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					Ancient India
    Chapter 7
 Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa
• Archaeologists discovered two 4000-year-old
  cities, 400 miles apart, along the banks of the
  Indus River in Pakistan. These expertly
  constructed cities were parts of an advanced
  civilization comparable to ancient Mesopotamia
  and Egypt. We don't know what the ancient people
  of the Indus River Valley called themselves.
  Archaeologists named the cities Mohenjo-Daro,
  which means "hill of the dead," and Harappa, after
  a nearby city.
 Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa
• The people of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa lived in
  sturdy brick houses with as many as three floors.
  The houses had bathrooms that were connected to
  sewers. Their elaborate drainage system was
  centuries ahead of their time. Archaeologists have
  found the remains of fine jewelry, including stones
  from far away places. This shows that the people
  of the Indus Valley civilization valued art and
  traded with other cultures.
Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa
• We don't know what happened to the Indus
  River Valley civilization. It seems to have
  been abandoned about 1700BC. It is
  possible that a great flood weakened the
  civilization. The moving tectonic plates that
  created the Himalayas may have caused a
  devastating earthquake. It is also possible
  that the people may have been defeated by
  another culture.
Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa
• What we know about the Indus civilization
  is evolving. Archaeologists are continuing
  to find new artifacts. In time, we may learn
  how this amazing civilization developed,
  how they learned to create an advanced
  ancient civilization, and why they suddenly

•   Mohenjodaro, Larkana District, Sindh, Pakistan
•   The Buddhist Stupa (circa 200 A.D.), Mohenjo-daro
•   View from Stupa towards Great Bath, Mohenjo-daro
•   The Great Bath, Mohenjo-daro
•   Ancient Indus Street, Mohenjo-daro
•   Ancient Indus Valley City Well, Mohenjo-daro, Sindh
•   Indus Valley Street with Covered Drain, Mohenjo-daro, Sindh
•   Buddhist Stupa View, Mohenjo-daro
  The Geography of the Indian
• The people of ancient India lived in a
  land of extremes. The terrain was
  varied and often presented great
  challenges. Occasional extremes of
  weather such as droughts and
  monsoons were also part of life in
  this land. However, great civilizations
  developed and flourished amidst the
  rivers, mountains, plains and deserts
  of the subcontinent.
   The Geography of the Indian
• Many rivers also flowed through ancient
  India making the land fertile. One of the
  main rivers to be used in ancient times
  was the Indus river in the north-west (what
  is now north-western India and Pakistan).
  It was on the banks of the Indus river that
  the earliest civilization in India to use
  writing, build large buildings and organize
  cities flourished for nearly one thousand
  The Geography of the Indian
• Another important river in ancient
  India was the Ganges. Settlements,
  cities and towns developed on the
  banks of this powerful river from as
  early as prehistoric times.
        About the Indus River
• Indus River, formed in western Tibet by the
  confluence of the glacial streams from the
  Himalaya. It flows from Tibet north-west across
  the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India, passing
  between the western extremity of the Himalaya
  and the northern extremity of the Hindu Kush
  mountain range; it then flows generally south
  through Pakistan to the Arabian Sea, covering a
  distance of about 2,736 km (1,700 mi).
       About the Ganges River
• The Ganges is 1557 miles long (2506 km)
• The Ganges Valley, or basin, is 200 to 400 miles
  (322 to 644 km) wide
• The river starts in an ice cave on the southern
  slopes of the Himalayas, some 10,300 feet (3,140
  meters) above sea level.
• It flows eastward and empties into the Bay of
  Bengal. Its mouths forms a vast delta. At the
  delta it is joined by the southward-flowing
  Brahmaputra River. Their combined delta is
  the largest in the world
  About the Brahmaputra River
• Brahmaputra River one of the largest
  rivers in the world, with its basin covering
  areas in Tibet, China, India and Bangladesh.
  It originates in the Chemayung-Dung
  glacier, approximately at 31°30´N and
  82°0´E, some 145 km from Parkha, an
  important trade center between lake
  Manassarowar and Mount Kailas.
