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					            BICYCLE USER’S MANUAL

before you take the first ride on your new bicycle, and keep
it for reference.
YOUR PURCHASE OF A                                                                                         PRE-RIDE CHECKLIST
Before you take off on the road, there are a few things you should know about us and our products:
                                                                                                           FOLLOW THIS CHECKLIST BEFORE EVERY RIDE. IF YOU HAVE ANY REASON TO SUSPECT THAT YOUR
1. We think riding a hybrid electric bike is fun! Which means all of us at Pietzo are lucky enough to do   BICYCLE IS NOT FUNCTIONING PROPERLY, DO NOT RIDE IT. Have it inspected by a professional bicycle
   what we enjoy! You'll see that dedication in every hybrid electric bicycle we offer.                    mechanic. Failure to follow t his checklist and to have any potential problem inspected could lead to an
                                                                                                           accident, with risk of serious injury, paralysis or death.
2. Our dedication to improving the world includes dreaming up new ways to add value - things like
   System Integration and complete commuter packaging. Later, other companies may "borrow" our
   ideas, but that's okay. After all, more people on bikes is good for everyone.
3. Because bike riding is so much fun, we encourage you to partake whenever the whim strikes you.           Are you wearing a helmet and other                                Are your wheels' quick-releases properly
   Going to work, going to the grocery store, going to school, or wherever you go. Bikes are serious        appropriate equipment and clothing, such as                       fastened? Be sure to read the section on proper
                                                                                                            protective glasses and gloves? Do not wear loose                  operation of quick release skewers (See PART I,
   transportation, in addition to being outrageously good fun. With our electrical assist, it can be
                                                                                                            clothing that could become entangled in the bicycle               Section 4.A Wheels).
   effortless and easy.                                                                                     (See PART I, Section 2.A The Basics).                             Are your front and rear brakes functioning
4. To keep your bike in top condition and to minimize risk, please refer to this manual whenever you        Are your seatpost and stem securely fastened?                     properly? With V-brakes, the quick release
   have questions about its operation.                                                                      Twist the handlebars firmly from side to side while               "noodle" must be properly installed. With
                                                                                                            holding the front wheel between your knees. The                   cantilever brakes, the quick release straddle cable
We encourage you to visit our website at .                                                   stem must not move in the steering tube.                          must be properly attached. With caliper brakes the
                                                                                                            Similarly, the seatpost must be secure in the seat                quick release lever must be closed. With any rim
                                                                                                            tube (See PART I. Section 3. Fit).                                brake, the brake pads must make firm contact with
                                                                                                            Are you visible to motorists? If you are riding at                the rim without the brake levers hitting the
                                                                                                            dusk, dawn or at night : you must make yourself                   handlebar grip (See PAR] I, Section 4.C Brakes).
                                                                                                            visible to motorists. Use front and rear lights and a             With hydraulic disc brakes : check that the lever
                                                                                                            strobe or blinker. Reflectors alone do not provide                feels firm, does not move too close to the
                                                                                                            adequate visibility. Wear reflective clothing (See                handlebar grip: and there is no evidence of leaking
                                                                                                            FARE I, Section 2.E Night Riding and PART II, A.                  brake fluid. With cable actuated disc brakes : check
                                                                                                            Important Safety Information).                                    that the lever feels firm and does not move too
                                                                                                            Is it raining or wet? If so, be more cautious. Your               close to the handlebar grip. With any disc brakes,
                                                                                                            braking distances will increase, and your tires ' grip            the brake pads must make firm contact with the
                                                                                                            on the road will decrease. Remember that                          rotor without the brake levers hitting the handlebar
                                                                                                            motorists' visibility decreases with bad weather                  grip (See PART 1. Section 4.C Brakes).
                                                                                                            (See PART I, Section 2.0 Wet Weather Riding and                   How do your clipless pedals work today? Clip
                                                                                                            PART II, A. Important Safely information).                        in and out of your pedals before you begin.
                                                                                                            Are your tires properly inflated? Tires must                      Experienced cyclists do. the connection between
                                                                                                            inflated to the recommended pressure. (See PART                   cleat and pedal is affected by dozens of factors
                                                                                                            I, Section 4.G Tires and Tubes)-                                  including dirt, mud, lubrication, spring tension and
                                                                                                            Are your wheels true? Lift each end of the hike                   wear. Ely clipping in and out you will check the
                                                                                                            and spin each wheel. Does the space between the                   function and have a fresh memory of how they feel
                                                                                                            rirn and the brake pads, or the tire and the frame,               (See PART I, Section 4.E Pedals).
                                                                                                            remain nearly the same size as the wheel turns:?                  How recently were your frame, fork and
                                                                                                            Are your spokes tight? (See PART I, Section I. C                  components inspected? Never ride a frame, fork
                                                                                                            Mechanical Safety Check).                                         or components with any crack or damage. (See
                                                                                                                                                                              PART II, Section D. Inspection For Safety)

                                                                                                              PIETZO LLC                                                                                    Journey    Version 1.2
                                                                                                              110 Great Road,                                                                                              May 2010
                                                                                                              Bedford, Massachusetts, 01730 USA

                                                         USE O F THIS MANU AL

                                                                                                                        Other Manuals & Instructions
                                                                                                                        Many of the components on your bike were not
                                                         Pietzo Bicycle Owner’s Manual                                  made by Pietzo. When available from the
                                                         This manual contains important information affecting           manufacturer, Pietzo packages these manuals
                                                         your safety and the proper use of bicycles. It is a very       and/or instructions with our bikes for delivery to you.
                                                         important manual for every bike we make. It is                 We strongly recommend that you read and follow all
                                                         organized into two parts:                                      the manufacturer’s specific instructions included with
                                                         PART I                                                         your bike.
                                                         Is a generic guide to the proper function and use of           Authorized Pietzo products & service
                                                         bicycles. This generic information is used by many             Pietzo is your primary contact for service and
                                                         bike companies. Most aspects of bicycles are                   adjustment of your bicycle, instruction in its use, and
                                                         common or “generic.” PART I of this manual is the 9th          any warranty questions.
                                                         edition of the generic manual.
                                                                                                                        Your new bike is to be delivered by to you in a
                                                         PART II                                                        completely assembled and properly adjusted
                                                         Contains Information specific to Pietzo bicycles and           condition, complete with all required safety
                                                         topics we feel you need to know and understand about           equipment, Owner’s Manuals, any Pietzo Owner’s
                                                         our bikes.                                                     Manual     Supplements,      and    the   available
                                                                                                                        manufacturer’s instructions (shipped by Pietzo) for
                                                         A manual alone cannot teach you how to ride, and a
                                                                                                                        parts and components for your bike.
                                                         manual the size of an encyclopedia could not cover
                                                         every combination of bicycle, rider and conditions.            Use Only Genuine Replacement Parts
          This page has been left blank intentionally.   Thus, as a reasonable person would expect, the                 It is important to your safety and the performance of
                                                         Pietzo manuals and supplements focus on the                    your Pietzo bicycle that you use only genuine Pietzo
                                                         bicycle, not teaching you to ride.                             replacement parts in forks, swingarms and rear
                                                         This manual is not intended as a comprehensive use,            suspension assemblies, derailleur hangers and other
                                                         service, repair or maintenance manual. It contains no          frame hardware.
                                                         assembly instructions. This manual is not a service
                                                         manual for any parts of your bike. Please see a
                                                         professional bicycle mechanic for all service, repairs
                                                         or maintenance. Any local dealer may also be able to
                                                         refer you to classes or books on bicycle use, and
                                                         Owner’s Manual Supplements
                                                         Pietzo    Owner’s     Manual    Supplements    are
                                                         “supplements” to this manual providing important
                                                         additional model specific safety, maintenance, and
                                                         technical information. Pietzo Owner’s Manual
                                                         Supplements are not replacements for this or any
                                                         other manual for your bike.
                                                         You can download Adobe Acrobat PDF versions of
                                                         any Pietzo Owner’s Manual or Owner’s Manual
                                                         Supplements or Tech Notes from our website.

                              96                                                                                    1
Use of this manual .......................... 1                                 SECTION 5. ELECTRIC DRIVE.. 35-41
                                                                                5.A. Electric Drive Operating Modes .................. 35
                              PART I                                            5.B. Starting & Stopping Your Electric Bike........ 37
                                                                                5.C. Using Electric Drive Safely.......................... 38
GENERAL WARNING ...................... 4                                        5.D. Electric Drive System Use .......................... 39
                                                                                5.E. Battery Operation and Storage ................... 40
SECTION 1. FIRST ........................ 5-7
1.A Bike Fit............................................................5
                                                                                SECTION 6. FOLDING BIKE…..42-45
1.B Safety First .....................................................5         6.A Folding Your Bicycle ................................... 42
1.C Mechanical Safety Check ..............................6                     6.B Unfolding Your Bicycle ................................ 45
1.D First Ride .......................................................7
                                                                                SECTION 7. SERVICE .............. 46-48
SECTION 2. SAFETY ................... 8-12                                      7.A Service Intervals .......................................... 47
2.A The Basics .....................................................8           7.B If Your Bicycle Sustains an Impact .............. 48
2.B Riding Safety .................................................9
2.C Of-Road Safety ...........................................10
2.D Wet Weather Riding ....................................10
                                                                                                             PART II
2.E Night Riding .................................................11
                                                                                                                                                           This page has been left blank intentionally.
2.F Extreme, Stunt, or Competition Riding ........12                            SECTION A.
2.G Changing Components                                                         IMPORTANT SAFETY INFO ...... 50-57
   Adding Accessories ......................................12                  A Wide Range of Injuries Are Possible .............. 50
                                                                                Bicycles Cannot Protect You ............................. 50
SECTION 3. FIT ......................... 13-17                                  Bicycling Inherent Risk ...................................... 50
3.A Stand Over Height .......................................13                 Riding in Traffic, Commuting .............................. 51
3.B Saddle Position ...........................................14               Riding at Night, Dusk, Dawn .............................. 52
3.C. Handlebar Height and Angle ......................16                        Refinishing ......................................................... 53
3.D Control Position Adjustments ......................17                       Modifications ...................................................... 53
3.E Brake Reach ................................................17              Child Carriers ..................................................... 54
                                                                                Bicycles Have Sharp Surfaces .......................... 54
SECTION 4. TECH .................... 18-34                                      Bar Ends ............................................................ 54
4.A Wheels ........................................................18           Installing Accessories ........................................ 55
4.B Seat Post Cam Action Clamp ......................24                         Aerodynamic Handlebars .................................. 55
4.C Brakes .........................................................25          About Shimmy ................................................... 56
4.D Shifting Gears .............................................39              Toe Clip Overlap ................................................ 56
4.E Pedals .........................................................31          Brake Power Modulators ................................... 57
4.F Bicycle Suspension ......................................32                 Aftermarket Brake Systems ............................... 57
4.G Tires and Tubes ..........................................33
                                                                                SECTION B. INTENDED USE ... 58-60
                                                                                This section also includes weight limit information.
                                                                                High Performance Road .................................... 59
                                                                                General Purpose Riding .................................... 60

                                                                            2                                                                                                  95
                                                                                                                                                                                                     APPENDIX C.
                                                                                                                      SECTION C.                                                                     Carbon Fiber Forks and Stems ......................... 91

APPENDIX E                                                                                                            MOUNTAIN BIKE RIDING ......... 61-63
                                                                                                                      Off-Road Riding ..................................................61           APPENDIX D.
                                                                                                                      Bike Types ..........................................................61        Bicycle Racks .................................................... 93
                                                                                                                      Inspection and Maintenance Routines ...............61
Potential Damage                                                Risk to Children                                                                                                                     APPENDIX E.
                                                                                                                      Suspension .........................................................62
                                                                                                                      Jumping ..............................................................62       Bicycle Trainers ................................................. 95

         CAUTION                                                       WARNING                                        Stay In Control ....................................................62
                                                                                                                                                                                                     PRE-RIDE CHECKLIST
                                                                 KEEP     CHILDREN AWAY     FROM                      Downhill and Lift-Serviced Riding .......................62
 Improperly mounting a bike in a trainer, or                                                                                                                                                         See the outside back cover ................................>>
                                                                 BICYCLES MOUNTED ON STATIONARY                       Shifting Gears While Pedaling ............................62
 using one that is not compatible with your                      TRAINERS, EVEN WHEN THE BICYCLE                      Freeride and Downhill Riding .............................63
 particular bike frame can cause serious                         IS NOT IN USE.
                                                                 Spinning wheels attract children’s attention
 This kind of damage is not covered by the                       and present a serious risk to young fingers.         SECTION D.
 Pietzo Limited Warranty.                                                                                             INSPECT FOR SAFETY ............ 64-73
                                                                 Children have also been known to rotate
 Ask you dealer for help with trainers, the right                cranks by hand on bicycles left unattended on        1. Understanding Metals ................................64
 one and the correct way to use it.                              stationary trainers, putting themselves at risk of   2. Understanding Composites (Carbon Fiber)69
                                                                 serious injury.                                      3. Understanding Components.......................71
                                                                                                                      Bicycle Lifespan ..................................................73
                                                                                                                      Useful Life of Lightweight Frames .....................73
If you ride a trainer that requires removal of the front
wheel and clamps the fork dropouts: Be sure your
fork quick release is tight! Relative movement will                                                                   SECTION E.
wear parts, weaken and damage your bike.                                                                              MAINTENANCE ........................ 74-78
If you ride a trainer that holds the bike up by                                                                       30 Day Service ..................................................74
clamping the rear quick release between two cones:                                                                    Cleaning .............................................................74
Take o f the nice, lightweight quick release that
                                                                                                                      Preventing Corrosion ..........................................74
came with your bike. Substitute a heavy, classic all
steel quick release and clamp it tight! Relative                                                                      Lubrication ..........................................................75
movement will wear parts, weaken and damage                                                                           Tightening Torques ............................................75
your bike. Note that many modern quick releases                                                                       Repair/Work Stands ...........................................76
will not fit the clamping cones in this kind of trainer                                                               Riding Through Water.........................................76
because their shapes are incompatible.
                                                                                                                      Protect From Extreme Temperatures .................76
Be particularly cautious with a carbon frame or fork.                                                                 Applying Frame Protection ................................77
Carbon is relatively soft, not abrasion resistant. If
there is any relative movement, carbon will wear
quickly.                                                                                                              SECTION F.
If you ride a trainer a lot, consider using an old                                                                    PIETZO LIMITED WARRANTY........ 79
bike: Corrosion from sweat will take it’s toll. Weight
is irrelevant. Save wear on your expensive
components.                                                                                                           PIETZO JOURNEY
                                                                                                                      INSTRUCTIONS                                        …. …80-87

                                                                                                                      APPENDIX A.
                                                                                                                      Maximum Fork Length ........................................88

                                                                                                                      APPENDIX B.
                                                                                                                      Carbon Fiber Seat Posts ...................................89

                                                           94                                                                                                                                    3
                                                             A SPECIAL NOTE FOR PARENTS
                                                             As a parent or guardian, you are responsible for the
                                                                                                                              TYPE OF RACK DESIGN                             RECOMMENDATION & CAUTIONS
Like any sport, bicycling involves risk of injury and        activities and safety of your minor child, and that
damage. By choosing to ride a bicycle, you assume            includes making sure that the bicycle is properly fitted
the responsibility for that risk, so you need to know        to the child; that it is in good repair and safe           CLAM PS ON TIRES / WHEELS               Suitable for both carbon and aluminum frames
— and to practice — the rules of safe and                    operating condition; that you and your child have          O NLY
responsible riding and of proper use and                     learned and understand the safe operation of the                                                   This is the best system design because there is no potential
maintenance. Proper use and maintenance of your              bicycle; and that you and your child have learned,         This type does not use clamps on        cracking or crushing damage to the frame or fork.   Chafing
bicycle reduces risk of injury.                              understand and obey not only the applicable local          Any other part of the frame or fork.    wear is avoided.
                                                             motor vehicle, bicycle and traffic laws, but also the
This Manual contains many “Warnings” and
                                                             common sense rules of safe and responsible
“Cautions” concerning the consequences of failure                                                                       FLOATING FORK M OUNT &                  Suitable for both carbon and aluminum frames
                                                             bicycling. As a parent, you should read this manual,
to maintain or inspect your bicycle and of failure to                                                                   REAR WHEEL TRAY                         Be sure quick release on rack is properly adjusted and tightly
                                                             as well as review its warnings and the bicycle’s
follow safe cycling practices.                               functions and operating procedures with your child,                                                closed.
                                                                                                                        This design functions exactly as a
                                                             before letting your child ride the bicycle.                quick release on your bike. The rear    The Thule Echelon with ETC Equalized Twin Cam is suitable as
                                                                                                                        wheel is clamped in a tray. No other    it has an axle floating mechanism, like a standard quick
The combination of the safety alert symbol                                                                              clamps are used on any other part of    release.
and the word WARNING indicates a potentially                         WARNING                                            the frame.
hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could
result in serious injury or death.                            MAKE SURE THAT YOUR CHILD ALWAYS
                                                              WEARS AN APPROVED BICYCLE HELMET                          WHEEL CLAM PS & UPRIGHT                 Do not use on bikes with carbon fiber downtubes.
                                                              WHEN RIDING; BUT ALSO MAKE SURE THAT                      ARM CLAM P
                                                                                                                                                                When clamp is tightened the carbon downtube can be broken.
The combination of the safety alert symbol                    YOUR CHILD UNDERSTANDS THAT A BICYCLE                     In this design, wheels are clamped in   When clamp is looser, chafing can cause structural wear.
and the word CAUTION indicates a potentially                  HELMET IS FOR BICYCLING ONLY, AND MUST                    a wheel tray and the bicycle is held
hazardous situation which, if not avoided, may                BE REMOVED WHEN NOT RIDING.                               upright by and arm clamping the         A loose clamp can allow movement and possible chafing
result in minor or moderate injury, or is an alert                                                                      downtube.                               damage. Clean the clamping area to eliminate abrasive
                                                              A helmet must not be worn while playing, in play                                                  particles, pad the clamping area and properly tighten the
against unsafe practices.                                     areas, on playground equipment, while climbing                                                    clamp.
The word CAUTION used without the safety alert                trees, or at any time while not riding a bicycle.
symbol indicates a situation which, if not avoided,           Failure to follow this warning could result in            NON-FLOATING FORK M OUNT                Not recommended for either carbon or aluminum bikes.
could result in serious damage to the bicycle or the          serious injury or death.                                  & REAR WHEEL TRAY
                                                                                                                                                                If one dropout is slightly thicker than the other dropout, all
voiding of your warranty.                                                                                               With this type, a mechanism pulls the   the clamping force is applied to the thicker dropout. The high
Many of the Warnings and Cautions say “you may                                                                          two sides of the fork in at the same    force on the one thicker dropout may crack a carbon dropout.
lose control and fall”. Because any fall can result in
serious injury or even death, we do not always
                                                                     WARNING                                            time, and pulls both sides in the
                                                                                                                        same distance.
                                                                                                                                                                The thinner dropout may move in the rack causing wear and
                                                                                                                                                                abrasion, The fork blade attached to the thicker dropout takes
repeat the warning of possible injury or death.                                                                                                                 most of the loads caused by 70 mile per hour wind and bumps.
                                                              PIETZO BICYCLES ARE NOT DESIGNED FOR                      example: Thule Peloton.                 The result may be damage to your fork.
Because it is impossible to anticipate every situation        USE BY CHILDREN UNDER THE AGE OF 18.
or condition which can occur while riding, this               PLEASE DO SO ONLY AT YOUR OWN RISK.
Manual makes no representation about the safe use                                                                       HANGER RACK                             Not recommended for either carbon or aluminum bikes.
of the bicycle under all conditions. There are risks
associated with the use of any bicycle which cannot                                                                     On this type the bicycle hangs on       Do not use on bikes with carbon fiber tubes.
be predicted or avoided, and which are the sole                                                                         two arms projecting aft from a trunk
                                                                                                                                                                The point loading where the arms contact the underside of
responsibility of the rider.                                                                                            mounted rack
                                                                                                                                                                the tubes may crack the tubes. Additionally the lower part of
                                                                                                                                                                the bike is difficult to secure, and it may move, causing chafing
                                                                                                                                                                and structural wear. Additionally when two bikes are mounted
                                                                                                                                                                on these racks the contact points between the bikes may be
                                                                                                                                                                cracked or chafed, causing structural damage.

                                                         4                                                                                                               93
                                                                                                                                                                              1.B - SAFETY FIRST
                                                                                                                        SECTION 1. FIRST                                      1. Always wear an approved helmet when riding
                                                                                                                                                                                 your bike, and follow the helmet manufacturer’s
BICYCLE RACKS                                                                                                                                                                    instructions for fit, use and care.
Bicycle automobile racks are available from many diff erent manufacturers and many diff erent rack designs
                                                                                                                                                                              2. Do you have all the other required and
exist. They are convenient devices to transport your bike. However, any bicycle rack has the potential to
seriously damage your bicycle. Damage can occur immediately due to some aspect of an incompatible or poor       NOTE: We strongly urge you to read this Manual in                recommended safety equipment? See SECTION
rack design. Damage can occur af ter repeated mounting, and dismounting. Damage can also happen while           its entirety before your first ride. At the very least,          2. It’s your responsibility to familiarize yourself
the bike is being transported in the rack. We c an’t cover all the possible ways in which a rack can cause      read and make sure that you understand each point                with the laws of the areas where you ride, and to
damage to your bike.                                                                                            in this section, and refer to the cited sections on any          comply with all applicable laws.
                                                                                                                issue which you don’t completely understand.                  3. Do you know how to operate the electric drive on
                                                                                                                Please note that not all bicycles have all of the                your bicycle? Check SECTION XX to make sure
                                                                                                                features described in this manual. Ask your                      that you completely understand the operation
         WARNING                                                                                                representative to point out the features of your                 and safe use of both modes of the electric drive.
                                                                                                                bicycle.                                                      4. Do you know how to correctly operate your wheel
  READ AND FOLLOW THE RACK MANUFACTURER'S INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE MOUNTING                                                                                                           quick releases? Check SECTION 4.A. to make
                                                                                                                1.A - BIKE FIT                                                   sure. Riding with an improperly adjusted wheel
  YOUR BIKE.                                                                                                                                                                     quick release can cause the wheel to wobble or
  Both carbon and aluminum frames and forks can be damaged (crushed, cracked, or dented) by the clamps          1. Is your bike the right size? To check, see                    disengage from the bicycle, and cause serious
  and support systems of a bike rack. Both carbon and aluminum can suff er serious abrasion damage by the          SECTION 3.A. If your bicycle is too large or too              injury or death.
  movement of the bike in the rack during transport. All damage to your bike is very serious, that is why you      small for you, you may lose control and fall. If           5. If your bike has toeclips and straps or clipless
  must take extra care when choosing a bike rack and when actually mounting your bike in the rack.                 your new bike is not the right size, ask your                 (“step-in”) pedals, make sure you know how they
                                                                                                                   representative to exchange it before you ride it.             work (see SECTION 4.E). These pedals require
  WHEN MOUNTING YOUR BIKE ON A RACK                                                                                                                                              special techniques and skills. Follow the pedal
                                                                                                                2. Is the saddle at the right height? To check, see
  Remove all bags, panniers, water bottles etc. To minimize wind resistance, loading, and avoid c haf ing          SECTION 3.B. If you adjust your saddle height,                manufacturer’s instructions for use, adjustment
  damage.                                                                                                          follow the Minimum Insertion instructions in                  and care.
                                                                                                                   SECTION 3.B.                                               6. Do you have “toe overlap”? On smaller framed
  ASK A BICYCLE DEALER FOR HELP CHOOSING AND USING A BIKE RACK.                                                                                                                  bicycles your toe or toeclip may be able to
                                                                                                                3. Are saddle and seat post securely clamped? A
           See the table on the following page for more rack information.                                          correctly tightened saddle will allow no saddle               contact the front wheel when a pedal is all the
                                                                                                                   movement in any direction. See SECTION 3.B.                   way forward and the wheel is turned. Read
                                                                                                                                                                                 SECTION 4.E. If you have toeclip overlap.
                                                                                                                4. Are the stem and handlebars at the right height
                                                                                                                   for you? If not, see SECTION 3.C.                          7. Does your bike have suspension? If so, check
                                                                                                                                                                                 SECTION 4.F. Suspension can change the way
                                                                                                                5. Can you comfortably operate the brakes? If not,
                                                                                                                                                                                 a bicycle performs. Follow the suspension
                                                                                                                   you may be able to adjust their angle and reach.
                                                                                                                                                                                 manufacturer’s instructions for use, adjustment
                                                                                                                   See SECTION 3.D and 3.E.
                                                                                                                                                                                 and care.
         CAUTION                                                                                                6. Do you fully understand how to operate your
                                                                                                                   new bicycle? If not, before your first ride, have
  WHEN USING A RACK WITH FORK DROPOUT CLAMPS                                                                       your representative explain any functions or
                                                                                                                   features which you do not understand.
  Make sure that both fork dropouts are engaged in the rack before clamping. Make sure both dropouts are
  clamped with equal force. If only one dropout is engaged and the bike tips over, the leverage can exert
  great force that may damage the dropout. If your bike tips over, have the dropouts examined by a
  professional bicycle mechanic.

                                                      92                                                                                                                  5
1 . C - M ECHANI CAL SAFETY                                   Tires & Wheels
CHECK                                                         Make sure tires are correctly inflated (see SECTION
                                                              4.G.1). Check by putting one hand on the saddle,
Routinely check the condition of your bicycle before          one on the intersection of the handlebars and stem,
every ride.                                                   then bouncing your weight on the bike while
                                                              looking at tire deflection. Compare what you see
Nuts, Bolts Screws & Other Fasteners                          with how it looks when you know the tires are
Because manufacturers use a wide variety of                   correctly inflated; and adjust if necessary.
fastener sizes and shapes made in a variety of
materials, often differing by model and component,            Tires in good shape? Spin each wheel slowly and look
the correct tightening force or torque cannot be              for cuts in the tread and sidewall. Replace damaged
generalized.                                                  tires before riding the bike.

To make sure that the many fasteners on your                  Wheels true? Spin each wheel and check for brake
bicycle are correctly tightened. See page 78.                 clearance and side-to-side wobble. If a wheel
                                                              wobbles side-to-side even slightly, or rubs against or
Always refer to the torque specifications in the              hits the brake pads, take the bike to a qualified bike
instructions provided by the manufacturer of a                shop to have the wheel trued.
component in question.
Correctly tightening a fastener requires a
calibrated torque wrench. A professional bicycle
mechanic with a torque wrench should torque the                Wheels must be true for the brakes to work
fasteners on you bicycle. If you choose to work on             effectively. Wheel trueing is a skill which
your own bicycle, you must use a torque wrench                 requires special tools and experience. Do not
and the correct tightening torque specifications               attempt to true a wheel unless you have the
from the bicycle or component manufacturer or                  knowledge, experience and tools needed to
from a dealer. If you need to make an adjustment               do the job correctly.
at home or in the field, we urge you to exercise
care, and to have the fasteners you worked on                 Wheel rims clean and undamaged? Make sure the
checked by professional bicycle mechanic as soon              rims are clean and undamaged at the tire bead and,
as possible. Make sure nothing is loose. Lift the front       if you have rim brakes, along the braking surface.
wheel o f the ground by two or three inches, then let         Check to make sure that any rim wear indicator
it bounce on the ground. Anything sound, feel or              marking is not visible at any point on the wheel rim.
look loose? Do a visual and tactile inspection of
the whole bike. Any loose parts or accessories? If
so, secure them. If you’re not sure, ask someone                      WARNING
with experience to check.
                                                               BICYCLE WHEEL RIMS ARE SUBJECT
                                                               TO WEAR.
       WARNING                                                 Ask a professional bicycle mechanic about
 CORRECT    TIGHTENING   FORCE ON                              wheel rim wear. Some wheel rims have a rim
 FASTENERS – NUTS, BOLTS, SCREWS –                             wear indicator which becomes visible as the
 ON YOUR BICYCLE IS IMPORTANT.                                 rim’s braking surface wears. A visible rim wear
 Too little force, and the fastener may not hold               indicator on the side of the wheel rim is an
 securely. Too much force, and the fastener                    indication that the wheel rim has reached its
 can strip threads, stretch, deform or break.                  maximum usable life. Riding a wheel that is at
 Either way, incorrect tightening force can result             the end of its usable life can result in wheel
 in component failure, which can cause you to                  failure, which can cause you to loose control
 loose control and fall.                                       and fall.

                                                                                                                       Figure 43.

