavsky. 2008. Sample and
         vital signs and fluid balance, administration of vasoac-                     design considerations in postdisaster mental health
         tive agents, invasive monitoring of pressures (central                       needs assessment tracking surveys. International
         venous, intraarterial, and intracranial), dialysis, and tube                 Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research - Special
                                                                                      Issue: Post-Disaster Mental Health Needs Assessment
         feedings. The quantitative methodology and consensus                         Surveys 17 (S2): S6-S20.
         development process described in the present report                          Although needs assessment surveys are carried out after
         may have utility in future planning. Groups with appro-                      many large natural and man-made disasters, synthesis
         priate expertise must develop action plans according                         of findings across these surveys and disaster situa-
         to authority within each jurisdiction, addressing likely                     tions about patterns and correlates of need is hampered
         disaster scenarios, according to the needs in each medi-                     by inconsistencies in study designs and measures.
         cal service region, using available regional resources,                      Recognizing this problem, the U.S. Substance Abuse



                                                                        54
         and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)                          E.C. Lee, Christine Dallaire, Louise Bouchard, Kevin
         assembled a task force in 2004 to develop a model study                     Brand, and Pierre Mercier. 2009. Public perception of
         design and interview schedule for use in post-disaster                      population health risks in Canada: Health hazards
         needs assessment surveys. The U.S. National Institute                       and health outcomes. International Journal of Risk
         of Mental Health subsequently approved a plan to                            Assessment and Management 11 (3/4): 299-318.
         establish a center to implement post-disaster mental                        The focus of this article is a descriptive account of the
         health needs assessment surveys in the future using an                      perceptions of five health hazards (motor vehicles,
         integrated series of measures and designs of the sort                       climate change, recreational physical activity, cellular
         proposed by the SAMHSA task force. A wide range                             phones, and terrorism) and five health outcomes (can-
         of measurement, design, and analysis issues will arise                      cer, long-term disabilities, asthma, heart disease, and
         in developing this center. Given that the least widely                      depression) from a recent survey of 1,503 Canadians.
         discussed of these issues concerns study design, the                        To shed light on factors that influence risk perception
         current report focuses on the most important sampling                       in Canada, the extent to which these exemplars are per-
         and design issues proposed for this center based on our                     ceived as high in risk and controllability, as well as the
         experiences with the SAMHSA task force, subsequent                          extent to which knowledge and uncertainty surrounding
         Katrina surveys, and earlier work in other disaster situa-                  them is high, was examined. The degree to which these
         tions.                                                                      exemplars are deemed acceptable and generate worry
                                                                                     among Canadians was also examined. Variation was
                                                                                     observed in the extent to which different health hazards
Kessler, Ronald C., and Hans-Ulrich Wittchen. 2008. Post-
                                                                                     and outcomes are perceived on the various dimensions.
         disaster mental health needs assessment surveys: The
                                                                                     Perceptions of health hazards and outcomes also vary
         challenge of improved future research. International
                                                                                     significantly by gender, age, and education. Findings are
         Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research - Special
         Issue: Post-Disaster Mental Health Needs Assessment                         compared to existing research on risk perception.
         Surveys 17 (S2): S1-S5.
         Disasters are very common occurrences, becoming                    Lazar, Eliot J., Nicholas V. Cagliuso, and Kristine M. Gebbie.
         increasingly prevalent throughout the world. The num-                       2009. Are we ready and how do we know? The urgent
         ber of natural disasters either affecting more than 100                     need for performance metrics in hospital emergency
         people or resulting in a call for international assistance,                 management. Disaster Medicine and Public Health
         increased from roughly 100 per year worldwide in                            Preparedness 3 (1): 57-60.
                                                                                     An extraordinary number of health care quality and
         the late 1960s, to over 500 per year in the past decade.
                                                                                     patient safety indicators have been developed for hos-
         Population growth, environmental degradation, and
                                                                                     pitals and other health care institutions. However, few
         global warming all play parts in accounting for these
                                                                                     meaningful indicators exist for comprehensive assess-
         increases. There is also the possibility of a pandemic.
                                                                                     ment of hospital emergency management. Although
         This paper covers a topic of growing worldwide impor-
                                                                                     health care institutions have invested considerable
         tance: mental health needs assessment in the wake of
                                                                                     resources in emergency management preparedness,
         large-scale disasters. Although natural and human-
                                                                                     the need for universally accepted, evidence-based
         made disasters are known to have substantial effects
                                                                                     performance metrics to measure these efforts remains
         on the mental health of the people who experience
                                                                                     largely unfulfilled. The authors suggest that this can be
         them, research shows that the prevalence of post-
                                                                                     remediated through the application of traditional health
         disaster psychopathology varies enormously from one
                                                                                     care quality paradigms, coupled with novel analytic
         disaster to another in ways that are difficult to predict
                                                                                     approaches to develop meaningful performance data in
         merely by knowing the objective circumstances of the
                                                                                     hospital emergency management.
         disaster. Mental health needs assessment surveys are
         consequently carried out after many large-scale natural
         and human-made disasters to provide information for                Lin, Yi-Chun. 2009. Impact of the spread of infectious disease
         service planners on the nature and magnitude of need                        on economic development: A study in risk manage-
         for services. These surveys vary greatly, though, in the                    ment. International Journal of Risk Assessment and
         rigor with which they assess disaster-related stressors                     Management 11 (3/4): 209-218.
         and post-disaster mental illness. Synthesis of findings                     At the peak of the worldwide SARS epidemic, apprehen-
         across surveys is hampered by these inconsistencies. The                    sion arising out of partially disclosed, if not concealed,
         typically limited focus of these surveys with regard to                     information on the status has driven many foreign-based
         the inclusion of risk factors, follow-up assessments, and                   companies to withdraw their business in Taiwan or
         evaluations of treatment, also limit insights concerning                    move their bases elsewhere. Normal trading, invest-
         post-disaster mental illness and treatment response. The                    ment, and travel were suspended or came to a standstill.
         papers in this issue discuss methodological issues in                       This paper traces the spread of SARS in Taiwan and
         the design and implementation of post-disaster mental                       the corresponding measures undertaken. Proposals on
         health needs assessment surveys aimed at improving                          emergency action in crisis management are also made,
         on the quality of previous such surveys. The many                           which can serve as references for investors in risk con-
         recommendations in these papers will help to foster                      trol assessment.
         improvements in the next generation of post-disaster               Lommen, Mirian J.J., Angelique Sanders, Nicole Buck, and
         mental health surveys.                                                   Arnoud Arntz. 2009. Psychosocial predictors of chronic
                                                                                  Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Sri Lankan tsunami
                                                                                  survivors. Behavior Research and Therapy 47 (1): 60-65.
Krewski, Daniel, Louise Lemyre, Michelle C. Turner, Jennifer



                                                                       55
         This study aimed to determine whether psychological                        program to facilitate coordination of bioterrorism pre-
         factors associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder                     paredness planning among military and civilian decision
         (PTSD) identified in Western samples generalize to                         makers. The authors conducted a series of semistruc-
         low Social-Economical-Status (SES) populations in an                       tured interviews with civilian and military decision
         underdeveloped Asian country. The study included 113                       makers from public health, emergency management,
         survivors of the 2004 tsunami on the south coast of Sri                    hazardous material response, law enforcement, and
         Lanka, recruited from four preschools and 10 villages for                  military health in the San Diego area. Decision mak-
         displaced persons. With logistic regressions the relations                 ers used a software tool that simulated a hypothetical
         between interview-based PTSD diagnosis and psycho-                         anthrax attack, which allowed them to assess the effects
         logical factors were assessed, controlling for putative                    of a variety of response actions (e.g., issuing warnings
         confounders. Fifteen months post-trauma the prevalence                     to the public, establishing prophylaxis distribution cen-
         of PTSD was 52.2 percent. Multivariate analyses indi-                      ters) on performance metrics. From these interviews, the
         cated that negative interpretation of tsunami memories                     authors characterized the information sources, technolo-
         was significantly (P <0.005) related to PTSD. Of the                       gies, plans, and communication channels that would
         putative confounders, gender and (non-replaced) lost                       be used for bioterrorism planning and responses. The
         work equipment were related to current PTSD (P <0.05).                     authors used influence diagram notation to describe the
         The results indicate that the relation between negative                    key bioterrorism response decisions, the probabilistic
         interpretation of trauma memories and PTSD is quite                        factors affecting these decisions, and the response out-
         universal, suggesting that interventions focusing on this                  comes. Results: The authors present an overview of the
         factor may be important in treatment of tsunami survi-                     response framework and provide a detailed assessment
         vors who are suffering from chronic PTSD.                                  of two key phases of the decision-making process: (1)
                                                                                    pre-event planning and investment; and (2) incident
                                                                                    characterization and initial responsive measures. The
Louie, Richard F., Stephanie L. Sumner, Shaunye Belcher,
                                                                                    framework enables planners to articulate current condi-
        Ron Mathew, Tran. Nam K., and Gerald J. Kost. 2009.
                                                                                    tions; identify gaps in existing policies, technologies,
        Thermal stress and point-of-care testing performance:
                                                                                    information resources, and relationships with other
        Suitability of glucose test strips and blood gas car-
                                                                                    response organizations; and explore the implications of
        tridges for disaster response. Disaster Medicine and
        Public Health Preparedness 3 (1): 13-17.                                    potential system enhancements. Use of this framework
        Point-of-care testing (POCT) devices are deployed in                        could help decision makers execute a locally coordinated
        the field for emergency onsite testing under a wide                         response by identifying the critical cues of a potential
        range of environmental conditions. The objective was                        bioterrorism event, the information needed to make
        to evaluate the performance of glucose meter test strips                    effective response decisions, and the potential effects of
        and handheld blood gas analyzer cartridges follow-                          various decision alternatives.
        ing thermal stresses that simulate field conditions. The
        authors evaluated electrochemical and spectrophoto-                Masterson, Lori, Christel Steffen, Michael Brin, Mary Frances
        metric glucose meter systems and a handheld blood gas                      Kordick, and Steve Christos. 2009. Willingness to
        analyzer. Glucose test strips were cold-stressed (21°C)                    respond: Of emergency department personnel and
        and heat-stressed (40°C) for up to four weeks. Blood gas                   their predicted participation in mass casualty terrorist
        cartridges were stressed at 21°C, 2°C, and 40°C for up to                  events. The Journal of Emergency Medicine 36 (1): 43-49.
        72 hours. Test strip and cartridge performance was eval-                   In May, 2003, the TOPOFF 2 national disaster drill dem-
        uated using aqueous quality control solutions. Results                     onstrated inadequate preparedness for mass casualty
        were compared with those obtained with unstressed                          terrorist events and failed to address the willingness of
        POCT strips and cartridges. Heated glucose test strips                     Emergency Department (ED) personnel to assist with
        and blood gas cartridges yielded elevated results. Frozen                  these events. The objective of this study was to examine
        test strips and cooled cartridges yielded depressed                        ED personnel willingness to respond to various multiple
        glucose and blood gas results, respectively. Frozen car-                   casualty events. A prospective voluntary survey of ED
        tridges failed. The performance of glucose test strips and                 personnel from multiple hospitals was randomly admin-
        blood gas cartridges was affected adversely by thermal                     istered in the form of vignette-based questionnaires.
        stresses. Heating generated elevated results, and cooling                  The survey of 204 participants at eight hospitals in the
        depressed results. Disaster medical assistance teams and                   Chicago area revealed that staff members were more
        emergency medical responders should be aware of these                      willing to work additional hours for victims of an air-
        risks. Field POCT devices must be robust to withstand                      plane crash (98.0 percent), than for a radioactive bomb
        adverse conditions. The authors recommend that indus-                      (85.3 percent), or a biologic agent (54.0 percent). For the
        try produce POCT devices and reagents suitable for                         biologic agent only, men were significantly more likely
        disaster medical assistance teams.                                         to respond than women. Hospital management should
                                                                                   anticipate significant reductions in workforce during
                                                                                   biologic and radioactive disaster events. Employees’
Manley, Dawn K., and Dena M. Bravata. 2009. A decision                             willingness to respond was not augmented by any
        framework for coordinating bioterrorism planning:                          incentives offered by hospitals, although enhanced
        Lessons from the BioNet program. American Journal of
        Disaster Medicine 4 (1): 49-57.                                            financial remuneration and disability coverage showed
        Effective disaster preparedness requires coordination                      the most potential to increase response.
        across multiple organizations. This article describes
        a detailed framework developed through the BioNet                  Ooi, Giok Ling, and Kai Hong Phua. 2009. SARS in Singapore:



