Higher Order Thinking Skills Questionnaire by mar62418

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									Higher Order Thinking
Skills in The Classroom
         (H.O.T. Skills)
        Bloom’s Taxonomy
 Begona Farwell, Susan Grandle, Susan
      Kreger and Eva Navarro
  What is higher order thinking?
• Higher order thinking essentially means
  thinking that takes place in the higher-levels
  of the hierarchy of cognitive processing.
The Griney Grollers Thinking
         Skills Test

  The griney
   grandled in the
       granchy gak.
The griney grollers grangled in the
granchy gak.

1)   What kind of grollers were they?
2)   What did the grollers do?
3)   Where did they do it?
4)   In what kind of gak did they
 The griney grollers grangled in
the granchy gak.
5) Place one line under the subject and two
   lines under the verb.
6) In one sentence, explain why the grollers
   were grangling in the granchy gak. Be
   prepared to justify your answer with facts.
7) If you had to grangle in a granchy gak,
   what one item would you choose to have
   with you and why?
  Why Higher Level Thinking is
 In addition to content (the what of student’s
  learning and achievement) we also need to be
  concerned with student’s thinking skills or mental
  processes( the how in learning).
 Thinking provides the software for the mind.
 Higher level thinking allows student’s memory to
  be used effectively.

Planning for Productive Thinking and Learning by
  Treffinger and Feldhusen, 1998,p.24
     Need for Problem Solving
Because the pace of societal change shows
  no signs of slackening, citizens of the 21st
  century must become adept problem
  solvers, able to wrestle with ill-defined
  problems and win. Problem-solving ability
  is the cognitive passport of the future
(Martinez, 1998).
     Need for Problem Solving
Thinking analytically is a skill like
 carpentry or driving a car. It can be taught,
 it can be learned, and it can improve with
 practice. But like many other skills, such as
 riding a bike, it is not learned by sitting in a
 classroom and being told how to do it.

Critical thinking theory finds its roots primarily in
  the works of Benjamin Bloom as he classified
  learning behaviors in the cognitive
  domain. Bloom (1956) developed a
  taxonomy of learning objectives for teachers
  which he clarified and expounded upon over
  the course of approximately two
  decades. His ideas continue to be widely
  accepted and taught in teacher education
  programs throughout the United States.
     Six Levels of Bloom’s

1. Knowledge       4. Analysis
2. Comprehension   5. Synthesis
3. Application     6. Evaluation
        Bloom’s Taxonomy
Bloom classifies learning behaviors according to
   six levels ranging from Knowledge, which
   focuses upon recitation of facts, to Evaluation,
   which requires complex valuing and weighing
   of information. Each level relates to a higher
   level of cognitive ability.
This taxonomy is useful in designing questions,
   lessons, tasks for students. Bloom found that
   95% of test questions focused on the lowest
   level…the recall of information.
                 Question Levels
Critical thinking may be thought of in terms of
  convergent and divergent questioning (Guilford
  1956, Gallegher and Aschner 1963, and Wilen
  1985). Convergent questions seek to ascertain
  basic knowledge and understanding. Divergent
  questions require students to process information
  creatively. Convergent questions tend to align with
  the first three levels of Blooms Taxonomy of Learning
  Objectives while divergent questions relate to the
  latter three levels.
  Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy
Level: Knowledge
• Materials/Situations: Events, people, newspapers,
  magazine articles, definitions, videos, dramas,
  textbooks, films, television programs, recordings, media
• Measurable Behaviors: Define, describe memorize,
  label, recognize, name, draw, state, identify, select,
  write, locate, recite
  Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy
Level: Comprehension
• Materials/Situations: Speech, story, drama, cartoon,
  diagram, graph, summary, outline, analogy, poster,
  bulletin board
• Measurable Behaviors: Summarize, restate,
  paraphrase, illustrate, match, explain, defend, relate,
  infer, compare, contrast, generalize
  Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy
Level: Application
• Materials/Situations: Diagram, sculpture, illustration,
  dramatization, forecast, problem, puzzle, organizations,
  classifications, rules, systems, routines
• Measurable Behaviors: Apply, change, put together,
  construct, discover, produce, make, report, sketch,
  solve, show, collect, prepare
  Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy
Level: Analysis
• Materials/Situations: Survey, questionnaire, an
  argument, a model, displays, demonstrations, diagrams,
  systems, conclusions, report, graphed information
• Measurable Behaviors: Examine, classify, categorize,
  research, contrast, compare, disassemble, differentiate,
  separate, investigate, subdivide
  Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy
Level: Synthesis
• Materials/Situations: Experiment, game, song, report,
  poem, prose, speculation, creation, art, invention,
  drama, rules
• Measurable Behaviors: Combine, hypothesize,
  construct, originate, create, design, formulate, role-play,
  Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy
Level: Evaluation
• Materials/Situations: Recommendations, self-
  evaluations, group discussions, debate, court trial,
  standards, editorials, values
• Measurable Behaviors: Compare, recommend,
  assess, value, apprise, solve,criticize, weigh, consider,
  Steps to Constructing a Mini-
   Center/Activity Using The
      Engine-Uity Process
1. Select a topic
2. Brainstorm 6 concepts related to the topic
3. Using a grid select a verb from Bloom’s
   Taxonomy for each level, one of the
   concepts, and a product for each task
4. Translate grid into complete sentences.
            Example of Grid-
           Comprehension Level