  About the Brahmaputra River
• It has a long course through the dry and flat
  region of southern Tibet before it breaks
  through the himalayas near the Namcha
  Barwa peak at about 7,755m. Its chief
  tributaries in India are the Amochu, Raidak,
  Sankosh, Mans, Bhareli, Dibang and Luhit.
  The several tributaries in Tibet are derived
  partly from a low range between the main
  Himalayas and the Tsang-po.
  About the Brahmaputra River
• The total length of the river from its source
  in southwestern Tibet to the mouth in the
  bay of bengal is about 2,850 km (including
  Padma and Meghna up to the mouth).
  Within Bangladesh territory, Brahmaputra-
  Jamuna is 276 km long, of which
  Brahmaputra is only 69 km.
The Himalayas
            The Himalayas
• The colossal Himalayan Mountains form a
  border between the Indian subcontinent and
  the rest of Asia. The Himalayas are the
  world's tallest mountains, towering more
  than five miles above sea level. Himalaya
  means "home of snow" because the tallest
  peaks of the Himalayas are always covered
  with snow.
             The Himalayas
• The Himalayas include Mount Everest, the
  tallest mountain in the world. Everest rises
  29,028 feet above sea level on the border
  between Nepal and China. No plant life
  grows near the mountain's peak due to
  powerful winds, extremely cold
  temperatures, and a lack of oxygen.
              The Himalayas
• Many adventurous people attempt to climb
  Everest every year. Often their venture ends in
  sickness or death. Most people are unable to
  breathe 20,000 feet above sea level because there
  is not enough oxygen in the atmosphere. A person
  will suffer brain damage when they are unable to
  breathe . Strong winds and frigid temperatures
  make the climate even more rigorous. Clearly the
  peak of Mount Everest is a place for only the
  heartiest of people.
            India’s Climate
• India's climate is dominated by monsoons.
  Monsoons are strong, often violent winds
  that change direction with the season.
  Monsoon winds blow from cold to warm
  regions because cold air takes up more
  space than warm air. Monsoons blow from
  the land toward the sea in winter, and from
  the sea toward land in the summer.
              India’s Climate
• India's winters are hot and dry. The monsoon
  winds blow from the northeast and carry little
  moisture. The temperature is high because the
  Himalayas form a barrier that prevents cold air
  from passing onto the subcontinent. Additionally,
  most of India lies between the Tropic of Cancer
  and the equator, so the suns rays shine directly on
  the land. The temperature can reach as high as 110
  degrees Fahrenheit during the Indian winter.
                 India’s Climate
•    The summer monsoons roar onto the
    subcontinent from the southwest. The winds carry
    moisture from the Indian Ocean and bring heavy
    rains from June to September. The torrential
    rainstorms often cause violent landslides. Entire
    villages have been swept away during monsoon
    rains. Despite the potential for destruction, the
    summer monsoons are welcomed in India.
    Farmers depend on the rains to irrigate their land.
    Additionally, a great deal of India's electricity is
    generated by water power provided by the
    monsoon rains.
        The Caste System

• About 1500BC, powerful nomadic warriors
  known as Aryans appeared in northern
  India. The warriors were from Central Asia,
  but managed to overcome the Himalayas by
  finding lower passes in the mountains, such
  as the Khyber Pass in Pakistan. The Aryans
  conquered the Dravidians of Central India
  and imposed their social structure upon
        The Caste System
• The Aryans divided their society into
  separate castes. Castes were unchanging
  groups. A person born into one caste never
  changed castes or mixed with members of
  other castes. Caste members lived, ate,
  married, and worked with their own group.
        The Caste System
• At the top of the caste system were the
  Brahmin - the priests, teachers, and judges.
  Next came the warrior Kshatriya (KUH
  SHAT REE YUHZ) caste. Farmers and
  merchants comprised the Vaisya (VEEZ
  YUHZ), and the Sudras, was composed of
  craftworkers and laborers.