                                                          6                                                                         91
                                                                                                                Brakes                                                      VERY IMPORTANT SAFETY NOTE:
                                                                                                                Check the brakes for proper operation (see
                                                                                                                                                                            Please also read and become thoroughly
APPENDIX C                                                                                                      SECTION 4.C). Squeeze the brake levers. Are the
                                                                                                                                                                            familiar with the important information on the
                                                                                                                brake quickreleases closed? All control cables
                                                                                                                seated and securely engaged? Do the brake pads              lifespan of your bicycle and its components in
Care and Maintenance of Carbon Fiber Forks & Stem                                                               contact the wheel rim squarely and make full contact        PART II, SECTION D. INSPECT FOR SAFETY.
                                                                                                                with the rim? Do the brake pads touch the wheel rim
                                                                                                                within an inch of brake lever movement? Can you             1 . D - F I R S T RI DE
                                                                                                                apply full braking force at the levers without having
        WARNING                                                                                                 them touch the handlebar? If not, your brakes need          When you buckle on your helmet and go for your first
                                                                                                                adjustment. Do not ride the bike until the brakes are       familiarization ride on your new bicycle, be sure to
 ALWAYS SEEK PROFESSIONAL SERVICE                                                                               properly adjusted by a professional bicycle                 pick a controlled environment, away from cars, other
 Incorrectly installing, adjusting, servicing, or assembling the wrong parts (handlebar stem, compression       mechanic.                                                   cyclists, obstacles or other hazards. Ride to become
 assembly, brake bolt, spacers and spacer positions) on your bicycle fork can cause serious damage to it.                                                                   familiar with the controls, features and performance
 Any failure in the fork, headset, handlebar stem, or compression assembly while riding can cause you to        Wheel Retention System
                                                                                                                                                                            of your new bike.
 have a serious accident. All adjustments, maintenance, and any changes must be made by your Pietzo             Make sure the front and rear wheels are correctly
 Dealer.                                                                                                        secured. See SECTION 4.A                                    Familiarize yourself with the braking action of the
                                                                                                                                                                            bike (see SECTION 4.C). Test the brakes at slow
 STOP RIDING A DAMAGED FORK & STEM IMMEDIATELY Your fork can be seriously                                                                                                   speed, putting your weight toward the rear and
 damaged in any crash or impact. Damage can be concealed and requires very carefully inspection                 Seat Post
                                                                                                                                                                            gently applying the brakes, rear brake first. Sudden
 by a professional bike mechanic.                                                                               If your seat post has an over-center cam action
                                                                                                                                                                            or excessive application of the front brake could
                                                                                                                fastener for easy height adjustment, check that it is
                                                                                                                                                                            pitch you over the handlebars. Applying brakes too
 A damaged fork and/or handlebar stem can fail without warning. Go to PART II, Section D. Inspect For           properly adjusted and in the locked position. See
                                                                                                                                                                            hard can lock up a wheel, which could cause you to
 Safety. Read “Understanding Composites” for information on carbon fiber                                        Section 4.B.
                                                                                                                                                                            lose control and fall. Skidding is an example of what
 REPLACE THE FORK WITH A NEW ONE IF THE DROPOUTTABS ARE MISSING OR                                              Handlebar and Saddle Alignment                              can happen when a wheel locks up.
 DAMAGED. The dropout tabs located at the bottom of the fork dropout act as a secondary wheel                   Make sure the saddle and handlebar stem are                 If your bike has an electric drive, familiarize yourself
 retention device and can reduce the risk of the wheel disengaging from the fork if the quick release is not    parallel to the bike’s center line and clamped tight        with the operating mode of the drive. See SECTION
 correctly adjusted and closed. It is possible for the tabs to become worn out or damaged through repeated      enough so that you can’t twist them out of                  5. Before turning on the battery or mounting the bike
 wheel installation and removal, car rack use, etc.                                                             alignment. See SECTION 3.B and 3.C.                         you should familiarize yourself with the operation of
 DO NOT MODIFY THE FORK IN ANYWAY. Do not drill holes or install mechanical clamps.                             Handlebar Ends                                              the throttle, the mode selection switch (if available)
                                                                                                                Make sure the handlebar grips are secure and in             and the battery power on/off key lock. See Section
                                                                                                                good condition. If not, have a dealer replace them.         5.A.
 STEM. MAXIMUM STACK HEIGHT is a distance spacers may be stacked between the top of the head tube
 and the bottom of the stem. Exceeding this distance with spacers or locating spacers on top of the handlebar   Make sure the handlebar ends and extensions are             If your bicycle has toeclips or clipless pedals,
 stem can place significant stress on the steerer tube. It could break.                                         plugged. If not, plug them before you ride. If the          practice getting in and out of the pedals. See
                                                                                                                handlebars have bar end extensions, make sure they          paragraph B.4 above and SECTION 4.E.4.
 YOU CAN BE SEVERELY INJURED, PARALYZED OR KILLED IN AN ACCIDENT IF YOU                                         are clamped tight enough so you can’t twist them.
 IGNORE THESE WARNINGS.                                                                                                                                                     If your bike has suspension, familiarize yourself with
                                                                                                                                                                            how the suspension responds to brake application
N O T E : Carbon fiber bicycle forks and stems come in many dif f er ent shapes. The basic parts common to
                                                                                                                        WARNING                                             and rider weight shifts. See paragraph B.6 above and
most carbon forks and handlebar stem systems are shown here. Your fork appearance and shape may vary                                                                        SECTION 4.F.
                                                                                                                 LOOSE OR DAM AGED HANDLEBAR
from what is shown. If you have any questions about your fork, ask a professional bicycle mechanic.              GRIPS OR EXTENSIONS CAN CAUSE                              Practice shifting the gears (see SECTION 4.D).
                                                                                                                 YOU TO LOSE CONTROL AND FALL.                              Remember to never move the shifter while pedaling
                                                                                                                 UNPLUGGED     HANDLEBARS   OR                              backward, nor pedal backwards immediately after
 N O T E : DROPOUTS, STEERER, and HANDLEBAR STEM can be made from carbon fiber, metals or
 both in a “carbon fiber” fork                                                                                   EXTENSIONS CAN CUT YOU AND                                 having moved the shifter. This could jam the chain
                                                                                                                 CAUSE SERIOUS INJURY IN AN                                 and cause serious damage to the bicycle.
                                                                                                                 OTHERWISE MINOR ACCIDENT.
                                                                                                                                                                            Check out the handling and response of the bike; and
                                                                                                                                                                            check the comfort.
                                                                                                                                                                            If you have any questions, or if you feel anything
                                                                                                                                                                            about the bike is not as it should be, consult your
                                                                                                                                                                            representative before you ride.

                                                      90                                                                                                                7
                                                           • Properly Sized for You
   S E C T I O N 2. S A F E T Y                            • Properly Fitted to You
                                                           • Properly Attached to Your Head!

       WARNING                                             • Undamaged                                                             WARNING
                                                                 ASK A BICYCLE RETAILER FOR HELP
MANY STATES REQUIRE SPECIFIC                                                                                                TO AVOID SEAT POST OR FRAME DAMAGE:
                                                           2. Always do the Mechanical Safety Check                      1. FOLLOW THE SEAT POST MANUFACTURER'S INSTRUCTIONS If you do not have the
                                                              (SECTION 1.C) before you get on a bike.                        manufacturer’s instructions for your seat post, obtain and read them before using the seat post.
STATE WHERE YOU RIDE AND TO                                3. Be thoroughly familiar with the controls of your
                                                               bicycle: brakes (SECTION 4.C.); pedals                    2. INSPECT AFTER ANY CRASH, FALL, OR IMPACT - Remove and inspect the seat post for damage
COM PLY   WITH   ALL    APPLICABLE                                                                                           (eg. cracks, scratches, scrapes, gouges, splintering). If you find damage, replace it with a new one.
LAWS,     INCLUDING      PROPERLY                              (SECTION 4.E.); shifting (SECTION 4.D.)
                                                                                                                             STOP RIDING A DAMAGED SEAT POST IMMEDIATELY GO TO PART II, Section D. Inspect For
EQUIPPING YOURSELF AND YOUR                                4. Be careful to keep body parts and other objects
                                                                                                                             Safety. Read “Understanding Composites” for information on carbon fiber
BIKE AS THE LAW REQUIRES.                                      away from the sharp teeth of chainrings, the
                                                               moving chain, the turning pedals and cranks, and          3. NEVER FORCE A SEAT POST INTO THE SEAT TUBE. The seat post should always be a slide fit. If
Observe all local bicycle laws and regulations.                the spinning wheels of your bicycle.                          the seat post is difficult to install, there is a serious problem. Do not shorten or cut a seat post. Ask a
Observe regulations about bicycle lighting,                5. Always wear:                                                   professional bicycle mechanic for help in properly fitting and adjusting your seat post.
licensing of bicycles, riding on sidewalks, laws               • Shoes that will stay on your feet and will grip the
regulating bike path and trail use, helmet laws,                                                                         4. KEEP THE SEAT POST'S "MINIMUM INSERT" BELOW THE TOP OF THE SEAT TUBE.
                                                                  pedals. Never ride barefoot or in sandals.
child carrier laws, special bicycle traffic laws.                                                                        5. USE A TORQUE WRENCH TO TIGHTEN SEAT POST BINDER AND ALL SADDLE MOUNTING
                                                               • Bright, visible clothing that is not so loose that it
It’s your responsibility to know and obey the                                                                                FASTENERS.
                                                                  can be tangled in the bicycle or snagged by
laws.                                                             objects at the side of the road or trail.              6. NEVER USE LIGHT OR SPRAY OILS TO LUBRICATE A SEAT POST OR INSIDE THE SEAT
                                                               • Protective eye wear, to protect against airborne            TUBE. Never use solvents, or chemical spray cleaners to clean the inside of the seat tube. Wipe out the
2.A - THE BASICS                                                  dirt, dust and bugs —tinted when the sun is bright,        seat tube with a clean dry towel only. Light oils (WD40 and oils typically used in honing) and solvents,
                                                                  clear when it’s not.                                       and including chemical cleaners can attack and weaken composite bonds holding the frame together
1. Always wear a cycling helmet which meets the                                                                              leading to frame failure. Follow the seat post and frame manufacturer instructions. See also page 74.
   latest certification standards and is appropriate       6. Don’t jump with your bike. Jumping a bike,
   for the type of riding you do. Always follow the           particularly a BMX or mountain bike, can be fun;              YOU CAN BE SEVERELY INJURED, PARALYZED OR KILLED IF YOUR IGNORE THESE
   helmet manufacturer’s instructionns for fit, use           but it can put huge and unpredictable stress on               WARNINGS.
   and care of your helmet. Most serious bicycle              the bicycle and its components. Riders who insist
   injuries involve head injuries which might have            on jumping their bikes risk serious damage, to
   been avoided if the rider had worn an appropriate          their bicycles as well as to themselves. Before
   helmet.                                                    you attempt to jump, do stunt riding or race with
                                                              your bike, read and understand SECTION 2.F.
                                                           7. Ride at a speed appropriate for conditions.
                                                              Increased speed means higher risk.

                                                                FAILURE TO WEAR A HELMET WHEN
                                                                RIDING MAY RESULT IN SERIOUS
                                                                INJURY OR DEATH.

Figure 1. Bicycle Helmet

Your helmet should be:
• U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC)
  certified (look for the label on the helmet)

                                                       8                                                                                                                       89
                                                                                                                      2.B - RIDING SAFETY
                                                           4. Insert the seat post and tighten the seat binder        O bey all rules of the road and all local
                                                              to the specified torque with an accurate torque         traff ic laws.
                                                              wrench. Consult the seat post manufacturer’s            1. You are sharing the road or the path with others              11. Don’t do stunts, wheelies or jumps. If you intend
 Care and Maintenance of                                                                                                                                                                  to do stunts, wheelies, jumps or go racing with
                                                              instructions for torque information.                       — motorists, pedestrians and other cyclists.
 Carbon Fiber Seat Posts                                                                                                 Respect their rights.                                            your bike despite our advice not to, read SECTION
                                                           5. Check tightening torques of the saddle to seat                                                                              .F, Downhill, Stunt or Competition Biking, now.
                                                              post clamp bolts. Too much torque may fail the          2. Ride defensively. Always assume that others do
                                                                                                                                                                                          Think carefully about your skills before deciding
                                                              bolts. Too little torque will result in movement           not see you.
                                                                                                                                                                                          to take the large risks that go with this kind of
 Inserting the seat Post                                      which leads to fatigue and bolt failure.                3. Look ahead, and be ready to avoid:                               riding.
                                                                                                                        • Vehicles slowing or turning, entering the road or            12. Don’t weave through traffic or make any moves
 Check the seat tube () opening , and slot () carefully
                                                                                                                           your lane ahead of you, or coming up behind you.               that may surprise people with whom you are
 for sharp edges or burrs. Anything that can
                                                                                                                                                                                          sharing the road.
 scratch, score, gouge, or cut the seat post can                                                                        • Parked car doors opening.
 cause serious damage leading to structural failure                                                                                                                                    13. Observe and yield the right of way.
                                                                                                                        • Pedestrians stepping out.
 of seat post. Sharp edges or burrs can be removed                                                                                                                                     14. Never ride your bicycle while under the
 by hand by lightly sanding with a very fine                                                                            • Children or pets playing near the road.                         influence of alcohol or drugs.
 sandpaper (400 grit). The should feel very smooth                                                                      • Pot holes, sewer grating, railroad tracks, expansion         15. If possible, avoid riding in bad weather, when
 without jagged edges or nicks.                                                                                            joints, road or sidewalk construction, debris and              visibility is obscured, at dawn, dusk or in the
                                                                                                                           other obstructions that could cause you to swerve              dark, or when extremely tired. Each of these
                                                                                                                           into traffic, catch your wheel or otherwise cause you          conditions increases the risk of accident.
                                                                                                                           to lose control and have an accident.
                                                                                                                        • The many other hazards and distractions which can
                                                                                                                            occur on a bicycle ride.
                                                                                                                      4. Ride in designated bike lanes, on designated
                                                               Figure 42.                                                bike paths or as clos e to the edge of the
                                                                                                                         road as possible, in the direction of traffic flow
                                                                                                                         or as directed by local governing laws.
                                                               Periodic seat Post inspection                          5. Stop at stop signs and traffic lights; slow down
                                                               Frequent seat post checks are necessary to identify       and look both ways at street intersections.
                                                               the problems that can lead to an accident. Regularly      Remember that a bicycle always loses in a
                                                               or in conjunction with your regular bike maintenance      collision with a motor vehicle, so be prepared to
                                                               routine, do the following:                                yield even if you have the right of way.
                                                                                                                      6. Use approved hand signals for turning and
                                                           1. Remove the seat binder from the frame seat post.           stopping.
   Figure 41.
                                                              Clean the binder, the seat post, and inside the
1. Make sure the seat post, seat binder, and seat                                                                     7. Never ride with headphones. They mask
                                                              seat tube. Use a clean dry towel. Do not use
   tube are clean.                                                                                                       tr af f ic sounds and emergency vehicle sirens,
                                                                                                                         distract you from concentrating on what’s
2. Apply small amount of a carbon seat post gel            2. Carefully inspect the seat post for damage (e.g.,          going on around you, and their wires can tangle
   (Pietzo part number KF5/) to seat post surface.            cracks, scratches, scrapes, gouges, splintering).          in the moving parts of the bicycle, causing you to
3. Position the seat binder on the seat tube with             If the seat post is damaged in any way, (cracks,           lose control.
   the binder slot (A) opposite the seat tube slot            scratches, scrapes, gouges, splintering), do not        8. Never carry a passenger, unless it is a small
   (b). Locating the binder slot opposite the seat            ride it; discard it. Replace it with a new one.            child wearing an approved helmet and secured
   tube slot reduces the chances of cracking from                                                                        in a correctly mounted child carrier or a child-
   deformation or accidental over tightening.              3. Always properly torque saddle to seat post clamp
                                                                                                                         carrying trailer.
                                                              bolts. Too much torque may fail the bolts. Too
                                                              little torque will result in movement which leads to    9. Never carry anything which obstructs your
                                                              fatigue and bolt failure.                                  vision or your complete control of the bicycle, or
                                                                                                                         which could become entangled in the moving
                                                                                                                         parts of the bicycle.
                                                                                                                      10. Never hitch a ride by holding on to another

                                                          88                                                                                                                       9
                                                                                                                       How to detach the rear wheel                               of the bike.
2 . C - O F F- RO A D S A F E T Y                              2 . D - W E T W E A T H E R R I DI N G
                                                                                                                       of the Electric bike                                       3. Remove the plastic covers
We recommend that children not ride on rough                   Under wet conditions, the stopping power of your        1. ! WARNING: We do not                                    over the screws on the rear axle.
                                                               brakes (as well as the brakes of other vehicles
terrain unless they are accompanied by an adult.
                                                               sharing the road) is dramatically reduced and your      condone modifying the Pietzo                               4. Unscrew the nuts on both
1. The variable conditions and hazards of of-road              tires don’t grip nearly as well. This makes it harder   Electric Bicycle in any way                                sides of the rear axle and the
   riding require close attention and specific skills.         to control speed and easier to lose control.
   Start slowly on easier terrain and build up your                                                                    shape or form. Modifying the                               wheel should come right off.
   skills. If your bike has suspension, the increased                                                                  bike in any way, will void your                            5. Unhook the chains from the
   speed you may develop also increases your risk
   of losing control and falling. Get to know how to
                                                                       WARNING                                         Warranty. The instructions below                           rear freewheel (gears)
   handle your bike safely before trying increased              WET WEATHER IMPAIRS TRACTION,                          are written only for the                                   6. To install it back on, please
   speed or more difficult terrain.
                                                                BRAKING AND VISIBILITY, BOTH FOR                       maintenance or repair of the                               note and reverse all the
2. Wear safety gear appropriate to the kind of riding           THE BICYCLIST AND FOR OTHER
   you plan to do.                                              VEHICLES SHARING THE ROAD.                             bike.                                                      detachment instructions.
3. Don’t ride alone in remote areas. Even when                  The risk of an accident is dramatically                2. To detach the rear wheel, first
   riding with others, make sure that someone                   increased in wet conditions.                           unhook the connector near the
   knows where you’re going and when you expect
   to be back.                                                                                                         rear wheel on the right hand side
4. Always take along some kind of identification,              To make sure that you can slow down and stop
   so that people know who you are in case of an               safely in wet conditions, ride more slowly and apply
   accident; and take along a couple of dollars in             your brakes earlier and more gradually than you
   cash for a candy bar, a cool drink or an
   emergency phone call.
                                                               would under normal, dry conditions. See also            APPENDIX A
                                                               SECTION 4.C.
5. Yield right of way to pedestrians and animals.
   Ride in a way that does not frighten or
   endanger them, and give them enough room                                                                            M axim um Fork Length (M ountain Bikes)
   so that their unexpected moves don’t endanger
6. Be prepared. If something goes wrong while                                                                          Maximum Fork Length is an important frame safety testing specification for front suspension mountain bikes. You
   you’re riding of-road, help may not be close.                                                                       must observe the measurement when installing headset parts, headset adapters, installing and adjusting a fork,
                                                                                                                       and selecting replacement forks.
7. Before you attempt to jump, do stunt riding or
   race with your bike, read and understand
   SECTION .F.                                                                                                                  WARNING
O f f - R o a d Respect
Obey the local laws regulating where and how you                                                                        YOU MUST SELECT A REPLACEMENT FORK NOT ONLY BASED ON HEAD TUBE
can ride of-road, and respect private property. You                                                                     DIAMETER BUT THE CRITICAL FACTOR OF FRAME MAXIMUM FORK LENGTH
may be sharing the trail with others — hikers,
equestrians, other cyclists. Respect their rights. Stay                                                                 DO NOT EXCEED THE EXISTING FORK LENGTH Exceeding the EXISTING FORK LENGTH limit can
on the designated trail. Don’t contribute to erosion                                                                    overload the frame causing it to fail (break) while riding.
by riding in mud or with unnecessary sliding. Don’t                                                                     YOU CAN BE SEVERELY INJURED, PARALYZED OR KILLED IN AN ACCIDENT IF YOU
disturb the ecosystem by cutting your own trail or                                                                      IGNORE THIS WARNING.
shortcut through vegetation or streams. It is your
responsibility to minimize your impact on the
environment. Leave things as you found them; and
always take out everything you brought in.

                                                          10                                                                                                                 87
                                                                                2 . E - N I G H T RI DI NG                                       arm and leg bands, reflective stripes on your
                                                                                                                                                 helmet, flashing lights attached to your body
assembled and adjusted as                  instructions set forth in this       Riding a bicycle at night is many times more
                                                                                                                                                 and/or your bicycle ... any reflective device or
                                                                                dangerous than riding during the day. A bicyclist is
written in the owner’s manual.             electric bicycle’s                   very dif f ic ult for motorists and pedestrians to see.
                                                                                                                                                 light source that moves will help you get the
                                                                                                                                                 attention of approaching motorists, pedestrians
   Immediately replace any                 manual supplement or the             Therefore, children should never ride at dawn, at
                                                                                                                                                 and other tr af f ic .
                                                                                dusk or at night. Adults who chose to accept the
damaged, missing, or worn                  bicycle owner’s manual.              greatly increased risk of riding at dawn, at dusk or at        • Make sure your clothing or anything you may
parts.                                     Inspection of the Bearings           night need to take extra care both riding and                    be carrying on the bicycle does not obstruct a
                                                                                choosing specialized equipment which helps                       reflector or light.
   Make sure all fasteners are             Maintenance                          reduce that risk. PIETZO has outfitted every bike              • Make sure that your bicycle is equipped with
correctly tightened as written in          1. Frequently check the bearings     with a front and rear LED light that your must turn              correctly positioned and securely mounted
                                                                                on for safety and visibility. PLEASE USE LIGHTS                  reflector.
the owner’s manual                         of the bicycle. Have a bicycle       AT EVERY DUSK/DAWN/NIGHT RIDING.
   Parts that are not properly             service shop lubricate the                                                                                   WARNING
tightened can be lost or operate           bearing                                      WARNING                                                   DO NOT REM OVE THE FRONT OR REAR
poorly.                                    once a year or any time they do       REFLECTORS ARE NOT A SUBSTITUTE                                  REFLECTORS            OR       REFLECTOR
   Do not over tighten parts, as           not pass the tests as noted in the    FOR REQUIRED LIGHTS. RIDING AT                                   BRACKETS FROM YOUR BICYCLE. They
                                                                                 DAWN, AT DUSK, AT NIGHT OR AT                                    are an integral part of the bic yc le’s safety
over-tightening may damage the             Bicycle owner’s manual.               OTHER TIMES OF POOR VISIBILITY                                   system.
part.                                      Serial Numbers to your Pietzo         WITHOUT AN ADEQUATE BICYCLE
                                                                                                                                                  REMOVING THE REFLECTORS MAY
                                                                                 LIGHTING SYSTEM AND WITHOUT
   Make sure any replacement               Electric Bike                         REFLECTORS IS DANGEROUS AND                                      REDUCE YOUR VISIBILITY TO OTHERS
fasteners are of the correct type          1. There are 3 serial numbers         MAY RESULT IN SERIOUS INJURY OR                                  USING THE ROADWAY. BEING STRUCK
                                                                                 DEATH.                                                           BY OTHER VEHICLES MAY RESULT IN
and size.                                  that are of importance on your                                                                         SERIOUS INJURY OR DEATH.
   Your bike uses an Aluminum              EG Electric Bike. They are the       Bicycle reflectors are designed to pick up and                    The reflector brackets may protect you from the
                                                                                reflect street lights and car lights in a way that may            brake straddle cable catching on the tire in the
Alloy frame. Ensure that the               Frame serial number, the Motor       help you to be seen and recognized as a moving                    event of brake cable failure. If a brake straddle
bicycle frame is carefully and             serial number and the Battery        bicyclist.                                                        cable catches on the tire, it can cause the wheel
frequently inspected; as                   pack serial number. All the 3                                                                          to stop suddenly, causing you to loose control

Aluminum frames can develop                serial numbers can be found on               CAUTION                                                   and fall.

micro fractures from stress,               the outside of the box the bicycle    Check reflectors and their mounting brackets                     WHILE RIDING AT DAWN, AT DUSK OR AT
severe impact and shocks. If you           was shipped in.                       regularly to make sure that they are clean,
                                                                                 straight, unbroken and securely mounted. Have
see these micro fractures or               2. The Bike Frame Serial              a professional bicycle mechanic replace                          • Ride slowly.
cracks, stop riding the bicycle            number to your Pietzo Electric        damaged reflectors and straighten or tighten
                                                                                                                                                  • Avoid dark areas, areas of heavy or fast-
                                                                                 any that are bent or loose.
immediately.                               Bike is located right where the                                                                        moving traffic.
   In case of micro fractures,             front Fork /Suspension fork          The mounting brackets of front and rear reflectors are            • Avoid road hazards.
                                                                                often designed as brake straddle cable safety catches             • If possible, ride on familiar routes.
have the bicycle frame repaired            meets the frame of the bike. It is   which prevent the straddle cable from catching on                 IF RIDING IN TRAFFIC:
and inspected by a qualified               at the front of the frame right      the tire tread if the cable jumps out of its yoke or
                                                                                                                                                  • Be predictable. Ride so that drivers can see
professional before riding the             near where you install the front                                                                       you and predict your movements.
                                                                                If you choose to ride under conditions of poor
bicycle again.                             reflector to the bike.               visibility, check and be sure you comply with all                 • Be alert. Ride defensively and expect the
NOTE: Have a bicycle service               3. The Motor serial number is        local laws about night riding, and take the                       unexpected.
                                                                                following strongly recommended additional
shop make any repairs or                   located on the side of the motor.    precaution:
                                                                                                                                                  • If you plan to ride in traffic often, ask a local
                                                                                                                                                  dealer about traffic safety classes or a good
adjustments for which you do not           4. The Battery serial number is      • Purchase and install battery or generator                       book on bicycle traffic safety.
have the correct tools to or if you        located at the bottom of the             powered head and tail lights which meet all
                                                                                    regulatory requirements and provide adequate
do not sufficiently understand the         Battery pack.                            visibility.
                                                                                • Wear light colored, reflective clothing and
                                                                                  accessories, such as a reflective vest, reflective
                                      86                                                                                                  11
                                                                                                                        Electric Motor and Battery                input terminal of the battery are
RIDING                                                         Use only designated areas for stunts, jumping,           Features                                  firmly connected.
Whether you call it Aggro, Hucking, Freeride, North
                                                               racing or fast downhill riding                           High efficiency and power saving             When the charger is plugged
                                                               • Wear a full face helmet, safety pads and other
Shore, Downhill, Jumping, Stunt Riding, Racing or
                                                                   safety gear
                                                                                                                        Electric Motor–                           into a wall outlet, the charger
something else: if you engage in this sort of
extreme, aggressive riding you will get hurt, and you          • Understand and recognize that the stresses                A Brushless Motor with gears           LED indicator will turn RED to
voluntarily assume a greatly increased risk of injury              imposed on your bike by this kind of activity           High efficiency of up to 85%.          indicate that the battery is
or death.                                                          may break or damage parts of the bicycle and
                                                                   void the warranty                                    7N.m~22.75N.m torque                      charging
Pietzo bicycles are not designed for these types of
riding, and those that are may not be suitable for all         • Take your bicycle to a professional bicycle               Efficiency>80%. 36V battery               The LED indicator on the
                                                                   mechanic if anything breaks or bends. Do not
types of aggressive riding.
                                                                   ride your bicycle when any part is damaged.          for a continuous run range of             charger will turn GREEN when
When riding fast down hill, you can reach speeds
achieved by motorcycles, and therefore face similar
                                                               If you ride downhill at speed, do stunt riding or ride   more than 40 miles on a single            the battery is fully charged.
                                                               in competition, know the limits of your skill and
hazards and risks. Have your bicycle and                       experience. Ultimately, avoiding injury is your          charge in pedal assist mode.                 Disconnect the charger from
equipment carefully inspected by a qualified
mechanic and be sure it is in perfect condition.
                                                               responsibility.                                             Produces a continuous and              the wall outlet before
Consult with expert riders and race officials on               2.G - CHANGING COMPONENTS OR                             sustained power of 350 Watt               disconnecting the charger from
conditions and equipment advisable at the site                 ADDING ACCESSORIES
where you plan to ride. Wear appropriate safety
                                                                                                                        power with a peak of up to 700            the battery.
gear, including an approved full face helmet, full             There are many components and accessories                Watts.                                       To ensure long battery life,
finger gloves, and body armor. Ultimately, it is your          available to enhance the comfort, performance and
responsibility to have proper equipment and to be              appearance of your bicycle. However, if you change       High power and high torque –              fully charge the battery for at
familiar with course conditions.                               components or add accessories, you do so at your            Fast pick up even under heavy          least twelve (12) hours during
                                                               own risk. The bicycle’s manufacturer may not
        WARNING                                                have tested that component or accessory for              load. Easily climb and ascend             the first initial three charges and
                                                               compatibility, reliability or safety on your bicycle.    sloppy terrains.                          charge the battery at least once
  Bicycles and bicycle parts have limitations with
  regard to strength and integrity, and this type of
                                                               Before installing any component or accessory,               Low power consumption,                 for 2-3 hours every 2 months
                                                               including a different size tire, make sure that it is
  riding can exceed those limitations.                         compatible with your bicycle by checking with a          Long-battery life and a Compact              ! NOTE: Only charge the
                                                               professional bicycle mechanic. Be sure to read,          design.                                   battery pack using the supplied
                                                               understand and follow the instructions that
        WARNING                                                accompany the products you purchase for your                The 36 Volt Battery pack               charger.
 ALTHOUGH            MANY             CATALOGS,
                                                               bicycle. See also PART II, SECTION D. INSPECT            weighs 11.1 Lbs.                             ! NOTE: Always plug the
                                                               FOR SAFETY.
 ADVERTISEMENTS AND ARTICLES ABOUT                                                                                      Trouble-free, Low maintenance,            charger onto the Battery pack
                                                                                                                        Long life span and Easy to                before plugging the charger to
                                                                       WARNING                                          maintain electric motor –                 the wall socket.
                                                                                                                           High Quality Brushless Electric           ! WARNING: Do NOT charge
 INJURY.                                                         MAINTAIN A NY C OM PO NE NT O R                        Disc motor with an advance                the battery for more than 24hrs
 Remember that the action depicted is being
 performed by professionals with many years of
                                                                 AC C E S S O R Y C AN RESULT   IN                      speed sensor and gears.                   for risk of damaging the battery.
                                                                 SERIOUS INJURY OR DEATH.
 training and experience. Know your limits and                                                                             Closed system motor requires           Repair and Service
 always wear a helmet and other appropriate
 safety gear. Even with state-of-the-art protective
                                                                                                                        only surface cleaning and dry                WARNING:
 safety gear, you could be seriously injured or                        WARNING                                          storage.                                     Inspect the bicycle frequently.
 killed when jumping, stunt riding, riding downhill
 at speed or in competition.                                     Changing the components on your bike may
                                                                                                                                                                  Failure to inspect the bicycle and
We recommend against this type of riding because                 void the warranty. Refer to your warranty,             Charging the Battery                      to make repairs or adjustments,
of the increased risks; but if you choose to take the            and check with a Pietzo representative                    Connect the battery to the             as necessary, can result in injury
risk, at least:                                                  before changing the components on your
• Take lessons from a competent instructor first                 bike.                                                  charger; ensure the output                to the rider or to others. Make
• Start with easy learning exercises and slowly                                                                         terminal of the charger and the           sure all parts are correctly
    develop your skills before trying more difficult or
    dangerous riding
                                                          12                                                                                                 85
                                                                               SECTION 3. FIT
place. Avoid contact with
corrosive substances and keep             Charger relative humidity:           NOTE: Correct fit is an essential element of
the battery away from excessive           5 65 RH                              bicycling safety, performance and comfort. Making
                                                                               the adjustments to your bicycle which result in
heat and or open flames.                  Charger                              correct fit for your body and riding conditions
   Should the battery need to be                                               requires experience, skill and special tools. Always
                                                                               have a professional bicycle mechanic make the
transported, pack it in a box, and                                             adjustments on your bicycle; or, if you have the
ensure that it is always protected                                             experience, skill and tools, have a professional
                                                                               bicycle mechanic check your work before riding.
from intense physical impact,               WARNING:
shock, severe vibrations, direct             Never place any object on the
sunlight, or water                        charger.                                    WARNING
logging. The battery may be                  Never pour any liquid on or         IF YOUR BICYCLE DOES NOT FIT
                                                                                 PROPERLY, YOU MAY LOSE CONTROL
transported in a vehicle such as          insert any metal into the charger.     AND FALL.
an automobile, train, ship,                  Never disassemble or modify         If your new bike doesn’t fit, ask your Pietzo
                                          the charger in anyway.                 representative to exchange it before you ride
airplane and etc. Please check                                                   it.                                                                  WARNING
your local rules and regulations             Never plug or un-plug the
                                                                                                                                                 IF YOU PLAN TO USE YOUR BIKE FOR
regarding such transportation.            charger with a wet hand              3.A - STAND OVER HEIGHT                                           JUMPING OR STUNT RIDING, READ
Battery Storage conditions:                  Do not use the charger during                                                                       SECTION 2.F AGAIN.
                                          a lightning storm.                   Stand over height is the basic element of bike fit
Room temperature -20 35 ,                                                      (see fig. 2). It is the distance from the ground to the        Step-through frame bicycles
Battery Storage relative                     Use only the supplied charger     top of the bicycle’s frame at that point where your            Standover height does not apply to bicycles with
                                          to re-charge the battery.            crotch is when straddling the bike. To check for
humidity: 5 65 RH                                                              correct stand over height, straddle the bike while
                                                                                                                                              step-through frames. Instead, the limiting dimension
                                                                                                                                              is determined by saddle height range. You must be
Charger                                      Do not operate the charger in     wearing the kind of shoes in which you’ll be riding,           able to adjust your saddle position as described in
                                          an unstable, dusty or an             and bounce vigorously on your heels. If your crotch
   The charger should be                                                       touches the frame, the bike is too big for you. Don’t
                                                                                                                                              SECTION 3.B. SADDLE POSITION without
                                                                                                                                              exceeding the limits set by the height of the top of
disconnected from the battery             excessively damp environment.        even ride the bike around the block. A bike which              the seat tube and the ”Minimum Insertion” or
                                             Avoid using the charger under     you ride only on paved surfaces and never take of-
when it is kept in storage.                                                    road should give you a minimum stand over height
                                                                                                                                              “Maximum Extension” mark on the seat post.