                                                                      56
         Challenges of a global health threat to local institu-                     important in determining the overall psychological,
         tions. Natural Hazards 48 (3): 317-327.                                    medical, economic, and political impact of such attacks.
         SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) has been                          Assessing these variables can help government agen-
         declared by the World Health Organization as a global                      cies and nongovernmental organizations adjust their
         health threat. Within a period of four to five months in                   communication and outreach efforts. To provide these
         2003, the disease infected some 8,000 people in more                       data quickly, telephone surveys using short time win-
         than 25 countries and left 774 dead. The many studies                      dows for data collection or which use quota samples
         that have been done on the spread of SARS in Asia as                       are often required. It is unclear whether slower, more
         well as countries as far flung as Germany and Canada                       conventional, and more expensive survey methods with
         have focused on the global dimension of the infectious                     better response rates would produce different results
         disease as well as the speed of its spread upon emer-                      compared to these quicker and cheaper methods, and
         gence in southern China and then Hong Kong. Less                           whether those differences would have a major impact on
         attention has been paid to its spatial distribution at the                 any resulting policy decisions. This empirical question
         national and local scales. This discussion focuses on the                  would benefit from further study.
         spread of SARS at the national and local spatial scales.
         In the process, the study presents the management of a
                                                                           Schneider, Robert O. 2009. H5N1 planning concerns for local
         hazard, in this case, an emerging infectious disease by
                                                                                   governments. Journal of Emergency Management 7 (1):
         national health care institutions such as the hospitals                   65-70.
         that ultimately proved to have been wholly unprepared                     The objectives of this essay are twofold. First, it review
         for coping with at least the health aspects of the out-                   the threat an avian influenza pandemic poses to local
         come of a globalized national agenda for growth and                       communities. Second, it identifies several unaddressed
         economic progress.                                                        but critical concerns that require the attention of local
                                                                                   governments as they refine their pandemic preparedness
Pfefferbaum, Betty, and Carol S. North. 2008. Research with                        planning. It concludes that greater coordination with
        children exposed to disasters. International Journal of                    the private sector, improved public health surveillance
        Methods in Psychiatric Research - Special Issue: Post-                     efforts, planning for public education, and greater atten-
        Disaster Mental Health Needs Assessment Surveys 17                         tion to ethical issues are essential concerns that should
        (S2): S49-S56.                                                             be on the agenda of local governments as they proceed
        A number of logistical issues complicate child disaster                    with their preparations.
        research. Like adult studies, much child research has
        used a single cross-sectional assessment of non-represen-
        tative samples, fails to consider pre-disaster contribution        Sneath, Julie Z., Russell Lacey, and Pamela A. Kennett-Hensel.
        to post-disaster problems, and leaps to unwarranted                         2009. Coping with a natural disaster: Losses, emotions,
        causal conclusions from results that provide mere asso-                     and impulsive and compulsive buying. Marketing
                                                                                    Letters 20 (1): 45-60.
        ciations. Despite concern about the accuracy of parental
                                                                                    Using data collected from 427 US Gulf Coast residents
        reports and concern about children’s understanding of
                                                                                    who were impacted by Hurricane Katrina, a structural
        terms, most child studies use a single source of informa-
                                                                                    model based on life event theory is proposed and empir-
        tion—either the children themselves or their parents. As
                                                                                    ically tested. Results show that perceived lack of control
        the field matures, greater attention to the sophistication
                                                                                    and loss of possessions contribute directly to stress, and
        of research methods and design will increase our under-
                                                                                    event-induced stress impacts depression. Depressive
        standing of children in the context of disasters.
                                                                                    states, in turn, lead to impulsive and compulsive buy-
                                                                                    ing behaviors. Multi-group analysis reveals that income
Rubin, G. James, Richard Amlot, Lisa Page, and Simon Wessely.
                                                                                    moderates the relationship between depression and
        2008. Methodological challenges in assessing general
                                                                                    compulsive buying, but age, gender, and insurance
        population reactions in the immediate aftermath of
                                                                                    coverage do not. The depression-impulsive buying
        a terrorist attack. International Journal of Methods
                                                                                    relationship is not moderated by any of these factors.
        in Psychiatric Research - Special Issue: Post-Disaster
        Mental Health Needs Assessment Surveys 17 (S2):                             Disaster victims engage in distinct purchasing behaviors
        S29-S35.                                                                    to manage emotional states, recoup losses, and restore
        Assessing mental health needs following a disaster is                       their sense of self. In the aftermath of a traumatic event,
        important, particularly within high-risk groups like                        impulsive buying appears to be a rational and beneficial
        first responders or individuals directly caught up in                       behavior; compulsive buying does not. The results have
        the incident. Following events involving widespread                         ethical and social responsibility implications for market-
        destruction, ingenuity and hard work are required                           ers and public policy makers.
        to study these issues. When considering responses
        among the general population following less devastat-              Soeteman, Rik J.H., C. Joris Yzermans, M.M. Spreeuwenberg,
        ing events such as a conventional terrorist attack, or                    Tina Dorn, Jan J. Kerssens, Wil J.H.M. van de Bosch,
        following an event involving a chemical, biological,                      and Jouke van der Zee. 2009. Does disaster affect
        radiological, or nuclear agent, other variables may                       immigrant victims more than non-immigrant victims
        become more relevant for determining the population’s                     in Dutch general practice: A matched cohort study.
        overall psychosocial well-being. Trust, perceived risk,                   Journal of Public Health 17 (1): 27-32.
        sense of safety, willingness to take prophylaxis and                      In the literature, immigrant victims appear to be more
        unnecessary attendance at medical facilities will all be                  vulnerable to health effects of a disaster than indigenous
                                                                                  victims. Most of these studies were performed without



                                                                      57
        pre-disaster measurement and without using a control                         the areas of biosurveillance, countermeasure distribu-
        group. The aim of this study is to monitor differences                       tion, mass casualty care, and community resilience. The
        between two groups of victims—Turkish immigrants                             objective is to create a much more tightly integrated
        and indigenous Dutch, in utilization and morbidity                           systems approach toward public health and medical
        as presented in general practice after a human-caused                        preparedness. Community Health Centers (CHCs), by
        disaster. A matched cohort study was performed with                          philosophic orientation, geographic location, and as
        pre-disaster (one year) and post-disaster (four years)                       publicly-funded entities, are well-positioned to provide
        measurements of patients from 30 general practices in                        medical services, education, and other human services
        Enscheda. Turkish victims (N=303) and Dutch victims                          to prevent, prepare for, respond to, mitigate, and recover
        (N=606), matched on age, gender and socioeconomic                            from the public health impact of a bioterrorist event or
        status, were included. Main outcome measures were                            other biological disease outbreak. Aggressive investment
        psychological problems and physical symptoms                                 in CHCs and their emergency management programs
        as recorded by the general practitioner, using the                           serves a dual purpose that will: (1) create greater social
        International Classification of Primary Care. The Turkish                    equity by reducing health disparities and make pub-
        victims showed higher utilization than the Dutch vic-                        lic health emergency management more accessible to
        tims prior to the disaster. In the first post-disaster year,                 special needs populations; and (2) support many of the
        both groups of victims showed an increase in utiliza-                        objectives identified in the Public Health and Medical
        tion, but the increases did not differ significantly. The                    Preparedness Strategy.
        Turkish group showed no significantly greater increase
        than the Dutch group in the five most prevalent clusters            Zoraster, Richard M. 2009. “Social Worth” will not affect allo-
        of health problems (psychological, respiratory, skin,                        cation of scarce resources in a pandemic or disaster:
        musculoskeletal, and digestive). The Turkish victims in                      Political correctness, sophistry, or reality? American
        general practice were as vulnerable as the Dutch victims                     Journal of Disaster Medicine 4 (1): 5-7.
        for the effects on their health of this man-made disaster.
        Differences between Turkish and native Dutch victims of             Risk and Decision Making
        this man-made disaster can largely be explained by the
        differences that existed already before the disaster.               Ardalan, Ali, Kourosh Holakouie Naieni, Mohamad-Javad
                                                                                    Kabir, Ali-Mohamad Zanganeh, Abbas-Ali Keshtkar,
Terranova, Andrew M., Paul Boxer, and Amanda Sheffield                              Mohamad-Reza Honarvar, Hanieh Khodaie, and
        Morris. 2009. Changes in children’s peer interactions                       Mehdi Osooli. 2009. Evaluation of Golestan Province’s
        following a natural disaster: How pre-disaster bullying                     early warning system for flash floods, Iran, 2006-2007.
        and victimization rates changed following Hurricane                         International Journal of Biometeorology ePub.
        Katrina. Psychology in the Schools 46 (4): 333-347.                         Golestan, a province located in northeastern Iran, is well
        Youth exposed to disasters experience stress and                            known for deadly flash floods. This study evaluated the
        adjustment difficulties, which likely influence their                       region’s early warning system (EWS) for flash floods
        interactions with peers. In this study, the authors exam-                   using an adapted version of the questionnaire developed
        ined changes in bullying and peer victimization in                          by the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster
        two cohorts of children. Youth from an area affected                        Reduction (UNISDR). Golestan EWS documents were
        by Hurricane Katrina were assessed pre and post-                            reviewed and a qualitative study using interviews of
        disaster (n = 96, mean [M] = 10.9 years old, 53 percent                     experts and affected people in Kalaleh and Minoodasht,
        female), and a comparison group from a nearby area                          was conducted. Results were discussed by an expert
        was assessed over the same time interval one year prior                     panel. Risk knowledge included a hazard map at the
        (n = 120, M = 10.2 years old, 52 percent female). Within                    Provincial Disaster Taskforce (PDT), although no risk
        the hurricane group, relations between symptoms of                          analysis was available. Local people were aware of expo-
        post-traumatic stress disorder with bullying and victim-                    sure to flooding, but not aware of the hazard map or
        ization also were examined. Following the hurricane,                        their vulnerability. In terms of monitoring and warning,
        the hurricane group reported increased relational and                       PDT faced serious limitations in issuing early warn-
        overt bullying relative to the nonhurricane group, and                      ings, including the inability to make point predictions
        PTSD symptoms predicted increased victimization.                            of rainfall or create a warning threshold. Meteorological
        Thus, school personnel should be vigilant and prepared                      Office communications followed a top-to-bottom flow
        to respond to increased bullying following disasters and                    and messages were not clearly understood by institu-
        for increased victimization in youth experiencing PTSD                      tions, nor did they reach potential recipients in an
        symptoms.                                                                   appropriate time frame. A comprehensive response plan
                                                                                    with adequate exercises was needed and no evaluation
Wood, Karen M. 2009. Community health centers: The                                  framework existed. Golestan EWS is in dire need of
       untapped resource for public health and medical pre-                         improvement. To fill in the gaps and ensure local people
       paredness. Homeland Security Affairs (ePub) 5 (1).                           receive timely warnings, the authors propose a com-
       HSPD-21 was recently released to the public call-                            munity-based model called Village Disaster Taskforce
       ing for a transformation in the national approach to                         (VDT), in which individual villages act as operational
       public health and medical preparedness in the United                         units but are interlinked with other villages and the
       States. The latest deliberations, as prioritized by this                     PDT.
       strategy, are to bolster the nation’s ability to manage
       a public health crisis by stimulating improvements in                Baxter, P.J., W.P. Aspinall, A. Neri, G. Zuccaro, R.J.S. Spence, R.



                                                                       58
         Cioni, and G. Woo. 2008. Emergency planning and mit-                      Management 2 (1): 76-82.
         igation at Vesuvius: A new evidence-based approach.                       Flood inundation data are most useful for decision mak-
         Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 178                        ers when presented in the context of maps of affected
         (3): 454-473.                                                             communities and areas. But because the data are scarce
         The infrequency of disasters from volcanic eruptions                      and rarely cover the full extent of flooding, interpolation
         limits emergency planning and mitigation experience                       and extrapolation of the information are needed. Many
         for such situations. As populations expand into areas of                  geographic information systems provide various inter-
         active volcanoes, the need for developing more robust                     polation tools, but these tools often ignore the effects of
         methods of risk assessment and decision making in                         the topographic and hydraulic features that influence
         volcanic crises is increasing. Vesuvius, where thousands                  flooding. A barrier mapping method was developed
         of people live in the shadow of one of the world’s most                   to improve maps of storm tide produced by Hurricane
         dangerous volcanoes, is an example of the challenges                      Rita. Maps were developed for the maximum storm tide
         caused by this dynamic. This article describes how                        and at three hour intervals from midnight (00:00 hours)
         evidence-based volcanology in EXPLORIS contributes                        through noon (12:00 hours) on September 24, 2005. The
         to crisis planning and management for eruptions and                       improved maps depict storm tide elevations and the
         long-term land use planning. An analytical approach                       extent of flooding. The extent of storm tide inunda-
         enumerates and quantifies volcano hazards that influ-                     tion from the improved maximum storm tide map was
         ence risk. This challenge combined field data on the                      compared with the extent of flood inundation from a
         vulnerability of the built environment, humans in                         map prepared by the Federal Emergency Management
         past volcanic disasters, and theoretical research on the                  Agency (FEMA). The boundaries from these two maps
         volcano’s state—including field evidence from previ-                      generally compared quite well especially along the
         ous eruptions and numerical simulation modeling of                        Calcasieu River. Also a cross-section profile that parallels
         eruptive processes. An event tree for future eruption                     the Louisiana coast was developed from the maximum
         types, including probability and hypothetical casualty                    storm tide map and included FEMA high-water marks.
         outcomes, was created using formal probabilistic reason-
         ing under uncertainty and a decision analysis approach.          Bosher, Lee, Andrew Dainty, Patricia Carillo, Jacqueline Glass,
         For emergency planning purposes, likely eruption sce-                     and Andrew Price. 2009. Attaining improved resilience
         narios were derived from this event tree and elaborated                   to floods: A proactive multi-stakeholder approach.
         on using geological and historical record. Modeling the                   Disaster Prevention and Management 18 (1): 9-22.
         impacts in these scenarios provide realistic assessments                  There is a need to proactively address strategic weak-
         for disaster planning and show the potential risk benefit                 nesses in protecting the built environment from a range
         of mitigation—mainly timely evacuation and building                       of hazards. This paper seeks to focus on the mitigation
         and infrastructure protection. This work suggests risk-                   for flood hazards in the United Kingdom, particularly
         based methods could have an important role in volcanic                    in understanding the extent of the problem, collating
         crisis management.                                                        key guidance and legislation related to flood hazard
                                                                                   mitigation, identifying who the key construction deci-
Benn, Suzanne, Dexter Dunphy, and Andrew Martin. 2009.                             sion makers are, and the most opportune stages of the
        Governance of environmental risk: New approaches                           design-construction-operation process when key deci-
        to managing stakeholder involvement. Journal of                            sions are needed. A pluralistic research design was
        Environmental Management 90 (4): 1567-1575.                                adopted for the study, which included a UK-wide ques-
        Disputes concerning industrial legacies such as the                        tionnaire survey and a set of semi-structured interviews
        disposal of toxic wastes illustrate changing pressures                     involving a range of professionals from construction,
        on corporations and governments. Businesses and                            planning, insurance, emergency management and local/
        governments are now confronted with managing the                           national government agencies was undertaken. Despite
        expectations of a society increasingly aware of the social                 the publication of a range of guidance on flood hazard
        and environmental impacts and risks associated with                        mitigation in the UK, there is still insufficient evidence
        economic development, demanding more equitable dis-                        that key construction stakeholders are playing an active
        tribution and democratic management of such risks. The                     role in mitigating flood risk. The preconstruction phase
        closed managerialist decision making of the powerful                       of a building’s life cycle is identified as the critical stage
        bureaucracies and corporations of the industrial era is                    at which key stakeholders must adopt flood hazard
        informed by traditional management theory which can-                       mitigation strategies. The socio-institutional constraints
        not provide a framework for the adequate governance                        to the proactive attainment of built-in resilience are
        of these risks. Recent socio-political theories have con-                  highlighted, as are recommendations about how these
        ceptualized some key themes that must be addressed in                      constraints can be addressed. The paper reports on the
        a more appropriate approach to governance. This article                    provisional findings of an ongoing project but these
        identifies recent management and governance theory                         findings nonetheless provide essential foundations for
        addressing these themes and develops a process-based                       the latter development of the PRE-EMPT toolkit and
        approach to governance of environmental disputes,                          raise some important considerations about flood resil-
        allowing for the evolving nature of stakeholder relations                  ience in the UK. The findings presented reveal how
        in a highly complex multiple stakeholder arena.                            stakeholders should be more involved, and what issues
                                                                                   must be addressed regarding the integration of built-in
Berenbrock, C., R.R. Mason, and S.F. Blanchard. 2009. Mapping                      resilience into construction decision making.
        Hurricane Rita inland storm tide. Journal of Flood Risk



