VIEWS: 95 PAGES: 87 POSTED ON: 5/9/2011
Culture… What is Culture The simplest way to think about culture is to think about the distinction between nature and nurture…culture represents the created or constructed part of who we are. Culture is… Culture = learned behavior Culture = constructed Culture = not organic Culture = communication By Definition… Culture involves the following: 1. Symbols – anything that represents something else 2. Language – written or spoken symbols organized in a system 3. Values – shared beliefs (right vs wrong) 4. Norms – acceptable behavior (mores, folkways, taboos) 5. Technology – tools and how we use them Material Culture Material Culture: all the physical objects, resources and spaces people use to differentiate one culture from any other. Material Culture Material Culture: all the physical objects, resources and spaces people use to differentiate one culture from any other. Material Culture Material Culture: all the physical objects, resources and spaces people use to differentiate one culture from any other. Non-material Culture All the nonphysical components of culture: beliefs, values, rules, norms, morals, language, organizations that define a group‘s ways of thinking Is our culture natural? “Culture Shock” – disorientation people experience when they come into contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer rely on their taken for granted assumptions of life Are we “normal”? Ethnocentrism vs. Cultural Relativism Ethnocentrism: The tendency to view one's own culture as best and to judge the behavior and beliefs of people in other societies by one's own standards. Cultural relativism: The idea that one should try to evaluate and understand another culture/society on its own terms and relative to its own values and beliefs. In 1997… Annette Sorensen, 30 an actress from Copenhagen, Denmark, and Exavier Wardlaw, 49, a movie production assistant from Brooklyn, NY, were arrested for leaving their 14-month old daughter outside a Manhattan restaurant on a chilly day while they ate inside the restaurant. They left the child in her baby carriage on the sidewalk. Many passersby called 911 to alert the police. New York authorities took the child away from her parents and temporarily placed her in foster care. Is this an appropriate response to Sorensen‘s actions? In the ensuing article in the NY Times, one Danish commentator observed that leaving a baby outside of a restaurant is a very common practice in Denmark. The commentator wrote, ―Often, Danish parents…leave their babies outside. For one thing, Danish baby carriages are enormous. Babies ride high above the world on horse-carriage sized wheels. It‘s hard to get such a carriage into a café…Besides, Danish cafes are very smoky places.‖ The commentator continued, ―in Denmark, people have an almost religious conviction that fresh air, preferably cold air, is good for children. All Danish babies nap outside, even in freezing weather—tucked warmly under their plump goose-down comforters…In Denmark all children own a sort of polar survival suit that they wear from October to April and they go out every day, even in winter.‖ How many of you… have a dog? Does your family treat the dog like a member of the family? What role does it play in the dynamic of your family? Bosintang in Korea Sources of protein have historically been scarce in Korea, but dog has been a consistently been the most cost-efficient, readily available source of meat…currently a lot of controversy! Has anyone… Recently gone to a funeral? Describe the events leading up to and including the funeral. Tibetan Sky-Burial, Jhator Buddhist monks dissect the body of the deceased, place it on the mountain top for the vultures to eat. Afterward, they crush the bones with mallets, mix the dust with barley flour and yak milk and feed it to the crows You’re getting ready… To enter adulthood. In our culture, what rituals or events mark the shift from childhood/adolescence to adulthood? Becoming a Warrior , Satere-Mawe Tribe Must wear “gloves” filled with bullet ants for 30 minutes – 25 times in a row Lip Plates Mursi & Suri Tribes in Ethiopia Lip plate indicates the number of cattle paid as the bride price… “gauging” begins 6-12 months before marriage (15-18) Masai Tribe of Kenya In Kenya, Maasai warriors regularly consume cow’s blood mixed with its milk, but also drink it directly from the vein after a bloodletting. The Price of Beauty Ugandan Marriage Rituals In American culture, what does the ―ideal‖ woman look like - in other words, what is the definition of feminine beauty in our culture? Reflection Paper Due, Thursday, March 3rd 30 Points Please be analytical rather than anecdotal… What did the simulation infer about the ways we interact with people who are different from us…stereotyping, assumptions, ethnocentrism, etc. We are going to communicate strictly by nonverbal means You must not talk or vocalize in any way. Line up according to birth date. For example, January 3 before January 18, then March 7, May 12, etc. The year of birth is not important. There should not be any verbal communication. What means of non verbal communication did you use? What made you uncomfortable? What gestures did you use? What are the primary means of communication in our culture? Nonverbal Communication Gestures Eye contact & facial expressions Proxemics Haptic Communication Language Values Norms Please read… The non-verbal communication hand out. When you come across italic text, please stop and actively reflect on the questions posed by jotting down your thoughts. Gestures In your groups, make a list of as many gestures that are commonly used