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ECE Lecture

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 21

  • pg 1
									ECE 447: Lecture 1




   Microcontroller
      Concepts
      ECE 447: Basic Computer System
                                Parallel           Serial
                              I/O Device         I/O Device

                              Parallel                   Serial
                               Data                      Data
                    Memory
              CPU   Program              I/O Interface
                    + Data

Data Bus

Address Bus

Control Bus
      ECE 447: Microprocessor vs. Microcomputer


Microprocessor – A processor unit typically with only
  basic I/O interface, off-chip memory.
  e.g.: Intel 8008, 8086, 80486, Pentium, Pentium 4,
  Core2Duo, PowerPC

Single-chip Microcomputer – A processor unit with
  on-chip memory, I/O devices, and often other
  peripheral devices such as timers and A to D.
  e.g.: Intel 8048, 8051, Motorola 68HC11/12
     ECE 447: Microcontroller

An I/O oriented single-chip microcomputer

• Extended I/O capabilities
   Synchronous and asynchronous communication devices, A/D and
     D/A converters, timers, counters, watchdogs.

• Interrupt Handling
   Increased ability to prioritize levels of interrupts and mask individual
      interrupts.

• Instruction Set
   Instructions oriented toward bit manipulation, operations on single
      bits of memory words or I/O ports.
         ECE 447: Processor Evolution
                  Early microcroprocessors
                        (8080, 6800, Z80)
    performance                                  integration

    General-purpose                             Single-chip
    microprocessors                           microcomputers
  (e.g., Pentium, Athlon, Power PC)         (e.g., MC68HC11, 8051)
                                            - small price
     - high speed                           - low power consumption
     - long word size                       - built-in memory
                                            - built-in I/O devices
volume
           x1                           x 10
 sold
       ECE 447: Microcontroller Applications

• Cars
   –   Engine fuel injection
   –   Transmission control
   –   Suspension and ride control
   –   Instrument display
   –   Braking system

• Home Appliances
   – Washing machine
   – Microwave oven
   – Refrigerator

• Sports Equipment
   – Exercise Machine
   – Heart Rate Monitor
       ECE 447: Microcontroller Applications

• Consumer Electronics
   –   Digital/Film cameras
   –   Remote Controls
   –   Televisions
   –   CD players
   –   Telephone

• Computer Peripherals
   – Printers
   – Scanners
   – Disk drive controllers

• Robots
   – The Brains
      ECE 447: Architecture vs. Organization vs.
               Realization

Architecture: The instruction set          High
  and input/output capabilities
  available to the programmer

Organization: The
  implementation of the
  architecture in block diagram     Level of Abstraction
  form

Realization: Actual
  implementation of an
  organization in a given
  technology, eg: CMOS
                                           LOW
         ECE 447: Organization of MC68HC11

                                         RAM

                 CPU                     ROM

                                        EEPROM

    TIMER                                           A/D
                                  SPI
                                                           8 (4)
     8                                   SCI
                                  4
                                               2


    PORT A      PORT B   PORT C       PORT D       PORT E
3    3      2       8        8           6                8 (4)
        ECE 447: Acronyms Used
•   CPU - Central Processing Unit
       := ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) + Control

•   RAM - Random Access Memory := Read/Write Memory

•   ROM - Read Only Memory (non-volatile)

•   EPROM – Erasable Programmable ROM

•   EEPROM - Electrically Erasable Programmable ROM

•   SCI - Serial Communication Interface
    (asynchronous serial communication interface)

•   SPI - Serial Peripheral Interface
    (synchronous serial communication interface)

•   A/D - analog-to-digital converter

•   Port –Parallel I/O providing digital data lines (A,B,C,D,E)
ECE 447: Memory Types

volatile         non-volatile

   RAM               ROM
                     PROM
                     EPROM
                     EEPROM
                     Flash EEPROM
                     FRAM
        ECE 447: Area for Single Bit Cell
           Assumes 0.8 µm technology

human            Flash
      ROM EPROM EPROM FRAM EEPROM        RAM
 hair




 20    10  14    14    14    20    40 
      ECE 447: Memory Technology Features
              Number of     Writing     Typical cell size
  Type
              write/erase    time          in 0.8 m
                cycles                    technology
  RAM          unlimited      70 ns      1, 700 m2
  ROM              0           N/A          100 m2
  PROM              1         100 ms       200 m2
  EPROM            1          50 ms        200 m2
                10,000-
 EEPROM                      3-10 ms         400 m2
               1,000,000
Flash EPROM     100,000      50 ms        200 m2
   FRAM          1010        100 ns       200 m2
         ECE 447: Memory Map of MC68HC11E9
                   $0000   $0000-$01FF
                           512 bytes RAM
                   $1000
                           $1000-$103F
                           64 bytes I/O registers



Single-chip mode
                   $B600   $B600-$B7FF
                           512 bytes EEPROM



                   $D000
                           $D000-$FFFF
                           12 kbytes ROM
                   $FFFF
         ECE 447: Input/Output Ports
          Input   Output   Bidirectional       Shared
Port
           Pins   Pins         Pins           Functions

Port A     3        3           2               Timer

Port B     –        8           –          High Order Address

Port C     –        –           8          Low Order Address
                                             and Data Bus

Port D     –        –           6             SCI and SPI

Port E     8        –           –            A/D Converter
      ECE 447: Organization of MC68HC11
               in Expanded Bus Mode
                                     RAM
CPU
                                  ROM
                                EEPROM

                                               A/D
                         SPI
    TIMER
                                 SCI                   8 (4)
       8             4
                                       2


     PORT A               PORT D              PORT E
3      3      2                  6                   8 (4)

    EXTERNAL RAM           EXTERNAL EPROM
    EXTERNAL ROM               EXTERNAL I/O
    ECE 447: Memory Map of MC68HC11E9
        Single-chip mode           Expanded bus mode
$0000                      $0000                       $0000-$01FF
                                         EXT           512 bytes RAM
$1000                      $1000                       $1000-$103F
                                                       64 bytes I/O registers
                                         EXT



$B600                      $B600                       $B600-$B7FF
                                                       512 bytes EEPROM

                                         EXT

$D000                      $D000


$FFFF                      $FFFF
ECE 447: Memory sizes per device type
     ECE 447: New Micros Board Configuration
68HC11E9
              A            68HC24 - Port Replacement Unit
    RAM
            512B
   EEPROM   512B
                   B                         B
                   C                         C
    ROM     12kB

       E     D



                   RAM        RAM
                   32 kB      32 kB
ECE 447: Memory Map of MC68HC11E9
         with External RAM
            Expanded bus mode
    $0000                       $0000-$01FF
                 RAM            512 bytes RAM
    $1000
                                $1000-$103F
                                64 bytes I/O registers


                 RAM




    $B600                       $B600-$B7FF
                                512 bytes EEPROM
                 RAM
    $D000
                                $D000-$FFFF
                                12 kbytes ROM
    $FFFF
ECE 447: Recommended Memory Map
        Setting of MC68HC11E9
            Expanded bus mode
    $0000                       $0000-$01FF
                                512 bytes RAM
    $1000                       $1000-$103F
                                64 bytes I/O registers
    $2000
                                $2000-$5fff
                                16 kB Program RAM
    $6000
                                $6000-$B5ff
                                21.5 kB Data RAM

    $B600                       $B600-$B7FF
                                512 bytes EEPROM

    $D000
                                $D000-$FFFF
                                12 kbytes ROM
    $FFFF

								
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