Concept:            Verb:      Product:

Range and           Identify   map
population of the
mountain lion
Example Mini-Center /Activity
 Comprehension Level Task

     Draw a map with a legend
     identifying the current range and
     population of the mountain lion.
         What is Critical Thinking?
  • This involves using your own knowledge
    or point of view to decide if something is
    right or wrong about someone else’s ideas.

•   Inductive thinking
•   Deductive thinking
•   Determining reality and fantasy
•   Determining benefits and drawbacks
•   Identifying value statements
•   Identifying points of view
•   Determining bias
•   Identifying fact and opinion
• Determining the accuracy of presented
• Judging essential and incidental evidence
• Determining relevance
Looking For Evidence Of Critical Thinking

You may be a critical thinking teacher if...

 Learners are active and in a continuous dialogue with
 Learning is constructing, not feeding
 Truth is discovered, not delivered
 Teacher "leads from behind"
 Teacher functions as a facilitator/mentor instead of
 Questions are answered with explanations or questions,
  not simply "yes" or "no"
Looking for Evidence of Critical Thinking
 Pertinent discussions on related issues often break
 Debate is common
 Peers exchange ideas
 Learner and teacher satisfaction increases
 "Rabbit chasing" becomes an art - explore related
  issues, yet remain on task
 Teachers often face questions for which they have
  no answers
 Social interaction and acceptance in the class is
  generally high
           Personal Check-up
Answer the following questions:

1. Are your teaching objectives, activities, and assessments
   are tied to higher level behavioral verbs?
2. Do all learners have the opportunity to interact with you
   and others?
3. Do you allow time in your course for debating?
4. Do your learners have to use inductive and deductive
5. Do you find yourself using "shock" statements and
   questions to get learners' minds running?
      Personal Check-up

If you could say "yes" to most of these
questions, critical thinking is probably
     happening in your classroom.
 http://www.lgc.peachnet.edu/academic/educatn/Blooms/critical_thinki
 http://www.bena.com/ewinters/Bloom.html
 Planning for Productive Thinking and Learning by Treffinger and
  Feldhusen, 1998, p.24
 Sandra Kaplan, National/State Leadership Training Institute
 Engine-Uity, Ltd.,P.O. Box 9610, Phoenix, Az 85068
 Martinez, M. E. (April, 1998) What is Problem Solving? Phi Delta
  Kappan. 605-609.

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