   Should the charger need to be          direct sunlight.                     clearance of two inches (5 cm). A bike that you’ll
                                             Operate the charger in a well     ride on unpaved surfaces should give you a
transported, pack it into a box                                                minimum of three inches (7.5 cm) of stand over
and ensure that it is always              ventilation environment.             height clearance. And a bike that you’ll use of road
                                             Unplug the charger from the       should give you four inches (0 cm) or more of
protected from intense physical                                                clearance.
shock, severe vibrations, impact,         wall outlet when not in use.
direct sunlight, or water                 Accessories
logging. The battery may be                 WARNING :
transported in a vehicle such as             Ensure you do NOT raise the
an automobile, train, ship,               seat post pass the safety mark
airplane and etc. Please check            etched on the seat posts.
your local rules and regulations             Ensure that your assembled
regarding such transportation.            accessory does not interfere with
Charger Storage conditions:               the steering, braking or the
Room temperature -20 35 ,                 natural movement of the bicycle.
                                     84                                                                                                  13
                                                                                                                        of keys are unique to your                   Never disassemble the
3. B- S A D D L E PO SI TI O N                                  Once the saddle is at the correct height, make sure
                                                                that the seat post does not project from the frame      particular electric bicycle and           battery. The battery does not
Correct saddle adjustment is an important factor in             beyond its “Minimum Insertion” or “Maximum              unfortunately we do not keep a            contain serviceable parts.
getting the most performance and comfort from                   Extension” mark (fig. 4).
your bicycle. If the saddle position is not comfortable                                                                 copy of your keys on file. Nor               Do not sit on or place any
                                                                N O T E : Some bicycles have a sight hole in the
for you, see a dealer.
                                                                seat tube, the purpose of which is to make it easy to   would we have a way of                    object on or over the battery.
The saddle can be adjusted in three directions:                 see whether the seat post is inserted in the seat       reproducing them.                            Use only the supplied charger
                                                                tube far enough to be safe. If your bicycle has such
1. Up and Down Adjustment                                       a sight hole, use it instead of the “Minimum                                                      to charge the battery.
To check for correct saddle height (fig. 3):                    Insertion” or “Maximum Extension” mark to make          CARE INSTRUCTIONS                         Battery capacity: 10Ah
                                                                sure the seat post is inserted in the seat tube far
• Sit on the saddle;                                            enough to be visible through the sight hole.            Battery                                   Battery and Motor Voltage: 36V
• Place one heel on a pedal;                                    If your bike has an interrupted seat tube, as is the      WARNING:                                Charge temperature range
• Rotate the crank until the pedal with your heel on it
                                                                case on some suspension bikes, you must also               Never short circuit the charge         0~45
                                                                make sure that the seat post is far enough into the
is in the down position and the crank arm is parallel
                                                                frame so that you can touch it through the bottom       or discharge battery terminals.           Discharge temperature range –
to the seat tube.
                                                                of the interrupted seat tube with the tip of your          Never charge the battery by            20~55
If your leg is not completely straight, your saddle             finger without inserting your finger beyond its first
height needs to be adjusted. If your hips must rock             knuckle. Also see NOTE above and fig. 5).               the discharge terminals or                Total Charge time from total
for the heel to reach the pedal, the saddle is too high.                                                                discharge the battery by the              discharge: 4-6 hours
If your leg is bent at the knee with your heel on the
                                                                                                                        charge terminals.                         Total Charge time for the initial
pedal, the saddle is too low.
                                                                        WARNING                                                                                   first 3 charges: 12 hours
                                                                   If your seat post is not inserted in the seat tube      Keep the battery away from             If you have any questions about
                                                                   as described in B.1 above, the seat post may
                                                                   break, which could cause you to lose control         excessive heat and or open                this battery or its usage, please
                                                                   and fall.                                            flames.                                   do not hesitate to contact us.
                                                                                                                           Never pour on or submerge
                                                                                                                        the battery in water.                     Storage, Maintenance and
                                                                                                                           To avoid damage to the                 transport
                                                                                                                        battery, never subject the battery        Battery
                                                                                                                        to intense physical impact, shock            If the battery needs to be
                                                                                                                        or severe vibration.                      stored for an extended period of
                                                                                                                           Protect the battery from water         time, it should be kept at around
Figure 3. Saddle Position
                                                                                                                        or moisture at all times.                 50% charge capacity (or charge
Ask a professional bicycle mechanic to set the                                                                             Protect the discharge and              the battery for about 2-3hours
saddle for your optimal riding position and to show                                                                     charge terminals of the battery           from empty) and should be
you how to make this adjustment. If you choose to
make your own saddle height adjustment:
                                                                Figure 4. Minimum Insertion Mark                        from rain or water logging.               placed in a dry and well
 •   loosen the seat post clamp
                                                                                                                           Keep the battery away from             ventilated place.
 •   raise or lower the seat post in the seat tube                                                                      children.                                    To maintain battery life
 •   make sure the saddle is straight fore and aft                                                                         When the battery is not in use         expectancy, the battery needs to
     re-tighten the seat post clamp to the                                                                                                                        be charged at least once for 2-3
     recommended torque (See manufacturer’s
                                                                                                                        for an extended period of time,
     instructions).                                                                                                     remove the battery from the               hours every two months.
                                                                                                                        battery holder for storage.                  The battery and charger
                                                                                                                                                                  should be kept in storage in a
                                                                                                                                                                  clean, dry and well ventilated
                                                           14                                                                                                83
                                                                                                                                               NO TE: If your bicycle is equipped with a
                                                                                                                                               suspension seat post, p er io d ic a l ly ask a
more battery power than in any            As with any Lithium-ion batteries,                                                                   professional bicycle mechanic to check it.
of the peddle assist modes.               there are a limited number of                                                                        Small changes in saddle position can have a
   This mode will give you the            times a battery can be charged.                                                                      substantial effect on performance and comfort. To
least “miles per charge”                  While priming Lithium-ion                                                                            find your best saddle position, make only one
                                                                                                                                               adjustment at a time.
compared to any of the above              batteries are not necessary
modes of operation.                       (which means it may be charged                                                                              WARNING
                                          whenever you want without
                                                                                                                                                When making saddle angle adjustments with a
About the Brake Safety Feature            affecting its charge capacity), the    Figure 5. Interrupted Seat Tube                                single bolt saddle clamp, always check to make
on all our Electric Bikes.                number of times it is charged                                                                         sure that the serrations on the mating surfaces of
                                                                                                                                                the clamp are not worn. Worn serrations on the
   ALL our electric bikes make            does affect the overall longevity      2. Front and Back Adjustment                                   clamp can allow the saddle to move, causing you
use of a wired brake lever kill           of the battery life.                   The saddle can be adjusted forward or back to help             to lose control and fall.
switch for safety purposes.               To conserve battery power,             you get the optimal position on the bike. Ask a                Always tighten fasteners to the correct torque.
                                                                                 professional bicycle mechanic to set the saddle for            Bolts that are too tight can stretch and deform.
When the brake lever is                   switch off the electrical system       your optimal riding position and to show you how to            Bolts that are too loose can move and fatigue.
engaged, it sends a kill signal to        by pressing the “ON/OFF” button        make this adjustment.                                          Either mistake can lead to a sudden failure of the
the controller to disable the             on the meter on the left of the        If you choose to make your own front and back                  bolt, causing you to lose control and fall.
                                                                                 adjustment, make sure that the clamp mechanism is
motor under all circumstances             handlebar, when the electric           clamping on the straight part of the saddle rails and
and condition. This will ensure           power is not needed.                   is not touching the curved part of the rails, and that
the motor does not continue to            ! NOTE: The sole purpose of the        you are using the recommended torque on the
                                                                                 clamping      fastener(s)   (See      manufacturer’s
spin when you need the bicycle            larger set of keys for the bottom      instructions).
                                                                                                                                                Aft er any saddle adjustment, be sure that
to stop.                                  lock is used only to unlatch the       3. Saddle Angle Adjustment                                     the saddle adjusting mechanism is properly
                                          battery pack for removal. You do       Most people prefer a horizontal saddle; but some               tightened before riding. A loose saddle clamp
                                                                                 riders like the saddle nose angled up or down just             or seat post binder can cause damage to the
How to read the Battery                   not need to insert this key to         a little. A professional bicycle mechanic can adjust           seat post, or can cause you to lose control and
Meters and about the Li-on                operate the electrical system of       saddle angle or teach you how to do it.                        fall.

battery.                                  the bicycle, nor do you need this      If you choose to make your own saddle angle                    A correctly tightened saddle adjusting
                                                                                 adjustment and you have a single bolt saddle clamp             mechanism will allow no saddle movement in
                                          key to insert the battery to lock it   on your seat post, it is critical that you loosen the          any direction. Periodically check to make sure
There are 2 Battery meters on             on to the bike.                        clamp bolt sufficiently to allow any serrations on             that the saddle adjusting mechanism is properly
                                                                                 the mechanism to disengage before changing the                 tightened.
your bike. 1 is located                   ! NOTE: The sole purpose of the        saddle’s angle, and then that the serrations fully re-
conveniently on the left hand             smaller pair of keys is to turn the    engage before you tighten the clamp bolt to the
side of the handle                        electrical system “ON/OFF”. You        recommended       torque (See          manufacturer’s
bar. The 4 red LED lights below           will need this key to operate the
the incremental bars indicate the         electric motor of your electric
state of the battery discharge.           bike and this key does not
The other Battery meter is                unlock the battery latch. This key
located on to the top rear of             is used on the top ignition lock of
battery with 5 green LEDs                 your Electric Bike.
showing the current capacity of           ! WARNING: Please keep the 2
the battery in various states of          set of keys to your electric
discharge.                                bicycle in a safe place. Each set
                                     82                                                                                                   15
                                                                                                                     To put the bike in “High”               any effect on the speed or power
If, in spite of carefully adjusting the saddle height,
tilt and fore-and-aft position, your saddle is still                                                              peddle assist mode, switch on              of the electric motor.
uncomfortable, you may need a different saddle                                                                    the bike as you would on the                  Twist the thumb throttle in any
design. Saddles, like people, come in many
different shapes, sizes and resilience. Any bicycle                                                               above “LOW” mode and then                  increments of power you desire
dealer can help you select a saddle which, when                                                                   press the green “Mode” button to           to power the motor of the bicycle
correctly adjusted for your body and riding style,
will be comfortable.                                                                                              light up the “HIGH” mode and               and it will take off.
                                                                                                                  peddle the bicycle normally as                This mode can be used in
        WARNING                                                                                                   you would any bicycle.                     conjunction with any of the
  SOM E PEOPLE HAVE CLAIMED THAT                                                                                     In this mode, the motor will            above modes as the amount of
  WHICH IS INCORRECTLY ADJUSTED OR                                                                                assist you with a high amount of           motor power supplied while
  WHICH DOES NOT SUPPORT YOUR                                                                                     power as you peddle the bicycle.           twisting the thumb throttle
  SHORT-TERM OR LONG-TERM INJURY TO                                                                                  ! CAUTION: This mode is                 overrides whatever mode the
  NERVES AND BLOOD VESSELS, OR EVEN                                                                               designed to achieve a speed of             “MODE” switch on the handle
                                                                                                                  20 MPH. User discretion is                 bar is engaged in.
  If your saddle causes you pain, numbness or
  other discomfort, listen to your body and stop                                                                  advised                                       You can engage this mode
  riding until you see your dealer about saddle                                                                      The motor will stop if the brake        whenever you want as long as
  adjustment or a different saddle.
                                                                                                                  lever is depressed even if you             the system is turned “ON”.
                                                                                                                  are still peddling the bicycle.               While peddling will lighten the
                                                                                                                     The motor will stop when you            load demand on the electric
                                                                                                                  stop peddling in this mode.                motor, you do NOT need to
Your bike is equipped either with a “threadless”                                                                     This mode will give you a low           peddle in this mode of operation.
stem, which clamps on to the outside of the steerer
tube, or with a “quill” stem, which clamps inside the                                                             “miles per charge” of battery                 ! CAUTION: This mode is
steerer tube by way of an expanding binder bolt. If                                                               power use among the peddle                 designed to achieve a speed of
you aren’t absolutely sure which type of stem your
bike has, ask a bicycle dealer.
                                                                    WARNING                                       assist modes.                              20 MPH. User discretion is
If your bike has a “threadless” stem, a professional          Quill stems: the stem’s minimum                     3. Fully Electric Mode –                   advised.
bicycle mechanic may be able to change handlebar              insertion mark must not be visible                     Place the smaller top key in               The motor will NOT stop when
height by moving height adjustment spacers from               above the top of the headset.
below the stem to above the stem, or vice versa.                                                                  the switch and turn the key                you stop peddling while the
                                                              If the stem is extended beyond the minimum
Otherwise, you’ll have to get a stem of different
                                                              insertion mark the stem may break or damage
                                                                                                                  clockwise to turn on the electrical        thumb throttle is engaged.
length or rise. Consult a professional bicycle
mechanic. Do not attempt to do this yourself, as it           the fork’s steerer tube, which could cause you to   system.                                       The motor will stop if the brake
                                                              lose control and fall.
requires special knowledge.                                                                                          Press the red “ON/OFF”                  lever is depressed even if the
If your bike has a “quill” stem, you can ask a                                                                    button on the handlebar meter to           thumb throttle is engaged.
professional bicycle mechanic to adjust the
handlebar height a bit by adjusting stem height.                                                                  turn “ON” the system.                         ! CAUTION: Remember to let
A quill stem has an etched or stamped mark on
                                                                                                                     Place the “MODE” switch to              go of the thumb throttle when
its shaft which designates the stem’s “Minimum                                                                    the left of the handle bar in any          getting on or off the bike
Insertion” or “Maximum Extension”. This mark
must not be visible above the headset.
                                                                                                                  position you desire, because               whether or not the brake levers
                                                                                                                  while engaging the thumb                   are engaged.
                                                                                                                  throttle, the peddle assist mode              In this mode, the electric bike
                                                                                                                  is inactive and does not have              will use the most amount of
                                                                                                                                                             battery power it will use even
                                                         16                                                                                             81
                                                                                                                                            3.D - CONTROL POSITION
                                                                                        WARNING                                             ADJUSTMENTS
Pietzo Journey                                When first switched “ON” the
                                                                                   On some bicycles, changing the stem or
                                           motor starts off in the “LOW”           stem height can affect the tension of the front
                                                                                                                                            The angle of the brake and shift control levers and
                                                                                                                                            their position on the handlebars can be changed.
                                           power mode.                             brake cable, locking the front brake or
OPERATION                                                                          creating excess cable slack which can make
                                                                                                                                            Ask a professional bicycle mechanic to make the
                                              In this mode the motor is very       the front brake inoperable. If the front brake
                                                                                                                                            adjustments for you.
INSTRUCTIONS                               power efficient, and will assist        pads move in towards the wheel rim or out                If you choose to make your own control lever angle
How to operate the Electric                you with the least power as
                                                                                   away from the wheel rim when the stem or                 adjustment, be sure to re-tighten the clamp
                                                                                   stem height is changed, the brakes must be               fasteners to the recommended torque (See
Bicycle                                    you peddle.                             correctly adjusted before you ride the bicycle.          manufacturer’s instructions).
The Electric bicycle can be                   In “LOW” mode, the system          Some bicycles are equipped with an adjustable
operated in 3 different modes:             provides you with the most            angle stem. If your bicycle has an adjustable angle        3.E - BRAKE REACH
1. Manual Mode –                           “miles per charge” of battery
                                                                                 stem, ask a professional bicycle mechanic to show
                                                                                                                                            Many bikes have brake levers which can be
                                                                                 you how to adjust if. Do not attempt to make the
   Make sure the Battery                   power                                 adjustment yourself, as changing stem angle may            adjusted for reach. If you have small hands or find
                                                                                                                                            it difficult to squeeze the brake levers, a
Meter/power meter on the left of           use among the peddle assist
                                                                                 also require adjustments to the bicycle’s controls.
                                                                                                                                            professional bicycle mechanic can either adjust the
the handlebar is “OFF” and then,           modes.                                                                                           reach or fit shorter reach brake levers.
peddle the bicycle normally as                                                          WARNING
                                           2b. Peddle Assist Mode
you would any bicycle.                     (Medium) –                              Always tighten fasteners to the correct
                                                                                   torque. Bolts that are too tight can stretch
   In this mode it is not                     To put the bike in “Medium”          and deform. Bolts that are too loose can                     THE SHORTER THE BRAKE LEVER
necessary to insert small ignition         peddle assist mode, switch on           move and fatigue. Either mistake can lead to                 REACH, THE MORE CRITICAL IT IS TO
                                                                                   a sudden failure of the bolt, causing you to                 HAVE     CORRECTLY     ADJUSTED
key or turn on the electric system         the bike as you would on the            lose control and fall.                                       BRAKES, SO THAT FULL BRAKING
of the bike.                               above “LOW” mode and then                                                                            POWER CAN BE APPLIED WITHIN
                                                                                                                                                AVAILABLE BRAKE LEVERTRAVEL.
2a. Peddle Assist Mode (LOW) –             press the green “Mode” button to
   Place the smaller top key in                                                         WARNING                                                 Brake lever travel insufficient to apply full
                                           light up the “MED” mode and                                                                          braking power can result in loss of control,
the switch and turn the key                peddle the bicycle normally as          AN INSUFFICIENTLY TIGHTENED STEM                             which may result in serious injury or death.
                                                                                   BINDER BOLT, HANDLEBAR BINDER
clockwise to turn on the electrical        you would any bicycle.                  BOLT OR BAR END EXTENSION
system.                                       In this mode, the motor will         CLAMPING BOLT MAY COMPROMISE
                                                                                   STEERING ACTION, WHICH COULD
   Press the red “ON/OFF”                  assist you with a moderate              CAUSE YOU TO LOSE CONTROL AND
button on the meter located to             amount of power as you peddle           FALL.
the left of the handlebar to turn          the bicycle.
                                                                                   Place the front wheel of the bicycle between
                                                                                   your legs and attempt to twist the handlebar/
“ON” the system. Peddle the                   The motor will stop if the brake     stem assembly. If you can twist the stem in
bicycle normally as you would              lever is depressed even if you
                                                                                   relation to the front wheel, turn the
                                                                                   handlebars in relation to the stem, or turn the
any bicycle.                               are still peddling the bicycle.         bar end extensions in relation to the
   The motor will stop if the brake           The motor will stop when you
                                                                                   handlebar, the bolts are insufficiently
lever is depressed even if you             stop peddling in this mode.
are still peddling the bicycle.                                                  A professional bicycle mechanic can also
                                              This mode will give you a          change the angle of the handlebar or bar
                                           balanced “miles per charge” of        end extensions.
  The motor will stop when you
                                           battery power use among the
stop peddling in this mode.
                                           peddle assist modes.
                                           2c. Peddle Assist Mode (High) –

                                      80                                                                                               17
                                                                • A hollow axle with a shaft (“skewer”) running
                                                                                                                                SECTION F. PIETZO
         SECTION 4. TECH                                        through it which has a nut on one end and a fitting             LIMITED WARRANTY
                                                                for a hex key, lock lever or other tightening device on
                                                                the other (through bolt, fig. 9)
                                                                                                                          The specific warranty covering your Pietzo bicycle is        Damage resulting from normal wear and tear,
It’s important to your safety, performance and                  • Hex nuts or hex key bolts which are threaded on to      governed by the law of the state or country in which         including the results of fatigue, is not covered.
enjoyment to understand how things work on your                 or into the hub axle (bolt-on wheel, fig. 10)             it was purchased, and applies only to bicycles               Fatigue damage is a symptom of the frame being
bicycle.                                                                                                                  purchased from Pietzo.                                       worn out through normal use. It is one kind of normal
                                                                                                                                                                                       wear and tear, and it is the owner’s responsibility to
We urge you to ask a professional bicycle mechanic                                                                        FRAMES: (frame, fork structure, swing arm): Pietzo           inspect his/her bicycle. See Section 6. and D.
how to do the things described in this section
before you attempt them yourself, and that you
                                                                        WARNING                                           frames are warranted by Pietzo, LLC against
                                                                                                                          manufacturing defects in materials and/or                    Damage resulting from improper assembly or
have a professional bicycle mechanic check your                                                                           workmanship for one year from the date of the                maintenance, or from installation of parts and
                                                                   RIDING   WITH   AN   IMPROPERLY
work before you ride the bike.                                                                                            original retail purchase. All other conditions apply.        accessories not compatible with the Pietzo bicycle,
                                                                   SECURED WHEEL CAN ALLOW THE
                                                                                                                                                                                       is not covered.
If you have even the slightest doubt as to whether                 WHEEL TO WOBBLE OR FALLOFFTHE                          COMPONENTS: All other components, including
you understand something in this section of the                    BICYCLE, WHICH CAN CAUSE SERIOUS                       internal parts, suspension parts, frame fixtures and         All labor charges for warranty service are the
Manual, talk to a professional bicycle mechanic.                   INJURY OR DEATH. THEREFORE, IT IS                      finishes (paint and decals) are warranted against            responsibility of the bicycle’s owner.
                                                                   ESSENTIAL THAT YOU:                                    manufacturing defects in materials and/or                    During the duration of this limited warranty, Pietzo
                                                                   1. Ask your dealer to help you make sure               workmanship for a period of Six (6) months from the          will either repair any defective frame or component,
4.A-WHEELS                                                         you know how to install and remove your                date of original retail purchase.                            or, at our option, replace any defective frame or
Bicycle wheels are designed to be removable for                    wheels safely.                                                                                                      component with the same or most nearly
easier transportation and for repair of a tire puncture.           2. Understand and apply the correct                    TERMS OF LIMITED WARRANTY:                                   comparable model or component then available.
In most cases, the wheel axles are inserted into                   technique for clamping your wheel in place.            This limited warranty is not meant to suggest or             THIS IS THE EXCLUSIVE REMEDY UNDER THIS
slots, called “dropouts” in the fork and frame, but                                                                       imply that the bicycle cannot be broken or will last         WARRANTY. ANY AND ALL OTHER REMEDIES
                                                                   3. Each time, before you ride the bike, check
some suspension mountain bikes use what is                                                                                forever. It does mean that the bicycle is covered            AND DAMAGES THAT MAY OTHERWISE BE
called a “through axle” wheel mounting system.                     that the wheel is securely clamped.
                                                                                                                          subject to the terms of the limited warranty.                APPLICABLE ARE EXCLUDED, INCLUDING, BUT
                                                                   The clamping action of a correctly secured                                                                          NOT        LIMITED      TO,       INCIDENTAL     OR
If you have a mountain bike equipped with through                  wheel must emboss the surfaces of the                  This limited warranty applies only to the original
axle front or rear wheels, make sure that you have                                                                                                                                     CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR PUNITIVE
                                                                   dropouts.                                              owner of a Pietzo bicycle and is not transferable to         DAMAGES.
the manufacturer’s instructions, and follow those                                                                         subsequent owners.
when installing or removing a through axle wheel. If                                                                                                                                   THIS IS THE ONLY WARRANTY MADE BY PIETZO
you don’t know what a through axle is, ask a                                                                              For any warranty claim to be considered, the bicycle         ON ITS FRAMES AND COMPONENTS, AND THERE
professional bicycle mechanic.                                                                                            must be brought in to an Authorized Pietzo Bicycle           ARE NO WARRANTIES WHICH EXTEND BEYOND
                                                                                                                          Retailer on the same continent on which the bicycle          THE DESCRIPTION HEREIN. ANY WARRANTIES
Wheels are secured in one of three ways:                                                                                  was purchased. The bicycle must be in assembled              THAT MAY OTHERWISE BE IMPLIED BY LAW
• A hollow axle with a shaft (“skewer”) running                                                                           condition and accompanied by the original, dated             INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ANY IMPLIED
through it which has an adjustable tension nut on                                                                         sales receipt for the bicycle. (Be sure to keep your         WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS
one end and an over-center cam on the other (cam                                                                          receipt in a safe place.)                                    FOR     A   PARTICULAR   PURPOSE,     ARE
action system, fig.8a & 8b).                                                                                              This limited warranty is void if the bicycle is              EXCLUDED.
                                                                                                                          subjected to abuse, neglect, improper repair,                Please refer to the documents included with your
                                                                                                                          improper maintenance, alteration, modification, an           bicycle for possible further restrictions.
                                                                                                                          accident or other abnormal, excessive, or improper
                                                                                                                          use.                                                         This Limited Warranty gives the consumer specific
                                                                                                                                                                                       legal rights. The consumer may also have other
                                                                                                                          This limited warranty applies only to bicycles               legal rights which vary from state to state or country
                                                                                                                          purchased in fully assembled and adjusted condition          to country. Some states and countries do not allow
                                                                                                                          from Pietzo or outlets specifically authorized by            the exclusion or limitation of incidental or
                                                                                                                          Pietzo to repair and maintain Pietzo bicycles.               consequential damages or warranties, so the above
                                                                                                                                                                                       limitations or exclusions may not apply to you. If it is
                                                                                                                                                                                       determined by a court of competent jurisdiction that
                                                                                                                                                                                       a certain provision of this limited warranty does not
                                                                                                                                                                                       apply, such determination shall not affect any other
                                                                                                                                                                                       provision of this limited warranty and all other provisions
                                                                                                                                                                                       shall remain in effect.