in the US. Identify the meaning behind the gesture Gestures Waving (hello, goodbye, in dismissal, or Raising an eyebrow to get attention) Averting eyes when speaking or spoken to Cuckoo sign (circling finger at temple) Rolling eyes Emphatic fist in the air with locked Smiling (warmly or sarcastically) elbow Shaking hands High five Crossing fingers (for luck or to indicate an untruth) Fist Bump Pointing to something with a forefinger (to Shrugging shoulders ("I don't know," or indicate or accuse) "I don't care.") Folding arms across the chest (indicating cold or indignation) Shaking head "no" Winking (to be flirtatious or to indicate a private Nodding head "yes" joke) Making an OK sign with thumb and Social (as opposed to romantic) kissing forefinger Take A Look… At what some common gestures actually mean around the world! Middle East: Use only the right hand for greetings and giving/receiving things - left hand is the ―toileting‖ hand. Showing the bottom of the shoe or sandal is very inconsiderate. Avoid crossing the legs at the knee while seated. Tapping or rubbing the two index fingers side by side is a crude gesture asking someone to have sex with you. Mongolia and parts of China: the pinky finger up alone with the rest of the of the fingers folded down is the equivalent of our ―thumbs down‖ Latin America: Gently pulling the lower eyelid down can indicate sarcasm or a warning Slapping the bottom of one elbow with the open palm of the other hand means someone is cheap. Gestures or Subtle Cues When you get in line, far do you stand behind the person in front of you? US 1.5 - 4 feet, Russia 1-2 inches When you speak to someone how much eye contact do you make? What does eye contact symbolize in our culture? US eye contact = reliability and honesty Latin America = threatening and aggressive Gestures or Subtle Cues How often do you smile at people you don‘t know? US = friendly, warm, inviting Far East = cover up for embarrassment, fury or confusion Germany = reserved for family France = you must be dumb! Smirk Sweet Smile Cocky Smile Shy Smile Deviant Smile Knowing Seductive Smile Smile Can you spot the fake smile? http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/surveys /smiles/ REAL FAKE Everyone get with a partner… Everyone stand up! I need you to stand toe-to-to facing one another. For the next two minutes I would like you to carry on a conversation face to face. Proxemics Communicating through ―personal space‖ Concentric circles where the closer areas are reserved for more trusted people. Intimate: touching to 10 inches; close friends & family. Casual-personal: 18 inches to 4 feet: Informal conversation w/friends. Social-consultative: 4-12 feet: formal transactions. Proxemics throughout the world USA - 18 inches between 2 speakers Western Europe - 14-16 inches (US 24 inches = most comfortable) Korea & China - 36 inches Middle Eastern cultures - 8-12 inches; wider distances are looked down upon. Blog Posting By Friday, try to break the rules of proxemic interaction. Example: Stand too close to someone when you are talking to them Example: When standing in line, move close to the person in front of you Post on the blog what you did and the reactions of the people around you. Don‘t assault anyone! Haptic Communication Communication through touch Can be sexual or plutonic…where are safe zones? One of the most important senses (somatosensory) for human development What are some ways we communicate through touch? Touch around the world… Who touches? Middle Easterners, Latin Americans, Mediterranean cultures Who doesn‘t touch? Japan, Americans, Canadians, UK, Australia Touch around the world… Saudi Arabia - There is a decent amount of touching between members of the same gender during conversations. It is common for two men to walk hand in hand in public Mongolia - It's common to see people riding in each other’s laps on the bus, standing right next to one another (touching) in public Thailand - touching someone’s head is considered extremely rude Language Speech vs. Language…what’s the difference? Speech = articulation, voice, fluency Language = meaning Polysemics, conjugation, pragmatics, syntax & grammar Language Language is always changing and is reflective of society’s changes: Bromance, frenemy, wardrobe malfunction, defriend, flashmob, green-collar, locavore, staycation, vlog, soul patch, muggle, snowmageddon, butt-dial, facepalm Text Language 143 AYS 10X BRB 1DR BTW 2MI CTN 2MOR HMU 2NTE TTYL AITR SMH Text Language 143 (I love you) AYS (Are you serious) 10X (Thanks) BRB (Be right back) 1DR (I wonder) BTW (By the way) 2MI (Too much CTN (Can‘t talk now) information) HMU (Hit me up) 2MOR (Tomorrow) TTYL (Talk to you later) 2NTE (Tonight) SMH (Shaking my head) AITR (Adult in the room) Language Language provides a shared past, shared future, and shared/opposed views Pittsburghese http://www.pittsburghese.com/voa/voa- final.mp3 http://www.pittsburghese.com/ Regionalisms in United States English What is a generic term for a sweetened carbonated beverage? Soda, pop, Coke, tonic What is a drink made with milk and ice cream? Milkshake, frappe, Cabinet (RI), egg cream (NY, CT, NJ) What is a long sandwich that contains cold cuts, lettuce, and so on? Hero, submarine, grinder, hoagie, po‘boy What is a rubber-soled shoes worn in gym class, for athletic activities, etc.? Sneaker vs. tennis shoe What do you call the thing you put groceries in at the supermarket? Buggy, carriage (New England), cart Regionalisms in the US: California vowels of hock and hawk, cot and caught, are pronounced the same—so awesome rhymes with possum vowels all have a tendency to move forward in the mouth, so that the vowel in dude or spoon (as in gag me with a…) sounds a little like the word you boat and loan often sound like bewt and lewn the vowel in but and cut is also moving forward so that these words sound more like bet and ket. Regionalisms in the US: Cajun Talk extremely fast, their vowels are clipped, and French terms abound in their speech Diphthongs turn to monophthongs, so a word like high turns into ha, just as the word tape turns into tep Words that typically have the first syllable stressed often find the second syllable stressed ―Making groceries‖ ―zink‖ (instead of sink) Regionalisms in the US: New England The 'r' sound is dropped whenever possible. 