                                                                     59
Brody, Samuel D., Sammy Zahran, Wesley E. Highfield, Sarah                         because of a lack of data and assessment difficulties.
        P. Bernhardt, and Arnold Vedlitz. 2009. Policy learning                    Existing approaches for SV assessment, primarily based
        for flood mitigation: A longitudinal assessment of the                     on community-based methods or on census data, have
        Community Rating System in Florida. Risk Analysis                          limited efficiency and transferability. In this article a
        (ePub).                                                                    new method based on contextual analysis of image and
        Floods continue to inflict the most damage upon human                      GIS data is presented. An approach based on proxy vari-
        communities among all natural hazards in the United                        ables that were derived from high-resolution optical and
        States. Because localized flooding tends to be spatially                   laser scanning data was applied, in combination with
        repetitive over time, local decision makers often have                     elevation information and existing hazard data. Object-
        an opportunity to learn from previous events and make                      oriented image analysis was applied for the definition
        proactive policy adjustments to reduce the adverse                         and estimation of those variables, focusing on SV indi-
        effects of a subsequent storm. Despite the importance                      cators with physical characteristics. A reference Social
        of understanding the degree to which local jurisdictions                   Vulnerability Index (SVI) was created from census data
        learn from flood risks and under what circumstances,                       available for the study area on a neighborhood level and
        little if any empirical, longitudinal research has been                    tested for parts of Tegucigalpa, Honduras. For the evalu-
        conducted along these lines. This article addresses the                    ation of the proxy variables, a stepwise regression model
        research gap by examining the change in local flood mit-                   to select the best explanatory variables for changes in
        igation policies in Florida from 1999 to 2005. It tracks 18                the SVI was applied. Eight out of 47 variables explained
        different mitigation activities organized into four series                 almost 60 percent of the variance, whereby the slope
        of activities under the Federal Emergency Management                       position and the proportion of built-up area in a neigh-
        Agency’s (FEMA) Community Rating System (CRS)                              borhood were found to be the most valuable proxies.
        for every local jurisdiction in Florida participating in                   This work shows that contextual segmentation-based
        the FEMA program on a yearly time step. The article                        analysis of geospatial data can substantially aid in SV
        then identifies the major factors contributing to policy                   assessment and, when combined with field-based infor-
        changes based on CRS scores over the seven-year study                      mation, leads to optimization in terms of assessment
        period. Using multivariate statistical models to ana-                      frequency and cost.
        lyze both natural and social science data, the effects of
        several variables are isolated and categorized into the            Emblemsvag, Jan. 2008. On probability in risk analysis of natu-
        following groups: hydrologic conditions, flood disaster                  ral disasters. Disaster Prevention and Management 17
        history, and socioeconomic and human capital controls.                   (4): 508-518.
        Results indicate that local jurisdictions do in fact learn               This paper shows how the common practice of apply-
        from histories of flood risk and this process is expedited               ing the frequency interpretation of probability in risk
        under specific conditions.                                               analysis of so-called low-probability, high-consequence
                                                                                 disasters can be flawed, and to present a possible rem-
De Brujin, K.M., and F. Klijn. 2009. Risky places in the                         edy. The common practice is reviewed by using the the
        Netherlands: A first approximation for floods. Journal                   Aknes case from Norway where an up to 100 million m3
        of Flood Risk Management 2 (1): 58-67.                                   rock slide is threatening one of Norway’s most visited
        Flood risk maps are considered useful tools for flood                    tourist sites, Geiranger. The same case is also reworked
        risk management, including spatial planning. In the                      using the alternative approach and then a comparison is
        Netherlands, flood risk is usually assessed for large                    made. The paper clearly shows the fallacy of using the
        geographical units at the dike-ring scale. Flood risk                    frequency interpretation of probability in cases where
        differences within dike rings can be large, however.                     the data are limited because the natural disasters under
        Maps providing information on flood risks and a more                     study appear very rarely. By exploiting the fact that
        detailed spatial scale of risk can help prioritize flood                 responsible decision makers in public offices cannot
        control measures or land-use planning. This paper                        claim that human losses today are worse than human
        focuses on the identification of risky places in the                     losses tomorrow (human lives cannot be discounted, as
        Netherlands, i.e. places where many flood fatalities can                 it were), the alternative approach provides much more
        be expected because of their hazards and vulnerability.                  realistic decision support. The paper presents a new
        The method factors the likelihood and number of fatali-                  approach to analyzing the risk of low probability, high
        ties into hazard, vulnerability, and exposure factors.                   impact natural disasters that can be readily applied in
                                                                                 other low probability, high consequence cases. As far as
Ebert, Annemarie, Norman Kerle, and Alfred Stein. 2009. Urban                    is known, the paper presents an original contribution to
        social vulnerability assessment with physical proxies                    the analysis of risk of low-probability, high-consequence
        and spatial metrics derived from air- and spaceborne                     natural disasters since it shows that the commonly used
        imagery and GIS data. Natural Hazards 48 (2): 275-294.                   frequency interpretation of probability can prove to be
        Risk management in urban planning is of increasing                       flawed in such cases. An alternative approach is pro-
        importance to mitigate the growing amount of dam-                        vided.
        age and the increasing number of casualties caused by
        natural disasters. Risk assessment to support manage-              Escudero, Laureano F., and Juan F. Monge. 2008. A model
        ment requires knowledge about present and future                           for risk minimization on water resource usage fail-
        hazards, elements at risk, and different types of vulner-                  ure. International Journal of Risk Assessment and
        ability. This article deals with the assessment of social                  Management 10 (4): 386-403.
        vulnerability (SV). In the past this has been neglected                    The authors present a framework for solving the strate-



                                                                      60
         gic problem of assigning transboundary water resources                      borders. After showing the importance of internation-
         to demand centers under uncertainty in the water exog-                      ally shared waters at the global scale in terms of spatial
         enous inflow in the reservoirs and other segments of the                    extension, quantity, and water uses, this paper devel-
         basin system along the time horizon. The function to                        ops an integrated risk-based framework for managing
         maximize is the probability of satisfying different targets                 shared waters at the basin scale. The definition of risk
         on the stored water and different demands over a set of                     as a performance index in achieving four different
         scenarios. A scenario tree-based scheme is used to rep-                     objectives—technical reliability, environmental security,
         resent the Deterministic Equivalent Model (DEM) of the                      economic efficiency, and social equity—allows differ-
         stochastic mixed 0-1 program with complete recourse.                        ent management options to be compared and the most
         The constraints are modeled by a splitting variable rep-                    sustainable one to be selected. The Risk-based Integrated
         resentation via scenarios and, so, a Stochastic Integer                     Transboundary Water Resources Management
         Programming (SIP) scheme can be used to exploit the                         (RITWRM) framework is based on the quantification
         excess probability functional structure as well as the                      of the four different risk indices, which can be evalu-
         non-anticipativity constraints for the water assignment.                    ated by combining expert opinions, available data and
                                                                                     information, and mathematical modeling. The RITWRM
Fontaine, Matthew M., and Anne C. Steinemann. 2009.                                  problem can be set as a multiportfolio choice problem,
        Assessing vulnerability to natural hazards: Impact-                          which allows a scientifically motivated compromise to
        based method and application to drought in                                   be found between the individual interests of stakehold-
        Washington State. Natural Hazards Review 10 (1):                             ers where technological, economic and social conditions
        11-18.                                                                       are taken into account.
        This article presents a vulnerability assessment tech-
        nique using measures of exposure, sensitivity, and                  Gerber, Elaine. 2009. Describing tragedy: The information
        adaptive capacity. Historically, vulnerability assessments                   access needs of blind people in emergency-related cir-
        focused on analyzing the hazard without consider-                            cumstances. Human Organization 68 (1): 73-81.
        ing causes or mitigation. The vulnerability assessment                       Audio description is a technique used for “translating”
        method (VAM), presented here, acquires data and infor-                       visual material to aural readers/blind people. In this
        mation from affected stakeholders to assess not only the                     article, exploratory research on audio description (AD) is
        hazard, but also the causes of vulnerability, potential                      presented, which raises important questions in the field
        for adaptation, previous impacts, and ways to mitigate                       of applied anthropology and emergency planning: How
        future impacts. Researchers applied the VAM to a case                        does one translate visual material for a non-seeing audi-
        study of Washington State that assessed drought vulner-                      ence? From the point of view of blind consumers, what
        ability across 34 subsectors. Results indicate the highest                   constitutes “good” description? What specific informa-
        vulnerability for dry land farmers, farmers with junior                      tion access needs do they have in event of emergencies?
        water rights, fisheries, ski area operators, berry farmers,                  Selected results are presented from three telephone
        and the green industry. Through validation exercises,                        focus groups on AD, conducted with 39 blind or visually
        they demonstrate the VAM’s internal consistency and                          impaired people nationwide in the United States dur-
        external applicability. Contributions of the VAM include                     ing September and October 2005. This paper addresses
        incorporation of stakeholder data, integrated and quan-                      emergency planning, audio description, and the need
        titative assessments of vulnerability components, and                        for more accurate information access for blind people
        applicability to other regions, scales, and types of haz-                    during public warning broadcasts and in delivering the
        ards.                                                                        news. Further, it examines existing guidelines for the
                                                                                     inclusion of blind people in the provision of emergency
Gabriel, Paul. 2009. Victoria’s state-level emergency risk assess-                   information, concluding that successful emergency pre-
         ment method. The Australian Journal of Emergency                            paredness must include first-hand expertise of disabled
         Management 24 (1): 5-10.                                                    people themselves.
         Victoria’s State Emergency Mitigation Committee has
         developed a method for initial comparative assess-                 Gonen, Amnon, and Naomi Zeitouni. 2008. Using risk man-
         ment of emergency-related risks at state level. Adapting                  agement to increase the flexibility of transboundary
         existing municipal-level models, a method has been                        water conflict resolutions. International Journal of Risk
         developed and successfully implemented. The main                          Assessment and Management 10 (4): 373-385.
         adaptations have been the use of a curve to represent the                 With the increase in world population and the dimin-
         risk rating, the placement of colored risk zones on the                   ishing water quality and quantity, water scarcity is
         graph, the recalibration of consequence descriptors to                    increasing. As access to water is essential to the pros-
         the state-level context, and the use of logarithmic scales.               perity of communities, the threat of conflict over the
                                                                                   use of transboundary water is increasing. Surface and
Ganoulis, Jacques, and Eugene Levner. 2008. Risk-based inte-                       groundwater that cross international boundaries pres-
        grated management of transboundary water resources:                        ent increased challenges to regional stability because
        A general framework. International Journal of Risk                         hydrologic needs can often be overwhelmed by politi-
        Assessment and Management 10 (4): 291-311.                                 cal considerations. The success of an agreement over
        Integrated management of transboundary surface                             water conflicts greatly depends on the flexibility of the
        waters and groundwater aquifers faces not only dif-                        agreement in the presence of new risks and challenges.
        ficult problems and uncertainties at a national level,                     This flexibility may be accomplished through the estab-
        but also because these water bodies cross international                    lishment of formal institutions and/or legislation set



                                                                       61
         up for the purpose of problem solving. These institu-                      9 (1): 61-75.
         tions are essential for the maintenance of cooperative                     Flood protection is one of the practical methods in dam-
         interactions over water. This work suggests the use of                     age reduction. Although it not possible to be completely
         the risk management method most commonly utilized                          protected from flood disaster, a major part of the dam-
         in the planning and developing of complex industrial-                      age can be reduced by mitigation plans. In this paper,
         ized projects to increase the flexibility of transboundary                 the optimum flood mitigation master plan is determined
         agreements.                                                                by economic evaluation, trading off construction costs
                                                                                    and the expected value of damage reduction as the bene-
Grace, Martin F., and Robert W. Klein. 2009. The perfect                            fit. Size of certain mitigation alternatives is also obtained
        storm: Hurricanes, insurance and regulation. Risk                           from risk analysis by accepting the possibility of flood
        Management and Insurance Review 12 (1): 81-124.                             overtopping. Different flood mitigation alternatives are
        The intense hurricane seasons of 2004 and 2005 caused                       investigated from various aspects in the Dez and Karun
        considerable instability in property insurance markets                      river floodplain areas as a case study in southwest
        in coastal states with the greatest problems occurring in                   Iran. The results show that detention dam and flood
        Florida and the Southeast. Insurers have substantially                      diversion are the best alternatives of flood mitigation
        raised rates and decreased their exposures. While no                        methods, along with enforcing the flood control pur-
        severe hurricanes struck the United States in 2006 and                      pose of upstream multipurpose reservoirs. Dike and
        2007, market pressures remain strong given the high risk                    levees are not justifiable because of negative impact on
        still facing coastal states. These developments generate                    downstream by enhancing routed flood peak discharge
        considerable concern and controversy among various                          magnitude and flood damages as well.
        stakeholder groups. Government responses have var-
        ied. In Florida, political pressures prompted a wave               Heitz, Carine, Sandrine Spaeter, Anne-Veronique Auzet, and
        of legislation and regulations to expand government                         Sandrine Glatron. 2009. Local stakeholders’ perception
        underwriting and subsidization of hurricane risk and                        of muddy flood risk and implications for management
        constrain insurers’ rates and market adjustments. Other                     approaches: A case study in Alsace (France). Land Use
        states’ actions seem more moderate. In this context, it is                  Policy 26 (2): 443-451.
        important to understand how property insurance mar-                         The inventory of muddy floods in France indicates that
        kets have been changing and governments have been                           the occurrence of these events seriously increased in the
        responding to increased catastrophe risk. This article                      northwest and east of the country. Muddy floods trigger-
        examines important market developments and evaluates                        ing can largely be explained by physical characteristics
        associated government policies. The article comments on                     such as a hilly topography, soils prone to crust, or heavy
        how regulation is affecting the equilibration of insurance                  rainfall in spring. Although the physical processes are
        markets and offer opinions on policies that are helpful                     well known, and despite increasing information about
        and harmful.                                                                the need of mitigation measures, no significant reduc-
                                                                                    tion of these disasters has been registered. Therefore,
Haruvy, Nava, Sarit Shalhevet, and Yehunda Bachmat. 2008.                           this should be explained by factors others than scientific
        Risk management of transboundary water resources:                           reasons or technical knowledge acquisition difficul-
        Sustainable water management of the River Jordan                            ties. This paper deals with a study of muddy flood risk
        basin area. International Journal of Risk Assessment                        in five municipalities belonging to three catchments
        and Management 10 (4): 339-356.                                             (AlsaceNE France). These catchments have suffered
        The River Jordan basin suffers from regional water scar-                    from several muddy flood events in the past 20 years,
        city, wide economic discrepancies, and a long-lasting                       and, despite the implementation of mitigation measures,
        dispute over land ownership. Prolonged, widespread                          no decrease of their frequency has occurred. This study
        unsustainable management has significantly decreased                        focuses on risk perception. The authors assume that
        the water flow and aggravated water pollution. The                          obtaining information on risk perception contributes to
        river is now seriously at risk of drying up, with the loss                  the understanding of the main social factors that should
        of a unique ecosystem with important religious and                          be taken into account in an efficient muddy flood risk
        cultural significance. Sustainable management practices                     management policy. To gather data, they used surveys
        are needed, based on the local physical and hydrologi-                      based on individuals’ interviews and questionnaires,
        cal conditions, the available technologies, the economic                    focusing on the local stakeholders in charge of the risk
        costs, and the potential policy options. Our multidimen-                    management. A sampling strategy based on a spatial
        sional model incorporates these factors. It provides a                      distinction of runoff areas was used to select the areas
        decision-making tool that supports urban and agricul-                       to be surveyed. The survey results highlight significant
        tural water supply planning, with predetermined water                       differences in perception among respondents. These dif-
        quality for each use. A case study in Israel yielded a                      ferences depend in particular on their location within
        framework for application of the model to transbound-                       the catchment (i.e., erosion or sedimentation area).
        ary water management, by adjusting it for the differing                     Moreover, almost the half of the respondents trust infor-
        costs and technologies in the various countries involved.                   mation provided by the local authorities. The results
        A variety of potential international agreements were                        provide some insights about the type and the source
        considered as scenarios for the model.                                      of information related to risk mitigation that should be
                                                                                    considered when implementing an efficient regulation
Heidari, A. 2009. Structural master plan of flood mitigation                        policy.
         measures. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences



                                                                      62
Heltberg, Rasmus, Paul Bennett Siegel, and Steen Lau                                 winter periods 1950/1951 and 1953/1954 stand out, with
        Jorgensen. 2009. Addressing human vulnerability to                           more than 100 fatalities. Those events led to an increase
        climate change: Toward a ‘no-regrets’ approach. Global                       of avalanche control programs in the following decades.
        Environmental Change 19 (1): 89-99.                                          While from the 1950s to the 1970s emphasis was placed
        This paper presents and applies a conceptual frame-                          on permanent measures (technical structures, afforesta-
        work to address human vulnerability to climate change.                       tions, hazard zoning, and so on), additional programs
        Drawing upon social risk management and asset-based                          such as avalanche warning and forecasting have supple-
        approaches, the conceptual framework provides a uni-                         mented avalanche control measures in recent decades.
        fying lens to examine links between risks, adaptation,                       Current research is focused on avalanche simulation,
        and vulnerability. The result is an integrated approach                      risk management, and the influence of the forest on ava-
        to increase the capacity of society to manage climate                        lanche formation. An important area of future research
        risks to reduce the vulnerability of households and                          is to develop improved methods for avalanche forecast-
        to maintain or increase the opportunities for sustain-                       ing and to intensify the investigation of the dynamics of
        able development. It identifies ‘no-regrets’ adaptation                      avalanches.
        interventions, meaning actions that generate net social
        benefits under all future scenarios of climate change               Ikeda, Keiko. 2009. How women’s concerns are shaped in
        and impacts. The article also makes the case for greater                    community-based disaster risk management in
        support for community-based adaptation and social pro-                      Bangladesh. Contemporary South Asia 17 (1): 65-78.
        tection and propose a research agenda.                                      This article elaborates on how concerns regarding gen-
                                                                                    der in community-based disaster risk management are
Hochrainer, Stefan, Reinhard Mechler, and Georg Pflug. 2008.                        shaped through interaction between local agents of
        Climate change and financial adaptation in Africa:                          development and communities in Bangladesh. Since
        Investigating the impact of climate change on the                           women and men have different experiences in disaster,
        robustness of index-based microinsurance in Malawi.                         gender concerns should be fully addressed by the com-
        Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global                             munity and integrated into the action they take up to
        Change 14 (3): 231-250.                                                     reduce disaster risks. The term “local agents of develop-
        This paper discusses the applicability of crop insurance                    ment” refers to individuals engaged in implementation
        for the case of Malawi. It explores the potential impact                    of development policy in their own community. Recent
        of climate change on the viability of the Malawi weather                    trends in community-based disaster risk manage-
        insurance program, using of scenarios of climate change-                    ment policy seek what is called a “whole community
        induced variations in rainfall patterns. By combining                       approach,” engaging various stakeholders such as tra-
        catastrophe insurance modeling with climate modeling,                       ditional village elite, “local civil society,” and leaders of
        the methodology demonstrates the feasibility, albeit                        community-based organizations—mostly poor villagers
        with large uncertainties, of estimating the effects of                      supported by non-governmental organizations. Within
        climate variability and climate change on the near- and                     the context of the historical evolution of community
        long-term future of microinsurance schemes serving the                      development approaches in Bangladesh, this is quite
        poor. By providing a model-based estimate of insurance                      new in terms of bringing together traditional leaders
        back-up capital necessary to avoid ruin under climate                       and poor target groups, including women’s groups. By
        variability and climate change, along with the associated                   drawing from the experience of women and focusing on
        uncertainties and data limitations, this methodology                        the functioning of local agents of development during
        can quantitatively demonstrate the need for financial                       the flood of 2004, the author assesses the gaps between
        assistance to protect micro-insurance pools against                         the primary concerns of women and those taken up in
        climate-induced insolvency. This is of major concern                        the risk-reduction action, to see whether, why, and when
        to donors, nongovernmental organizations and others                         they have widened or been bridged.
        supporting these innovative systems, those actually at-
        risk and insurers providing insurance. A quantitative               Kiker, Gregory A., Rafael Munoz-Carpena, Piotr Wolski, Anna
        estimate of the additional burden that climate change                       Cathey, Andrea Gaughan, and Jongbum Kim. 2008.
        imposes on weather insurance for poor regions is of                         Incorporating uncertainty into adaptive, transbound-
        interest to organizations funding adaptation. Further,                      ary water challenges: A conceptual design for the
        by linking catastrophe modeling to regionalized climate                     Okavango River basin. International Journal of Risk
        modeling, the analysis identifies key modeling inputs                       Assessment and Management 10 (4): 312-338.
        necessary as well as important constraints. The article                     The authors present a review and conceptual design to
        ends with a discussion of the opportunities and limits                      integrate hydrological/ecological models, global uncer-
        to similar modeling and weather predictability for Sub-                     tainty and sensitivity analysis, integrative modeling, and
        Saharan Africa beyond the case of Malawi.                                   decision analysis for complex and adaptive transbound-
                                                                                    ary challenges. The research uses the transboundary
Holler, Peter. 2007. Avalanche hazards and mitigation in                            issues within the Okavango River basin, a shared water
         Austria: A review. Natural Hazards 43 (1): 81-101.                         resource among the nations of Angola, Namibia and
         At all times, natural hazards like torrents or avalanches                  Botswana, as an example for constructing these inte-
         pose a threat to settlements and infrastructures in the                    grated tools. The objective of this paper is to present a
         Austrian Alps. Since 1950 more than 1,600 persons                          design that integrates a set of tools that builds systemati-
         have been killed by avalanches in Austria, which is an                     cally on past basin modeling research to incorporate the
         average of about 30 fatalities per year. In particular, the                inherent uncertainty within the system and its applica-



                                                                       63
         tion for answering practical management questions.                         practitioners who conduct assessments of landslide risk.
                                                                                    As a consequence, these contribute to safer communi-
Krewski, Daniel, Louise Lemyre, Michelle C. Turner, Jennifer                        ties and therefore to a reduction in the costs of disasters.
       E.C. Lee, Christine Dallaire, Louise Bouchard, Kevin                         This paper discusses the development of the guidelines
       Brand, and Pierre Mercier. 2009. Public perception of                        and their applications in land use planning, risk assess-
       population health risks in Canada: Health hazards                            ment, risk management, and the transfer of knowledge
       and health outcomes. International Journal of Risk                           to practitioners, regulators, and the broader Australian
       Assessment and Management 11 (3/4): 299-318.                                 public. The paper provides an overview of the status
       The focus of this article is a descriptive account of the                    of landslide risk management in Australia. The land-
       perceptions of five health hazards (motor vehicles,                          slide zoning guideline for land use planning has been
       climate change, recreational physical activity, cellular                     the template for an international version which was
       phones, and terrorism) and five health outcomes (can-                        published in late 2008 jointly by the three international
       cer, long-term disabilities, asthma, heart disease, and                      technical societies representing geomechanics interests
       depression) from a recent survey of 1,503 Canadians.                         on the global stage.
       To shed light on factors that influence risk perception
       in Canada, the extent to which these exemplars are per-             Levner, Eugene, David Alcaide Lopez de Pablo, and Jacques
       ceived as high in risk and controllability, as well as the                   Ganoulis. 2008. Risk management of transbound-
       extent to which knowledge and uncertainty surrounding                        ary water resources using the green supply chain
       them is high, was examined. The degree to which these                        approach. International Journal of Risk Assessment and
       exemplars are deemed acceptable and generate worry                           Management 10 (4): 357-372.
       among Canadians was also examined. Variation was                             The problem considered is the coordination of the eco-
       observed in the extent to which different health hazards                     logical risks of all stakeholders in a transboundary river
       and outcomes are perceived on the various dimensions.                        basin using the “green” (environmental) Supply Chain
       Perceptions of health hazards and outcomes also vary                         (SC) approach. Using a combination of two managerial
       significantly by gender, age, and education. Findings are                    concepts “the environmental SC” and “the house-of-
       compared to existing research on risk perception.                            quality,” a decision-making model that quantitatively
                                                                                    estimates the integrated risk level is constructed. A
Lein, James K., and Nicole I. Stump. 2009. Assessing wildfire                       mathematical model is proposed that allows the inte-
         potential within the wildland-urban interface: A                           grated risk to population and society in a transboundary
         southeastern Ohio example. Applied Geography 29 (1):                       river basin under geo-hydrological, economic, techno-
         21-34.                                                                     logical and social constraints to be mitigated.
         Spreading cities and suburbs remain a common phe-
         nomenon throughout the United States. Urban spread,               Li, Geraldine M. 2009. Tropical cyclone risk perceptions in
         and the desire to move beyond the subdivision for a                         Darwin, Australia: A comparison of different residen-
         more natural setting in the country, creates both oppor-                    tial groups. Natural Hazards 48 (3): 365-382.
         tunities and challenges for natural resource managers.                      Different individuals and groups perceive risk differ-
         Perhaps no challenge is as great as those related to wild-                  ently. This can significantly affect risk management
         fire risk within the lands describing the urban-wildland                    and mitigation practices and requirements. This paper
         interface. The need to gain a better understanding of                       presents findings from a study of tropical cyclone
         the wildland-urban interface is critical to policy mak-                     risk perceptions in the city of Darwin in the Northern
         ers charged with risk reduction responsibilities. This                      Territory of Australia. Primary in-depth interview data
         paper develops a methodology that characterizes the                         and other secondary data are analyzed, focusing in par-
         spatial distribution of wildfire risk potential in south-                   ticular on wind damage, storm surge, and life safety risk
         eastern Ohio, using a geospatial technology solution to                     perceptions of residents since Cyclone Tracy—which
         model critical hazard and risk variables associated with                    struck in 1974—and perceptions of future climate
         wildfire. The results demonstrate that the association of                   change as it relates to tropical cyclone risk. The analysis
         wildfire with hazard and risk variables can be exploited                    reveals that a number of perceptions prevail. In particu-
         to improve wildfire potential mapping and a validation                      lar, the study reveals a wide difference of perceptions
         assessment of the geographic information systems (GIS)-                     between short-term residents (Group 1) and long-term
         based prescriptive model displays a strong agreement                        and expert residents (Group 2) in relation to wind dam-
         with the pattern of historic wildfire for the region.                       age, storm surge and life safety risk. It also reveals a
                                                                                     large division between laypersons (Group 3) and expert
Leventhal, Andrew, and Geoff Withycombe. 2009. Landslide                             residents’ (Group 4) perceptions of climate change
        risk management for Australia. The Australian Journal                        risk as it relates to tropical cyclone risk. The author
        of Emergency Management 24 (1): 39-52.                                       recommends that flexible, multiple and integrative man-
        The Australian Geomechanics Society published a suite                        agement and mitigation approaches are required to deal
        of guidelines in 2007 that have been recognized both                         with such different perceptions and divisions in the resi-
        within Australia and internationally as world leading,                       dent population.
        representing best practice in the field of landslide risk          Li, Yue, and Bruce R. Ellingwood. 2009. Framework for
        management. The three guidelines are supplemented by                         multihazard risk assessment and mitigation for wood-
        two commentaries to collectively provide advice to the                       frame residential construction. Journal of Structural
        Australian public, government regulators responsible                         Engineering 135 (2): 159-168.
        for the management of landslide risk, and geotechnical                       Wood-frame residential construction represents a major