                                                           18                                                                                                                     79
Right Chainstay Plate                                      Chainstay Protector
On mountain or road bikes, the chainstay plate is          On mountain or road bikes, the chainstay protector
located on the right chainstay just behind the             is a clear, adhesive film applied to the upper
chainrings. This plate protects the carbon                 surface of the right chainstay. This protector can
(composite) chainstay from damage in the event             prevent damage to the chainstay caused by the
the chain. is dropped from the chainring.                  chain

Downtube Protector
On mountain bikes, placement on the down tube              On mountain bikes, a wrap-around fabric type
protector (1) on the downtube (2) reduces the              protector (1) can be installed as additional
potential for damage caused by debris thrown by the        protection.

Figure 39.

                                                           Figure 40.
                                                                                                                Your bicycle may be equipped with a d if f er ent securing method for the front wheel than for the rear wheel.
                                                                                                                Discuss the wheel securing method for your bicycle with a professional bicycle mechanic.

                                                                                                                It is very important that you understand the type of wheel securing method on your bicycle,
                                                                                                                that you know how to secure the wheels correctly, and that you know how to apply the correct
                                                                                                                clamping force that safely secures the wheel.

                                                                                                                Ask a professional bicycle mechanic to instruct you in correct wheel removal and
                                                                                                                installation, and ask for the manufacturer’s instructions.

                                                      78                                                                                                              19
                                                                                                                    A P P L Y I N G F R AM E PRO TE CTI O N
1. Front Wheel Secondary Retention
   Devices                                                    2. Wheels With Cam Action Systems                     Some areas of your bicycle require protection from
                                                              There are currently two types of over-center cam      abrasion. If protection is not in place, damage can
Most bicycles have front forks which utilize a
                                                              wheel retention mechanisms: the traditional over-     result. Please consult with a professional mechanic
secondary wheel retention device to reduce the risk
                                                              center cam (fig. 8a) and the cam-and-cup system       about the replacement location and position of these
of the wheel disengaging from the fork if the wheel
                                                              (fig. 8b). Both use an over-center cam action to      various frame protections.
is incorrectly secured. Secondary retention devices
are not a substitute for correctly securing your front        clamp the bike’s wheel in place. Your bicycle may
                                                                                                                    NOTE: Damage to your bike resulting cable rub
wheel.                                                        have a cam-and-cup front wheel retention system
                                                              and a traditional rear wheel cam action system.       is not covered under your warranty. Make sure
Secondary retention devices fall into two basic                                                                     the protections indicated below are in place
categories:                                               A. Adjusting the Traditional Cam Action                   whenever you ride your bike. Ask your Pietzo
                                                             Mechanism (fig. 8a)                                    representative for help.
a.   The clip-on type is a part which the                    The wheel hub is clamped in place by the force
     manufacturer adds to the front wheel hub or             of the over-center cam pushing against one             Housing and Cable Guides
     front fork.                                             dropout and pulling the tension adjusting nut, by      Normal line and cable movement against the frame               Figure 38.
b. The integral type is molded, cast or machined             way of the skewer, against the other dropout. The      can wear away painted finishes and decals.
   into the outer faces of the front fork dropouts.          amount of clamping force is controlled by the
                                                                                                                                                                                   THIS PHOTO SHOWS A TYPICAL USE OF
Ask a professional bicycle mechanic to explain the           tension adjusting nut. Turning the tension
                                                                                                                                                                                   GUARD M ATERIAL AT A CONTACT
particular secondary retention device on your bike.          adjusting nut clockwise while keeping the cam
                                                             lever from rotating increases clamping force;
                                                             turning it counterclockwise while keeping the                                                                                          Head tube area
                                                             cam lever from rotating reduces clamping force.                                                                                           Sea tube
        WARNING                                              Less than half a turn of the tension adjusting nut
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Pivots areas
                                                             can make the difference between safe
 DO NOT REMOVE OR DISABLE THE                                clamping force and unsafe clamping force.                                                                                   Anywhere a control cable or housing
 SECONDARY RETENTION DEVICE.                                                                                                                                                                  may contact the frame

 As its name implies, it serves as a back-up for a
 critical adjustment. If the wheel is not secured
 correctly, the secondary retention device can
                                                                      WARNING                                                                                                             CAUTION
 reduce the risk of the wheel disengaging from                                                                                                                                      Over time, cable rubbing can wear into the frame
 the fork. Removing or disabling the secondary                  THE FULL FORCE OF THE CAM ACTION                                                                                    itself causing very serious frame damage.
 retention device may also void the warranty.                   IS NEEDED TO CLAMP THE WHEEL
                                                                SECURELY.                                                                                                           Check over your bike after your first few rides.
 Secondary retention devices are not a substitute                                                                   Figure 37.                                                      Apply the guard material where rubbing is found.
 for correctly securing your wheel. Failure to                  Holding the nut with one hand and turning the                                                                       When applied correctly and renewed when
 properly secure the wheel can cause the wheel                  lever like a wing nut with the other hand until                                                                     worn, the guard material is good protection for
 to wobble or disengage, which could cause you                  everything is as tight as you can get it will not                                                                   your bike.
                                                                                                                    To apply the guard material:
 to loose control and fall, resulting in serious                clamp a cam action wheel safely in the
                                                                dropouts.                                           1. Clean the frame with a mild detergent and wipe
 injury or death.                                                                                                      dry with a clean towel. Do not use solvents or
                                                                See also WARNING on page 20.                           harsh chemicals to clean the frame.
                                                                                                                       OPTIONAL: Trim the adhesive guard material
                                                                                                                       to the shape required.
                                                                                                                    2. Remove the backing and position the guard
                                                                                                                       under the cable/ line.
                                                                                                                    3. Rub the guard firmly against the frame with your
                                                                                                                       fingers to fix it in place.
                                                                                                                    4. Periodically, recheck the guards and other
                                                                                                                       areas of the frame as you continue to ride.
                                                                                                                       Replace the guards if they wear out.

                                                                                                                    Also, adhesive frame guards are not a fix for
                                                                                                                    incorrectly installed or routed cables or lines. If you
                                                                                                                    find that applied guards are wearing out very quickly,
                                                                                                                    consult with a professional bicycle mechanic about
                                                                                                                    the routing on your bike.

                                                         20                                                                                                                   77
                                                                                                                B. Adjusting the Cam-and-cup Mechanism                        (2) If your bike has cam action front wheel retention,
BICYCLE REPAIR/ WORK STANDS                                                                                        (fig. 8b)                                                     move the cam lever from the locked or CLOSED
                                                                                                                   The cam-and-cup system on your front wheel                    position to the OPEN position (figs. 8a & b). If
The clamping jaws of a bike stand can generate a                                                                   will have been correctly adjusted for your bicycle.           your bike has through bolt or bolt-on front wheel
crushing force strong enough to seriously damage                                                                   Ask a professional bicycle mechanic to check                  retention, loosen the fastener(s) a few turns
your frame. See next figure.                                                                                       the adjustment every six months. Do not use a                 counter-clockwise using an appropriate wrench,
                                                                                                                   camand-cup front wheel on any bicycle other                   lock key or the integral lever.
                                                                                                                   than the one for which has been adjusted it.
         CAUTION                                                                                                3. Removing and Installing Wheels                             (3) If your front fork has a clip-on type secondary
                                                                                                                                                                                 retention device, disengage it and go to step (4).
  Never place your bike in a bike stand by
  clamping the frame.                                                                                                   WARNING                                                  If your front fork has an integral secondary
                                                                                                                                                                                 retention device, and a traditional cam action
  Place your bike in a stand by extending the                                                                    IF YOUR BIKE IS EQUIPPED WITH A HUB                             system (fig. 8a) loosen the tension adjusting nut
  seat post and positioning the stand clamp on                                                                   BRAKE SUCH AS A REAR COASTER                                    enough to allow removing the wheel from the
  the extended seat post. Don’t extend beyond                                                                    BRAKE, FRONT OR REAR DRUM, BAND                                 dropouts. If your front wheel uses a cam-and-cup
  the MINIMUM INSERT line marked on the seat                                                                     OR ROLLER BRAKE; OR IF IT HAS AN                                system, (fig. 8b) squeeze the cup and cam lever
  post.                                                                                                          INTERNAL GEAR REAR HUB, DO NOT                                  together while removing the wheel. No rotation
  Since your carbon seat post can also be                                                                        ATTEMPT TO REMOVE THE WHEEL.                                    of any part is necessary with the cam-and-cup
  damaged by clamping force, adjust the stand                                                                                                                                    system.
                                                                                                                 The removal and re-installation of most hub
  clamp for the minimum clamping force needed                                                                    brakes and internal gear hubs requires special                   You may need to tap the top of the wheel with
  to secure the bike.                                                                                                                                                             the palm of your hand to release the wheel from
                                                                                                                 knowledge. Incorrect removal or assembly can
  Also, before clamping, clean the post and                                                                      result in brake or gear failure, which can cause                 the front fork.
  protect the seat post finish with a rag.                                                                       you to lose control and fall.
                                                                                                                                                                              B. Installing a Disk Brake or Rim Brake
                                                                                                                                                                              Front Wheel
RIDING THROUGH WATER                                                                                                    CAUTION
         CAUTION                                                                                                 If your bike has a disc brake, exercise care in
                                                                                                                 touching the rotor or caliper. Disc rotors have                 If your bike is equipped with a front disk brake,
  “Sealed” components (such as HeadShok and                    Figure 36.                                        sharp edges, and both rotor and caliper can get                 be careful not to damage the disk, caliper or
  Lefty forks, headsets, bottom brackets and                                                                     very hot during use.                                            brake pads when re-inserting the disk into the
  hubs) are effective at keeping mud and grit out                                                                                                                                caliper. Never activate a disk brake’s control
  of your bearings.                                       PROTECT CARBON BIKES FROM                             A. Removing a Disk Brake or Rim Brake                            lever unless the disk is correctly inserted in the
  However, any electric bike that is submerged                                                                     Front Wheel                                                   caliper. See also Section 4.C.
                                                          EXTREME TEMPERATURES
  or exposed to large amounts of water will                                                                     (1) If your bike has rim brakes, disengage the
  require a complete replacement of its electrical        • Protect your carbon bike from extreme                  brake’s quick-release mechanism to increase
  system including battery and motor as well as             temperatures when storing or transporting it.          the clearance between the tire and the brake               (1) If your bike has cam action front wheel retention,
  bearing overhaul this will cause extensive—                                                                      pads (See Section 4.C fig. through 5).                        move the cam lever so that it curves away from
                                                          • Allow your bike to cool of or warm up before
  and expensive—damage.                                                                                                                                                          the wheel (fig. 8b). This is the OPEN position. If
                                                            you ride
                                                                                                                                                                                 your bike has through bolt or bolt-on front wheel
                                                          • Do not store your bike in places where the
                                                                                                                                                                                 retention, go to the next step.
                                                            temperature will exceed 66.5C° (50° F).

                                                          For example, do not leave your bike lying flat in a
                                                          black pickup truck bed in the desert sun, or, under
                                                          the glass of a hatchback auto.

                                                     76                                                                                                                  21
                                                                                                                          L U BRI C ATI O N                                             T I G H T E N I N G TO RQ UE S
(2) With the steering fork facing forward, insert the
     wheel between the fork blades so that the axle                                                                       After cleaning your bike you should lubricate it. The         Correct tightening torque for the fasteners (bolts,
     seats firmly at the top of the fork dropouts. The                                                                    chain should be lubricated. Consult with your retailer        screws, nuts) on your bicycle is very important to
     cam lever, if there is one, should be on rider’s                    WARNING                                          to choose among the many types of chain lubes                 your safety. Correct tightening torque for the
     left side of the bicycle (fig. 8a & b). If your bike                                                                 best suited to your climate and riding conditions.            fasteners is also important for the durability and
                                                                   SECURELY CLAM PING THE WHEEL
     has a clip-on type secondary retention device,                                                                       The pivot points on your derailluers should be                performance of your bicycle. We urge you to have
                                                                   WITH A CAM ACTION RETENTION
     engage it.                                                                                                           lubricated. Apply a small drop of oil to each pivot           a bicycle mechanic correctly torque all fasteners
                                                                   DEVICE  TAKES    CONSIDERABLE
(3) If you have a traditional cam action                                                                                  point and wipe o f the excess.                                using a torque wrench. If you decide to torque
     mechanism: holding the cam lever in the                                                                                                                                            fasteners yourself always use a torque wrench.
                                                                   If you can fully close the cam lever without           Periodically, depending upon how, how oft en, and
     ADJUST position with your right hand, tighten                                                                        where you ride and the design of the components
     the tension adjusting nut with your left hand                 wrapping your fingers around the fork blade
                                                                   for leverage, the lever does not leave a clear         on your bike, other lubrication must be part of your
     until it is finger tight against the fork dropout                                                                    maintenance. Some of you will know how to perform                Find Tightening Torque Information
     (fig. 8a). If you have a cam-and-cup system: the              imprint in the palm of your hand, and the
                                                                   serrations on the wheel fastener do not                the procedures on this check list, while others will
     nut and cup (fig. 8b) will have snapped into the                                                                                                                                    The wide range of bicycle models and
                                                                   emboss the surfaces of the dropouts, the               need to take the bike to a professional bicycle
     recessed area of the fork dropouts and no                                                                                                                                           components used means that a listing of
                                                                   tension is insufficient. Open the lever; turn          mechanic. If you are not an experienced and skilled
     adjustment should be required.                                                                                                                                                      tightening torque would be out of date by the
                                                                   the tension adjusting nut clockwise a quarter          bicycle mechanic, take your bike to a retailer.
(4) While pushing the wheel firmly to the top of the                                                                                                                                     time it was published. Many fasteners should be
                                                                   turn; then try again.                                  Other Lubrication Checklist                                    installed with a thread locking adhesive such as
    slots in the fork dropouts, and at the same time
    centering the wheel rim in the fork:                           See also WARNING on page 20.                                                                                          Loctite ®.
                                                                                                                                    • Derailleur Cables
  (a) With a cam action system, move the cam                                                                                                                                             To determine correct tightening torque and
      lever upwards and swing it into the CLOSED                 (6) If you disengaged the brake quick-release                      • Brake Cables                                       any adhesive application for a fastener we
      position (fig. 8a & b). The lever should now be                 mechanism in 3. a. (1) above, re-engage it to                 • Brake Pivots                                       ask you to check:
      parallel to the fork blade and curved toward                    restore correct brake pad-to-rim clearance.
      the wheel. To apply enough clamping force,                                                                                    • Headset Bearings                                      Markings on the component. Many
                                                                 (7) Spin the wheel to make sure that it is centered
      you should have to wrap your fingers around                                                                                                                                        components are marked. On-product marking is
                                                                    in the frame and clears the brake pads; then                    • Bottom Bracket Bearings
      the fork blade for leverage, and the lever                                                                                                                                         becoming common.
                                                                    squeeze the brake lever and make sure that the
      should leave a clear imprint in the palm of                   brakes are operating correctly.                                 • Hub Bearings                                          Torque     specs     in    the    component
      your hand.                                                                                                                                                                         manufacturers instructions shipped with your
                                                                 C. Removing a Disk Brake or Rim Brake Rear                         • Freehub                                            bicycle.
  (b) With a through-bolt or bolt-on system, tighten
                                                                 Wheel                                                              • Seat Post To Seat Tube See page 74                    Torque specs listed on the websites of
      the fasteners to the torque specifications in
      Appendix C or the hub manufacturer’s                       (1) If you have a multi-speed bike with a derailleur                                                                    component manufacturers.
                                                                                                                                    • Stem To Steering Tube
      instructions.                                                 gear system: shift the rear derailleur to high gear                                                                     With a professional bike mechanic. Dealers
NOTE: If, on a traditional cam action system, the                   (the smallest, outermost rear sprocket).                        • Headshok or Left y Suspension Forks                have access to current data and have
lever cannot be pushed all the way to a position                    If you have an internal gear rear hub, consult a                                                                     experience with correct torque for most
parallel to the fork blade, return the lever to the                 professional bicycle mechanic or the hub                                                                             fasteners.
OPEN position. Then turn the tension adjusting nut                  manufacturer’s instructions before attempting to
counterclockwise one-quarter turn and try                           remove the rear wheel.
tightening the lever again.                                         If you have a single-speed bike with rim or disk
(5) With a through-bolt or bolt-on system, tighten                  brake, go to step (4) below.
    the fasteners to the torque specifications in                (2) If your bike has rim brakes, disengage the
    Appendix C or the hub manufacturer’s                              brake’s quick-release mechanism to increase
    instructions.                                                     the clearance between the wheel rim and the
                                                                      brake pads (see Section 4.C, figs. through 5)

                                                            22                                                                                                                     75
                                                                                                                       (3) On a derailleur gear system, pull the derailleur         (5) On a single speed or an internal gear hub,
                                                             CLEANING                                                      body back with your right hand.                              replace the chain on the chainring; pull the
SECTION E. MAINTENANCE                                                                                                                                                                  wheel back in the dropouts so that it is straight in
                                                                                                                       (4) With a cam action mechanism, move the
                                                             Use only water and dishwashing liquid.                        quickrelease lever to the OPEN position (fig.                the frame and the chain has about /4 inches of
                                                             On suspension forks and shocks, cover adjustment              8b). With a through bolt or bolt on mechanism,               up-and-down play.
                                                                                                                           loosen the fastener(s) with an appropriate               (6) With a cam action system, move the cam lever
        WARNING                                              knobs and air filter (if equipped) with a clean plastic
                                                             bag secured temporarily with a rubber band or                 wrench, lock lever or integral lever; then push              upwards and swing it into the CLOSED
                                                             masking tape.                                                 the wheel forward far enough to be able to                   position (fig. 8 a & b). The lever should now be
                                                                                                                           remove the chain from the rear sprocket.                     parallel to the seat stay or chain stay and
 IMPORTANT TO YOUR SAFETY AND THE                            Before wiping away dirt, use an ordinary water hose                                                                        curved toward the wheel. To apply enough
                                                                                                                       (5) Lift the rear wheel of the ground a few inches
 LONGEVITY OF YOUR BICYCLE.                                  to gently spray of heavy soils and dirt.                                                                                   clamping force, you should have to wrap your
                                                                                                                           and remove it from the rear dropouts.
 ANY PART OF A POORLY MAINTAINED                                                                                                                                                        fingers around the seat stay or chainstay for
                                                                                                                       D. Installing a Disk Brake or Rim Brake Rear
                                                                     CAUTION                                           Wheel
                                                                                                                                                                                        leverage, and the lever should leave a clear
                                                                                                                                                                                        imprint in the palm of your hand.
 CAN BE KILLED, SEVERELY INJURED OR                           DO NOT power wash or spray water under high                                                                           (7) With a through-bolt or bolt-on system, tighten
 PARALYZED.                                                   pressure to clean. Power washing will force                       CAUTION                                                 the fasteners to the torque specifications in
 Please ask a professional bicycle mechanic to                contaminants into parts where they will promote                                                                           Appendix C or the hub manufacturer’s
                                                                                                                         If your bike is equipped with a rear disk brake, be            instructions.
 help you develop a complete maintenance                      corrosion, immediately damage, or result in
                                                                                                                         careful not to damage the disk, caliper or brake
 program, a program which includes a list of the              accelerated wear.
                                                                                                                         pads when re-inserting the disk into the caliper.          NOTE: If, on a traditional cam action system, the
 parts on your bike for YOU to check regularly.                                                                          Never activate a disk brake’s control lever unless
                                                              DO NOT use compressed air to dry.                                                                                     lever cannot be pushed all the way to a position
 Frequent checks are necessary to identify the                                                                           the disk is correctly inserted in the caliper.
 problems that can lead to an accident.                       DO NOT use abrasive or harsh chemical cleaner/                                                                        parallel to the seat stay or chain stay, return the
                                                              solvents which can damage the finish or attack                                                                        lever to the OPEN position. Then turn the tension
                                                              and destroy both the outside and internal parts.         (1) With a cam action system, move the cam lever             adjusting nut counterclockwise one-quarter turn and
                                                                                                                           to the OPEN position (see fig. 8 a & b). The             try tightening the lever again.
 IF YOU IGNORE THIS WARNING.                                  When rinsing, avoid directing the spray directly
                                                              at shock/fork adjusters or bearings.                         lever should be on the side of the wheel
                                                                                                                           opposite the derailleur and freewheel
30 DAY SERVICE                                                                                                         (2) On a derailleur bike, make sure that the rear             SECURELY CLAM PING THE WHEEL
                                                             PREVENTING CORROSION                                          derailleur is still in its outermost, high gear,          WITH A CAM ACTION RETENTION
                                                                                                                           position; then pull the derailleur body back with         DEVICE  TAKES     CONSIDERABLE
The first service is very important. Many parts of           After cleaning and drying it is a good idea to lightly        your right hand. Put the chain on top of the              FORCE.
the bike will break in, bed in, stretch or seat              coat the water bottle bosses with a water displacing          smallest freewheel sprocket.
themselves through use. This is true even with a             lubricant such as Tri-Flow or WD40 to minimize                                                                          If you can fully close the cam lever without
perfectly assembled new bike. The first service is           corrosion from sweat and salt. This is particularly       (3) On single-speed, remove the chain from the                wrapping your fingers around the seat stay or
the chance to make all the small adjustments that            important on bicycles used in coastal salt air                front sprocket, so that you have plenty of slack          chain stay for leverage, the lever does not leave
will enhance the safety, performance and durability          environments and those drenched in sweat on an                in the chain. Put the chain on the rear wheel             a clear imprint in the palm of your hand, and the
of your new bike.                                            indoor trainer.                                               sprocket.                                                 serrations on the wheel fastener do not emboss
                                                                                                                       (4) Then, insert the wheel into the frame dropouts            the surfaces of the dropouts, the tension is
This is as important as the first oil change on a new        To thoroughly clean the frame it is desirable to              and pull it all the way in to the dropouts.               insufficient. Open the lever; turn the tension
car. This first service also gives you the perfect           remove components. This is best done in                                                                                 adjusting nut clockwise a quarter turn; then try
opportunity to ask questions arising from reading            conjunction with a periodic overhaul by an                                                                              again.
the manuals and actually riding your new bike, take          authorized Pietzo retailer.
steps to fine tune your fit and comfort on the bike,                                                                                                                                 See also WARNING on page 20.
and add accessories to suit your needs.

                                                        74                                                                                                                     23
                                                                                                                     BICYCLE LIFESPAN                                              USEFUL LIFE OF
If you disengaged the brake quick-release                     Adjusting the       Seat     Post   Cam     Action                                                                   LIGHTWEIGHT FRAMES
mechanism in 3. c. (2) above, re-engage it to                                                                        NOTHING LASTS FOREVER,
                                                              M echanism
restore correct brake pad-to-rim clearance.                                                                          INCLUDING YOUR BIKE                                           Lightweight frames and components usually have
(8) Spin the wheel to make sure that it is centered           The action of the cam squeezes the seat collar                                                                       shorter lives.
     in the frame and clears the brake pads; then             around the seat post to hold the seat post securely    When the useful life of your bike or its components
                                                              in place. The amount of clamping force is controlled   is over, continued use is hazardous.                          In selecting lightweight frames and components
     squeeze the brake lever and make sure that the
                                                              by the tension adjusting nut. Turning the tension                                                                    you are making a trade-of, favoring the higher
     brakes are operating correctly.                                                                                 Every Pietzo bicycle frame and the components
                                                              adjusting nut clockwise while keeping the cam lever                                                                  performance that comes with light weight over
                                                                                                                     attached to the frame have a finite, limited useful           longevity. So, If you choose lightweight, high
                                                              from rotating increases clamping force; turning it
4 . B. SEAT PO ST CAM A C T I O N                                                                                    life. The length of that life will vary with the              performance equipment, be sure to inspect it
                                                              counterclockwise while keeping the cam lever from
CLAM P                                                                                                               construction and materials used in the frame and              frequently.
                                                              rotating reduces clamping force. Less than half a
                                                                                                                     components, the maintenance and care the frame
                                                              turn of the tension adjusting nut can make the
Some bikes are equipped with a cam action seat                                                                       and components receive over their life and the type
                                                              d if f er en c e between safe and unsafe clamping
ost binder. The seat post cam action binder works                                                                    and amount of use the frame and components are
exactly like the traditional wheel cam action fastener                                                               subjected. Use in competitive events, trick riding,
(Section 4.A.) While a cam action binder looks like                                                                  ramp riding, jumping, aggressive riding, riding on
a long bolt with a lever on one end and a nut on the                  WARNING                                        severe terrain, riding in severe climates, riding with
other, the binder uses an over-center cam action to                                                                  heavy loads, commercial activities and other types
firmly clamp the seat post (see fig. 8a).                       T HE F U L L FORCE OF T HE CAM                       of non-standard use can dramatically shorten the
                                                                ACT ION IS NEEDED T O CLAM P T HE                    life of the frame and components. Any one or a
                                                                SEAT POST S E C UR E L Y .                           combination of these conditions may result in an
        WARNING                                                 Holding the nut with one hand and turning the
                                                                                                                     unpredictable failure.

                                                                lever like a wing nut with the other hand until      ALL FRAMES AND COMPONENTS SHOULD
 Riding with an improperly tightened seat post                  everything is as tight as you can get it will not    BE PERIODICALLY CHECKED BY AN
 can allow the saddle to turn or move and cause                 clamp the seat post safely.                          PROFESSIONAL BICYCLE MECHANIC for
 you to lose control and fall. Therefore:                                                                            indicators of stress and/ or potential failure,
                                                                                                                     including cracks, deformation, delamination,
 1. Ask a professional bicycle mechanic to help                                                                      creaking sounds, corrosion, paint peeling, dents,
    you make sure you know how to correctly                                                                          and any other indicators of potential problems,
    clamp your seat post.                                             WARNING                                        inappropriate use or abuse. These are important
 2. Understand and apply the correct technique                                                                       safety checks and very important to help prevent
                                                                 If you can fully close the cam lever without
    for clamping your seat post.                                                                                     accidents, bodily injury to the rider and shortened
                                                                 wrapping your fingers around the seat post or
                                                                                                                     product life. (See PART I, Section 5 Service and
 3. Before you ride the bike, first check that the               a frame tube for leverage, and the lever does
                                                                                                                     PART II, Section D. Inspect For Safety)
    seat post is securely clamped.                               not leave a clear imprint in the palm of your
                                                                 hand, the tension is ins uf f ic i ent. Open the
                                                                 lever; turn the tension adjusting nut clockwise
                                                                 a quarter turn; then try again.