        The Untouchables

• The untouchables were the outcastes, or
  people beyond the caste system. Their jobs
  or habits involved "polluting activities"
         The Untouchables
• Any job that involved ending a life, such as fishing.
• Killing or disposing of dead cattle or working with
  their hides.
• Any contact with human emissions such as sweat,
  urine, or feces. This included occupational groups
  such as sweepers and washermen.
• People who ate meat. This category included most of
  the primitive Indian hill tribes.
        The Untouchables
• Untouchables were often forbidden to enter
  temples, schools and wells where higher
  castes drew water. In some parts of southern
  India, even the sight of untouchables was
  thought to be polluting. The untouchables
  forced to sleep during the day and work at
  night. Many untouchables left their rigid
  social structure by converting to Islam,
  Buddhism, or Christianity.
         The Untouchables
• The Caste System has been illegal in India for
  more than fifty years, but it continues to shape
  people's lives. The Indian government has
  provided the Harijan a term now popularly used in
  place of untouchable, with specific employment
  privileges, and granted them special representation
  in the Indian parliament. Despite such measures,
  the Harijan continue to have fewer educational
  and employment opportunities than Indians from
  higher castes.
   A History of Conquerors
• India's diverse languages and cultures are
  the result of many outside influences. The
  subcontinent has been continuously raided
  from the north, despite the natural barriers
  provided by the Himalayas.
     A History of Conquerors
•     The Dravidians were India's first inhabitants.
    Archaeologists believe the Dravidians migrated to
    India from East Africa in prehistoric times. Aryan
    invaders from the north conquered the Dravidians
    about 1500BC. The Aryans were related to the
    Persians and Europeans. Their language, Sanskrit,
    is similar to Greek and Latin. Linguists classify
    Sanskrit as an "Indo-European language." Most of
    India's languages are rooted in Sanskrit or
    Dravidian languages.
   A History of Conquerors
• During the 19th century, some Europeans
  concluded that people who spoke Indo-European
  languages were responsible for most human
  progress. They regarded the Germanic people as
  the "purest Aryans" and said they were superior to
  other races. Later study proved these conclusions
  false, but Adolph Hitler and the Nazis used these
  ideas to exterminate Jews, Gypsies, and other
   A History of Conquerors
• Persians, Alexander the Great's armies from
  Greece, and Huns from Central Asia also invaded
  India in ancient times. About AD800, Muslims
  first began to settle near the mouth of the Indus
  River in modern Pakistan. Muslim warriors began
  to move south about AD1000 to conquer the
  Indians. The Indian's slow elephants were no
  match for the Muslim's swift war horses.
  Additionally, the Indians relied on the warrior
  Kshatriya caste to fight. Moreover, Indians from
  lower castes were attracted to Islam because
  Muslims believe that all people are equal.
               The Moguls
• About 1500, new Muslim invaders, called Moguls,
  arrived in India. The greatest of the Mogul
  emperors was Akbar, who ruled from 1556 to
  1606. Unlike previous Muslim rulers, Akbar did
  not force Hindus to become Muslims. He ordered
  that Muslims and Hindus be treated equally. India
  became a prosperous nation under Akbar, and the
  emperors who followed him became some of the
  richest rulers in the history of the world.
               The Moguls
• Islamic art, culture and architecture became an
  important part of Indian culture during the Mogul
  Dynasty. The Taj Mahal, in the northern Indian
  city of Agra, is an example of Mogul architecture.
  Akbar's grandson, Shah Jahan, built the Taj Mahal
  as a mausoleum for his wife, who died in
  childbirth in 1631. A mausoleum is a large tomb.
  The Shah told builders he wanted a building as
  beautiful as his wife. Twenty thousand people
  worked daily for more than twenty years to
  complete the white marble structure.
      The Magadha Kingdom
• There were many states of the Aryans
  in North India, around the 6th century B.