                                                                      64
         investment in the United States which, when exposed to                     serious misinformation, because civil authorities do not
         hurricanes, earthquakes, and other natural hazards, may                    require people living in the third and fourth zones to
         sustain substantial damage. Although in many parts of                      evacuate. The results of study demonstrate the critical
         the country one natural hazard dominates, in certain                       need to reinforce public information campaigns regard-
         areas multiple hazards may pose a significant threat to                    ing volcanic risk in communities vulnerable to direct
         buildings. Building design and construction practices                      damage in the event of a stronger eruption of the vol-
         should address the overall risk to residential construc-                   cano Popocatépetl.
         tion from multiple hazards to achieve design strategies
         and risk levels that are consistent with occupant expec-          McGee, Tara K., Bonita L. McFarlane, and Jeji Varghese. 2009.
         tations and social objectives. This paper presents a                     An examination of the influence of hazard experience
         framework for multihazard risk assessment using hur-                     on wildfire risk perceptions and adoption of mitiga-
         ricane and earthquake hazards as an example. Structural                  tion measures. Society and Natural Resources 22 (4):
         reliability-based methods that describe natural hazard                   308-323.
         and structural system response probabilistically are                     Previous experience with a hazard has been identified
         essential for quantifying expected losses from natural                   as influencing risk perception and adoption of adjust-
         disasters and for developing appropriate strategies to                   ments. However, this relationship is not clear and may
         manage risk. The framework permits the main sources                      depend on the differences in experiences that may occur
         of uncertainty that affect building performance to be                    within a community. This article describes residents’
         identified, and provides insight on strategies for effec-                wildfire experiences and explores how these experiences
         tive multihazard mitigation efforts.                                     may influence risk perceptions and implementation of
                                                                                  mitigation measures one year after the 2003 Lost Creek
Lin, Yi-Chun. 2009. Impact of the spread of infectious disease                    and McLure wildfires in western Canada. Interviews
         on economic development: A study in risk manage-                         were conducted with 40 residents with different wildfire
         ment. International Journal of Risk Assessment and                       experiences, including losing their home, being evacu-
         Management 11 (3/4): 209-218.                                            ated, self-evacuating early, staying in their house during
         At the peak of the worldwide SARS epidemic, apprehen-                    a wildfire, and being away from the area. Results sug-
         sion arising out of partially disclosed, if not concealed,               gest that differences in hazard experiences can impact
         information on the status has driven many foreign-based                  post-event risk perceptions and adoption of mitigation
         companies to withdraw their business in Taiwan or                        measures. Management implications are discussed.
         move their bases elsewhere. Normal trading, invest-
         ment, and travel were suspended or came to a standstill.          Meyer, Volker, Sebastian Scheuer, and Dagmar Haase. 2009. A
         This paper traces the spread of SARS in Taiwan and                        multicriteria approach for flood risk mapping exempli-
         the corresponding measures undertaken. Proposals on                       fied at the Mulde River, Germany. Natural Hazards 48
         emergency action in crisis management are also made,                      (1): 17-39.
         which can serve as references for investors in risk con-                  This paper develops a GIS-based multicriteria flood
         trol assessment.                                                          risk assessment and mapping approach. This approach
                                                                                   includes flood risks which are not measured in mon-
Lopez-Vazquez, E. 2009. Risk perception and coping strategies                      etary terms. It shows the spatial distribution of multiple
        for risk from Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico. Geofisica                      risks, and it is able to deal with uncertainties in criteria
        International 48 (1): 133-147.                                             values to show their influence on the overall flood risk
        The goal of this study is to explore risk perception and                   assessment. The approach demonstrates the spatial
        coping strategies used by adults living near the volcano                   allocation of the flood effects if risk reduction measures
        Popocatépetl in Mexico. Qualitative and semi-quantita-                     are implemented. The approach is applied to a pilot
        tive data were collected with a questionnaire from 192                     study for the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany, heavily
        adult respondents. These respondents were divided into                     affected by the hazardous flood in 2002. A GIS database
        four groups (G1-G4) according to the risk zone in which                    of economic, social, and environmental risk criteria was
        they live (generally the degree of hazard decreases                        created. Two different multicriteria decision rules—a
        with increasing distances from the volcano). Analyses                      disjunctive and an additive weighting approach—are
        of the completed questionnaires were made according                        utilized for an overall flood risk assessment in the area.
        to sex and age range of the respondents. Not surpris-                      For implementation, a software tool (FloodCalc) was
        ingly volcanic risk was perceived as more worrisome                        developed supporting both, the risk calculation of the
        by people living in the zone nearest the volcano’s crater                  single criteria as well as the multicriteria analysis.
        (G1). However, when asked what risks could affect them
        directly, perceptions changed, and volcanic risk was               Mosquera-Machado, Silvia, and Maxx Dilley. 2009. A compari-
        appraised as the most important risk potentially affect-                  son of selected global disaster risk assessment results.
        ing them and their homes for risk zones G1, G2 and G3.                    Natural Hazards 48 (3): 439-456.
        Despite sporadic information given by the civil defense                   The authors compare country risk rankings derived
        authorities, a high percentage of people exposed to vol-                  from two recently published global disaster risk
        canic hazards do not feel prepared to face an eruptive                    analyses. One set of country rankings is based on the
        event, and people have no strategy to cope with general                   Disaster Risk Index developed by the United Nations
        perceived risks. A high percentage of participants in                     Environment Program Division of Early Warning and
        the four groups stated that they would leave the area if                  Assessment Global Resource Information Database proj-
        an eruptive event occurred. This statement reflects the                   ect under a contract to the United Nations Development



                                                                      65
         Program. The other is based on an index of disaster mor-                     improving baseline data for natural hazards has been
         tality risk developed by the Global Natural Disaster Risk                    demonstrated through a collaborative pilot project
         Hotspots project implemented by Columbia University,                         between Geoscience Australia, Mineral Resources
         the World Bank and associated partners. The authors                          Tasmania and the University of Wollongong. The result
         convert data from these sources into two comparable                          is a “virtual” landslide database that makes full use of
         indexes of disaster mortality risk and rank countries                        diverse data across three levels of government and has
         according to the resulting values for a set of natural                       enabled landslide data to be collated and accessed from
         hazards common to both studies. The country rankings                         a single source. Such a system establishes the founda-
         are moderately correlated, ranging from .41 to .56 for                       tion for a very powerful and coordinated information
         individual hazards to .31 for multi-hazard mortality                         resource in Australia and provides a suitable basis for
         risks. The authors identify the top 25 countries accord-                     greater investment in data collection. This paper high-
         ing to the mortality risk values recomputed from each                        lights the capacity to extend the methodology across
         study’s results to show the degree to which countries                        all hazards and describes one solution in facilitating a
         are highly ranked in common. The numbers of countries                        sound knowledge base on natural disasters and disaster
         common to both lists for individual hazards range from                       risk reduction.
         seven to 16 out of 25. The correspondence among the
         top 25 ranked countries is lowest for earthquakes and               Pfeifer, Christian. 2009. On probabilities of avalanches trig-
         floods. Only six out of 25 countries are common to both                       gered by alpine skiers: An empirically driven decision
         lists in the multihazard case. The authors suggest that                       strategy for backcountry skiers based on these prob-
         while the convergence in the results for some hazards is                      abilities. Natural Hazards 48 (3): 425-438.
         encouraging, more work is needed to improve data and                          Most fatal avalanche accidents in the Alps are caused
         methods, particularly with respect to assessing the role                      by skiers and snowboarders. It has been one aim from
         of vulnerability in the creation of risk and the calculation                  the beginning to give guidelines for backcountry skiers
         of multi-hazard risks.                                                        to avoid avalanche accidents. About 10 years ago, the
                                                                                       mountain guide Werner Munter developed a strategy
Nathan, Fabien. 2008. Risk perception, risk management and                             for backcountry skiers advising whether or not to go
        vulnerability to landslides in the hill slopes in the city                     on a skiing tour. His decision strategy lacked empirical
        of La Paz, Bolivia: A preliminary statement. Disasters                         evidence because he did not take into account incidents
        32 (3): 337-357.                                                               without avalanche accidents. This article proposes a
        This article is drawn from preliminary findings of the                         decision strategy for backcountry skiers based on prob-
        author’s PhD. Most of the results are still being analyzed                     abilities of a logistic regression model using variables,
        and thus those discussed here are not definitive and are                       such as danger level, incline of the slope and aspect of
        subject to revision. Conclusions have been drawn from                          the slope, which turned out to be the most important
        almost two years fieldwork in the western hill slope of                        ones. Additional information on frequencies of skiers
        La Paz, using various techniques for data collection: con-                     on slopes under specific conditions is included in the
        stant participant observation with the inhabitants and                         model. The authors used accident data and avalanche
        their neighborhood representatives; in-depth interviews                        forecasts in Tyrol reported by the Tyrolean avalanche
        with more than 30 families at risk; informal interviews                        information service within three seasons (1999 to
        with other people at risk and with disaster victims;                           2002, 497 days of observations) for model building.
        semi-directed interviews with dozens of ‘old inhabitants’                      Additionally we carried out a holdout validation using
        of the neighborhoods; in-depth interviews with dozens                          data of the same type within two seasons (2002 to 2004,
        of “neighborhood presidents” and with many local                               314 days of observation) in order to check the accuracy
        authorities related to risk management; and analysis                           of the model. Our proposal shows a remarkable correla-
        of documentation, maps, pictures, photographs, video                           tion with Munter’s method.
        collections, and other visual material. The in-depth inter-
        views with people living with risk contained more than               Saunders, Wendy, and Phil Glassey. 2009. Taking a risk-based
        120 questions; those related to risk, emergencies, and                      approach for landslide planning: An outline of the
        hazards were purposefully open-ended to see whether                         New Zealand landslide guidelines. The Australian
        the theme appeared by itself in the interviewee’s dis-                      Journal of Emergency Management 24 (1): 32-38.
        course and concerns. In this respect, the interview guide                   In December 2007, GNS Science released the publication
        took into account advances in sociology, anthropology,                      ‘Guidelines for assessing planning policy and consent
        and applied human security studies, focusing on what                        requirements for landslide prone land’ (Saunders &
        really mattered for the research subjects. This is a hybrid                 Glassey, 2007). Primarily for land use planners, the
        method combining the advantages of questionnaires,                          guidelines provide non-prescriptive guidance on how
        semistructured interviews, and life stories. It is adaptive                 the landslide hazard can be incorporated into risk-
        and flexible but also allows for future statistical analysis.               based planning policy and consent requirements. Use
                                                                                    of the guidelines is not a regulatory requirement, but
                                                                                    is recommended as good, evidence-based practice. The
Osuchowski, Monica. 2009. Bringing information manage-                              guidelines propose a risk-based approach to land use
       ment practices to natural disaster risk reduction. The                       planning and consenting, based on the Australian/New
       Australian Journal of Emergency Management 24 (1):                           Zealand Risk Management Standard AS/NZS 4360:2004.
       53-59.                                                                       This approach considers landslide recurrence interval,
       The important role of information management in                              and a Building Importance Category of the building



                                                                        66
         proposed for a site. This approach does not guarantee                       preparedness and management, including insights into
         that a building will not suffer damage from a landslide,                    the shortcomings of current practices, a discussion of
         but it does establish if the risk of damage is sufficiently                 relevant theories (e.g., High Reliability Organizations,
         low to be generally accepted. This paper is based on                        muddling through), and recommendations to promote
         four planning principles: 1) gather accurate landslide                      more effective planning, management, and response.
         hazard information; 2) plan to avoid landslide hazards                      The recommendations include system support for
         before development and subdivision occurs; 3) take a                        the principles of High Reliability Organizations and
         risk-based approach in areas already developed or sub-                      muddling through, rethinking risk analysis to have a
         divided; and 4) communicate the risk of landslides in                       longer-term view. They reflect more than just monetary
         built-up areas. This paper provides an overview of this                     loss, creating ways to better inform and involve the
         risk management process presented in the guidelines,                        public, and encouraging collaboration and collective
         and how it can be utilized by land use planners, based                      intelligence through such means as a dynamic Delphi
         on the above four overarching planning principles.                          voting system.

Sjoberg, Lennart, and Britt-Marie Drottz-Sjoberg. 2009. Public
                                                                            Technological Hazards
         risk perception of nuclear waste. International Journal
         of Risk Assessment and Management 11 (3/4): 248-280.               Doocy, Shannon, Amy Daniels, and Daniel Aspilcueta. 2009.
         Nuclear waste has emerged as a very salient issue                          Mortality and injury following the 2007 Ica earthquake
         in the nuclear power debate. In the present study, a                       in Peru. American Journal of Disaster Medicine 4 (1):
         broad range of risk perception and attitude dimen-                         15-22.
         sions concerned with nuclear waste was investigated.                       This paper quantifies earthquake injury and mortal-
         It was found that most respondents from the general                        ity from the 2007 Ica earthquake in Peru and assesses
         public were not willing to accept a local high-level                       earthquake-related risk and vulnerability. The design
         nuclear waste repository in their home region. Nuclear                     was a population-based cluster survey of households
         waste was seen by the public as a very important issue.                    in the region most affected by the quake. A stratified
         Regression analysis of perceived nuclear waste risk                        cluster survey design was used to allow for comparison
         yielded a high level of explained variance (about 65                       between urban, peri-urban, and rural areas, where dif-
         percent). Fear of radiation appeared to be an important                    ferent outcomes were anticipated as a result of variation
         determinant of the perceived risk and so was attitude                      in building practices and access to post-earthquake
         to nuclear power, risk sensitivity, and a pooled mea-                      assistance. A total of 42 clusters of 16 households were
         sure of the traditional psychometric dimensions of risk                    planned to allow for comparison between the loca-
         perception. A structural equations model of acceptance                     tion types and to ensure adequate spatial coverage.
         of a local repository was quite successful in explaining                   The four affected provinces are in southern Peru: Ica,
         acceptance.                                                                Pisco, Chincha, and Canete. A total of 672 randomly
                                                                                    selected households with a combined population of
Somers, Scott, and James H. Svara. 2009. Assessing and manag-                       3,608 individuals, of which 3,484 (97 percent) were
        ing environmental risk: Connecting local government                         reported as household members on the day of the
        management with emergency management. Public                                earthquake. Mortality and injury rates in the four most
        Administration Review 69 (2): 181-193.                                      affected provinces were estimated at 1.4 deaths per 1,000
        Ensuring that a community is prepared to deal with a                        exposed (95 CI: 0.5-3.3) and 29 injuries per 1,000 exposed
        disaster is among the many tasks public managers are                        (95 CI: 6-52). Older adults and members of households
        charged with addressing. Disaster preparedness and                          of lower socioeconomic status faced increased risk of
        response requires adherence to standard planning prac-                      injury. No significant differences in injury rates were
        tices, yet disasters are typically unpredictable. Dealing                   observed between rural, urban, and peri-urban resi-
        with disasters, therefore, requires a blend of traditional                  dence areas. Populations of lower socioeconomic status
        management skills and improvisation. Furthermore,                           faced increased risk of injury. However, no differences
        like other aspects of administrative leadership, the top                    in injury rates were observed between rural, urban, and
        administrator must blend initiation and responsiveness                      peri-urban communities. Study findings suggest that
        in interactions with elected officials and a careful delin-                 earthquake preparedness and mitigation efforts should
        eation of responsibility in handling actual emergencies.                    focus on population subgroups of lower socioeconomic
        This article discusses how local administrators assess                      in both rural and urban areas of earthquake-prone
        risk and balance preparedness needs within a universe                       regions.
        of daily operational needs. Managing environmental risk
        is also explored from a political and legal context.                Eisenman, David P., Qiong Zhou, Michael Ong, Steven Asch,
                                                                                   Deborah Glik, and Amy Long. 2009. Variations in
Turoff, Murray, Starr Roxanne Jiltz, Connie White, Linda                           disaster preparedness by mental health, perceived gen-
         Plotnick, Art Hendela, and Xiang Yao. 2009. The past                      eral health, and disability status. Disaster Medicine and
         as the future of emergency preparedness and manage-                       Public Health Preparedness 3 (1): 33-40.
         ment. International Journal of Information Systems for                    Chronic medical problems, mental illness, and disabil-
         Crisis Response and Management 1 (1): 12-28.                              ity increase vulnerability to disasters. National efforts
         Emergency preparedness, planning, and response suffer                     have focused on preparing people with disabilities.
         from shortcomings that impede the potential for effec-                    Studies find them to be increasingly prepared, but less
         tiveness. This article provides an overview of emergency                  is known about people with chronic mental and medi-