                                                         24                                                                                                                   73
                                                                                                                      4.C - BRAKES                                                1. Brake Controls and Features
                                                                                                                                                                                  It’s very important to your safety that you learn
    Crankset                                                                                                          There are three general types of bicycle brakes:            and remember which brake lever controls which
Remove both sides from the bottom bracket. Clean
and inspect all parts carefully for cracks. Examine
                                                                      WARNING                                         rim brakes, which operate by squeezing the
                                                                                                                      wheel rim between two brake pads; disc brakes,
                                                                                                                                                                                  brake on your bike.
both inside and outside surfaces. Pay particular                DO NOT RIDE ON A RIM THAT HAS BEEN                    which operate by squeezing a hub-mounted disc               For example:
attention to edges, shapes and changes of shape                 WORN OUT!                                             between two brake pads; and internal hub                    In the US and Europe, The rear brake is controlled
that are a part of your particular crankset design. Also                                                              brakes. All three can be operated by way of a
                                                                If the wear indicator shows that the rim is worn                                                                  by the right-hand brake lever; the front brake is
check the area around the pedal mounting holes.                                                                       handlebar mounted lever. On some models of
                                                                out, there is a danger that the rim could fail from                                                               controlled by the l ef t - h an d lever.
                                                                                                                      bicycle, the internal hub brake is operated by
    Wheels                                                      tire pressure and/or riding loads.                                                                                In the United Kingdom and Japan, the rear brake is
                                                                                                                      pedaling backwards. This is called a Coaster
Clean the wheels. Inspect the hub flange, where the             IF THE RIM FAILS WHILE YOU ARE                                                                                    controlled by the l ef t lever; the front brake is
                                                                                                                      Brake and is described on page 30.
heads of the spokes are hooked (or otherwise                    RIDING   YOU   COULD    HAVE AN                                                                                   controlled by the right lever.
attached) to the hub flange, for cracks. Inspect the rim        ACCIDENT, WITH RISK OF SERIOUS
where the spokes meet the rim. It is not uncommon
to see cracks form where the spokes meet the rim.
                                                                INJURY, PARALYSIS OR DEATH.                                  WARNING                                              Confirm with a professional bicycle mechanic how
                                                                                                                                                                                  your bike is set up.
                                                                                                                      1. Riding with improperly adjusted brakes                   Make sure that your hands can reach and squeeze
    Brake T r a c k of Wheel Rim
                                                                                                                         or worn brake pads is dangerous and can                  the brake levers comfortably. If your hands are too
The brake track is the surface of the rim where the
                                                                                                                         result in serious injury or death.                       small to operate the levers comfortably, consult a
brake pads make contact. While not related to
fatigue, this surface can be worn out. We urge you                                                                    2. Applying brakes too hard or too suddenly                 professional bicycle mechanic before riding the bike.
to inspect the brake tracks on your rims. They can                                                                       can lock up a wheel, which could cause                   The lever reach may be adjustable; or you may
wear out quite quickly on a mountain bike used in                                                                        you to lose control and fall. Sudden or                  need a d i f f er e n t brake lever design.
abrasive conditions. Many rims have brake track                                                                          excessive application of the front brake may             Most brakes have some form of quick-release
wear indicators; please ask your retailer to show you                                                                    pitch the rider over the handlebars, which               mechanism to allow the brake pads to clear the tire
this feature.                                                                                                            may result in serious injury or death.
                                                                                                                                                                                  when a wheel is removed or reinstalled. When the
                                                                                                                      3. Some bicycle brakes, such as disc                        brake quick release is in the open position, the
Some brake pads are very aggressive and speed up
                                                                                                                         brakes (fig. 11) and linear-pull brakes                  brakes are inoperative. Ask a professional bicycle
wear. If you see a noticeable amount of wear relative
                                                                                                                         (fig.12), are extremely powerful. Take                   mechanic to make sure that you understand the way
to the nearby surface untouched by the brake pads,
                                                                                                                         extra care in becoming familiar with these               the brake quick release works on your bike (see figs.
speak to your retailer about possible replacement.
                                                                                                                         brakes and exercise particular care when                 11, 12, 13, 14 & 15) and check each time to make
Severely worn brake tracks can lead to complete rim
                                                                                                                         using them.                                              sure both brakes work correctly before you get on
                                                                                                                      4. Some bicycle brakes are equipped with                    the bike.
                                                                                                                         a brake force modulator, a small,
                                                                                                                                                                                  2. How Brakes Work
                                                                                                                         cylindrical device through which the
                                                                                                                                                                                  The braking action of a bicycle is a function of the
                                                                                                                         brake control cable runs and which is
                                                                                                                                                                                  friction between the brake surfaces — usually the
                                                                                                                         designed to provide a more progressive
                                                                                                                                                                                  brake pads and the wheel rim. To make sure that you
                                                                                                                         application of braking force. A modulator
                                                                                                                                                                                  have maximum friction available, keep your wheel
                                                                                                                         makes the initial brake lever force more
                                                                                                                                                                                  rims and brake pads clean and free of dirt,
                                                                                                                         gentle, progressively increasing force until full
                                                                                                                                                                                  lubricants, waxes or polishes.
                                                                                                                         force is achieved. If your bike is equipped
                                                                                                                         with a brake force modulator, take extra
                                                                                                                         care in becoming familiar with its
                                                                                                                         performance characteristics.
                                                                                                                      5. Disc brakes can get extremely hot with
                                                                                                                         extended use. Be careful not to touch a disc
                                                                                                                         brake until it has had plenty of time to cool.
                                                                                                                      6. See     the    brake     manufacturer’s
                                                                                                                         instructions for installation, operation
                                                                                                                         and care of your brakes. If you do not
                                                                                                                         have the manufacturer’s instructions,
                                                                                                                         see your dealer or contact the brake

                                                           72                                                                                                                25
                                                                                                                           Aftermarket “Super Light” Components                         damage will reduce the life of the handlebar and
Brakes are designed to control your speed, not just to         Two keys to effective speed control and safe            Think carefully about your rider profile as outlined             could lead to premature failure.
stop the bike. Maximum braking force for each                  stopping are controlling wheel lockup and weight        above. The more you fit the “shorten product life”                  Seat Post
wheel occurs at the point just before the wheel                transfer. This weight transfer is even more             profile, the more you must question the use of super             Remove from seat tube and remove from saddle.
“locks up” (stops rotating) and starts to skid. Once           pronounced if your bike has a front suspension          light components. The more you fit the “lengthen                 Disassemble the head/saddle clamp assembly.
the tire skids, you actually lose most of your stopping        fork. Front suspension “dips” under braking,            product life” profile, the more likely it is that lighter        Clean and inspect all parts carefully for cracks.
force and all directional control. You need to practice        increasing the weight transfer (see also SECTION        components may be suitable for you. Discuss your
slowing and stopping smoothly without locking up a             4.F). Practice braking and weight transfer techniques   needs and your profile very honestly with your                   Pay particular attention to the bolt (or bolts) that
wheel. The technique is called progressive brake               where there is no traffic or other hazards and          retailer. Take these choices seriously and understand            clamp the saddle in place. If the bolt looks stretched,
modulation. Instead of jerking the brake lever to              distractions.                                           that you are responsible for the changes.                        bent or in any way damaged, replace it. Note that
the position where you think you’ll generate                                                                                                                                            these bolts have been known to fail in fatigue when
appropriate braking force, squeeze the lever,                  Everything changes when you ride on loose               A great slogan to discuss with your retailer as you              not properly tightened. They must be tightened with
progressively increasing the braking force. If you feel        surfaces or in wet weather. Tire adhesion is            consider changing components: “Strong, Light,                    a torque wrench.
the wheel begin to lock up, release pressure just a            reduced, so the wheels have less cornering and          Cheap – Pick two.”
little to keep the wheel rotating just short of lockup.        braking traction and can lock up with less brake                                                                         The threads of the seat post bolts be greased before
                                                               force. Moisture or dirt on the brake pads reduces           Original Equipment Components                                reassembly.
It’s important to develop a feel for the amount of             their ability to grip. The way to maintain control on   Pietzo tests the fatigue life of many of the
brake lever pressure required for each wheel at                loose or wet surfaces is to go more slowly.             components that are original equipment on your                   Be sure the clamp assembly is clamped only to the
different speeds and on different surfaces. To                                                                         bike. This means that the designs many original                  straight parallel part of the saddle rails.
better understand this, experiment a little by                                                                         equipment components have met our test criteria
                                                                                                                       and have reasonable fatigue life. It does not mean                  Seat Post Lubrication
walking your bike and applying different amounts
                                                                                                                       that the original equipment components will last                 Clean and apply the following to a seat post before
of pressure to each brake lever, until the wheel
                                                                                                                       forever. They will not.                                          inserting into the frame.
                                                                                                                          Stem                                                                   FRAME MATERIAL
When you apply one or both brakes, the bike begins                                                                                                                                                                            SEAT POST
                                                                                                                       Clean and inspect carefully for cracks. Pay
to slow, but your body wants to continue at the                                                                                                                                          SEAT TUBE        SEAT POST          LUBRICATION
                                                                                                                       particular attention to the underside of the stem. If
speed at which it was going. This causes a transfer of
                                                                                                                       the stem is of welded construction, examine the                   ALLO Y           ALLO Y            G REASE
weight to the front wheel (or, under heavy braking,
                                                                                                                       edges of each weld. See also the closely related
around the front wheel hub, which could send you                                                                                                                                         ALLOY            CARBON            CARBON GEL
                                                                                                                       handlebar section below.
flying over the handlebars).
                                                                                                                                                                                         CARBON           ALLOY             CARBON GEL
A wheel with more weight on it will accept greater                                                                          Handlebars
                                                                                                                       Remove from stem. With road bars, you will need to                CARBON           CARBON            CARBON GEL
brake pressure before lockup; a wheel with less
weight will lock up with less brake pressure. So, as                                                                   remove the handlebar tape. Remove any handlebar
                                                                                                                                                                                        GREASE - A high-quality bicycle bearing grease
you apply brakes and your weight is transferred                                                                        mounted components. Clean and inspect carefully
forward, you need to shift your body toward the                                                                        for cracks. Pay particular attention to the area where           CARBON G EL - Is a gel like lubricant
rear of the bike, to transfer weight back on to the                                                                    the handlebar emerges from the stem. This is the                 formulated for use with carbon fiber components
rear wheel; and at the same time, you need to both                                                                     area where virtually all handlebars will eventually
                                                                                                                       fail. Periodic replacement of all handlebars is                      Saddle
decrease rear braking and increase front braking                                                                                                                                        While the saddle is of the seat post, clean and
force. This is even more important on descents,                                                                        strongly recommended. How often they need to be
                                                                                                                       replaced depends upon the many factors outlined                  inspect the rails carefully for cracks. Check the
because descents shift weight forward.                                                                                                                                                  saddle rails to the saddle body; make sure that the
                                                                                                                                                                                        rails are firmly attached.
                                                                                                                       Be sure that you do not scratch or score the surface
                                                                                                                       of the handlebars with either the stem or the brake                  Pedals
                                                                                                                       or shifter levers. As noted above, any such damage               Remove both from the crankset. Clean and inspect
                                                                                                                       will reduce the life of the handlebar and could lead to          carefully for cracks. Pay particular attention to the
                                                                                                                       premature failure.                                               pedal axle. See clipless pedal manufacturer’s
                                                                                                                                                                                        instructions for information on cleat wear and
                                                                                                                       If you find that there is a sharp edge or burr on the            replacement.
                                                                                                                       inside of the stem, right where the handlebars
                                                                                                                       emerge, it must be smoothed out with fine
                                                                                                                       sandpaper (0 grit or finer) before the new
                                                                                                                       handlebars are installed. Such a sharp edge or burr
                                                                                                                       could cause a scratching or scoring of the handlebar.
                                                                                                                       As noted above, any such

                                                          26                                                                                                                       71
Composite Frame, Fork, and Component                          3. UNDERSTANDING COMPONENTS
Cracks:                                                       It is often necessary to remove and disassemble
Inspect for cracks, broken, or splintered areas. Any          components in order to properly and carefully
crack is serious. Do not ride any bicycle or                  inspect them. Most customers will use this
component that has a crack of any size.                       component list as a checklist. The intention here is to
                                                              tell you what parts, and what area of each part, most
Delamination:                                                 need inspection. Insist that your mechanic do such
Delamination is serious damage. Composites are                inspections. Our intention is definitely not to teach
made from layers of fabric. Delamination means that           bicycle mechanics.
the layers of fabric are no longer bonded together.
Do not ride any bicycle or component that has any
delamination. These are some delamination clues:                      WARNING
• A cloudy or white area. This kind of area looks              FAILURE    TO    DISASSEMBLE OR
different from the ordinary undamaged areas.                   REASSEMBLE BICYCLE COMPONENTS
Undamaged areas will look glassy, shiny, or “deep,”            PROPERLY COULD RESULT IN AN
as if one was looking into a clear liquid. Delaminated         ACCIDENT, WITH RISK OF SERIOUS
areas will look opaque and cloudy.                             INJURY, PARALYSIS OR DEATH.
•Bulging or deformed shape. If delamination occurs,            There are many special tools and techniques
the surface shape may change. The surface may                  required. Unless you are a very experienced and
have a bump, a bulge, soft spot, or not be smooth              skilled bicycle mechanic, we urge you to have
and fair.                                                      this work done by a professional bicycle retailer.
•A difference in sound when tapping the surface. If            IF YOU SEE ANY CRACK, OR ANYTHING
you gently tap the surface of an undamaged                     YOU ARE UNSURE OF, PLEASE TAKE
composite you will hear a consistent sound, usually            YOUR BICYCLE TO A RETAILER. RIDING A
a hard, sharp sound. If you then tap a delaminated             COMPONENT WITH A CRACK COULD
area, you will hear a different sound, usually duller,         LEAD TO FAILURE, WITH RISK OF
less sharp.                                                    ACCIDENT, SERIOUS INJURY, PARALYSIS
                                                               OR DEATH.
Unusual Noises:                                                IF  YOU   HAVE   CARBON    FIBER
Either a crack or delamination can cause creaking              COMPONENTS, YOU MUST READ PART II,
noises while riding. Think about such a noise as a             SECTION  D.   2.  UNDERSTANDING
serious warning signal. A well maintained bicycle will         COMPOSITES.
be very quiet and free of creaks and squeaks.
Investigate and find the source of any noise. It may           DO NOT ride any component with a crack, even a
not be a crack or delamination, but whatever is                small one. Replace the component before riding.
causing the noise must be fixed before riding.                 Break or saw in half any component you replace
                                                               so that no one uses it again.


                                                         70                                                             27
                                                                                                                    2. UNDERSTANDI NG                                             What Are The Limits Of Composites?
                                                                                                                                                                                  Well designed “composite” or carbon fiber bicycles
COASTER BRAKES                                                                                                      COM POSI TES ( CARBO N
                                                                                                                                                                                  and components have long fatigue lives, usually
                                                                                                                    FI BER )                                                      better than their metal equivalents.
                                                                                                                                                                                  While fatigue life is an advantage of carbon fiber,
                                                                                                                    All riders must understand a fundamental reality of
                                                                                                                    composites. Composite materials constructed of                Pietzo still urges you to regularly inspect your
                                                                                                                    carbon fibers are strong and light, but when crashed          carbon fiber frame, fork, or components.
                                                                                                                    or overloaded, carbon fibers do not bend, they                Carbon fiber composites are not ductile. Once a
                                                                                                                    break.                                                        carbon structure is overloaded, it will not bend; it will
                                                                                                                                                                                  break. At and near the break, there will be rough,
                                                                                                                    What Are Composites?
                                                                                                                                                                                  sharp edges and may be delamination of carbon
                                                                                                                    The term “composites” refers to the fact that a part
                                                                                                                                                                                  fiber or carbon fiber fabric layers. There will be no
                                                                                                                    or parts are made up of different components or
                                                                                                                                                                                  bending, buckling, or stretching.
                                                                                                                    materials. You’ve heard the term “carbon fiber bike.”
                                                                                                                    This really means “composite bike.”                           If You Hit Something Or Have A Crash, What
                                                                                                                                                                                  Can You Expect From Your Carbon Fiber
                                                                                                                    Carbon fiber composites are typically a strong, light
                                                                                                                    fiber in a matrix of plastic, molded to form a shape.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Let’s say you hit a curb, ditch, rock, car, fallen cyclist
                                                                                                                    Carbon composites are light relative to metals. Steel
                                                                                                                                                                                  or other object. First, read the important warnings at
                                                                                                                    weighs 7.8 grams/cm3 (grams per cubic centimeter),
                                                                                                                                                                                  the beginning of PART II Section A. Bicycles Cannot
                                                                                                                    titanium 4.5 grams/cm3, aluminum .75 grams/cm3.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Protect You in this manual.
                                                                                                                    Contrast these numbers with carbon fiber composite
     1.    How the coaster brake works                                                                              at .45 grams/cm3.                                             At any speed above a fast walk, your body will
The coaster brake is a sealed mechanism which is a part of the bicycle’s rear wheel hub. The brake is activated                                                                   continue to move forward, the momentum carrying
                                                                                                                    The composites with the best strength-to-weight
by reversing the rotation of the pedal cranks (indicated by arrow above). Start with the pedal cranks in a nearly                                                                 you over the front of the bike. You cannot and will not
                                                                                                                    ratios are made of carbon fiber in a matrix of epoxy
horizontal position, with the front pedal in about the 4 o’clock position, and apply downward foot pressure on                                                                    stay on the bike and what happens to the frame and
                                                                                                                    plastic. The epoxy matrix bonds the carbon fibers
the pedal that is to the rear. About /8 turn rotation will activate the brake. The more downward pressure you                                                                     fork is irrelevant to what happens to your body.
                                                                                                                    together, transfers load to other fibers, and provides
apply, the more braking force, up to the point where the rear wheel stops rotating and begins to skid.              a smooth outer surface. The carbon fibers are the             What should you expect from your carbon frame? It
                                                                                                                    “skeleton” that carries the load.                             depends on many complex factors, which is why we
                                                                                                                                                                                  tell you that crash worthiness cannot be a design
                                                                                                                    Why Are Composites Used?
          WARNING                                                                                                   Unlike metals, which have uniform properties in all
                                                                                                                                                                                  criteria. With that important note, we can tell you that
                                                                                                                                                                                  if the impact is hard enough, the fork or frame may be
                                                                                                                    directions (engineers call this isotropic). carbon            completely broken. See Figure A on page 68.
  Before riding, make sure that the brake is working properly. If it is not working properly, have the bicycle
                                                                                                                    fibers can be placed in specific orientations to              Note the significant difference in behavior between
  checked by a professional bicycle mechanic before you ride it.
                                                                                                                    optimize the structure for particular loads. The              carbon and metal. . Understanding Metals in this
                                                                                                                    choice of where to place the carbon fibers gives              section. Even if the carbon frame was twice as
                                                                                                                    engineers a powerful tool to create strong, light             strong as a metal frame, once the carbon frame is
          WARNING                                                                                                   bicycles. Engineers may also orient fibers to suit
                                                                                                                    other goals such as comfort and vibration damping.
                                                                                                                                                                                  overloaded it will not bend, it will break completely.
  If your bike has only a coaster brake, ride conservatively. A single rear brake does not have the stopping                                                                      Pietzo carbon frames are designed for normal riding
  power of front-and-rear brake systems.                                                                            Carbon fiber composites are very corrosion                    loads with a factor of safety. These carbon frames
                                                                                                                    resistant, much more so than most metals. Think               will not survive some crash or impact loads which
     2.    Adjusting your coaster brake                                                                             about carbon fiber or fiberglass boats.                       may result in complete failure.
Coaster brake service and adjustment requires special tools and special knowledge. Do not attempt to                Carbon fiber materials have a very high strength-             See “Composite Frame, Fork, And Component
disassemble or service your coaster brake. Take the bicycle to a professional bicycle mechanic for coaster          toweight ratio.
brake service.                                                                                                                                                                    Inspection” on next page.

                                                       28                                                                                                                    69
                                                                                                                   4 . D - SH I F T I N G G EARS                                      Whether upshifting or downshifting, the bicycle
                                                                                                                                                                                      derailleur system design requires that the drive
                                                           Other Suspension Forks
       WARNING                                             If you have a fork made by a third party, please read   Your multi-speed bicycle will have a derailleur
                                                                                                                   drivetrain (see 1. below), an internal gear hub
                                                                                                                                                                                      chain be moving forward and be under at least some
                                                                                                                                                                                      tension. A derailleur will shift only if you are pedaling
                                                           and follow the inspection instructions contained in
 DO NOT RIDE A FRAME OR FORK WITH                                                                                  drivetrain (see 2. below) or, in some special cases, a             forward.
                                                           the manual that covers that fork. If you do not have
 ANY CRACK, EVEN A SMALL ONE. RIDING                       the third party’s manual, get one now.                  combination of the two.
                                                                                                                   1. How a derailleur drivetrain works if your bicycle
                                                                                                                   has a derailleur drivetrain, the gear-changing                               CAUTION
 INJURY, PARALYSIS OR DEATH.                                      WARNING                                          mechanism will have:
                                                                                                                                                                                        Never move the shifter while pedaling
                                                                                                                      • a rear cassette or freewheel sprocket cluster                   backward, nor pedal backwards immediately
                                                            RIDING WITH AN IMPROPERLY SECURED
                                                                                                                      • a rear derailleur
                                                                                                                                                                                        after having moved the shifter. This could jam
Fork Inspection                                             WHEEL CAN ALLOW THE WHEEL TO
                                                                                                                                                                                        the chain and cause serious damage to the
1. Remove the front wheel.                                  WOBBLE OR FALL OFF THE BICYCLE,                           • usually a front derailleur                                      bicycle.
                                                            WHICH CAN CAUSE SERIOUS INJURY OR                         • one or two shifters
2. Clean the fork.                                          DEATH. THEREFORE, IT IS ESSENTIAL                         • one, two or three front sprockets called                      b. Shifting the Rear Derailleur
3. Carefully inspect the whole fork for cracks. Pay         THAT YOU:                                                    chainrings                                                   The rear derailleur is controlled by the right shifter.
  particular attention to the fork crown area and           1. Ask your dealer to help you make sure you              • a drive chain                                                 The function of the rear derailleur is to move the
  the area where the dropouts meet the fork                 know how to install and remove your wheels                                                                                drive chain from one gear sprocket to another. The
                                                            safely.                                                a. Shifting Gears
  blades. Look on the inside of the fork while the                                                                                                                                    smaller sprockets on the gear cluster produce
                                                            2. Understand and apply the correct technique          There are several different types and styles of shifting           higher gear ratios. Pedaling in the higher gears
  wheel is out. Check the area around the brake                                                                    controls: levers, twist grips, triggers, combination
                                                            for clamping your wheel in place.                                                                                         requires greater pedaling effort, but takes you a
  pivot bosses or caliper mount.                                                                                   shift/brake controls, push-buttons, and so on. Ask                 greater distance with each revolution of the pedal
                                                            3. Each time, before you ride the bike, check that     a professional bicycle mechanic to explain the type
                                                            the wheel is securely clamped.                                                                                            cranks. The larger sprockets produce lower gear
                                                                                                                   of shifting controls that are on your bike, and to                 ratios. Using them requires less pedaling effort, but
                                                            The clamping action of a correctly secured wheel       show you how they work.                                            takes you a shorter distance with each pedal crank
                                                            must emboss the surfaces of the dropouts.                                                                                 revolution. Moving the chain from a smaller
                                                                                                                   The vocabulary of shifting can be pretty confusing. A
                                                            See SECTION 4.A Wheels on page 20.                     downshift is a shift to a “lower” or “slower” gear, one            sprocket of the gear cluster to a larger sprocket
                                                                                                                   which is easier to pedal. An upshift is a shift to a               results in a downshift. Moving the chain from a
                                                                                                                   “higher” or “faster”, harder to pedal gear. What’s                 larger sprocket to a smaller sprocket results in an
                                                                                                                   confusing is that what’s happening at the front                    upshift. In order for the derailleur to move the
                                                                                                                   derailleur is the opposite of what’s happening at the              chain from one sprocket to another, the rider must
                                                                                                                   rear derailleur (for details, read the instructions on             be pedaling forward.
                                                                                                                   Shifting the Rear Derailleur and Shifting the Front                c. Shifting the Front Derailleur:
                                                                                                                   Derailleur below).
                                                                                                                                                                                      The front derailleur, which is controlled by the left
                                                                                                                   For example, you can select a gear which will make                 shifter, shifts the chain between the larger and
                                                                                                                   pedaling easier on a hill (make a downshift) in one                smaller chainrings. Shifting the chain onto a smaller
                                                                                                                   of two ways: shift the chain down the gear “steps” to              chainring makes pedaling easier (a downshift).
                                                                                                                   a smaller gear at the front, or up the gear “steps” to a           Shifting to a larger chainring makes pedaling harder
                                                                                                                   larger gear at the rear. So, at the rear gear cluster, what        (an upshift).
                                                                                                                   is called a downshift looks like an upshift. The way
                                                                                                                   to keep things straight is to remember that shifting
                                                                                                                   the chain in towards the centerline of the bike is for
                                                                                                                   accelerating and climbing and is called a downshift.
                                                                                                                   Moving the chain out or away from the centerline of
                                                                                                                   the bike is for speed and is called an upshift.

                                                      68                                                                                                                         29
                                                                                                                           Fatigue is not a Perfectly Predictable                       Aluminum frame inspection
d. Which gear should I be in?                                                                                                                                                           . Clean the bike and remove the wheels.
                                                                                                                           Fatigue is not a perfectly predictable science, but
The combination of largest rear and smallest front                        WARNING                                          we can give you some general factors to help you             . Inspect the whole frame carefully for cracks. Pay
                                                                                                                                                                                            particular attention to the underside of the
gears (fig. 6) is for the steepest hills. The smallest                                                                     determine how often you need to inspect (or have
rear and largest front combination is for the greatest             NEVER SHIFT A DERAILLEUR ONT O                          your retailer inspect) your bicycle. The more you fit            downtube where it intersects the headtube
speed. It is not necessary to shift gears in sequence.             THE LARGEST OR THE SMALLEST                             the “shorten product life” profile, the more frequent        3. Next carefully inspect the area where the
Instead, find the “starting gear” which is right for your          SPROCKET IF THE DERAILLEUR IS                           your need to inspect. The more you fit the “lengthen             crankset and rear wheel come closest to the
level of ability — a gear which is hard enough for                 NOT SHIFTING SMOOTHLY.                                  product life” profile, the less frequent your need to            right chainstay, particularly on the innermost
quick acceleration but easy enough to let you start                The derailleur may be out of adjustment and the         inspect.                                                         part of the chainstay and the outermost part of
from a stop without wobbling — and experiment                      chain could jam, causing you to lose control and                                                                         the chainstay. Next look at the welds that join all
with upshifting and downshifting to get a feel for the             fall.                                                                                                                    of the tubes. Be sure to look at the inside of the
different gear combinations. At first, practice shifting                                                                                                                                    rear triangle or swingarm while the wheel is out,
where there are no obstacles, hazards or other                   e. What if it won’t shift gears?                             Factors that shorten product life:                            including the dropouts.
traffic, until you’ve built up your confidence. Learn            If moving the shift control one click repeatedly fails                                                                 4. Finally check all mounting points such as disc
to anticipate the need to shift, and shift to a lower            to result in a smooth shift to the next gear chances         •    Hard, harsh riding style                                 brake caliper brackets and water bottle and rack
gear before the hill gets too steep. If you have                 are that the mechanism is out of adjustment. Take            •    "Hits," crashes, jumps, other "shots" to                 mounts.
difficulties with shifting, the problem could be                 the bike to a professional bicycle mechanic to have               bike
mechanical adjustment. See a professional bicycle                it adjusted.                                                 •    High mileage
mechanic for help.
                                                                 2. How an internal gear hub drivetrain works                 •    Higher body weight
                                                                                                                              •    Stronger, more fit, more aggressive
                                                                 If your bicycle has an internal gear hub drivetrain,
                                                                 the gear changing mechanism will consist of:
                                                                                                                              •    Corrosive environment (wet, salt air,
                                                                   • a 3, 5, 7, 8, speed or possibly an infinitely
                                                                                                                                   winter road salt, accumulated sweat)
                                                                      variable internal gear hub
                                                                                                                              •    Presence of abrasive mud, dirt, sand,
                                                                   • one, or sometimes two shifters
                                                                                                                                   soil in riding environment
                                                                   • one or two control cables
                                                                   • one front sprocket called a chainring
                                                                   • a drive chain                                            Factors that lengthen product life:
                                                                 a. Shifting internal gear hub gears
                                                                                                                              •    Smooth, fluid riding style
                                                                 Shifting with an internal gear hub drivetrain is simply
                                                                                                                              •    No "hits," crashes, jumps, other "shots"
                                                                 a matter of moving the shifter to the indicated
                                                                                                                                   to bike
                                                                 position for the desired gear. After you have moved
                                                                 the shifter to the gear position of your choice, ease        •    Low mileage
                                                                 the pressure on the pedals for an instant to allow the       •    Lower body weight                                    Figure 35.
                                                                 hub to complete the shift.
                                                                                                                              •    Less aggressive rider
                                                                 b. Which gear should I be in?                                •    Non-corrosive environment (dry, salt
                                                                 The numerically lowest gear (1) is for the steepest               free air)
                                                                 hills. The numerically largest gear is for the greatest      •    Clean riding environment
 Figure 16.
 A. Hills                      B. Greatest Speed
  1. Smallest front             4. Largest front
  2. Chain                      5. Smallest rear
  3. Largest rear