'Pahk the cah at Hahvahd yahd' (Park the car at Harvard yard) In words like 'park', 'calf' and 'car', the tongue is raised while making the 'a' sound, which broadens and emphasizes the sound considerably. 'Calf' becomes 'caaaf'. 'Car' is 'caaah'. Words ending in '-er' or '-ar' sound like '-ah' at the end ('disappear' becomes 'disappeah', 'after' becomes 'afta'). At the end of a word, the suffix '-ure' tends to get replaced with a '-sha' sound so that 'capture' becomes 'capsha' and nature becomes 'nate-sha'. Especially common in Maine and other parts of New England is the habit of putting an '-er' sound at the end of words that end in 'a'. For example, 'I have an idear, let's get in the cah and drive to Canader and then fly to Havanner, Cuber!' Lost in Translation…Engrish Lost in Translation…Engrish Lost in Translation…Engrish Lost in Translation…Engrish Lost in Translation…Engrish Lost in Translation…Engrish Lost in Translation…Engrish Why is language important? The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: Language not only allows us to communicate, but also shapes the way we look at the world E.g. in the Hopi language, there is no word to differentiate between past, present or future… E.g. in Inuit, there are hundreds of words for snow E.g. if we didn‘t have words to differentiate the jocks from the preps from the nerds, we wouldn‘t have those categories How do we develop language? Nativism - we‗re born with the ability to develop language Interactionism - social acquisition by being around adults (social) Tomorrow… The Linguist – What happens when languages are on the brink of extinction? Two sociolinguists travel around the world attempting to document languages before they die out. The Linguists What did you think about the film? Anything you found interesting or worth noting? Language is Hard… Let‘s test out the limits of our language…2 volunteers (one teacher and one learner) Phonemes The basic units of sound in a language Use of different phonemes = new words (e.g, ―ch‖ is a different phoneme from ―th‖ as ―chug‖ is different from ―thug.‖) Chug! Thug! Developing Language Game Goal of the Game… In your group you will work to create a brand new language Since we only have one period we‘ll make it simple: Each group has five (5) different phonemes Your goal is to ―name‖ your ―world‖ (shapes of various sizes) Your “World” k h grobman - devpsy.org Goal of the Game… At the end of 20 minutes your goal will be the following: Two members of the group (the ―teachers‖) should be able to say a word or a string of words that you created, and two other members (the ―learners‖) of your group should be able to pick up that object that corresponds with the word. Essentially you will replicate the demonstration we started class with, but using your created language! Your Phonemes Your group gets to use 5 phonemes. Each group has a unique set. Here’s a sample that does not match any actual group: ch chair, beach, nature affricate u soon, through, boot monophthong This means you get the sounds /ch/ and /u/. You do not get the sound /t/ even though a ‘t” is in bold. The words in the middle illustrate the use of the phoneme. The right column tells you the type of phoneme; it’s how your mouth, tongue, and vocal cords move. You can combine your phonemes in any way. Your Phonemes ch chair, beach, nature affricate u soon, through, boot monophthong You can make the following words out of the above phonemes: Chu (ch-oo) Uch (oo-ch) Chuch (ch-oo-ch) Uchu (oo-ch-oo) …And so on Small = chu Pink = uch Square = chuch Small, pink square = chu-uch-chuch Rules of the Game During the game, you can only speak with your groups‘ phonemes. You can take notes (with English) to help reduce the working memory demands of the game. But do not show anybody what you wrote. When we test you at the end you cannot use your notes! You can use English for the purpose of giving directions (e.g. ―put the chu-uch-chuch at the top‖) YOU HAVE 20 MINUTES… Ready. Set. Go! Pause! Whole Object Constraint How did you know that when I said ―goobar‖ I meant ―pencil‖? Why didn‘t you think I meant wood, graphite, yellow? This is what we do when we learn language…we associate the entire object with the word! Pause! Language Explosion As we start learning language around the age of two, we start to learn words incredibly fast: about 10 to 20 new words a week! Mostly nouns Have you begun to experience a language explosion? Pause! Pragmatics "The spy sees the police officer with the gun." Who has the gun? Why? "The spy sees the police officer with the binoculars.― Who has the binoculars? Why? Have you used any pragmatics so far while you were playing the game? 1. k h grobman - devpsy.org 2. k h grobman - devpsy.org 3. k h grobman - devpsy.org 4. k h grobman - devpsy.org 5. k h grobman - devpsy.org 6. k h grobman - devpsy.org 7. 8. How did…. you develop your language? what was hard or frustrating?
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