  C. These states were called the
  'Mahajanapadas'. The Mahajanapadas
  of Anga, Kashi, Kosala, Chedi, Vatsa,
  Matsya, Shursen, Ashmak, Avanti,
  Gandhar and Magadha were ruled by
  kings or monarchs. The kings in these
  states had the supreme authority.
      The Magadha Kingdom
• The Mahajanapadas of Vrijji, Malla, Kuru,
  Panchal and Kamboj were republican states
  and so were other smaller states like
  Lichhavi, Shakya, Koliya, Bhagga, Moriya.
  These republican states had a 'Gana-
  parishad' or an Assembly of senior and
  responsible citizens. This, Gana-parishad had
  the supreme authority in the state. All the
  administrative decisions were taken by this
      The Magadha Kingdom
• Alexander, the king of Greece invaded
  India in 326 B.C. On way to Takshshila,
  Alexander met with fierce opposition
  from the Ashwakas. However, he
  defeated them and reached
  Takshashila, crossing the river Sindhu
  (Indus). Ambhi, the king of Takshshila
  made an alliance with Alexander.
     The Magadha Kingdom
• The neighboring King Puru was Ambhi's
  enemy. Ambhi had planned to destroy
  Puru using Alexander. Like Ambhi, King
  Shashigupta also joined hands with
  Alexander. King Puru, however, fought
  with Alexander. He was defeated in the
  battle. Alexander conquered the states
  of Kekaya, Gandhara and subsequently
  the Punjab, too.
       The Magadha Kingdom
• Alexander's army had to suffer severe
  hardships during this campaign. The soldiers
  were far away from homeland and were
  eager to go back. Therefore, they rose in
  rebellion. Alexander also got news of
  rebellion from the different territories he had
  conquered. Therefore, he handed over the
  administration of the conquered territories to
  his officers and started on the return journey.
  He died on the way back in 323 B. C. at
      The Magadha Kingdom
• After the death of Alexander, the Greek
  Officers declared their respective
  territories as independent states.
       The Mauryan Empire
• It is 324 BC. Chandragupta pushed the
  Macedonian garrissons in Punjab and
  Sindh out of India. Afterwards he
  attacked the kingdom of Magadha that
  controls the Ganges and conquered it.
  His mighty army, that he used to
  conquer the Northern half of the
  subcontinent, was composed of
  infantry, cavalry, war elephants and
      The Mauryan Empire
• Under Chandragupta's rule trade
  flourished. The treasury was filled
  and the capital Pataliputra was one
  of the biggest and most beautiful
  cities in the world. Chandragupta
  used his wealth to build up a large
  governing body.
         The Mauryan Empire
• Just like the first ruler of united China
  one century later, the first Emperor of
  this new Empire had a very important
  advisor. His name was Kautilya.
  According to his teachings, the state
  should control everything. Therefore, the
  Empire was full of spies. However, there
  also was tolerance towards private
  enterprising and there was great local
  autonomy, bounded by the rules of the
  state. And, even the monarch had his
        The Mauryan Empire
• In 305 Seleukos Nikator invaded the
  Punjab. It is not known whether there
  had been battle or not, but it is certain
  that Chandragupta kept the Punjab and
  annexed three of the richest provinces
  of Seleukos. Also, the border was
  moved to the western side of the Hindu
  Kush. The young Empire was secured.
      The Mauryan Empire
• At a higher age, Chandragupta got
  interested in religion. According to
  the Jainistic tradition, Chandragupta
  left his throne to his son Bindusara
  in 301 BC and slowly hungered
  himself to death in a Jainistic
        The Mauryan Empire
• 324 Chandragupta drives the Macedonian
  grassisons away
• 305 Seleukos Nicator invades,
  Chandragupta gains 3 provinces and the
  Empire is secured
• 301 Bindusara becomes Emperor
• 269 Ashoka becomes Emperor
• 232 Ashoka dies, decline begins
• 184 The Empire collapses
       Life in Indian Villages
• Most farmers farmed their own land, giving
  the king a share of their harvest
• Some farmers could not afford to own their
  own land. These farmers rented to land by
  giving a share of their crop to the land
  owners. These people were known as
• Hindus believe that all living things have souls, so
  almost all Hindus are vegetarians. A vegetarian
  does not eat meat. Some Hindus are vegan, which
  means they will not eat any animal products,
  including eggs and cheese. Other Hindus will eat
  poultry and fish, but will not eat beef. Cows are
  particularly sacred to Hindus. It is not unusual to
  see a cow wandering through the streets of an
  Indian city
• Many Hindus consider the Ganges River
  holy. Lately, the Ganges has become very
  polluted, but Hindus believe the water from
  the Himalayas will purify the souls of those
  who drink or bathe in its waters. Many
  Hindus make a pilgrimage to the Ganges.