                                                            30                                                                                                                     67
                                                                                                                Shifting from an easier, “slower” gear (like ) to a harder,           to avoid serious injury from the pedals’ sharp
 A few things to think about:                                                                                   “faster” gear (like or 3) is called an upshift. Shifting              surfaces. Based on your riding style or skill level,
                                                                                                                from a harder, “faster” gear to an easier, “slower”                   you may prefer a less aggressive pedal design,
                                                                                                                gear is called a downshift. It is not necessary to shift              or chose to ride with shin pads. A professional
                                                          • SIGNIFICANT SCRATCHES, GOUGES,                      gears in sequence. Instead, find the “starting gear”                  bicycle mechanic can show you a number of
 • ONCE A CRACK STARTS IT CAN                                                                                   for the conditions — a gear which is hard enough for                  options and make suitable recommendations.
 GROW AND GROW FAST. Think about the                      DENTS          OR       SCORING          CREATE
                                                          STARTING POINTS FOR CRACKS. Think                     quick acceleration but easy enough to let you start                3. Toeclips and straps are a means to keep feet
 crack as forming a pathway to failure. This
                                                          about the cut surface as a focal point for stress     from a stop without wobbling — and experiment                         correctly positioned and engaged with the
 means that any crack is potentially dangerous                                                                  with upshifting and downshifting to get a feel for
 and will only become more dangerous.                     (in fact engineers call such areas "stress risers,"                                                                         pedals. The toeclip positions the ball of the foot
                                                          areas where the stress is increased). Perhaps         the different gears. At first, practice shifting where                over the pedal spindle, which gives maximum
 SIMPLE RULE 1: If you find crack, replace                you have seen glass cut? Recall how the glass         there are no obstacles, hazards or other traffic, until               pedaling power. The toe strap, when tightened,
 the part.                                                was scored and then broke on the scored line.         you’ve built up your confidence. Learn to anticipate                  keeps the foot engaged throughout the rotation
                                                          SIMPLE RULE 4: Do not scratch, gouge or               the need to shift, and shift to a lower gear before the               cycle of the pedal. While toeclips and straps give
                                                          score any surface. If you do, pay frequent            hill gets too steep. If you have difficulties with                    some benefit with any kind of shoe, they work
 • CORROSION SPEEDS DAMAGE. Cracks                        attention to this area or replace the part.           shifting, the problem could be mechanical                             most effectively with cycling shoes designed for
 grow more quickly when they are in a corrosive                                                                 adjustment. See a professional bicycle mechanic for                   use with toeclips. A professional bicycle
 environment. Think about the corrosive solution                                                                help.                                                                 mechanic can explain how toeclips and straps
 as further weakening and extending the crack.            • CRACKS        (PARTICULARLY           LARGER        c. What if it won't shift gears?                                      work. Shoes with deep treaded soles or welts
                                                          ONES) MAY MAKE CREAKING NOISE AS                                                                                            which might allow the foot to be trapped should
 SIMPLE RULE 2: Clean your bike, lubricate                •                                                     If moving the shift control one click repeatedly fails
                                                          YOU RIDE. Think about such a noise as a                                                                                     not be used with toeclips and straps.
 your bike, protect your bike from salt, remove                                                                 to result in a smooth shift to the next gear chances
 any salt as soon as you can.                             serious warning signal. Note that a well-
                                                                                                                are that the mechanism is out of adjustment. Take
                                                          maintained bicycle will be very quiet and free of
                                                          creaks and squeaks.
                                                                                                                the bike to a professional bicycle mechanic to have                          WARNING
                                                                                                                it adjusted.
                                                          SIMPLE RULE 5: Investigate and find the                                                                                     GETTING INTO AND OUT OF PEDALS
 • STAINS AND DISCOLORATION CAN                           source of any noise. It may not a be a crack, but                                                                           WITH TOECLIPS AND STRAPS REQUIRES
 OCCUR NEAR A CRACK. Such staining may                    whatever is causing the noise should be fixed         4.E - PEDALS                                                          SKILL WHICH CAN ONLY BE ACQUIRED
 be a warning sign that a crack exists.                   before riding.                                                                                                              WITH PRACTICE.
 SIMPLE RULE 3: Inspect and investigate any                                                                     1. Toe Overlap is when your toe can touch the front
                                                                                                                   wheel when you turn the handlebars to steer                        Until it becomes a reflex action, the technique
 staining to see if it is associated with a crack.
                                                                                                                   while a pedal is in the forward most position.                     requires concentration which can distract your
                                                                                                                   This is common on small-framed bicycles, and is                    attention and cause you to lose control and fall.
                                                                                                                   avoided by keeping the inside pedal up and the                     Practice the use of toeclips and straps where
                                                                                                                   outside pedal down when making sharp turns.                        there are no obstacles, hazards or traffic. Keep
                                                                                                                   This technique will also prevent the inside pedal                  the straps loose, and don’t tighten them until
                                                                                                                   from striking the ground in a turn.                                your technique and confidence in getting in and
                                                                                                                                                                                      out of the pedals warrants it. Never ride in traffic
                                                                                                                                                                                      with your toe straps tight.
                                                                                                                   TOE OVERLAP COULD CAUSE YOU TO                                  4. Clipless pedals (sometimes called “step-in
                                                                                                                   LOSE CONTROL AND FALL. ASK YOUR                                    pedals”) are another means to keep feet
                                                                                                                   DEALER TO HELP YOU DETERMINE IF                                    securely in the correct position for maximum
                                                                                                                   THE COMBINATION OF FRAME SIZE,                                     pedaling efficiency. They have a plate, called a
                                                                                                                   CRANK ARM LENGTH, PEDAL DESIGN                                     “cleat,” on the sole of the shoe, which clicks into
                                                                                                                   AND SHOES YOU WILL USE RESULTS IN                                  a mating spring-loaded fixture on the pedal.
                                                                                                                   PEDAL OVERLAP.
                                                                                                                   Whether you have overlap or not, you must keep
                                                                                                                   the inside pedal up and the outside pedal down
                                                                                                                   when making sharp turns.

                                                                                                                2. Some bicycles come equipped with pedals that
                                                                                                                   have sharp and potentially dangerous surfaces.
                                                                                                                   These surfaces are designed to add safety by
                                                                                                                   increasing grip between the rider’s shoe and the
                                                                                                                   pedal. If your bicycle has this type of high-
                                                                                                                   performance pedal, you must take extra care

                                                     66                                                                                                                       31
                                                                                                                        Metals are subject to fatigue. With enough cycles                So what kind of “damage” are we talking about? On
They only engage or disengage with a very specific           4 . F - BI CYCLE SUSPENSI O N                              of use, at high enough loads, metals will eventually             a microscopic level, a crack forms in a highly
motion which must be practiced until it becomes                                                                         develop cracks that lead to failure. It is very important        stressed area. As the load is repeatedly applied,
instinctive. Clipless pedals require shoes and cleats        Many bicycles are equipped with suspension                 that you read Metal Fatigue 0 next.                              the crack grows. At some point the crack becomes
which are compatible with the make and model                 systems. There are many different types of                                                                                  visible to the naked eye. Eventually it becomes so
                                                                                                                        Let’s say you hit a curb, ditch, rock, car, fallen               large that the part is too weak to carry the same load
pedal being used.                                            suspension systems — too many to deal with                 cyclist or other object. First, read the Important
                                                             individually in this Manual. If your bicycle has a                                                                          that, without the crack, it could carry. At that point
Many clipless pedals are designed to allow the rider                                                                    warnings at the beginning of SECTION A: Bicycles
                                                             suspension system of any kind, be sure to read and                                                                          there can be a complete and immediate failure of
to adjust the amount of force needed to engage or                                                                       Cannot Protect You. At any speed above a fast
                                                             follow the suspension manufacturer’s setup and                                                                              the part.
disengage the foot. Follow the pedal manufacturer’s                                                                     walk your body will continue to move forward,                    One can design a part that is so strong that fatigue
                                                             service instructions. If you do not have the               momentum carrying you over the front of the bike.
instructions, or ask a professional bicycle mechanic                                                                                                                                     life is nearly infinite. This requires a lot of material
                                                             manufacturer’s instructions, see a professional            You cannot and will not stay on the bike and what
to show you how to make this adjustment. Use the                                                                                                                                         and a lot of weight. Any structure that must be light
                                                             bicycle mechanic or contact the manufacturer.              happens to the frame and fork is irrelevant to what
easiest setting until engaging and disengaging                                                                                                                                           and strong will have a finite fatigue life. Aircraft, race
becomes a reflex action, but always make sure that                                                                      happens to your body.                                            cars, motorcycles: all have parts with finite fatigue
there is sufficient tension to prevent unintended
release of your foot from the pedal.                                 WARNING                                            What should you expect from your metal frame? It
                                                                                                                        depends on many complex factors, which is why
                                                                                                                                                                                         lives. If you wanted a bicycle with an infinite fatigue
                                                                                                                                                                                         life, it would weigh far more than any bicycle sold
                                                               FAILURE TO M AINTAIN, CHECK AND                          we tell you that crashworthiness cannot be a                     today. So we all make a trade-of: the wonderful,
                                                                                                                                                                                         lightweight performance we want requires that we
         WARNING                                               PROPERLY        ADJUST      THE
                                                               SUSPENSION SYSTEM M AY RESULT
                                                                                                                        design criteria. With that important note, we can tell
                                                                                                                        you that if the impact is hard enough the fork or                inspect the structure.
  CLIPLESS PEDALS ARE INTENDED                                 IN  SUSPENSION     M ALFUNCTION,                         frame may be bent or buckled. See Figure A on                    In most cases a fatigue crack is not a defect. It is a
  FOR USE WITH SHOES SPECIFICALLY                              WHICH M AY CAUSE YOU TO LOSE                             page 68. On a most all steel bikes, the steel fork               sign that the part has been worn out, a sign the part
  M ADE TO FIT THEM AND ARE                                    CONTROL AND FALL.                                        may be severely bent and the frame undamaged.                    has reached the end of its useful life. When your car
  DESIGNED TO FIRM LY KEEP THE                                                                                          Aluminum is less ductile than steel, but you can                 tires wear down to the point that the tread bars are
  FOOT ENGAGED WITH THE PEDAL.                               If your bike has suspension, the increased speed you       expect the fork and frame to be bent or buckled. Hit             contacting the road, those tires are not defective.
                                                             may develop also increases your risk of injury. For        harder and the top tube may be broken in tension                 Those tires are worn out and the tread bar says
  DO NOT USE SHOES WHICH DO NOT                              example, when braking, the front of a suspended            and the down tube buckled. Hit harder and the top                “time for replacement.” When a metal part shows a
  ENGAGE THE PEDALS CORRECTLY.                               bike dips. You could lose control and fall if you do not   tube may be broken, the down tube buckled and                    fatigue crack, it is worn out. The crack says “time for
                                                             have experience with this system. Learn to handle          broken, leaving the head tube and fork separated                 replacement.”
Practice is required to learn to engage and disengage        your suspension system safely. See also SECTION            from the main triangle.
the foot safely. Until engaging and disengaging the          4.C.                                                       When all metal bikes are crashed you will usually see
foot becomes a reflex action, the technique requires                                                                    some evidence of this ductility in bent, buckled or
concentration which can distract your attention and                                                                     folded metal.
cause you to lose control and fall. Practice engaging
and disengaging clipless pedals in a place where
                                                                     WARNING                                            It is now common for the main frame to be made of
there are no obstacles, hazards or traffic; and be            CHANGING SUSPENSION ADJUSTMENT                            metal and the fork of carbon fiber. See the composites
sure to follow the pedal manufacturer’s setup and             CAN CHANGE THE HANDLING AND                               0 section below. The relative ductility of metals and
service instructions. If you do not have the                  BRAKING   CHARACTERISTICS   OF                            the lack of ductility of carbon fiber means that in a
manufacturer’s instructions, see a professional               YOUR BICYCLE.                                             crash scenario you can expect some bending or
bicycle mechanic or contact the manufacturer.                                                                           bucking in the metal but none in the carbon. Below
                                                              Never change suspension adjustment unless
                                                                                                                        some load the carbon fork may be intact even
                                                              you are thoroughly familiar with the suspension
                                                                                                                        though the frame is damaged. Above some load the
                                                              system      manufacturer’s       instructions and
                                                                                                                        carbon fork will be completely broken.
                                                              recommendations, and always check for changes
                                                              in the handling and braking characteristics of the        M etal Fatigue 10 1
                                                              bicycle after a suspension adjustment by taking a         Common sense tells us that nothing that is used
                                                              careful test ride in a hazard-free area.                  lasts forever. The more you use something, and the
                                                                                                                        harder you use it, and the worse the conditions you
                                                                                                                        use it in, the shorter its life.
                                                                                                                        Fatigue is the term used to describe accumulated
                                                                                                                        damage to a part caused by repeated loading. To
                                                                                                                        cause fatigue damage, the load the part receives
                                                                                                                        must be great enough. A crude, often-used example
                                                                                                                        is bending a paper clip back and forth (repeated
                                                                                                                        loading) until it breaks. This simple definition will
                                                                                                                        help you understand that fatigue has nothing to do
                                                                                                                        with time or age. A bicycle in a garage does not
                                                                                                                        fatigue. Fatigue happens only through use.
                                                                                                                                                                                           Figure 34.

                                                        32                                                                                                                          65
                                                                                                                       Suspension can increase control and comfort by
                                                                                                                       allowing the wheels to better follow the terrain. This
     SECTION D. INSPECT                                       Metals are comparatively ductile. Ductile means          enhanced capability may allow you to ride faster;
                                                              bending, buckling and stretching before breaking.        but you must not confuse the enhanced capabilities
        FOR SAFETY                                            Generally speaking, of the common bicycle frame          of the bicycle with your own capabilities as a rider.
                                                              building materials steel is the most ductile, titanium   Increasing your skill will take time and practice.
                                                              less ductile, followed by aluminum.                      Proceed carefully until you have learned to handle
In this section, we will do our best to outline some          Metals vary in density. Density is weight per unit of    the full capabilities of your bike.
material science basics and explain how they relate           material. Steel weighs 7.8 grams/cm3 (grams per
to your bicycle, some of the trade offs made in               cubic centimeter), titanium 4.5 grams/cm3,
designing your bicycle, what you can expect from
your bicycle and provide important, basic guidelines
                                                              aluminum .75 grams/cm3. Contrast these numbers
                                                              with carbon fiber composite at .45 grams/cm3.
on how you maintain and inspect it.                                                                                     Not all bicycles can be safely retrofitted with
                                                                                                                        some types of suspension systems. Before
Carbon fiber bikes and components are becoming
more common. In addition to understanding
                                                                       WARNING                                          retrofitting a bicycle with any suspension, check
Composites (Carbon Fiber) in this section, see also:                                                                    with the bicycle’s manufacturer to make sure
                                                                FREQUENT INSPECTION OF YOUR BIKE
                                                                                                                        that what you want to do is compatible with the
                                                                IS IMPORTANT TO YOUR SAFETY.
                                                                                                                        bicycle’s design. Failing to do so can result in
     APPENDIX A, page          80                               FOLLOW THE PRE-RIDE CHECKLIST                           catastrophic frame failure.
                                                                BEFORE EVERY RIDE. See the back
     APPENDIX B, page          81
                                                                cover of this manual.                                  4.G TIRESANDTUBES
     APPENDIX C, page          83
                                                                Periodic, more detailed inspection of your bicycle
     APPENDIX D, page          85                               is important. How often this more detailed             1. Tires                                                       Figure 17.
     APPENDIX E, page          87                               inspection is needed depends upon you.                 Bicycle tires are available in many designs and
                                                                You, the rider/owner, have control and knowledge       specifications, ranging from general-purpose
                                                                                                                                                                                      The best and safest way to inflate a bicycle tire to
1. UNDERSTANDING METALS                                         of how often you use your bike, how hard you           designs to tires designed to perform best under very
                                                                                                                                                                                      the correct pressure is with a bicycle pump which
Steel is the traditional material for building bicycle          use it and where you use it. Pietzo does not. We       specific weather or terrain conditions. If, once you’ve
                                                                                                                                                                                      has a built-in pressure gauge.
frames. It has good characteristics, but in high                design rugged and light bicycles and test them         gained experience with your new bike, you feel that
performance bicycles, steel has been largely                    extensively. But, because we cannot track your         a different tire might better suit your riding needs, a
replaced by aluminum and some titanium. The
main factor driving this change is interest by
                                                                use, you must be responsible for inspection and
                                                                maintenance. Most customers will have a retailer
                                                                                                                       professional bicycle mechanic can help you select
                                                                                                                       the most appropriate design.
enthusiast customers in lighter bicycles.                       do all inspection and maintenance.                     The size, pressure rating, and on some high-                    THERE IS A SAFETY RISK IN USING GAS
                                                                If you are not interested in the “hands on” aspects    performance tires the specific recommended use,                 STATION AIR HOSES OR OTHER AIR
Properties of Metals                                            of your bicycle, and do not wish to perform            are marked on the sidewall of the tire (see fig. 7).            COMPRESSORS.
Please understand that there is no simple statement             inspection or maintenance on your own bike,            The part of this information which is most important
that can be made that characterizes the use of                                                                                                                                         They are not made for bicycle tires. They move a
                                                                then you must make your retailer a partner in          to you is Tire Pressure.
different metals for bicycles. What is true is how the                                                                                                                                 large volume of air very rapidly, and will raise the
                                                                maintaining and inspecting your bicycle. Work
metal chosen is applied is much more important                                                                                                                                         pressure in your tire very rapidly, which could
                                                                with your retailer to determine a maintenance
than the material alone. One must look at the way               and inspection schedule appropriate for your                    WARNING                                                cause the tube to explode.
the bike is designed, tested, manufactured,                     riding. PART I, SECTION 5. A provides some
supported along with the characteristics of the metal           general guidelines on service intervals.                 NEVER INFLATE A TIRE BEYOND THE                              Tire pressure is given either as maximum pressure
rather than seeking a simplistic answer.                                                                                 MAXIMUM PRESSURE MARKED ON THE                               or as a pressure range. How a tire performs under
                                                                For     your    safety,   understanding       and        TIRE'S SIDEWALL.                                             different terrain or weather conditions depends
Metals vary widely in their resistance to corrosion.            communication with your retailer, we urge you to
                                                                                                                                                                                      largely on tire pressure. Inflating the tire to near its
Steel must be protected or rust will attack it.                 read this section. The materials used to make            Exceeding the recommended maximum pressure
                                                                                                                                                                                      maximum recommended pressure gives the lowest
Aluminum and Titanium quickly develop an oxide                  your bike determine how to inspect it properly.          may blow the tire of the rim, which could cause
                                                                                                                                                                                      rolling resistance; but also produces the harshest
film that protects the metal from further corrosion.                                                                     damage to the bike and injury to the rider and
                                                                YOU CAN BE SEVERELY INJURED,                                                                                          ride. High pressures work best on smooth, dry
Both are therefore quite resistant to corrosion. The                                                                     bystanders.
                                                                PARALYZED, OR KILLED IF YOU IGNORE                                                                                    pavement.
6000 series aluminum alloys Pietzo has used for
                                                                THIS WARNING.
years are commonly used in marine applications.
Aluminum is not perfectly corrosion resistant and
particular care must be used where it contacts other
metals and galvanic corrosion can occur.

                                                         64                                                                                                                      33
Very low pressures, at the bottom of the                                                                                  FREERIDING & DOWNHILL
                                                              2. T i r e valves
recommended pressure range, give the best                     There are primarily two kinds of bicycle tube valves:
performance on smooth, slick terrain such as hard-
packed clay, and on deep, loose surfaces such as
                                                              The Schrader Valve and the Presta Valve. The                         WARNING
                                                              bicycle pump you use must have the fitting
deep, dry sand.                                               appropriate to the valve stems on your bicycle.              FREERIDING AND OTHER FORMS OF "EXTREME RIDING" RE EXTREMELY
                                                                                                                           DANGEROUS. YOU CAN BE SEVERELY INJURED OR KILLED IN A SERIOUS
Tire pressure that is too low for your weight and             The Schrader valve (fig. 8) is like the valve on a car       ACCIDENT.
the riding conditions can cause a puncture of the             tire. To inflate a Schrader valve tube, remove the
tube by allowing the tire to deform sufficiently to                                                                        Freeriding, jumping, hucking, dirt jumping, mountaincross, downhill, slalom, slopestyle, urban or
                                                              valve cap and clamp the pump fitting onto the end of         street riding or other evolving forms of extreme or hard core mountain biking are inherently
pinch the inner tube between the rim and the riding           the valve stem. To let air out of a Schrader valve,
surface.                                                                                                                   dangerous and can lead to serious accidents. Wear all safety gear and be sure your bike is in
                                                              depress the pin in the end of the valve stem with the        excellent condition. Follow all the instructions and warnings below. These steps will reduce, but
                                                              end of a key or other appropriate object.                    not eliminate, the inherent risks. Even with state of the art protective safety gear you could be
                                                                                                                           seriously injured, paralyzed or killed. If you do not want to take these risks, do not engage in this
          CAUTION                                             The Presta valve (fig. 8) has a narrower diameter and
                                                              is only found on bicycle tires. To inflate a Presta valve    type of riding.
  Pencil type automotive tire gauges can be                   tube using a Presta headed bicycle pump, remove              Fundamental Risk
  inaccurate and should not be relied upon for                the valve cap; unscrew (counterclockwise) the valve          Freeriding, jumping, hucking, dirt jumping, mountaincross, downhill, slalom, slopestyle, urban or
  consistent, accurate pressure readings.                     stem lock nut; and push down on the valve stem                                                                                       ®
                                                                                                                           street riding. It seems that everywhere you look, from Mountain Dew commercials to the X-
  Instead, use a high quality dial gauge.                     to free it up. Then push the pump head on to the                     ®               ®
                                                                                                                           Games to the Red Bull Rampage, riders are grabbing big air and sticking sick drops. And it sure
                                                              valve head, and inflate. To inflate a Presta valve           looks fun.
                                                              with a Schrader pump fitting, you’ll need a Presta
Ask a professional bicycle mechanic to recommend              adapter (available at your bike shop) which screws           But what the videos and bike magazines and ads don’t always tell you is that extreme riding takes
the best tire pressure for the kind of riding you will        on to the valve stem once you’ve freed up the                an amazing amount of skill. Some of the riders you see are well-paid pros who have gradually built
most often do, and have a dealer inflate your tires           valve. The adapter fits into the Schrader pump               up their skills through endless hours of practice, and who have also had their share of stitches,
to that pressure. Then, check inflation as described          fitting. Close the valve after inflation. To let air out     concussions and busted bones (and bikes). Others are daredevils who have chosen to accept or
in SECTION .C so you’ll know how correctly inflated           of a Presta valve, open up the valve stem lock               ignore the risks. Would you allow anyone to say that you are so weak in the head, and have such
tires should look and feel when you don’t have                nut and depress the valve stem.                              poor judgment that you copy those you see in the media without thought of the serious risks?
access to a gauge. Some tires may need to be                                                                               The stakes are high if you screw up. Realize too late that you aren’t up to the challenge, and you
brought up to pressure every week or two. So, it is                                                                        run the risk of major injury or even – say it aloud – death, paralysis. In short, extreme riding carries
important to check your tire pressures before every                                                                        a high degree of fundamental risk, and you bear the ultimate responsibility for how you ride and
ride.                                                                                                                      what you attempt to pull o f . Do you want to avoid these significant risks? Then do not ride this
Some special high-performance tires have
unidirectional treads: their tread pattern is                                                                              Product Limitations
designed to work better in one direction than in the                                                                       Problems of pilot error aside, hard-core riding also beats the heck out of your equipment. Although
other. The sidewall marking of a unidirectional tire                                                                       we build and test our bikes to make them tough, there’s no way that we can guarantee they’ll
will have an arrow showing the correct rotation                                                                            survive your umpteenth six-foot drop. For starters, there is no industry “jumping” standard. The many
direction. If your bike has unidirectional tires, be                                                                       circumstances of takeoff, landing, speed, rider technique, etc. are unique. The judgment, lack of
sure that they are mounted to rotate in the correct                                                                        judgment or insanity of a rider who may ride a Pietzo bicycle cannot be completely predicted, so it’s
direction.                                                                                                                 flat-out impossible to predict how anyone’s equipment is going to hold up.
                                                                                                                           Let’s get another thing straight. Buying a Freeride bike does not make you any better. Do not
        WARNING                                                                                                            confuse the built-in capabilities of equipment with your own capabilities, which must be learned.
                                                                                                                           Keeping your bike and all its components in good working order is critical, and it’s up to you to
 We highly recommend that you carry a spare                                                                                maintain and inspect it. Even so, your sweet rig isn’t going to last forever. Nothing does, particularly
 inner tube when you ride your bike.                                                                                       bikes and parts that are built to minimize weight and then are subjected to abuse. Pietzo frames carry
 PATCHING    A   TUBE                  IS      AN                                                                          a warranty, but that’s to cover issues with workmanship and/or materials. (See the Pietzo Limited
 EM ERGENCY REPAIR.                                                                                                        Warranty in this manual). The warranty doesn’t mean that they’re going to last forever. They’re not. The
                                                                                                                           warranty certainly doesn’t mean that the bicycle can in any way protect you from injury.
 If you do not apply the patch correctly or apply
 several patches, the tube can fail, resulting in                                                                          If you’re going hard-core, be smart about it. Always wear a full face helmet, state-of-the-art neck
 possible tube failure, which could cause you to              Figure 18                                                    brace, body armor, full-finger gloves, and protective clothing. Choose a bike that’s right for you,
 loose control and fall. Replace a patched tube as                                                                         your riding and terrain, and check it often for signs of fatigue or other trouble. (A bicycle professional
 soon as possible.                                                                                                         can help you on both fronts.) Read PART II, SECTION B. MOUNTAIN BIKE RIDING. And most
                                                                                                                           importantly, know your limitations. Practice. Stay in control, and carefully, gradually expand your
                                                                                                                           limits – but ride within them.

                                                         34                                                                                                                   63
                                                                                                                         SECTION 5. ELECTRIC                                    5A. Electric Drive Operating Modes
SUSPENSION                                                   DOWNHILL AND LIFT-SERVICED RIDING
Suspension will increase the handling capabilities
                                                                                                                               DRIVE                                            The electric drive can be operated in two different
and comfort of your bicycle. This enhanced capability
may allow you to ride faster, particularly on rough
                                                                    WARNING                                           Your Pietzo electric bike has a balance of several        Note: The electric drive will not operate unless
or bumpy surfaces. As common sense tells you,                 TO RIDE DOWNHILL AT SPEED OR IN                         features found on regular bicycles with an                the battery key lock has been turned to the on
increased speed brings increased risk.                                                                                engineered upgrade consisting of an electric              position. See SECTION 5.C.
                                                              COMPETITION IS TO VOLUNTARILY
                                                              ASSUME A VERY LARGE RISK. YOU                           motor and a power source in the form of a
       WARNING                                                COULD    BE   SERIOUSLY INJURED,                        Lithium Ion Battery. You can ride your bicycle in
                                                                                                                      either the manual mode, pedal assist mode or in                   WARNING
                                                              PARALYZED, OR KILLED.
DO NOT CONFUSE THE BUILT-IN                                                                                           a fully electric mode. The choice is yours.
                                                              When riding downhill such as at a ski area, on                                                                      THE ELECTRIC MOTOR CAN BECOME
CAPABILITIES OF A SUSPENSION BIKE                                                                                                                                                 UNINTENTIONALLY            ENGAGED
                                                              trails or access roads, or on dirt roads such as fire   Your electric drive bicycle uses a high efficiency
WITH YOUR OWN CAPABILITIES, WHICH                             roads, you can reach speeds seen on motorcycles,                                                                    WHENEVER YOU HAVE YOUR HAND ON
MUST BE LEARNED.                                                                                                      DC brushless motor. Depending on the speed of
                                                              with similar hazards and risks.                                                                                     THE THROTTLE, POTENTIALLY CAUSING
                                                                                                                      the motor, it can achieve up to 85% efficiency
Increasing your skill will take time and practice.                                                                                                                                AN UNSAFE SITUATION. YOU MUST BE
                                                              Wear appropriate safety gear, including a full          and a maximum torque on 13 N.m.
Stay in control, and carefully, gradually learn the                                                                                                                               AWARE OF THE THROTTLE AT ALL TIMES
                                                              face helmet, full finger gloves, protective
feel and handling of your suspension bike.                                                                                                                                        AND SHOULD BE VERY CAUTIOUS WHEN
                                                              clothing, and body armor. Have your bicycle and         The 200 watt electric drive operates at 24 Volts.
                                                                                                                                                                                  MOUNTING    OR    DISMOUNTING  THE
When you apply the front brakes on a suspension               equipment carefully inspected by a qualified            The battery capacity is 10 Amp-hours.
                                                                                                                                                                                  ELECTRIC BICYCLE.
bike, the front of the bike will fall or dip as               mechanic and be sure it is in excellent condition.
weight shifts forward. This is normal. (The front             Consult with expert riders and/or race officials on     The maximum range of your electric bicycle is               READ      THESE                INSTRUCTIONS
of your car dips when you apply the brakes.) You              conditions and equipment advisable at any site          40* miles, in the pedal assist economy mode on a            CAREFULLY.
must learn to anticipate this weight shift and                where you plan to ride downhill. Experienced            fully charged battery. The maximum range in the
compensate by shifting your body weight back.                 riders often pre-walk or carefully and slowly pre-      throttle mode is 20* miles.
                                                              ride a downhill course before attempting it at                                                                    1. Throttle Mode: The handle grip located on the
JUMPING                                                       any speed.                                              The enclosed drive system requires only surface              right handle bar is the throttle. The throttle can
                                                                                                                      cleaning and dry storage.                                    be activated and deactivated by pressing the
                                                                                                                                                                                   Green Button Switch adjacent to the throttle.
       WARNING                                               SHIFTING GEARS WHILE PEDALING
                                                                                                                      *Note: Range is determined on flat terrain,
                                                                                                                      without headwind resistance at optimum
JUMPING IS VERY RISKY. YOU COULD                                      CAUTION                                         efficiency.
INJURY, PARALYSIS OR DEATH.                                    Shifting under extreme pedaling pressure
Jumping a mountain bike is fun, but it puts
                                                               puts a great amount of stress on components.
                                                               While most components can withstand an
extreme stress on your bike. Perhaps most
                                                               occasional “power shift,” continual power               Please keep the keys to your electric bicycle
vulnerable to jumping-related damage is your
                                                               shifting will most assuredly damage some part           in a safe place. Each set of keys is unique to
fork. Riders who insist on jumping their bikes
risk serious damage, to their bicycles as well as              of your drivetrain. Whenever possible, ease up          your specific electric bicycle. The keys are not
                                                               on your pedals when shifting.                           serialized. Pietzo does not keep a copy of
                                                                                                                       your key on file. Nor do we have a way of
                                                                                                                       reproducing that key.
STAY IN CONTROL                                                                                                                                                                   Figure 19.