                                                                       67
         cal illnesses. The authors examined the relationship              Tornado
         between health status (mental health, perceived general
         health, and disability) and disaster preparedness (home           Schmidlin, Thomas W., Barbara O. Hammer, Yuichi Ono, and
         disaster supplies and family communication plan). A                       Paul S. King. 2009. Tornado shelter-seeking behav-
         random digit-dial telephone survey of the Los Angeles                     ior and tornado shelter options among mobile home
         County population was conducted from October 2004                         residents in the United States. Natural Hazards 48 (2):
         to January 2005 in 6 languages. Separate multivariate                     191-201.
         regressions modeled determinants of disaster prepared-                    Residents of 401 mobile homes in Georgia, Mississippi,
         ness, adjusting for sociodemographic covariates then                      Illinois, and Oklahoma were surveyed after they heard
         sociodemographic variables and health status variables.                   a tornado warning. Most residents (69 percent) did not
         Only 40.7 percent of people who rated their health as                     seek shelter during the warning. Half of those who
         fair/poor have disaster supplies compared with 53.1                       sought shelter went to the frame house of a friend,
         percent of those who rate their health as excellent (P                    neighbor, or relative, and 25 percent of those sought
         < 0.001). Only 34.8 percent of people who rated their                     shelter in a basement or underground shelter. Some of
         health as fair/poor have an emergency plan compared                       the places where residents sought shelter were of dubi-
         with 44.8 percent of those who rate their health as excel-                ous quality, such as their own mobile home, another
         lent (P < 0.01). Only 29.5 percent of people who have a                   mobile home, or in an out-building. Twenty-one percent
         serious mental illness have disaster supplies compared                    of mobile home residents believed that they had a base-
         with 49.2 percent of those who do not have a serious                      ment or underground shelter available as shelter during
         mental illness (P < 0.001). People with fair/poor health                  a tornado warning, and about half of those said they
         remained less likely to have disaster supplies (adjusted                  would drive to the shelter. Residents said they would
         odds ratio [AOR] 0.69, 95 percent confidence interval                     drive if the shelter was more than 200 meters away.
         [CI] 0.500.96) and less likely to have an emergency plan                  Fifteen percent actually had a basement or underground
         (AOR 0.68, 95 percent CI 0.510.92) compared with those                    shelter suitable as shelter within 200m of their mobile
         who rate their health as excellent, after adjusting for                   home, but only 43 percent of the residents would use
         the sociodemographic covariates. People with serious                      those shelters. The most common reason cited for not
         mental illness remained less likely to have disaster sup-                 using the shelters was that they did not know the people
         plies after adjusting for the sociodemographic covariates                 who lived there. Likewise, a frame house or other sturdy
         (AOR 0.67, 95 percent CI 0.480.93). Disability status                     building was within 200m of 58 percent of the mobile
         was not associated with lower rates of disaster sup-                      homes, but only 35 percent of the residents stated they
         plies or emergency communication plans in bivariate or                    would use those houses for shelter. Thirty-one percent
         multivariate analyses. Finally, adjusting for the sociode-                of mobile home residents had a ditch that was at least
         mographic and other health variables, people with fair/                   0.5m deep within 200m of the mobile home. However,
         poor health remained less likely to have an emergency                     44 percent of these ditches had utility lines overhead,
         plan (AOR 0.66, 95 percent CI 0.480.92) and people with                   23 percent had water in them, and 20 percent had trees
         serious mental illness remained less likely to have disas-                overhead. The limited tornado shelter options among
         ter supplies (AOR 0.67, 95 percent CI 0.470.95). People                   mobile home residents in the United States needs to be
         who report fair/poor general health and probable seri-                    incorporated into safety instructions so that residents
         ous mental illness are less likely to report household                    without nearby shelter are allowed to drive to safer shel-
         disaster preparedness and an emergency communication                      ter.
         plan. The results could add to our understanding of why
         people with preexisting health problems suffer dispro-
         portionately from disasters. Public health may consider
                                                                           Tsunami
         collaborating with community partners and health ser-             Bhushan, Braj, and J. Sathya Kumar. 2009. Emotional distress
         vices providers to improve preparedness among people                     and posttraumatic stress in children: The impact of
         with chronic illness and people who are mentally ill.                    direct versus indirect exposure. Journal of Loss and
                                                                                  Trauma 14 (1): 35-45.
Nakamura, Karen. 2009. Disability, destitution, and disaster:                     This study examined whether familiarity with the
      Surviving the 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake in                              physical environment and verbal/pictorial exposure
      Japan. Human Organization 68 (1): 82-88.                                    to a tsunami also induced posttraumatic stress symp-
      On the morning of January 17, 1995, a magnitude 7.3                         toms in adolescents. The Impact of Event Scale (IES)
      earthquake struck the port city of Kobe, Japan. 6,400                       and Pediatric Emotional Distress Scale (PEDS) were
      people died and over $80 billion in property damage                         administered to 231 subjects (130 directly exposed and
      occurred. Among those rendered homeless was a small                         101 indirectly exposed). The directly exposed group
      group of people with severe disabilities. Over the next                     scored high on the IES and PEDS. A significant sex dif-
      decade, this group leveraged discourses surrounding                         ference was observed on all three dimensions of the IES,
      civil society, disability, poverty, and the role of govern-                 and fearful and traumatic event-related dimensions of
      ment in natural disasters, to become one of the most                        PEDS, with females at a higher risk compared to males.
      powerful and vocal proponents of disability rights in                       In the indirectly exposed group, no sex difference was
      Japan. This article discusses what lessons can we learn                     observed for the IES (avoidance and total impact score)
      to make disability advocacy a leading, rather than trail-                   or the fearful, acting out, or traumatic experience related
      ing, element of social policy.                                              dimensions of the PEDS. Significant sex differences were
                                                                                  observed in this group on the IES intrusion and PEDS



                                                                      68
         withdrawal scores, with males higher on intrusion and                    Sri Lanka after the tsunami. Public Health 122 (12):
         females higher on withdrawal.                                            1410-1417.
                                                                                  This article examines the impact of humanitarian aid
Heidarzadeh, Mohammad, Moharram D. Pirooz, Nasser H.                              from the perspective of local stakeholders in Sri Lanka
        Zaker, and Ahmet C. Yalciner. 2009. Preliminary esti-                     following the tsunami disaster of December, 2004. Key
        mation of the tsunami hazards associated with the                         informant and focus group interviews were conducted
        Makran subduction zone at the northwestern Indian                         with tsunami survivors, community leaders, the local
        Ocean. Natural Hazards 48 (2): 229-243.                                   authorities, and aid workers. Collected data were ana-
        The authors present a preliminary estimation of tsunami                   lyzed using thematic analysis. Researchers found that
        hazard associated with the Makran subduction zone                         aid aggravated social tensions and the lack of communi-
        (MSZ) at the northwestern Indian Ocean. Makran is                         ty engagement led to grievances. There was a perceived
        one of the two main tsunamigenic zones in the Indian                      lack of transparency, beneficiary expectations were not
        Ocean, producing some tsunamis in the past. The north-                    always met, and it was difficult to match aid to needs.
        western Indian Ocean remains one of the least studied                     Rapid participatory approaches to obtain beneficiary
        regions in the world in terms of tsunami hazard assess-                   feedback in post-disaster settings are possible but have
        ment. Hence, a scenario-based method is employed to                       limitations due to respondent bias. In order to mitigate
        provide an estimation of tsunami hazard in this region                    adverse social impacts of their programs, humanitarian
        for the first time. The numerical modeling of tsunami is                  aid agencies need to better understand the context in
        verified using historical observations of the 1945 Makran                 which aid is delivered. Beneficiary feedback is essen-
        tsunami. Then, a number of tsunamis each resulting                        tial in disaster planning and response so that disaster
        from a 1945-type earthquake and spaced evenly along                       response can be better matched to the needs of beneficia-
        the MSZ are simulated. The results indicate that by mov-                  ries.
        ing a 1945-type earthquake along the MSZ, the southern
        coasts of Iran and Pakistan will experience the largest           Lommen, Mirian J.J., Angelique Sanders, Nicole Buck, and
        waves with heights of between 5 and 7 meters, depend-                   Arnoud` Arntz. 2009. Psychosocial predictors of
        ing on the location of the source. The tsunami will                     chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Sri Lankan
        reach a height of about 5 m and 2 m in northern coast                   tsunami survivors. Behavior Research and Therapy 47
        of Oman and eastern coast of the United Arab Emirates,                  (1): 60-65.
        respectively.                                                           This study aimed to determine whether psychological
                                                                                factors associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Jaiswal, R.K., A.P. Singh, and B.K. Rastogi. 2009. Simulation of                (PTSD) identified in Western samples generalize to
         the Arabian Sea Tsunami propagation generated due                      low Social-Economical-Status (SES) populations in an
         to 1945 Makran Earthquake and its effect on west-                      underdeveloped Asian country. The study included 113
         ern parts of Gujarat (India). Natural Hazards 48 (2):                  survivors of the 2004 tsunami on the south coast of Sri
         245-258.                                                               Lanka, recruited from four preschools and 10 villages for
         The 1945 tsunami generated due to Makran Earthquake                    displaced persons. With logistic regressions the relations
         in the Arabian Sea was the most devastating tsunami in                 between interview-based PTSD diagnosis and psycho-
         the history of the Arabian Sea, causing severe damage                  logical factors were assessed, controlling for putative
         to property and loss of life. The earthquake occurred                  confounders. Fifteen months post-trauma the prevalence
         on November 28, 1945, 21:56 UTC (03:26 IST) with a                     of PTSD was 52.2 percent. Multivariate analyses indi-
         magnitude of 8.0, originating off the Makran Coast                     cated that negative interpretation of tsunami memories
         of Pakistan in the Arabian Sea. It impacted as far as                  was significantly (P <0.005) related to PTSD. Of the
         Mumbai in India and was noticed up to Karvar Coast,                    putative confounders, gender and (non-replaced) lost
         Karnataka. More than 4,000 people were killed as a                     work equipment were related to current PTSD (P <0.05).
         result of the earthquake and the tsunami. In this paper                The results indicate that the relation between negative
         an attempt is made for a numerical simulation of the                   interpretation of trauma memories and PTSD is quite
         tsunami generation from the source, its propagation                    universal, suggesting that interventions focusing on this
         into the Arabian Sea, and its effect on the western coast              factor may be important in treatment of tsunami survi-
         of India through the use of a numerical model, referred                vors who are suffering from chronic PTSD.
         to as Tsunami-N2. The present simulation is carried
         out for a duration of 300 minutes. It is observed from           McAdoo, Brian, Andrew Moore, and Jennifer Baumwoll. 2009.
         the results that the simulated arrival time of tsunami                 Indigenous knowledge and the near field population
         waves at the western coast of India is in good agreement               response during the 2007 Solomon Islands tsunami.
         with the available data sources. The paper also presents               Natural Hazards 48 (1): 73-82.
         run-up elevation maps prepared using Shuttle Radar                     The magnitude 8.1 earthquake and subsequent tsu-
         Topographic Mission (SRTM) data, showing the possible                  nami killed 52 people when it hit the Solomon Islands
         area of inundation due to various wave heights along                   on April 2, 2007. That number would have likely been
         different parts of the Gujarat Coast. These results will               higher were it not for the appropriate reaction of the
         be useful in planning protection measures against inun-                indigenous coastal populations and a helpful physi-
         dation due to tsunami and in the implementation of a                   cal geography. Buffering coral reefs reflected some
         warning system.                                                        wave energy back to sea, reducing the power of the
                                                                                wave. Hills a short distance behind the coastal villages
Lee, A.C.K. 2008. Local perspectives on humanitarian aid in                     provided accessible havens. Despite this beneficial