  Others travel to it near the end of their lives
  so they may die near the banks of the
  Ganges River.
       Siddhartha Gautama
• Siddhartha Gautama was a prince who lived in the
  kingdom of Sakyas, near the present day border of
  India and Nepal, more than 2500 years ago. The
  young prince was raised in great luxury, but he
  was not happy. He wanted to understand what
  caused human suffering. He did not understand
  why some people were rich and others were poor.
  Why some people were healthy and others sickly.
       Siddhartha Gautama
• Siddhartha left his palace and lived as an ascetic.
  An ascetic is a person who has few material
  possessions and has given up all pleasures and
  comforts. He prayed and fasted. To fast is to eat
  little or no food. Siddhartha fasted so strictly that
  he nearly died, but he was still not satisfied.
  Finally, Siddhartha sat down under a tree and
  determined to understand why he had failed to
  find a satisfying way of life. Late that night
  Siddhartha Gautama became enlightened.
      Siddhartha Gautama
• Siddhartha told other people of his
  enlightenment. He became well known for
  his teaching. Siddhartha's students called
  him "the Buddha," which means "the
  Enlightened One," and the followers of
  Siddhartha's teachings are called Buddhists.
      Siddhartha Gautama
• The Buddha taught his followers to seek
  balance in their lives. The path to happiness
  is neither through indulgence nor denial, but
  a "middle way." Siddhartha taught that by
  putting aside your ego, you can escape the
  cycle of death and rebirth to reach Nirvana.
• Buddhists look within themselves to find peace;
  they believe they can find the path to Nirvana
  through meditation and karma. Karma can be
  defined as the rewards or punishments a person
  faces because of their thoughts, words, and
  actions. A happy person who treats others with
  kindness and respect creates good karma. A
  person who mistreats others will in turn be
  mistreated. This is bad karma.
• The Buddha did not want his teachings to replace
  other faiths, but today over three hundred million
  Buddhists in all parts of the world adhere to his
  philosophy. His ideas traveled to China, Korea,
  Japan, and Southeast Asia. Buddhism lost its
  influence in India by the 8th century, partly
  because its ideas were absorbed into Hinduism,
  and partly due to the rise of Islam. Buddhism is a
  major religious and moral force in the world, but it
  has been all but unknown in India for over one
  thousand years.
      Ancient India Vocabulary
•   subcontinent   •   Brahmans
•   tributary      •   sharecroppers
•   tropics        •   reincarnation
•   monsoon        •   monk
•   caste
      Ancient India Vocabulary
• subcontinent: a landmass of great size but smaller
  than the continents
• tributary: a stream or river that flows into a larger
  body of water
• tropics: the region extending on either side of the
  Equator from about 23 north latitude to about 23
  south latitude
• monsoon: a seasonal wind that blows from the
  land to the water in one season and from the water
  to the land in the other
     Ancient India Vocabulary
• caste: a class or group based on birth
• Brahman: a class of a priest under the
  Aryans’ caste system
• sharecropper: a person who farms land for
  the owner in return for a share of the crops
     Ancient India Vocabulary
• Reincarnation: the belief that the soul of
  every person has lived from the beginning
  of time in the bodies of various human
  beings or animals
• Monk: a man who has joined a religious
  order and who devotes his life to his