                                                                                                                                                                                  With your hand holding the throttle you can
       WARNING                                                                                                                                                                    energize the electric drive by rotating your right
                                                                                                                                                                                  hand toward you. Do not activate the throttle
FAILURE TO RIDE IN CONTROL COULD                                                                                                                                                  until your bicycle is moving forward at a slow
RESULT IN A FALL LEADING TO SERIOUS                                                                                                                                               speed with plenty of room to maneuver. When
INJURY, PARALYSIS, OR DEATH.                                                                                                                                                      you are ready, stop pedaling and slowly rotate
While the risks inherent to this sport cannot be                                                                                                                                  your right hand until the bicycle maintains its
eliminated, you can minimize the risks by riding in                                                                                                                               speed without pedaling. The bicycle is now
control and wearing a helmet. The reality is that                                                                                                                                 being driven by the electric drive motor
simple, and that challenging.                                                                                                                                                     controlled by the throttle. Increasing the
                                                                                                                                                                                  rotation will increase your speed. At any time
                                                                                                                                                                                  you can turn off the electric drive by activating
                                                                                                                                                                                  either brake or releasing the throttle and
                                                                                                                                                                                  discontinuing your pedaling.

                                                        62                                                                                                                 35
                                                                                                                                                                               BIKE TYPES
  The throttle mode can be used in conjunction             c. Pedal Assist Mode “E” (Economy mode) –
                                                                                                                 SECTION C. MOUNTAIN
  with any of the modes listed below. The motor               To test this mode of operation, place the              BIKE RIDING                                                     WARNING
  power supplied by twisting the throttle is                  operation switch (on the left handle bar) to
  available in addition to whatever mode you                  the “E” position, then ride the bicycle                                                                          PICK A MOUNTAIN BIKE FOR HOW YOU
  have selected with the Pedal Assist rocker                  normally as you would any bicycle.                                                                               WILL RIDE.
  switch (see next section) on the left side of the
                                                                                                                                                                               There are now many different kinds of
  handle bar.                                                 In this mode, the motor will assist you with a   See also APPENDIX A. Maximum Fork                               “mountain bikes.” If you try using your bike for
                                                              moderate amount of power as you pedal the
                                                                                                               Length. See also SECTION B. Intended Use.                       something it was not intended, you may break it
  Note: If you release the throttle while pedaling,           bicycle.
                                                                                                                                                                               with risk of serious injury, paralysis or death.
  the electric drive will continue to add power to
  the rear wheel. See the next SECTION 5.A.2                  As you test this mode of operation, make         OFF-ROAD RIDING                                                 Matching the intended use of any kind of
  Pedal Assist Mode.                                          sure you have plenty of room to maneuver,                                                                        mountain bike to your expected riding is import.
                                                              then with the throttle off and with the switch   O f road riding usually involves many, many                     Read SECTION B. INTENDED USE starting on
  This throttle mode will support lower mileage               set to “E” start pedaling your bicycle.          variables such as constantly changing traction,                 page 51.
  per charge than the pedal assist mode.                      Approximately 10 seconds after you begin to      obstacles, changes in line of sight, up hill, down hill,
                                                              pedal your bicycle you will experience a         soft surfaces, dry surfaces, wet surfaces. Of road
2. Pedal Assist Mode: Pedal assist is like                    feeling of minor acceleration as the electric    riding requires managing a complex and constantly
   getting a helping hand while you pedal. It                 motor assists your pedaling effort. The          changing rider–to-bicycle feedback loop of traction,            INSPECTION AND
   automatically senses that you are pedaling and             motor will stop when you stop peddling in        weight distribution, application of power, application          MAINTENANCE ROUTINES
   supports your effort using the electric motor.             this mode.                                       of brakes and steering driven by the conditions one
   For all bicycles, the pedal assist mode is                                                                  encounters. The complexity and ever-changing
   controlled by a Three Position Rocker Switch
   located on the left side of the handle bar.
                                                              This mode draws the least amount of battery
                                                              power and will also give you the most miles
                                                                                                               nature of road riding requires focus, concentration,
                                                                                                               strength, fitness and learning to read the trail. The
   Please locate the switch on your bicycle.                  per charge.                                      art of managing all this while surrounded by nature              MOUNTAIN BIKE RIDING IS VERY HARD
                                                                                                               makes this a challenging and wonderful sport.                    ON BIKES. MOUNTAIN BIKES NEED
  a. Manual Mode – Place the operation switch                                                                                                                                   FREQUENT CLEANING, MAINTENANCE
                                                                                                               If you have ridden your mountain bike on a paved
     (on the left handle bar) to the middle                                                                                                                                     AND INSPECTION.
     position, and ride the bicycle normally as                     CAUTION                                    road, or on a gravel or dirt road, you have done very
                                                                                                               little in the way of learning to mountain bike.                  Clean your bike after every ride and conduct a
     you would any bicycle without electric
                                                             When you are not using the electric drive         Learning to ride of road is a process. It does not               pre-ride inspection before every ride. Detailed
                                                             leave the key lock in the off position to         automatically occur because you have a mountain                  inspection as outlined in SECTION D. in this
                                                             preserve the battery charge. See SECTION          bike. Learning to ride of road does not come from                manual is needed more often than for road bikes.
  b. Pedal Assist Mode “S” (Standard Mode) –
                                                             5.C.1.                                            watching “extreme” mountain bike videos or TV. In                Failure to keep up with maintenance and
     To test this mode of operation, place the
                                                                                                               fact the riders in those films are professional                  inspection increases the risk of an accident, with
     operation switch (on the left handle bar) to
                                                                                                               entertainers and/or daredevils, not teachers.                    risk of serious injury, paralysis or death.
     the “S” position, then ride the bicycle
     normally as you would any bicycle.

    In this mode, the motor will assist you with
    full power as you pedal the bicycle.                                                                         MOUNTAIN BIKE RIDING IS VERY
                                                                                                                 DIFFERENT FROM RIDING A BIKE ON
    As you test this mode of operation, make
                                                                                                                 THE ROAD. For starters, it is almost certain
    sure you have plenty of room to maneuver.
                                                                                                                 you will fall of.
    Then, with the throttle off and with the switch
    set to “S”, start pedaling your bicycle.                                                                     Get training! Join a club and find experienced
    Approximately 10 seconds after you begin to                                                                  people to teach you. It is likely that your retailer
    pedal your bicycle you will experience a                                                                     can hook you up with local rides. Practice and
    feeling of minor acceleration as the electric                                                                learn to stay in control. Carefully, progressively,
    motor assists your pedaling effort. When                                                                     learn to expand your limits, but always ride
    riding in the pedal assist standard mode,                                                                    within them.
    you will notice the motor stop whenever you
    stop pedaling.

    This mode gives you a moderate “miles per
    charge” and is considered a balanced mode
    in terms of energy usage vs. distance.

                                                      36                                                                                                                  61
                                                                                                     5B. Starting and Stopping Your Electric
     GENERAL PURPOSE RIDING                                    MAXIMUM WEIGHT LIMIT                  Bicycle.
                                                                                                     Whenever you mount your Pietzo e-bike to start-                     WARNING
                                                                                                     up or to stop and dismount, be careful to insure              THE ELECTRIC MOTOR CAN BECOME
                                                                 Rider        Luggage     Total
                                                                                                     that the electric drive is no longer energized. You
                                                                 lbs / kg      lbs / kg   lbs / kg                                                                 UNINTENTIONALLY ENGAGED
                                                                                                     want to insure that the motor is not unintentionally
                                                                                                                                                                   WHENEVER YOU PEDAL YOUR BICYCLE
                                                                                                     propelling you or the bicycle forward.                        TO DOWNSHIFT WHILE SLOWING DOWN
                                                                  250 / 116       30/14   280/130
                                                                                                     Take care to insure that both modes of operation,             POTENTIALLY CAUSING AN UNSAFE
                                                                                                     Throttle and Pedal Assist, are off whenever you               SITUATION. YOU MUST BE AWARE OF
                                                                                                     are starting or stopping. Keep the rocker switch in           THE PEDAL ASSIST AT ALL TIMES AND
                                                                                                     the center off position when stopping or starting             SHOULD BE VERY CAUTIOUS WHEN
                                                                                                     your e-bike.                                                  SLOWING DOWN FOR A STOP OR
                                                                                                                                                                   MOUNTING THE ELECTRIC BICYCLE.
                                                                                                             WARNING                                               READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS
                                                                                                      THE ELECTRIC MOTOR CAN BECOME
                                                                                                      UNINTENTIONALLY ENGAGED                                    2. Pedal Assist Mode:
                                                                                                      WHENEVER YOU HAVE YOUR HAND ON                               a. The pedal assist mode is controlled by a
                                                                                                      THE THROTTLE, POTENTIALLY CAUSING                               Three Position Rocker Switch located on
                                                                                                      AN UNSAFE SITUATION. YOU MUST BE                                the left side of the handle bar. Prior to
                                                                                                      AWARE OF THE THROTTLE AT ALL TIMES                              mounting or stopping your bicycle toggle the
                                                                                                      AND SHOULD BE VERY CAUTIOUS WHEN                                three position switch to the center or off
CONDITION 2                                                                                           MOUNTING OR DISMOUNTING THE                                     position. In this position the pedal assist
Bikes designed for riding Condition, plus smooth                                                      ELECTRIC BICYCLE.                                               mode is off. Therefore if you inadvertently
gravel roads and improved trails with moderate                                                        READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS                                         pedal the bicycle while stopping or starting,
grades where the tires do not lose ground contact.                                                    CAREFULLY.                                                      this action will not cause the electric drive to
                                                                                                                                                                      be energized.
Breeze, Kaver, Stream, Montague                                                                      1. Throttle Mode:                                             b. Switching the pedal assist mode off is
                                                                                                       a. Before mounting or dismounting you bicycle                  especially important when you are slowing
INTENDED                                                                                                  make sure that the Green Button Switch,
For paved roads, gravel or dirt roads that are in                                                                                                                     down for a stop but need to downshift gears
                                                                                                          below the throttle, is pressed to the off                   to be positioned in a low gear for starting,
good condition, and bike paths.                                                                           position. This can be tested by twisting the                after a stop at a traffic light or stop sign. If
NOT INTENDED                                                                                              throttle slightly to see whether the electric               the pedal assist mode is on, this action will
For of-road or mountain bike use, or for any kind of                                                      drive pushes the bicycle forward.                           energize the electric drive.
jumping. Some of these bikes have suspension
features, but these features are designed to add                                                       b. Whenever you are mounting or dismounting                 c. Whenever you are slowing for a stop,
comfort, not of-road capability. Some come with                                                           your bicycle, always actuate the break lever                mounting or dismounting your bicycle,
relatively wide tires that are well suited to gravel or                                                   until you are fully on or off the bicycle. When             always actuate the break lever until you are
dirt paths. Some come with relatively narrow tires                                                        the break lever is actuated the power to the                fully stopped, or on or off the bicycle. When
that are best suited to faster riding on pavement. If                                                     electric motor will be off.                                 the break lever is actuated the power to the
you ride on gravel or dirt paths, carry heavier loads                                                                                                                 electric motor will be off.
or want more tire durability talk to a bicycle                                                         c. Whenever you are mounting or dismounting
professional about wider tires.                                                                           from your bicycle always make sure that the
                                                                                                          throttle is fully released. If the throttle is
                                                                                                          turned the electric drive will accelerate the
                                                                                                          bicycle causing you to lose your balance
                                                                                                          and the bicycle to fall over.

                                                          60                                                                                                37
                                                                                                                            HIG H- PERFO RM ANCE RO AD
5C. Using Your Electric Drive Safely                            5. Do not charge the battery at a temperature that                                                                    broken in a crash. They are not designed to take
                                                                   exceeds 110º F (45 º C). Charging the battery                                                                      abuse or be a rugged workhorse.
Your electric bike contains a powerful 200 watt                    above these temperatures could result in a fire.
motor with a lithium ion battery that has the
capacity of 240 watt hours at 24 volts. You must                6. Do not ride your bicycle through pools of water                                                                    MAXIMUM WEIGHT LIMIT
treat this drive system with care at all times.                    deeper than the thickness of your tire. Water
                                                                   logging the battery or electric system could                                                                           Rider         Luggage              Total
1. Before mounting or dismounting you bicycle                      result in an electrical short that could cause a                                                                      lbs / kg         lbs / kg           lbs / kg
   make sure that the Green Button Switch is                       fire or an electrical shock to the rider.
   pressed to the off position. This can be tested
   by twisting the throttle slightly to see whether             7. Do not expose a battery that has been                                                                                  250 / 116          30/14           280/130
   the electric drive pushes the bicycle forward.                  removed from the electric bike to water. Water
                                                                   logging the battery could result in an electrical
2. Whenever you are mounting or dismounting                        short that could cause a fire or an electrical
   your bicycle, always actuate the break lever                    shock.
   until you are fully on or off the bicycle. When
   the break lever is actuated the power to the                 8. Do not charge the battery when it is wet.
   electric motor will be off.                                     Charging a wet battery could result in an
                                                                   electrical short that could cause a fire or an
3. Whenever you are mounting or dismounting                        electrical shock.
   from your bicycle always make sure that the
   throttle is fully released. If the throttle is turned        9. Never plug or un-plug the charger with a wet
   the electric drive will accelerate the bicycle                  hand
                                                                                                                       CONDITION 1
   causing you to lose your balance and the
                                                                10. Do not use the charger during a lightning          Bikes designed for riding on a paved surface where
   bicycle to fall over.
                                                                  storm.                                               the tires do not lose ground contact.
4. Do not operate or store the battery at a                                                                            PIETZO BIKE MODELS
   temperature that exceeds 130º F (55 º C).
   Operation or storage of the battery above                                                                           Auster
   these temperatures could result in a fire.                                                                          INTENDED
                                                                                                                       To be ridden on paved roads only.
                                                                                                                       NOT INTENDED
                                                                                                                       For of-road, cyclocross, or touring with racks or
                                                                                                                       TRADE OFF
                                                                                                                       Material use is optimized to deliver both light weight
                                                                                                                       and specific performance. You must understand that
                                                                                                                       (1) these types of bikes are intended to give an
                                                                                                                       aggressive racer or competitive cyclist a performance
                                                                                                                       advantage over a relatively short product life, (2) a
                                                                                                                       less aggressive rider will enjoy longer frame life, (3)
                                                                                                                       you are choosing light weight (shorter frame life) over
                                                                                                                       more frame weight and a longer frame life, (4) you
                                                                                                                       are choosing light weight over more dent resistant or
                                                                                                                       rugged frames that weigh more. All frames that are
                                                                                                                       very light need frequent inspection for cracks that
                                                                                                                       would indicate that the frame is worn out from
                                                                                                                       fatigue. These frames are likely to be damaged or

                                                           38                                                                                                                    59
                                                                                                              5D. Electric Drive System Use
                                                                                                              1. Operation of the key lock. The key lock can             2. Battery installation and removal. With the
                                                                                                                 be found at the rear left of the bicycle just              key lock in the ‘unlock’ position (See SECTION
                       S E C T I O N B.I N T E N D E D U S E                                                     behind the seat. We suggest that you cycle the             5.C.1 above) you can now install or remove
                                                                                                                 lock with the battery removed so that you can              the battery.
                                                                                                                 visually see the three key positions.                     To install the battery, align the two rails on the
                                                                                                                The first key position is the center off position          bottom of the battery with the two slots on the
                                                                                                                indicated by an ‘X’ marked black circle. The               frame. Then push the battery forward rapidly
       WARNING                                                                                                  key can be inserted or removed when the lock
                                                                                                                is in this position. Notice that with the key in
                                                                                                                                                                           so that the battery contacts make a complete
                                                                                                                                                                           connection. When you push the battery
UNDERSTAND YOUR BIKE AND ITS INTENDED USE. CHOOSING THE WRONG BICYCLE FOR                                       this position, the locking pin on the frame                forward, please note that the battery must be
YOUR PURPOSE CAN BE HAZARDOUS. USING YOUR BIKE THE WRONG WAY IS                                                 protrudes above the surface. This will prevent             flush against the frame so that the flange at the
DANGEROUS.                                                                                                      the battery from being removed if it is in place           rear of the frame can slide into the slot that is
                                                                                                                or installed if standing freely.                           located toward the rear of the battery by the
 No one type of bicycle is suited for all purposes. Your retailer can help you pick the “right tool for the
                                                                                                                Caution: When you are not using the electric               handle. Once the battery in slide into place you
 job” and help you understand its limitations. There are many types of bicycles and many variations within
                                                                                                                drive leave the key lock in the off position to            can then turn the key to the locked position
 each type. Pietzo bikes are hybrid bikes intended for commuting.
                                                                                                                preserve the battery charge.                               (either central off position or the power on
 There are also bicycles that mix features. For example there are road/racing bikes with triple cranks.                                                                    position as described in SECTION 5.C.1
 These bikes have the low gearing of a touring bike, the quick handling of a racing bike, but are not well      If you rotate the key clockwise the lock is now            above).
 suited for carrying heavy loads on a tour. For that purpose you want a touring bike.                           in the power on position. This is the position
                                                                                                                indicated by the red circle. With the key in this
 Within each of type of bicycle, one can optimize for certain purposes. Visit your bicycle shop and find
 someone with expertise in the area that interests you. Do your own homework. Seemingly small changes
                                                                                                                position there is now power available to the                      CAUTION
                                                                                                                bicycle drive system. To verify that the drive
 such as the choice of tires can improve or diminish the performance of a bicycle for a certain purpose.                                                                    If the key cannot be rotated to the neutral off
                                                                                                                system is on, observe the battery charge
 Industry usage Conditions are generalized and evolving. Consult a qualified dealer about how you intend        indicator on the handle bar. If the battery is              position, it is because the battery is not
 to use your bike for purposes other than commuting.                                                            fully charged, the entire row of LED’s will be              completely installed in the frame and
                                                                                                                active. You can verify the battery charge by                therefore the locking pin is not properly
                                                                                                                pressing the button on top of the battery. The              aligned with the hole in the bottom of
                                                                                                                key cannot be removed from the key lock                     battery. To correct this you should slide the
In addition to this section, please consult any Pietzo owner’s manual supplements or components
                                                                                                                when in this position.                                      battery back and push (slide) it more
manufacturer’s instructions for information on intended use.
                                                                                                                                                                            forcefully into the frame. Only use the
                                                                                                                In order to remove or install the battery you               minimum amount of force necessary to align
                                                                                                                must depress and rotate the key counter clock               the pin and hole.
                                                                                                                wise. As you rotate the key please note that
                                                                                                                the locking pin recedes into the frame. When
                                                                                                                the key is pointed toward ‘unlocked’ position
                                                                                                                the locking pin is fully depressed. You can then
                                                                                                                install or remove the battery. The key can also
                                                                                                                be removed from the key lock when in this

                                                    58                                                                                                              39
                                                  Total Charge time from total discharge: 6-8
                                                                                                       BRAKE POWER MODULATORS                                         AFTERMARKET BRAKE SYSTEMS
5E. Battery Operation and Storage                 hours                                                Your bike may be equipped with a brake modulator,
                                                  Total Charge time for the initial first 3 charges:   a device installed between the front brake lever and
                                                  12 hours                                             the front brake to reduce initial front braking force.               WARNING
     WARNING                                      Battery & charger storage conditions: Room           (Brake power modulators are also used on the rear
                                                                                                       brake of some bicycles.)                                       DO NOT MODIFY YOUR BIKE IN ANY
                                                  temperature -20º 35º,
• NEVER LEAN ON THE BATTERY AND                   Battery & charger storage relative humidity:                                                                        WAY TO MOUNT BRAKES SYSTEMS.
  NEVER LIFT THE ELECTRIC BICYCLE                                                                      If a rider applies the front brake too strongly or too
                                                  5 65 RH                                                                                                             MODIFCATIONS CAN DAMAGE YOUR
  USING THE ELECTRIC BATTERY.                                                                          suddenly, these devices can help reduce the risk of
                                                                                                                                                                      BIKE LEADING TO AN ACCIDENT. YOU
                                                                                                       locking the front wheel or throwing the rider. Once
• NEVER SHORT CIRCUIT THE CHARGE                If you have any questions about this battery or its                                                                   CAN BE SEVERELY INJURED OR KILLED.
                                                                                                       the modulator device is bottomed out, the front
  OR DISCHARGE BATTERY TERMINALS.               usage, please do not hesitate to contact Pietzo.       brakes have the same power, and the same risks                 Choose only brakes that mount to the frame,
• NEVER CHARGE THE BATTERY BY THE                                                                      of overly hard use, as brakes without a modulator.             swing arm, or fork using only the existing disc
                                                        WARNING                                        Modulators are a small help in giving a rider more of
                                                                                                       a chance to react correctly.
                                                                                                                                                                      brake, V-brake or cantilever mounts. Do not
                                                                                                                                                                      modify the existing mounts or clamp, weld, or in
  CHARGE TERMINALS.                                                                                                                                                   any other way add new or different mounts.
                                                  • NEVER POUR ANY LIQUID ON OR                        Modulators are not a substitute for practicing and             Any modification will void the warranty and may
• KEEP THE BATTERY AWAY FROM                        INSERT ANY METAL INTO THE                          learning to brake correctly. See PART I, SECTION               weaken or damage the frame. For installation
  EXCESSIVE HEAT AND OR OPEN                        CHARGER.                                           4.C.                                                           instructions and other warnings, read the
  FLAMES.                                        • NEVER PLACE ANY OBJECT ON THE                                                                                      literature provided by the brake manufacturer.
                                                                                                                                                                      When choosing replacements, please ask your
  OR SUBMERGE IT IN WATER.                        • NEVER DISASSEMBLE OR MODIFY THE                            WARNING                                                Pietzo Dealer. Have your bike’s brakes
• TO AVOID DAMAGE TO THE BATTERY,                   CHARGER IN ANYWAY.                                                                                                installed and adjusted by a professional bike
                                                                                                        A BRAKE MODULATOR WILL NOT
  NEVER SUBJECT THE BATTERY TO                    • NEVER PLUG OR UN-PLUG THE                                                                                         mechanic.
                                                                                                        PREVENT WHEEL LOCK UP OR BEING
                                                  • DO NOT USE THE CHARGER DURING A                     HARD    OR   FAST    OR    ABRUPT
• PROTECT THE BATTERY FROM WATER                    LIGHTNING STORM.                                    APPLICATION OF THE BRAKES.
                                                  • USE ONLY THE SUPPLIED CHARGER
• PROTECT THE DISCHARGE AND                                                                            It is important that you understand modulators are
                                                    TO RE-CHARGE THE BATTERY.
  CHARGE TERMINALS OF THE BATTERY                                                                      not an intelligent, sophisticated system. Modulators
  FROM RAIN OR WATER LOGGING.                     • DO NOT OPERATE THE CHARGER IN AN                   ARE NOT anti-lock braking systems (ABS). Bicycle
                                                    UNSTABLE, DUSTY OR AN                              brake modulators are not like ABS in a car. Unlike
• KEEP THE BATTERY AWAY FROM                        EXCESSIVELY DAMP ENVIRONMENT.                      automotive ABS there is not an intelligent system of
                                                  • AVOID USING THE CHARGER UNDER                      sensors and computer control. Unlike an ABS
• WHEN THE BATTERY IS NOT IN USE                    DIRECT SUNLIGHT.                                   system in a car you cannot just jam on the brakes
  FOR AN EXTENDED PERIOD OF TIME,                                                                      and let the system take over. There is no system to
                                                                                                       think or act for you.
                                                  • UNPLUG THE CHARGER FROM THE                        Some people, including sales people, may try to
• NEVER DISASSEMBLE THE BATTERY.                                                                       explain brake modulators on bicycles by saying that
                                                                                                       they are “like ABS”. This is misleading and
  SERVICEABLE PARTS.                                                                                   inaccurate.
                                                2. Charging the Battery. Connect the battery to
• DO NOT SIT ON OR PLACE ANY                       the charger before you plug the charger into
  OBJECT ON OR OVER THE BATTERY.                                                                       We urge you to ask your retailer to confirm if you have
                                                   the wall. When you connect the battery to the       a brake modulator on your bike. We urge you to ask
                                                   charger; ensure the output terminal of the          your retailer to demonstrate how it works. We urge
1. Battery Specifications:                         charger and the input terminal of the battery       you to work with the front brake lever while standing
   Battery capacity: 10Ah                          are firmly connected. When the charger is           still to understand how it works. We urge you to read
   Battery and Motor Voltage: 24V                  plugged into a wall outlet, the charger LED         any brake and brake modulator instructions that
   Charge temperature range 0º ~45º                indicator will turn RED to indicate that the        came with your bike.
   Discharge temperature range –20º ~55º           battery is charging. The LED indicator on the
                                                   charger will turn GREEN when the battery is
                                                   fully charged. Disconnect the charger from the
                                                   wall outlet before disconnecting the charger
                                                   from the battery.

                                           40                                                                                                                    57
                                                                                                                           You can verify the battery’s charge status by
                                                                                                                           pressing the button on the top of the battery.
                                                                                                                           All of the LEDs will be lit indicating a fully
                                                                                                                           charged battery.
Some cyclists have experienced disturbing
“shimmy” or “vibration” at certain speeds. This
                                                                                                                           To ensure long battery life, fully charge the
symptom is rarely reported and there is no
                                                                                                                           battery for at least twelve (12) hours during the
agreement among experts as to the cause. Among
                                                                                                                           first initial three charges and charge the battery
the proposed causes of shimmy are: a loose
                                                                                                                           at least once for 2-3 hours every 2 months.
headset, frame alignment problems, weight of front
wheel magnets for cycle computers, and spoke
tension.                                                                                                                         WARNING
Larger riders on larger frames are thought by some                                                                         USE ONLY THE CHARGER THAT IS
to be more likely to experience such vibration.                                                                            SUPPLIED WITH THE BICYCLE TO
If you experience such a vibration, gently apply the                                                                       CHARGE THE BATTERY.
brakes and slow down. Another suggestion is to                                                                             Other chargers may not charge at the correct
press your leg against the top tube as you slow                                                                            voltage. The wrong charger may also stop
down.                                                                                                                      charging before the battery is fully charge or
                                                                                                                           may over charge the battery, which could
                                                                                                                           shorten battery life, reduce charge capacity or
         WARNING                                              Figure 33.                                                   cause the battery to overheat and potentially
                                                                                                                           cause a fire.
  IF YOU EXPERIENCE"SHIMMY," DO NOT                           “Toe clip overlap” is common on small frame size
  RIDE CONTINUE TO RIDE YOUR BIKE.                            bicycles. It is simple to avoid any contact with the
  TAKE THE BICYCLETOYOUR RETAILER                             front tire: have the inside pedal up before beginning
                                                                                                                         3. Storage, maintenance and transport.
  FOR    INSPECTION,  SERVICE,   OR                           a turn. As you turn to the left, the inside (left) pedal
  CHANGES.                                                    should be positioned at twelve o’clock. As you turn to
                                                                                                                           Storage: If the battery needs to be stored for
                                                              the right, the inside (right) pedal should be positioned
                                                                                                                           an extended period of time, it should be kept at
                                                              at twelve o’clock. Having the inside pedal up will
TOE CLIP OVERLAP What is It?                                                                                               around 50% charge capacity (or charge the
                                                              prevent any toe clip-to-tire contact and maximize
                                                                                                                           battery for about 2-3hours from empty) and
“Toe clip overlap” or “toe overlap” describes the toe         cornering ground clearance. Learn to make it your
                                                                                                                           should be placed in a dry and well ventilated
of your shoe or toe clip contacting the front tire (or        habit on any sized bike.
front fender). This may occur when the pedal with
                                                              Whether or not you have overlap, or how much
your shoe (with or without a toe clip) is all the way
                                                              overlap you have can be changed. Be aware that toe           The battery and charger should be kept in
forward and the front wheel is turned sharply to a
                                                              clearance can be increased or decreased by changes           storage in a clean, dry and well ventilated
position where the toe or toe clip can contact the                                                                         place. Avoid contact with corrosive substances
                                                              in crank arm length, size of pedals or toe clips used,
tire (or fender). If you ride with clipless pedals,
                                                              size of tires used, addition of fenders, size/design of      and keep the battery away from excessive heat
attach your riding shoes to the pedals and check
                                                              shoes worn.                                                  and or open flames. The charger should be
for front tire clearance.
                                                                                                                           disconnected from the battery when it is kept in
                                                               TOE CLIP OVERLAP COULD CAUSE YOU                            Maintenance: To maintain battery life
                                                                                                                           expectancy, the battery needs to be charged at
                                                               TO LOSE CONTROL OF YOUR BIKE, FALL
                                                                                                                           least once for 2-3 hours every two months.
                                                               AND    BE    SERIOUSLY    INJURED,
                                                               PARALYZED OR KILLED.
                                                                                                                           Transportation: Should the battery or charger
                                                               Please consult with your retailer on the simple             need to be transported, pack it in a box, and
                                                               steps you must follow to avoid an accident. Insist          ensure that it is always protected from intense
                                                               that your retailer work with you to determine if            physical impact, shock, severe vibrations,
                                                               your own combination of bicycle, shoe(s) and                direct sunlight, or water logging. The battery
                                                               components have this common design feature.                 may be transported in a vehicle such as an
                                                                                                                           automobile, train, ship, airplane and etc.
                                                                                                                           Please check your local rules and regulations
                                                                                                                           regarding such transportation.