                                                                     69
        physiography, immigrant populations died at dispro-                        war. All these responses are embedded in structures of
        portionately high rates in comparably damaged areas                        gender, caste, class, and ethnicity. The tsunami brought
        because they did not recognize the signs of the impeding                   to the forefront preexisting inequalities, showing up
        tsunami. The indigenous population of Tapurai, which                       complexities in the temporality of disasters. Drawn
        lacks a steep barrier reef to reflect the incoming energy,                 from fieldwork in two coastal areas in the southern
        experienced a much more powerful wave, and the popu-                       and eastern provinces, this paper shows how gendered
        lation suffered heavy losses. Indigenous knowledge as                      structures within the local political economy influenced
        an integral tool in basin wide tsunami warning systems                     the ways that institutional actors as well as the displaced
        has the potential to mitigate disasters in the near field.                 communities and women initially devised livelihood
        Community-based disaster management plans must be                          strategies. These reactions show how place matters as
        cognizant of educating diverse populations that have                       much as preexisting gendered political economy condi-
        different understandings of their environment.                             tions and reveal the complex ways in which women
                                                                                   continue to mediate and negotiate everyday responses
Nirupama, N. 2009. Analysis of the global tsunami data for vul-                    in the aftermath of a “natural” disaster.
       nerability and risk assessment. Natural Hazards 48 (1):
       11-16.                                                             Volcano
       Past tsunami observations are necessary for the assess-
       ment of tsunami risk and vulnerability. The U.S.                   Baxter, P.J., W.P. Aspinall, A. Neri, G. Zuccaro, R.J.S. Spence, R.
       National Geophysical Data Center has prepared the                            Cioni, and G. Woo. 2008. Emergency planning and mit-
       world’s most comprehensive tsunami databases, with                           igation at Vesuvius: A new evidence-based approach.
       Web site listings for oceans, as well as the Caribbean,                      Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 178
       Mediterranean, Black Sea, Red Sea, and the Gulf of                           (3): 454-473.
       Mexico. The dataset goes back as far as the first century                    The infrequency of disasters from volcanic eruptions
       A.D. and lists events on a confidence rating scale of                        limits emergency planning and mitigation experience
       0-4—zero being an erroneous entry and four being a                           for such situations. As populations expand into areas of
       definite tsunami. Based on these different geographi-                        active volcanoes, the need for developing more robust
       cal datasets, this study created a comprehensive global                      methods of risk assessment and decision making in
       dataset that included only tsunamis with confidence                          volcanic crises is increasing. Vesuvius, where thousands
       ratings of 3-4, meaning either probable or definite. There                   of people live in the shadow of one of the world’s most
       geographic distinction in this database, nor is there dis-                   dangerous volcanoes, is an example of the challenges
       tinction based on a tsunami’s coastal impact strength.                       caused by this dynamic. This article describes how
       The simple and straightforward statistical analysis sug-                     evidence-based volcanology in EXPLORIS contributes
       gests almost complete randomness. With a few minor                           to crisis planning and management for eruptions and
       exceptions, no patterns useful for future tsunami predic-                    long-term land use planning. An analytical approach
       tions emerged.                                                               enumerates and quantifies volcano hazards that influ-
                                                                                    ence risk. This challenge combined field data on the
Nirupama, N. 2009. Socio-economic implications based on                             vulnerability of the built environment, humans in
       interviews with fishermen following the Indian Ocean                         past volcanic disasters, and theoretical research on the
       tsunami. Natural Hazards 48 (1): 1-9.                                        volcano’s state—including field evidence from previ-
       The need of those affected by the devastating 2004                           ous eruptions and numerical simulation modeling of
       Indian Ocean tsunami to be heard led to a survey                             eruptive processes. An event tree for future eruption
       conducted in the tsunami-affected regions of India,                          types, including probability and hypothetical casualty
       including the southern states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala                          outcomes, was created using formal probabilistic reason-
       and Andhra Pradesh, and the Union Territory of                               ing under uncertainty and a decision analysis approach.
       Pondicherry. The 16-question survey was conducted in                         For emergency planning purposes, likely eruption sce-
       early 2005 by total of eight people working simultane-                       narios were derived from this event tree and elaborated
       ously. The results of 161 villages surveyed are reported                     on using geological and historical record. Modeling the
       here. Among many observations, the most prominent is                         impacts in these scenarios provide realistic assessments
       the need for capacity building during the construction                       for disaster planning and show the potential risk benefit
       process, relocation and housing, and tsunami education                       of mitigation—mainly timely evacuation and building
       and awareness.                                                               and infrastructure protection. This work suggests risk-
                                                                                    based methods could have an important role in volcanic
Ruwanpura, Kanchana N. 2008. Temporality of disasters: The                          crisis management.
      politics of women’s livelihoods ‘after’ the 2004 tsunami
      in Sri Lanka. Singapore Journal of Tropical Georgraphy
                                                                          Lopez-Vazquez, E. 2009. Risk perception and coping strategies
      29 (3): 325-340.
                                                                                  for risk from Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico. Geofisica
      The devastation caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean
                                                                                  International 48 (1): 133-147.
      tsunami in Sri Lanka is represented as a “natural disas-
                                                                                  The goal of this study is to explore risk perception and
      ter.” Yet the tsunami did not occur in a sociopolitical
                                                                                  coping strategies used by adults living near the volcano
      and historical vacuum. How people responded to the
                                                                                  Popocatépetl in Mexico. Qualitative and semi-quantita-
      tsunami, the challenges of and attitudes to relocation
                                                                                  tive data were collected with a questionnaire from 192
      and post-tsunami livelihoods were shaped by uneven
                                                                                  adult respondents. These respondents were divided into
      development, social exclusion, and ethnonationalist



                                                                     70
         four groups (G1-G4) according to the risk zone in which
         they live (generally the degree of hazard decreases              Baxter, P.J., W.P. Aspinall, A. Neri, G. Zuccaro, R.J.S. Spence, R.
         with increasing distances from the volcano). Analyses                      Cioni, and G. Woo. 2008. Emergency planning and mit-
         of the completed questionnaires were made according                        igation at Vesuvius: A new evidence-based approach.
         to sex and age range of the respondents. Not surpris-                      Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 178
         ingly volcanic risk was perceived as more worrisome                        (3): 454-473.
         by people living in the zone nearest the volcano’s crater                  The infrequency of disasters from volcanic eruptions
         (G1). However, when asked what risks could affect them                     limits emergency planning and mitigation experience
         directly, perceptions changed, and volcanic risk was                       for such situations. As populations expand into areas of
         appraised as the most important risk potentially affect-                   active volcanoes, the need for developing more robust
         ing them and their homes for risk zones G1, G2 and G3.                     methods of risk assessment and decision making in
         Despite sporadic information given by the civil defense                    volcanic crises is increasing. Vesuvius, where thousands
         authorities, a high percentage of people exposed to vol-                   of people live in the shadow of one of the world’s most
         canic hazards do not feel prepared to face an eruptive                     dangerous volcanoes, is an example of the challenges
         event, and people have no strategy to cope with general                    caused by this dynamic. This article describes how
         perceived risks. A high percentage of participants in                      evidence-based volcanology in EXPLORIS contributes
         the four groups stated that they would leave the area if                   to crisis planning and management for eruptions and
         an eruptive event occurred. This statement reflects the                    long-term land use planning. An analytical approach
         serious misinformation, because civil authorities do not                   enumerates and quantifies volcano hazards that influ-
         require people living in the third and fourth zones to                     ence risk. This challenge combined field data on the
         evacuate. The results of study demonstrate the critical                    vulnerability of the built environment, humans in
         need to reinforce public information campaigns regard-                     past volcanic disasters, and theoretical research on the
         ing volcanic risk in communities vulnerable to direct                      volcano’s state—including field evidence from previ-
         damage in the event of a stronger eruption of the vol-                     ous eruptions and numerical simulation modeling of
         cano Popocatépetl.                                                         eruptive processes. An event tree for future eruption
                                                                                    types, including probability and hypothetical casualty
Warnings & Evacuation                                                               outcomes, was created using formal probabilistic reason-
                                                                                    ing under uncertainty and a decision analysis approach.
Ardalan, Ali, Kourosh Holakouie Naieni, Mohamad-Javad                               For emergency planning purposes, likely eruption sce-
        Kabir, Ali-Mohamad Zanganeh, Abbas-Ali Keshtkar,                            narios were derived from this event tree and elaborated
        Mohamad-Reza Honarvar, Hanieh Khodaie, and                                  on using geological and historical record. Modeling the
        Mehdi Osooli. 2009. Evaluation of Golestan Province’s                       impacts in these scenarios provide realistic assessments
        early warning system for flash floods, Iran, 2006-2007.                     for disaster planning and show the potential risk benefit
        International Journal of Biometeorology (ePub).                             of mitigation—mainly timely evacuation and building
        Golestan, a province located in northeastern Iran, is well                  and infrastructure protection. This work suggests risk-
        known for deadly flash floods. This study evaluated the                     based methods could have an important role in volcanic
        region’s early warning system (EWS) for flash floods                        crisis management.
        using an adapted version of the questionnaire developed
        by the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster         Broz, Dita, Elise C. Levin, Amy P. Mucha, Darlene Pelzel,
        Reduction (UNISDR). Golestan EWS documents were                            William Wong, Victoria Persky, and Ronald C.
        reviewed and a qualitative study using interviews of                       Hershow. 2009. Lessons learned from Chicago’s
        experts and affected people in Kalaleh and Minoodasht,                     emergency response to mass evacuations caused by
        was conducted. Results were discussed by an expert                         Hurricane Katrina. American Journal of Public Health
        panel. Risk knowledge included a hazard map at the                         99 (8): 1-9.
        Provincial Disaster Taskforce (PDT), although no risk                      This article analyzes the response of the Chicago
        analysis was available. Local people were aware of expo-                   Department of Public Health with respect to its effec-
        sure to flooding, but not aware of the hazard map or                       tiveness in providing health care to Hurricane Katrina
        their vulnerability. In terms of monitoring and warning,                   evacuees arriving in the city. Between September 12
        PDT faced serious limitations in issuing early warn-                       and October 21, 2005, researchers conducted a real-time
        ings, including the inability to make point predictions                    qualitative assessment of a medical unit in Chicago’s
        of rainfall or create a warning threshold. Meteorological                  Hurricane Victim Welcome and Relief Center. A semi-
        Office communications followed a top-to-bottom flow                        structured guide was used to interview 33 emergency
        and messages were not clearly understood by institu-                       responders to identify key operational successes and
        tions, nor did they reach potential recipients in an                       failures. The medical unit functioned at a relatively high
        appropriate time frame. A comprehensive response plan                      level, primarily as a result of the flexibility, creativity,
        with adequate exercises was needed and no evaluation                       and dedication of its staff and the presence of strong
        framework existed. Golestan EWS is in dire need of                         leadership. Chronic health care services and prescrip-
        improvement. To fill in the gaps and ensure local people                   tion refills were the most commonly mentioned services
        receive timely warnings, the authors propose a com-                        provided, and collaboration with a national pharmacy
        munity-based model called Village Disaster Taskforce                       proved instrumental in reconstructing medication
        (VDT), in which individual villages act as operational                     histories. The lack of a comprehensive and well-com-
        units but are interlinked with other villages and the                      municated emergency response plan resulted in several
        PDT.                                                                       preventable inefficiencies. Findings highlight the need



                                                                     71
         for improved planning for care of evacuee populations                      Hurricane Katrina: Part II: Transitioning from emer-
         after a major emergency event and the importance of                        gency evacuee care to community health care. Annals
         ensuring continuity of care for the most vulnerable. The                   of Emergency Medicine (ePub).
         article provides an emergency response preparedness                        After Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast on August
         checklist for local public health departments.                             29, 2005, thousands of ill and injured evacuees were
                                                                                    transported to Houston, TX. Houston’s regional disaster
Gerber, Elaine. 2009. Describing tragedy: The information                           plan was quickly implemented, leading to the activa-
         access needs of blind people in emergency-related cir-                     tion of the Regional Hospital Preparedness Council’s
         cumstances. Human Organization 68 (1): 73-81.                              Catastrophic Medical Operations Center and the rapid
         Audio description is a technique used for “translating”                    construction of a 65-examination-room medical facility
         visual material to aural readers/blind people. In this                     within the Reliant Center. A plan for triage of arriving
         article, exploratory research on audio description (AD) is                 evacuees was quickly developed and the Astrodome/
         presented, which raises important questions in the field                   Reliant Center Complex mega-shelter was created.
         of applied anthropology and emergency planning: How                        Herein, we discuss major elements of the regional disas-
         does one translate visual material for a non-seeing audi-                  ter response, including regional coordination, triage and
         ence? From the point of view of blind consumers, what                      emergency medical service transfers into the region’s
         constitutes “good” description? What specific informa-                     medical centers, medical care in population shelters, and
         tion access needs do they have in event of emergencies?                    community health challenges.
         Selected results are presented from three telephone
         focus groups on AD, conducted with 39 blind or visually           Jaiswal, R.K., A.P. Singh, and B.K. Rastogi. 2009. Simulation of
         impaired people nationwide in the United States dur-                       the Arabian Sea Tsunami propagation generated due
         ing September and October 2005. This paper addresses                       to 1945 Makran Earthquake and its effect on west-
         emergency planning, audio description, and the need                        ern parts of Gujarat (India). Natural Hazards 48 (2):
         for more accurate information access for blind people                      245-258.
         during public warning broadcasts and in delivering the                     The 1945 tsunami generated due to Makran Earthquake
         news. Further, it examines existing guidelines for the                     in the Arabian Sea was the most devastating tsunami in
         inclusion of blind people in the provision of emergency                    the history of the Arabian Sea, causing severe damage
         information, concluding that successful emergency pre-                     to property and loss of life. The earthquake occurred
         paredness must include first-hand expertise of disabled                    on November 28, 1945, 21:56 UTC (03:26 IST) with a
         people themselves.                                                         magnitude of 8.0, originating off the Makran Coast
                                                                                    of Pakistan in the Arabian Sea. It impacted as far as
Hahn, Erin, and Adrian Wilairat. 2009. Alien concept: The pro-                      Mumbai in India and was noticed up to Karvar Coast,
        priety of conducting immigration paperwork checks                           Karnataka. More than 4,000 people were killed as a
        during evacuations. Journal of Emergency Management                         result of the earthquake and the tsunami. In this paper
        7 (1): 13-18.                                                               an attempt is made for a numerical simulation of the
                                                                                    tsunami generation from the source, its propagation
Hamilton, Douglas R., Thomas F. Gavagan, Kieran T. Smart,                           into the Arabian Sea, and its effect on the western coast
       Lori A. Upton, Nancy F. Weller, Umalr A. Shah, Avirm                         of India through the use of a numerical model, referred
       Fishkind, David Persse, Paul Shank, and Kenneth                              to as Tsunami-N2. The present simulation is carried
       Mattox. 2008. Houston’s medical disaster response to                         out for a duration of 300 minutes. It is observed from
       Hurricane Katrina: Part 1: The initial medical response                      the results that the simulated arrival time of tsunami
       from Trauma Service Area Q. Annals of Emergency                              waves at the western coast of India is in good agreement
       Medicine (ePub).                                                             with the available data sources. The paper also presents
       After Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast on August                         run-up elevation maps prepared using Shuttle Radar
       29, 2005, thousands of ill and injured evacuees were                         Topographic Mission (SRTM) data, showing the possible
       transported to Houston, TX. Houston’s regional disaster                      area of inundation due to various wave heights along
       plan was quickly implemented, leading to the activa-                         different parts of the Gujarat Coast. These results will
       tion of the Regional Hospital Preparedness Council’s                         be useful in planning protection measures against inun-
       Catastrophic Medical Operations Center and the rapid                         dation due to tsunami and in the implementation of a
       construction of a 65-examination-room medical facility                       warning system.
       within the Reliant Center. A plan for triage of arriving
       evacuees was quickly developed and the Astrodome/                   McAdoo, Brian, Andrew Moore, and Jennifer Baumwoll. 2009.
       Reliant Center Complex megashelter was created. This                      Indigenous knowledge and the near field population
       article discusses major elements of the regional disaster                 response during the 2007 Solomon Islands tsunami.
       response, including regional coordination, triage and                     Natural Hazards 48 (1): 73-82.
       emergency medical service transfers into the region’s                     The magnitude 8.1 earthquake and subsequent tsu-
       medical centers, medical care in population shelters, and                 nami killed 52 people when it hit the Solomon Islands
       community health challenges.                                              on April 2, 2007. That number would have likely been
                                                                                 higher were it not for the appropriate reaction of the
Hamilton, Douglas R., Thomas F. Gavagan, Kieran T. Smart,                        indigenous coastal populations and a helpful physi-
       Lori A. Upton, Nancy F. Weller, Umalr A. Shah, Avirm                      cal geography. Buffering coral reefs reflected some
       Fishkind, David Persse, Paul Shank, and Kenneth                           wave energy back to sea, reducing the power of the
       Mattox. 2008. Houston’s medical disaster response to                      wave. Hills a short distance behind the coastal villages