                                                         56                                                                                                                     41
                                                                 of the catch slot so that the arm of the latch is
                                                                                                                     INSTALLING ACCESSORIES                                        AERODYNAMIC HANDLEBARS
     SECTION 6. FOLDING                                          now parallel to the ground. Holding the front       Have all accessories mounted by your Authorized               Aerodynamic or “Triathlon” handlebar extensions
           BIKE                                                  wheel forward allow the handlebars to drop          Pietzo Retailer. Be sure that any accessory you or            are fitted to some triathlon or racing bikes. They are
                                                                 down and fold next to the front wheel. Insure       your authorized retailer fits to your bike does not           also added by customers. Understand that when
                                                                 that the cables fold over with the handlebar        block or interfere with nationally required reflectors        riding on these extensions your steering and braking
                                                                 behind the front wheel. This will prevent the       or lights.                                                    are adversely affected. Some riders find it harder to
                                                                 cables from pulling or from catching on the                                                                       bend their neck to see forward. Be sure to practice
This section is for owners of folding bicycles. It
                                                                 front tire.                                                                                                       riding with aero handlebar extensions on hazard and
provides instructions on folding and unfolding your
                                                                                                                            WARNING                                                traff ic free roads. Practice the transition from
                                                                                                                                                                                   having your hands on the extensions to having your
6A. Folding Your Bike                                                                                                INCOMPATIBLE    ACCESSORIES   OR                              hands on the regular handlebars and brake levers.
                                                                                                                     POORLY OR IMPROPERLY MOUNTED
1. Folding your bike.                                                                                                ACCESSORIES CAN ADVERSELY AFFECT
  There are four steps for folding your bike:
                                                                                                                     THE PERFORMANCE OF YOUR BICYCLE
                                                                                                                     AND MAY BE UNSAFE.
  a. Folding the bike pedals
  b. Folding the handlebars                                                                                                                                                         DO NOT RIDE ON THE AERO HANDLEBAR
  c. Raising the kickstand                                                                                                                                                          EXTENSIONS IN TRAFFIC      OR ON
  d. Folding the bike frame                                                                                                                                                         DIFFICULT ROADS.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Ride on the aero handlebar extensions only
  Before you begin the folding process, stand on                                                                                                                                    when the road is clear of traff ic and hazards and
  the left side of the bike facing forward. The                                                                                                                                     you have a long line of sight.
  kickstand is located on this side of the bike. By
                                                                                                                                                                                    When using the extensions understand that you
  standing on this side of the bicycle, when you            Figure 21. Raise Latch
                                                                                                                                                                                    are compromising steering and braking in favor
  fold the frame you will be folding toward you,
                                                                                                                                                                                    of speed. If you need to take evasive steering or
  similar to closing a book.
                                                                                                                                                                                    braking action while on the extensions you could
                                                                                                                                                                                    have an accident, with risk of serious injury,
  a. Folding bike pedals: The bike pedals can be
                                                                                                                                                                                    paralysis or death.
     folded up by squeezing the outer and inner
     sides of the pedal and folding them up. Once
     the pedal has been squeezed by
     approximately half an inch, rotate the pedal
     up toward the crank arm.
     Repeat this action for the 2 pedal on the
     other side of the bicycle. Remember that the
     bicycle will not fold properly unless you have
     folded the pedals.

                                                            Figure 22. Fold Over Handlebar Stem

     Figure 20. Squeeze Pedal

  b. Folding the handlebars: Identify the quick
     release latch located on the long vertical stem
     below the handle bars. Release the latch by
     pulling it upward toward you and moving it out

                                                       42                                                                                                                     55
                                                                                                                                                                                you must raise the spring loaded latch arm
CHILD CARRIERS                                               BICYCLES HAVE SHARP SURFACES                                                                                       vertically approximately ½ inch. Once the
                                                                                                                                                                                safety catch pin is released the frame you will
                                                                                                                                                                                be able to fold the bicycle in half. Fold the
      WARNING                                                        WARNING                                                                                                    frame toward you keeping the front wheel
CHILD CARRIERS ADDWEIGHT AND                                   BICYCLES HAVE             EXPOSED        SHARP
RAISETHE CENTER OF GRAVITY, MAKING                             SURFACES.                                                                                                        The bicycle is completely folded when the
BALANCE      AND   CORNERING  MORE                             Exercise caution with chainrings and pointed,                                                                    rear and front wheels are adjacent.
DIFFICULT. IF YOU LOOSE CONTROL,YOU                            aggressive platform pedals, as they have sharp
ANDYOUR CHILD PASSENGER CAN BE                                 and potentially dangerous surfaces. Use caution                                                                  You can now pick up the bicycle using the
SEVERELY INJURED OR KILLED.                                    when working on your bike. If you slip or fall you                                                               exposed frame handle. The easiest way to
Pietzo urges you NOT to install child carriers on              could be injured.                                                                                                hold the folded bicycle is by holding the other
bicycles. If you choose to install a child carrier,                                                                                                                             side of the folded frame as well.
have an experienced bicycle mechanic install it.
Install only on a compatible bicycle. If you insist          BAR ENDS
on using a child carrier we urge that you confirm
with both the carrier rack manufacturer and the              Pietzo urges consumers not to install “Bar Ends”
child carrier manufacturer that the two products             on bicycles. Some handlebars are designed to
are safely compatible. Always use caution when               take the added stress of bar ends, others are not.
riding with a child carrier.                                 Very lightweight handlebars may be particularly          Figure 23. Insure Cables Fold Properly
Some saddles are equipped with coil springs. If              poorly suited for bar ends. If you want bar ends,
you use a rear rack mounted child carrier there              consult your Authorized Pietzo Retailer about          c. Raising the kickstand: The kickstand on
is a risk that a child’s fingers could be injured if         suitable choices, read and follow instructions and        your folding bicycle has a release. The
trapped in the coil springs when the rider hits a            warnings that accompany the handlebars and bar            release is a small curved plate is adjacent to
bump and the springs compress. Be sure that the              ends, and inspect the handlebars and bar ends             the kickstand protruding 1/3 of the way down
child cannot reach the springs when properly                 regularly.                                                the kickstand arm.
strapped in the carrier.                                                                                                                                                        Figure 25. Open Frame Latch
Pietzo encourages use of trailers for children.                                                                       In order to release the kick stand, use the
Be very careful when towing a trailer.                                                                                side of your right foot to push against the
Remember that braking distances increase, and                                                                         release plate as you sweep it back.
the trailer will track inside the line of the bicycle
when making turns. Children should always wear
helmets when riding in a child carrier or trailer.
Use of bicycle helmets on children is required by
law in many areas.

                                                                                                                                                                                Figure 26. Rotate Latch Arm

                                                                                                                      Figure 24. Press Kickstand Foot Plate

                                                                                                                    d. Folding the bicycle frame: To start, stand
                                                                                                                       on the left side of the bicycle (kickstand side).
                                                                                                                       Reach over and identify the quick release
                                                                                                                       latch that is located at the center point of the
                                                                                                                       frame at the lowest point of the “v”. Release
                                                                                                                       the latch by pulling it up and rotate the latch
                                                                                                                       arm out of the catch slot.

                                                                                                                      There is a safety mechanism on the latch that
                                                                                                                      prevents the two sides of the frame from
                                                                                                                      separating. In order to disengage the safety

                                                        54                                                                                                                 43
                                                                                 REFINISHING                                               MODIFICATIONS

                                                                                 WE KNOW THAT BIKE OWNER'S REFINISH
                                                                                 AND REPAINT BIKES. NO OWNER'S                             DO NOT MODIFY YOUR BIKE FRAME OR
                                                                                 MANUAL OR VOIDED WARRANTY WILL                            COMPONENTS       IN      ANYWAY.
                                                                                 PREVENT THIS. WE CAN'T PREDICT ALL                        MODIFICATIONS CAN CAUSE DAMAGE
                                                                                 THE THINGS THAT COULD GO WRONG IN                         LEADING TO FAILURE AND ACCIDENT.
                                                                                 THE REFINISHING PROCESS. WHAT WE                          YOU CAN BE SEVERELY INJURED OR
                                                                                 HOPETO COMMUNICATE TO YOU IN THE                          KILLED.
                                                                                 FORM OF THIS WARNING IS THAT                              Do not physically alter your frame in any way.
                                                                                 1. Incorrectly refinishing or repainting your bike        Don’t sandblast, shot blast or glass bead your
                                                                                 can lead to a serious accident.                           frame. Don’t use any coarse sandpaper on your
                                           Figure 29. Completely Folded Bike                                                               bike. Don’t grind, wire brush, file, scrape or
                                                                                 2. Refinishing could hide structural damage
                                                                                 (fatigue cracks, dented or bent tubes, or other           machine buff your frame. Don’t weld, braze or let
                                                                                                                                           anyone touch your frame with a torch. Don’t drill
                                                                                 structural problems) also leading to an accident.
                                                                                                                                           any holes in your frame. Don’t acid dip or etch
                                                                                 You can be injured or killed.
                                                                                                                                           your frame. Don’t anodize or chrome plate your
                                                                                 PRECAUTIONS:                                              frame. Any of these procedures will seriously
                                                                                                                                           harm the structural integrity and/or longevity of
  Figure 27. Raise Safety Catch Pin                                              • Chemicals that might be used in refinishing             your frame, which could lead to serious accident
                                                                                   might attack your frame and/or fork (carbon             and injury.
                                                                                   fiber) and weaken them.
                                                                                                                                           Modifications will void any applicable
                                                                                 • Removing original paint, decals (sanding,               warranty.
                                                                                   scouring, scratching, or blasting) can actually
                                                                                   remove frame material possibly weakening
                                                                                 • Refinishing can not fix structural problems;
                                           Figure 30. Hold Both Sides of Frame     refinishing might conceal serious damage.
                                                                                 IF YOU DECIDE TO REFINISH: (suggestions)

                                                                                 • Understand that your Pietzo warranty will be
                                                                                 • Go to a professional bicycle repainter (often a
                                                                                   frame builder).
  Figure 28. Fold Frame                                                          • Ask about the professional’s experience with
                                                                                   aluminum and/or carbon frames.
                                                                                 • Be sure your frame is never sanded with paper
                                                                                   coarser than 50 grit.

                                      44                                                                                              53
                                                                                                                     6B. Unfolding Your Bike
                                                                                                                     2. Unfolding your bike.
         WARNING                                           Mountain Biking at Night
                                                                                                                       There are four steps for unfolding your bike:

  RIDING AT NIGHT DUSK OR AT DAWN IS                       Mountain biking at night is risky. Take the                 a. Unfolding the bike frame
  VERY HAZARDOUS.                                          challenges outlined in SECTION C. and add                   b. Lowering the kickstand
                                                           another level of di f f ic ul t y and risk. Seeing the      c. Unfolding the handlebars
  Avoid riding at night. If you choose to ride
                                                           terrain is much more di f f i c ul t at night. Mountain     d. Unfolding the bike pedals
  at night:
                                                           biking at night is only for skilled mountain bikers,
                                                           on familiar terrain, with excellent light systems,          a. Unfolding the bike frame: Before beginning
       Install front and rear lights.                      riding with other skilled mountain bikers, and                 the unfolding process, insure that the frame
                                                           riding cautiously.                                                                                                       Figure 32. Raise Safety Catch Pin
       Install a blinker or strobe light.                                                                                 hinge opens away from you. This means that
       Check your state or national laws. Lights           Adding Lighting                                                the hinge is on the same side of the bicycle
       are required for riding at dusk, night, or
                                                           REFLECTORS ARE NOT A SUBSTITUTE
                                                                                                                          as you are standing.                                             WARNING
                                                           FOR PROPER LIGHTS. IT IS YOUR
       Wear reflective clothing.                                                                                         Straighten the frame. Line up the hinge at the             MAKE SURE THAT THE FRAME QUICK
                                                           RESPONSIBILITY TO EQUIP YOUR
                                                                                                                         center of the bicycle frame. Once the hinge                RELEASE IS FULLY ENGAGED AND
       Stay alert, others may not see you.                 BICYCLE WITH ALL NATIONAL, STATE
                                                                                                                         catch is touching the latch arm, you will need             TIGHT.
       Make sure your bicycle is equipped with             AND LOCALLY MANDATED LIGHTS.
                                                                                                                         to raise the latch arm (similar to the action              Failure to properly engage and tighten the
       all required reflectors, lights, strobes, or        Riding at dawn, at dusk, at night or at other                 performed in folding the bicycle) so that the
       blinkers.                                                                                                                                                                    frame quick release could cause you to lose
                                                           times of poor visibility without a bicycle lighting           safety latch pin clears the safety catch. As               control of the bicycle resulting in a fall or
                                                           system which meets local and state laws and                   you raise the latch arm, bring the end of the              collision potentially causing serious injury or
                                                           without reflectors is dangerous and may result in             adjacent ends of the frame together. Then                  death.
  Required Reflectors                                      serious injury or death.                                      swing the latch arm through the slot in the
  The location and type of each reflector on your          If you ride your bike before dawn or after dusk,              latch plate.
                                                                                                                                                                                  b. Lowering the kickstand: Lower the
  bike is required by a national authority, in the US,     your bicycle must be equipped with lights so that                                                                         kickstand by pushing down on the kickstand
  the US Consumer Product Safety Commission                you can see the road and avoid road hazards,                  Fasten the quick release lever so that the
                                                                                                                                                                                     with your foot.
  (CPSC). Your Pietzo bike must be delivered with:         and so that others can see you. Traffic laws treat            lever firmly holds the two sides of the frame
  1. A front mounted forward facing reflector. 2. A        bicycles like any other vehicle. That means you               together. If the quick release is not tight, then
                                                                                                                                                                                  c. Unfolding the handlebars: Raise the
  rear mounted, rear facing reflector, 3. A spoke          must have a white front and a red rear light                  open the quick release lever. Twist the lever
                                                                                                                                                                                     handlebars. Make sure that the cables do not
  mounted reflector on each wheel, 4. Front and            operating if you are riding after dusk. Your bike             by several turns in the clockwise direction.
                                                                                                                                                                                     catch on the bike. Once the handle bar is
  rear facing reflectors on the left and right pedal.      dealer can recommend a battery or generator                   Close the lever arm. This will increase the
                                                                                                                                                                                     straight, rotate the quick release arm up into
                                                           powered lighting system appropriate to your                   clamping force. If the quick release is not
  DO NOT REMOVE, BLOCK, OR COVER                                                                                                                                                     the catch slot and push down on the quick
                                                           needs.                                                        tight, then repeat this step.
  REFLECTORS.                                                                                                                                                                        release lever to close. If the quick release
  Much Higher Risks at Night                               Flashing (blinker) and Strobe Lighting                                                                                    lever is not tight, rotate the lever a couple of
                                                           Pietzo also strongly urges you to use a flashing                                                                          turns clockwise. Close the quick release
  The risk of an accident, particularly being struck       light or strobe. All of us at Pietzo who ride at                                                                          lever. This will increase the clamping force.
  by a motor vehicle, is much higher at night. If you      night or in conditions of lower visibility use                                                                            Make sure that the lever is tight to insure that
  choose to accept this higher risk, improve your          flashers. They can save your life. (Yeah, we                                                                              the handlebars stay straight.
  odds with a proper lighting system, strobe light,        know there may be legal issues with flashers in
  light colored reflective clothing and careful riding.    some areas. They can save your life. Enough
  Seek the advice of an experienced bicycle                said.)                                                                                                                        WARNING
  commuter at your retailer.
                                                                                                                                                                                   MAKE SURE THAT THE HANDLEBAR
                                                                                                                                                                                   STEM QUICK RELEASE IS FULLY
                                                                                                                                                                                   ENGAGED AND TIGHT.
                                                                                                                                                                                   Failure to properly engage and tighten the
                                                                                                                         Figure 31. Unfold Frame                                   quick release on the handlebar stem could
                                                                                                                                                                                   cause you to lose control of the bicycle
                                                                                                                                                                                   resulting in a fall or collision potentially
                                                                                                                                                                                   causing serious injury or death.

                                                                                                                                                                                  d. Unfolding the bike pedals: Push each pedal
                                                                                                                                                                                     out so that it is parallel to the ground. You will
                                                                                                                                                                                     hear and feel a click. This indicates that the
                                                                                                                                                                                     pedal is in place.
                                                      52                                                                                                                     45
                                                                                                                  RIDING IN TRAFFIC, COMMUTING
                                                         If you want to learn to do major service and repair
SECTION 7. SERVICE                                       work on your bike, you have three options:
                                                         1. Ask your representative or a dealer for copies of
                                                            the m an uf ac t ur er ’s installation and service    RIDING IN TRAFFIC (AND COMMUTING) IS
                                                            instructions for the components on your bike, or      HAZARDOUS     AND    YOU  CAN    BE
      WARNING                                               contact the component manufacturer.                   SEVERELY INJURED OR KILLED DOING IT.
TECHNOLOGICAL    ADVANCES    HAVE                        2. Ask a bicycle dealer to recommend a book on           As noted in PART I of this manual, you must
MADE    BICYCLES   AND    BICYCLE                           bicycle repair.                                       learn and obey local traffic laws. Riding in traffic
COMPONENTS MORE COMPLEX, AND                                                                                      is hazardous. We cannot teach you about all of
                                                         3. Ask a bicycle dealer about the availability of
THE   PACE   OF   INNOVATION    IS                                                                                these hazards. We suggest:
                                                            bicycle repair courses in your area.
INCREASING.                                                                                                       Effective Cycling (ISBN 0-6-0659-7) by John
                                                         We recommend that you ask a professional bicycle         Forester.
                                                         mechanic to check the quality of your work the first
PROVIDE    ALL    THE   INFORMATION                                                                               And, by Michael
                                                         time you work on something and before you ride the
REQUIRED TO PROPERLY REPAIR                                                                                       Bluejay “How to Not Get Hit by Cars: Important
                                                         bike, just to make sure that you did everything
AND/OR MAINTAIN YOUR BICYCLE.                                                                                     lessons on Bicycle Safety”
                                                         correctly. Since that will require the time of a
In order to help minimize the chances of an              mechanic, there may be a modest charge for this          Here are just some important topics you must
accident and possible injury, it is critical that        service.                                                 consider:
you have any repair or maintenance which is not                                                                   Traffic Law, Accidents, Intersections,
specifically described in this manual performed          We also recommend that you ask a professional
                                                         bicycle mechanic for guidance on what spare              Commuting And Utility Cycling Where To Ride,
by your dealer. Equally important is that your
                                                         parts, such as inner tubes, light bulbs, etc. it would   On Roadway, Changing Lanes In Traffic, Riding
individual maintenance requirements will be
                                                         be appropriate for you to have once you have             At Night, Improving Your Odds With Safety,
determined by everything from your riding style
                                                         learned how to replace such parts when they              Lighting , And Weather Equipment
to geographic location.
                                                         require replacement.                                     Many bike clubs conduct training programs and
                                                                                                                  workshops that focus on these and other safe
                                                                                                                  cycling topics. Ask at your local bike shop. Seek
                                                                                                                  the advice of an experienced bicycle commuter
                                                                                                                  at your retailer.

Do not begin any adjustments or service on your
bicycle until you have learned from your dealer
how to properly complete them. Improper
adjustment or service may result in damage to
the bicycle or in an accident which can cause
serious injury or death.

                                                    46                                                                                                                   51
                                                                                                                     7.A - SERVICE INTERVALS                                       • Grab one pedal and rock it toward and away
                                                                                                                                                                                       from the center line of the bike; then do the
                                                                                                                     Some service and maintenance can and should be                    same with the other pedal. Anything feel
         S E C TI ON A.                                                                                              performed by the owner, and require no special                    loose? If so, have a professional bicycle
                                                                                                                     tools or knowledge beyond what is presented in this               mechanic check it.
  I M PO R TAN T S AF E T Y                                     BI CYCLI NG I NHERENT RI SK                          manual.                                                       •   Take a look at the brake pads. Starting to look
       I N FO R M ATI O N                                                                                            The following are examples of the type of service                 worn or not hitting the wheel rim squarely?
                                                                                                                     you should perform yourself. All other service,                   Time to have a professional bicycle mechanic
                                                                      WARNING                                        maintenance and repair should be performed in a                   adjust or replace them.
                                                                                                                     properly equipped facility by a qualified bicycle             •   Carefully check the control cables and cable
                                                                BICYCLING IS AN ACTIVE SPORT WITH                    mechanic using the correct tools and procedures                   housings. Any rust? Kinks? Fraying? If so,
A WIDE RANGE OF BICYCLING                                       INHERENT RISK.                                       specified by the manufacturer.                                    have a professional bicycle mechanic replace
INJURIES ARE POSSIBLE                                                                                                                                                                  them.
                                                                 “Inherent risk,“ means that due to the nature
Many hazards are described, and we have attempted                                                                    1. BREAK-IN PERIOD: Your bike will last longer
                                                                of bicycle riding, the situations you encounter                                                                    •   Squeeze each adjoining pair of spokes on
to explain how to avoid or minimize the dangers.                                                                        and work better if you break it in before riding it
                                                                while riding expose you to the risk of serious                                                                         either side of each wheel between your
Because any fall can result in serious injury, paralysis                                                                hard. Control cables and wheel spokes may
                                                                injury, paralysis, or death in an accident.                                                                            thumb and index finger. Do they all feel about
or death we do not repeat the warning of these                                                                          stretch or “seat” when a new bike is first used and
                                                                The risk can not be taken away or eliminated.                                                                          the same? If any feel loose, have a
potential consequences every time we call attention                                                                     may require readjustment by a professional
                                                                You can minimize risk by doing the following:                                                                          professional bicycle mechanic check the
to a hazard. Some low speed falls may result in serious                                                                 bicycle mechanic. Your Mechanical Safety Check
                                                                                                                                                                                       wheel for tension and trueness.
injuries, and some wild high speed falls may result                 Bicycle training & practice                         (SECTION 1.C) will help you identify some things
in none. The reality is that the exact nature of the                                                                    that need readjustment. But even if everything             •   Check to make sure that all parts and
consequences of a fall or accident is not                            Progressive step-by-step learning of new           seems fine to you, it’s best to take your bike to a            accessories are still secure, and tighten any
predictable.                                                                                                            professional bicycle mechanic for a checkup.                   which are not.
                                                                cycling skills
                                                                                                                        Pietzo provides a 30 day checkup. Another way              •   Check the frame, particularly in the area
BICYCLES CANNOT PROTECT YOU                                         The good judgment to ride in control                to judge when it’s time for the first checkup is to            around all tube joints; the handlebars; the
Bicycles are lightweight, human-powered vehicles.                                                                       bring the bike in after three to five hours of hard            stem; and the seatpost for any deep
Unlike a car, much like a motorcycle, there is no                    Bicycle experience, riding with experienced        of-road use, or about 0 to 5 hours of on-road or               scratches, cracks or discoloration. These are
restraint system for your body, no protective structure         riders                                                  more casual of-road use. But if you think                      signs of stress-caused fatigue and indicate
around your body. Crash worthiness cannot be a                                                                          something is wrong with the bike, take it to a                 that a part is at the end of its useful life and
design criterion. A rider sits on a bicycle and can be              Use of a proper bicycle helmet and                  professional bicycle mechanic before riding it                 needs to be replaced. See also PART II,
easily thrown o f for many reasons including overly             appropriate protective gear                             again.                                                         SECTION D. INSPECT FOR SAFETY.
hard use of the front brakes (See PART I, SECTION 4.C
Brakes) or striking an obstacle.                                    Reading and thinking about this entire           2. BEFORE EVERY RIDE: Mechanical Safety                       AS REQUIRED: If either brake lever fails the
                                                                owner’s manual, all owner’s manual                      Check (SECTION 1.C)                                          Mechanical Safety Check (SECTION .C), don’t
                                                                supplements and instructions that came with          3. AFTER EVERY LONG OR HARD RIDE: If the                        ride the bike. Have a professional bicycle
                                                                                                                        bike has been exposed to water or grit; or at                mechanic check the brakes. If the chain won’t
                                                                your bicycle are essential to your safety and part
                                                                                                                        least every 100 miles: Clean the bike and lightly            shift smoothly and quietly from gear to gear,
                                                                of the learning process. Visit www.                                                                      the derailleur is out of adjustment. See a
                                                                                                                        oil the chain. Wipe of excess oil. Lubrication is a
                                                                    Riding within your own unique capabilities          function of climate. Talk to a professional bicycle          professional bicycle mechanic.
                                                                                                                        mechanic about the best lubricants and the                 EVERY 25 (HARD OFF-ROAD) TO 50 (ON-
                                                                and considering the conditions where you are
                                                                                                                        recommended lubrication frequency for your                 ROAD) HOURS OF RIDING: Take your bike to a
                                                                riding.                                                 area.                                                      professional bicycle mechanic for a complete
                                                                                                                     4. AFTER EVERY LONG OR HARD RIDE OR                           checkup.
                                                                                                                        AFTER EVERY 10 TO 20 HOURS OF
                                                                                                                      • Squeeze the front brake and rock the bike
                                                                                                                         forward and back. Everything feel solid? If you
                                                                                                                         feel a clunk with each forward or backward
                                                                                                                         movement of the bike, you probably have a
                                                                                                                         loose headset. Have a professional bicycle
                                                                                                                         mechanic check it.
                                                                                                                      • Lift the front wheel of the ground and swing it
                                                                                                                         from side to side. Feel smooth? If you feel any
                                                                                                                         binding or roughness in the steering, you may
                                                                                                                         have a tight headset. Have a professional
                                                                                                                         bicycle mechanic check it.

                                                           50                                                                                                                 47
 7.B - If Your Bicycle Sustains An
 Impact:                                                               WARNING
First, check yourself for injuries, and take care of them        LIKE ANY MECHANICAL DEVICE, A
as best you can. Seek medical help if necessary.                 BICYCLE AND ITS COMPONENTS ARE
Next, check your bike for damage, and fix what                   SUBJECT TO WEAR AND STRESS.
you can so you can get home. Then, take your                     DIFFERENT      MATERIALS    AND
bicycle to a professional bicycle mechanic for a                 MECHANISMS WEAR OR FATIGUE FROM
thorough check.                                                  STRESS AT DIFFERENT RATES AND
                                                                 HAVE DIFFERENT LIFE CYCLES.
Carbon composite components, including fames,
wheels, handlebars, stems, cranksets, brakes,                    IF A COMPONENT'S LIFE CYCLE IS
etc. which have sustained an impact must not be                  EXCEEDED, THE COMPONENT CAN
ridden until they have been disassembled and                     SUDDENLY AND CATASTROPHICALLY
thoroughly inspected by a qualified mechanic.                    FAIL, CAUSING SERIOUS INJURY OR
                                                                 DEATH TOTHE RIDER.
See also Bicycle Lifespan on page 76.
                                                                 Scratches, cracks, fraying and discoloration are
                                                                 signs of stress-caused fatigue and indicate that a
        WARNING                                                  part is at the end of its useful life and needs to be
                                                                 replaced. While the materials and workmanship
 A CRASH OR OTHER IMPACT CAN PUT                                 of your bicycle or of individual components may
 EXTRAORDINARY STRESS ON BICYCLE                                 be covered by a warranty for a specified period
 COMPONENTS, CAUSING THEM TO                                     of time by the manufacturer, this is no
 FATIGUE PREMATURELY. COMPONENTS                                 guarantee that the product will last the term of
 SUFFERING FROM STRESS FATIGUE CAN                               the warranty.
 FAIL        SUDDENLY          AND                               Product life is often related to the kind of riding
 CATASTROPHICALLY, CAUSING LOSS OF                               you do and to the treatment to which you submit
 CONTROL, SERIOUS INJURY OR DEATH.                               the bicycle. The bicycle’s warranty is not meant
                                                                 to suggest that the bicycle cannot be broken or
                                                                 will last forever. It only means that the bicycle is
                                                                 covered subject to the terms of the warranty.           This page has been left blank intentionally.
                                                                 Please be sure to read PART II, SECTION
                                                                 D. INSPECT FOR SAFETY, "The Lifespan
                                                                 of Your Bicycle and Its Components."

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