                                                                      72
         provided accessible havens. Despite this beneficial
         physiography, immigrant populations died at dispro-               Zhao, C.M., S.M. Lo, and S.P. Zhang. 2009. A post-fire survey on
         portionately high rates in comparably damaged areas                       the pre-evacuation human behavior. Fire Technology 45
         because they did not recognize the signs of the impeding                  (1): 71-95.
         tsunami. The indigenous population of Tapurai, which                      A delay in the pre-evacuation reaction may be one rea-
         lacks a steep barrier reef to reflect the incoming energy,                son causing occupants to be “trapped” in a dangerous
         experienced a much more powerful wave, and the popu-                      zone. In fire situations, people behave differently. Some
         lation suffered heavy losses. Indigenous knowledge as                     may evacuate immediately, some may ignore the fire
         an integral tool in basin wide tsunami warning systems                    alarms and continue their activities, and others may
         has the potential to mitigate disasters in the near field.                help fight the fire. These behavioral reaction patterns are
         Community-based disaster management plans must be                         influenced by factors such as occupant characteristics,
         cognizant of educating diverse populations that have                      building characteristics, and fire characteristics. This
         different understandings of their environment.                            study investigates the pre-evacuation behavior of occu-
                                                                                   pants in a fire and explores the associations between
McGee, Tara K., Bonita L. McFarlane, and Jeji Varghese. 2009.                      these factors and human behavior. To obtain the human
       An examination of the influence of hazard experience                        behavioral information in real fire, a post-fire survey for
       on wildfire risk perceptions and adoption of mitiga-                        a multistory office building fire in a major city in main-
       tion measures. Society and Natural Resources 22 (4):                        land China was carried out with the assistance of local
       308-323.                                                                    fire professionals. Some factors that might influence the
       Previous experience with a hazard has been identified                       occupants’ actions at recognition and response stages
       as influencing risk perception and adoption of adjust-                      were examined. Behavioral reaction at recognition and
       ments. However, this relationship is not clear and may                      response stage was mainly dependent on the human
       depend on the differences in experiences that may occur                     characteristics and building characteristics. The results
       within a community. This article describes residents’                       also implied that pre-evacuation time was typically
       wildfire experiences and explores how these experiences                     influenced by the occupant characteristics.
       may influence risk perceptions and implementation of
       mitigation measures one year after the 2003 Lost Creek              Wildfire
       and McLure wildfires in western Canada. Interviews
       were conducted with 40 residents with different wildfire            Bates, Benjamin R., Brian L. Quick, and Aaron A. Kloss. 2009.
       experiences, including losing their home, being evacu-                       Antecedents of intention to help mitigate wildfire:
       ated, self-evacuating early, staying in their house during                   Implications for campaigns promoting wildfire miti-
       a wildfire, and being away from the area. Results sug-                       gation to the general public in the wildland-urban
       gest that differences in hazard experiences can impact                       interface. Safety Science 47 (3): 374-381.
       post-event risk perceptions and adoption of mitigation                       This investigation sought to examine the association
       measures. Management implications are discussed.                             between knowledge of the causes of wildfire in the
                                                                                    wildland-urban interface (WUI) and intentions on the
Smith, Stanley K., and Chris McCarty. 2009. Fleeing the                             part of members of the public to help mitigate wildfire.
        storm(s): An examination of evacuation behavior                             In doing so, antecedents from the theory of planned
        during Florida’s 2004 hurricane. Demography 46 (1):                         behavior were employed to enhance our understand-
        127-145.                                                                    ing of the relationships among wildfire knowledge,
        The 2004 hurricane season was the worst in Florida’s                        attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral con-
        history, with four hurricanes causing at least 47 deaths                    trol, and intention to help mitigate wildfire in the WUI.
        and some $45 billion in damages. To collect information                     Participants (N = 408) living in the WUI in Appalachian,
        on the demographic impact of those hurricanes, this                         Ohio were sampled as a means of conducting formative
        study surveyed households throughout the state and                          research prior to developing messages promoting wild-
        in the local areas that sustained the greatest damage.                      fire mitigation. Results reveal that, among the variables
        It is estimated that one-quarter of Florida’s population                    in the theory of planned behavior, the only paths that
        evacuated prior to at least one hurricane. In some areas,                   consistently explain individual’s intention to help miti-
        well over one-half of the residents evacuated at least                      gate wildland fire in the WUI in protecting both homes
        once, and many evacuated several times. Most evacu-                         and the environment are associations between knowl-
        ees stayed with family or friends and were away from                        edge about wildfire and perceived behavioral control
        home for only a few days. Through logistic regression                       and between perceived behavioral control and intention.
        analysis, the study found that the strength of the hur-                     Findings are discussed with a focus on message design
        ricane and the vulnerability of the housing unit had the                    for wildland fire mitigation professionals and a focus
        greatest impact on evacuation behavior; additionally,                       on implications for the theory of planned behaviors for
        several demographic variables had significant effects on                    academics with interests in wildland fire and other envi-
        the probability of evacuating and the choice of evacua-                     ronmental issues.
        tion lodging (family/friends, public shelters, or hotels/
        motels). With continued population growth in coastal               Byrne, Gerry. 2009. I-Zone planning: Supporting frontline
        areas and the apparent increase in hurricane activity                      firefighters. The Australian Journal of Emergency
        caused by global warming, threats posed by hurricanes                      Management 24 (1): 17-24.
        are rising and this study will help government officials                   This paper focuses on bushfires that impact on the built
        plan more effectively for future hurricane evacuations.                    environment in the bushland-urban interface or I-Zone.



                                                                      73
         These fires are transitional by nature with the fuel                        depend on the differences in experiences that may occur
         source of the fire changing from vegetation to structural,                  within a community. This article describes residents’
         as the fire travels from a bushfire prone area to an urban                  wildfire experiences and explores how these experiences
         area. It is this transitional nature that causes the great-                 may influence risk perceptions and implementation of
         est challenges for a largely urban fire service such as the                 mitigation measures one year after the 2003 Lost Creek
         NSW Fire Brigades. A simple definition of an interface                      and McLure wildfires in western Canada. Interviews
         area is “any area where structures (whether residen-                        were conducted with 40 residents with different wildfire
         tial, industrial, recreational or agricultural) are located                 experiences, including losing their home, being evacu-
         adjacent to or among combustible (bushland) fuels”                          ated, self-evacuating early, staying in their house during
         (Cottrell, 2005:110). NSW Fire Brigades use I-Zone as an                    a wildfire, and being away from the area. Results sug-
         abbreviated term for any bushland urban interface.                          gest that differences in hazard experiences can impact
                                                                                     post-event risk perceptions and adoption of mitigation
Hine, Brian, Mark Stephens, and Bob Flett. 2009. The Wildfire                        measures. Management implications are discussed.
        Project: An integrated spatial application to protect
        Victoria’s assets from wildfire. The Australian Journal             Preston, B.L., C. Brooke, T.G. Measham, T.F. Smith, and R.
        of Emergency Management 24 (1): 25-31.                                       Gorddard. 2009. Igniting change in local government:
        This paper provides an overview of the Wildfire Project                      Lessons learned from a bushfire vulnerability assess-
        undertaken by Victoria’s Office of the Emergency                             ment. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global
        Services Commissioner in collaboration with Spatial                          Change 14 (3): 251-283.
        Vision Innovations Pty Ltd, the Country Fire Authority,                      Local governments and communities have a critical role
        the Department of Sustainability and Environment,                            to play in adapting to climate variability and change.
        and the Municipal Association of Victoria. The Wildfire                      Spatial vulnerability assessment is one tool that can
        Project provides an opportunity to bring together the                        facilitate engagement between researchers and local
        best quality statewide datasets to identify, classify,                       stakeholders through the visualization of climate vul-
        quantify and value the state’s economic, environmental                       nerability and the integration of its biophysical and
        and social assets to assist fire management planners                         socio-economic determinants. This has been demon-
        to enhance their capability to plan for, respond to, and                     strated by a case study from Sydney, Australia, where
        recover from wildfire, using a standard set of online                        a bushfire vulnerability assessment was undertaken as
        statewide spatial information products.                                      the first step in a project to investigate local government
                                                                                     perceptions of climate vulnerability and adaptive capac-
Lein, James K., and Nicole I. Stump. 2009. Assessing wildfire                        ity. A series of relevant biophysical and socioeconomic
         potential within the wildland-urban interface: A                            indicators was identified that represented the region’s
         southeastern Ohio example. Applied Geography 29 (1):                        exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity with respect
         21-34.                                                                      to bushfires. These indicators were then combined to
         Spreading cities and suburbs remain a common phe-                           develop maps of net landscape vulnerability to bushfire.
         nomenon throughout the United States. Urban spread,                         When presented in a workshop setting, vulnerability
         and the desire to move beyond the subdivision for a                         maps were successful in capturing the attention of
         more natural setting in the country, creates both oppor-                    stakeholders while simultaneously conveying informa-
         tunities and challenges for natural resource managers.                      tion about the diversity of vulnerability contributors.
         Perhaps no challenge is as great as those related to wild-                  Stakeholders, however, were reluctant to embrace repre-
         fire risk within the lands describing the urban-wildland                    sentations of vulnerability that differed from their own
         interface. The need to gain a better understanding of                       understanding of hazard, necessitating the demonstra-
         the wildland-urban interface is critical to policy mak-                     tion of agreement between the vulnerability assessment
         ers charged with risk reduction responsibilities. This                      and more conventional hazard assessment tools. This
         paper develops a methodology that characterizes the                         validation opened the door for public dissemination of
         spatial distribution of wildfire risk potential in south-                   vulnerability maps, the use of the assessment in local
         eastern Ohio, using a geospatial technology solution to                     government risk planning, and more focused case stud-
         model critical hazard and risk variables associated with                    ies on barriers to adaptation.
         wildfire. The results demonstrate that the association of
         wildfire with hazard and risk variables can be exploited           Sherrah, Meryl. 2009. A fresh approach to development assess-
         to improve wildfire potential mapping and a validation                      ment in Bushfire Protection Areas. The Australian
         assessment of the geographic information systems (GIS)-                     Journal of Emergency Management 24 (1): 11-16.
         based prescriptive model displays a strong agreement                        In late 2006 and 2007, changes were made to the plan-
         with the pattern of historic wildfire for the region.                       ning and building requirements for new dwellings
                                                                                     to be built in certain identified bushfire risk areas
McGee, Tara K., Bonita L. McFarlane, and Jeji Varghese. 2009.                        of South Australia. The changes affected 39 councils
       An examination of the influence of hazard experience                          located throughout SA, including Eyre Peninsula,
       on wildfire risk perceptions and adoption of mitiga-                          Yorke Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, the South-East, the
       tion measures. Society and Natural Resources 22 (4):                          Riverland, Murray Bridge, mid-North, Mt. Lofty Ranges
       308-323.                                                                      and parts of the metropolitan Adelaide region. Under
       Previous experience with a hazard has been identified                         the changes, parts of these councils have now been
       as influencing risk perception and adoption of adjust-                        designated as Bushfire Protection Areas. Each of these
       ments. However, this relationship is not clear and may                        areas has been thoroughly assessed and categorized



                                                                       74
         into one of three bushfire risk levels—high bushfire risk,        Based on currently available published data and litera-
         medium bushfire risk, or general bushfire risk. There             ture from multiple disciplines, this article introduces
         are also areas which are “excluded.” Different planning           medium- and long-term global developments and
         and building requirements now apply depending on                  changes that will likely impact human society in disas-
         the designated level of bushfire risk. The Department             trous or even catastrophic fashion, with significant
         of Planning and Local Government has prepared an                  impact on the roles and challenges of emergency man-
         online search tool to assist people in identifying whether        agers. Some of the phenomena described include the
         a particular property in the 39 councils is in a Bushfire         following: (1) loss of fresh water, (2) significant sea level
         Protection Area and the property’s assigned bushfire              rise with resultant flooding, (3) increased heat leading to
         risk. A web mapping application to assist in develop-             desertification and crop losses, (4) storms that are both
         ment assessment in Bushfire Protection Areas has also             more frequent and more violent, (5) massive food emer-
         been produced for Country Fire Service and council                gencies as crops fail for lack of water and/or saltwater
         staff involved in development assessment. The develop-            inundation, (6) loss of the petroleum-based economy,
         ment of the online search tool and the web mapping                and (7) massive population relocations on a level the
         application was funded under the Natural Disaster                 world has never experienced. The perspective used
         Mitigation Program and has received Australian and                is global, in that the trends described do not respect
         State Government financial support.                               political boundaries. We also recognize that mitigation
                                                                           and response activities may well involve many nations
Trainor, Sarah F., Monika Calef, David Natcher, F. Stuart                  simultaneously. The article concludes with suggestions
         Chaplin, A. David McGuire, Orville Huntington, Paul               of steps emergency management should take in pre-
         Duffy, T. Scott Rupp, La’Ona DeWilde, Nancy Fresco,               paring to serve new and more complex tasks to meet
         and Amy Lauren Lovecraft. 2009. Vulnerability and                 coming challenges, and a “call to action” for emergency
         adaptation to climate-related fire impacts in rural and           managers to assume a more active role in confronting
         urban interior Alaska. Polar Research 28 (1): 100-118.            the risks imposed by forces that are now underway.
         This paper explores whether fundamental differences
         exist between urban and rural vulnerability to climate-
         induced changes in the fire regime of interior Alaska.
         It examines how communities and fire managers have
         responded to these changes and what additional adapta-
         tions could be put in place. It also engages a variety of
         social science methods, including demographic analysis,
         semi-structured interviews, surveys, workshops, and
         observations of public meetings. This work is part of
         an interdisciplinary study of feedback and interactions
         between climate, vegetation, fire, and human compo-
         nents of the boreal forest social-ecological system of
         interior Alaska. Findings show that although urban
         and rural communities in interior Alaska face similar
         increased exposure to wildfire as a result of climate
         change, important differences exist in their sensitiv-
         ity to these biophysical, climate-induced changes. In
         particular, reliance on wild foods, delayed suppression
         response, financial resources, and institutional connec-
         tions vary between urban and rural communities. These
         differences depend largely on social, economic, and
         institutional factors, and are not necessarily related to
         biophysical climate impacts per se. Fire management
         and suppression action motivated by political, economic,
         or other pressures can serve as unintentional or indirect
         adaptation to climate change. However, this indirect
         response alone may not sufficiently reduce vulnerability
         to a changing fire regime. More deliberate and strategic
         responses may be required, given the magnitude of the
         expected climate change and the likelihood of an intensi-
         fication of the fire regime in interior Alaska.

Wind Storm, Winter Storm, Lightning, Other
Severe Storms
Bissell, Richard A., Andrew Bumbak, Matthew Levy, and
          Patrick Echebi. 2009. Long-term global threat assess-
          ment: Challenging new roles for emergency managers.
          Journal of Emergency Management 7 (1): 19-37.



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