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					Motivation and
   Values

   Chapter 4
        Motivation & Values
• The forces that drive us to buy/use
  products…
  – Are usually straightforward
  – Can be related to wide-spread beliefs
  – Are emotional & create deep commitment
  – Are sometimes not immediately recognizable
    to us



                                        4-2
      The Motivation Process
• Motivation: the process that leads
  us to behave they way we do
  – Need creates tension
  – Tension creates drive to
    reduce/eliminate need
  – Desired end state = consumer’s goal
  – Products/services provide desired end
    state and reduce tension

                                            4-3
The Motivation Process (Cont’d)
• Need = discrepancy
  between present
  state & ideal state
  – Discrepancy creates
    tension
  – Drive: the larger the
    discrepancy, the
    more urgency felt

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                            4-4
       Motivational Strength
• Degree of willingness to expend energy to
  reach a goal
  – Biological vs. learned needs
  – Drive Theory
  – Expectancy Theory




                                     4-5
       Motivational Direction
• Most goals can be reached by a number of
  routes…
  – Marketers: products/services provide best
    chance to attain goal
• Needs vs. wants
  – Want: particular form of consumption used to
    satisfy a need



                                          4-6
            Types of Needs
•   Biogenic
•   Psychogenic
•   Utilitarian
•   Hedonic




                             4-7
        Motivational Conflicts
• Goal valence
  – Positively-valued
    goal: approach
  – Negatively-valued
    goal: avoid
     • Deodorants &
       mouthwash
• Positive and
  negative motives
  often conflict with
  one another
                                 4-8
 Motivational Conflicts (Cont’d)
• Approach-Approach
  – Two desirable alternatives
  – Cognitive dissonance
• Approach-Avoidance
  – Positive & negative aspects
    of desired product
  – Guilt of desire occurs
• Avoidance-Avoidance
  – Facing a choice with two
    undesirable alternatives

                                  4-9
  Classifying Consumer Needs
• Murray’s 20 psychogenic
  needs
  – Thematic Apperception
    Technique (TAT)
• Specific needs and buying
  behavior
  – Need for achievement
  – Need for affiliation
  – Need for power
  – Need for uniqueness
                              4-10
   Classifying Consumer Needs
              (Cont’d)
• Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
              UPPER-LEVEL NEEDS


                                            Figure 4.2 (Abridged)
              Self-Actualization (US Army)
                     Ego (BMW)
           Belongingness (“Pepsi Generation”)
              Safety (Allstate Insurance)

           Physiological (Quaker Oats Bran)

             LOWER-LEVEL NEEDS                          4-11
              Discussion
• Devise separate promotional strategies for
  an article of clothing, each of which
  stresses one of the levels of Maslow‟s
  hierarchy of needs.




                                      4-12
       Consumer Involvement
• We can get pretty attached to
  products…
  – “All in One” tattoo on consumer’s
    head
  – Lucky magazine for women
  – A man tried to marry his car!
• Involvement: perceived
  relevance of an object based
  on one’s needs, values, and
  interests
  – The motivation to process
    information
                                        4-13
       Inertia and Flow State
• Inertia: consumption at the low end of
  involvement
  – We make decisions out of habit (lack of
    motivation)
• Flow state: true involvement with a product
  – Playfulness
  – Being in control
  – Concentration/focused attention

                                          4-14
 Inertia and Flow State (Cont’d)
• Flow state (cont’d)
  – Mental enjoyment of activity for its own sake
  – Distorted sense of time
  – Match between challenge at hand and one’s
    skills




                                           4-15
             Cult Products
• Command fierce consumer loyalty,
  devotion, and worship
  – High involvement in a brand
  – E.g., Apple computers, Harley-Davidson




                                        4-16
        Product Involvement
• Consumer’s level of interest in a product
• Many sales promotions attempt to
  increase product involvement
• Mass customization enhances product
  involvement

              CUSTOMIZE YOUR OWN NIKE…




                                         4-17
                Discussion

• Interview each other about a particular
  celebrity.
  – Describe your level of involvement with the
    “product” and devise some marketing
    opportunities to reach this group.




                                           4-18
 Message-Response Involvement
• Consumer’s interest in processing
  marketing communications
  – Vigilante marketing
• TV = low involvement medium; print = high
  involvement
• Marketers experiment with novel ways to
  increase consumers’ involvement

                 NABISCOWORLD.COM
                                      4-19
                 Net Profit
• Creating your own skin
  – Graphical interface that acts as both the face
    and the control panel of a computer program
  – This can increase message-response
    involvement

                  CUSTOMIZE YOUR OWN COMPUTER SKIN!




                                             4-20
Purchase Situation Involvement
• Differences that may occur
  when buying the same
  object for different contexts
  – Social risk is a consideration
  – Gift as symbol of
    involvement




                                     4-21
  Table 4.1: Involvement Scale
                  To Me (Object to be Judged) Is

 1. important                 _:_:_:_:_:_:_        unimportant
 2. boring                    _:_:_:_:_:_:_        interesting
 3. relevant                  _:_:_:_:_:_:_        irrelevant
 4. exciting                  _:_:_:_:_:_:_        unexciting
 5. means nothing             _:_:_:_:_:_:_        means a lot
 6. appealing                 _:_:_:_:_:_:_        unappealing
 7. fascinating               _:_:_:_:_:_:_        mundane
 8. worthless                 _:_:_:_:_:_:_        valuable
 9. involving                 _:_:_:_:_:_:_        uninvolving
10. not needed                _:_:_:_:_:_:_        needed
                                                        4-22
   Dimensions of Involvement
• Involvement profile components
  – Personal interest in product category
  – Risk importance
  – Probability of bad purchase
  – Pleasure value of product category
  – Sign value of product category (self-concept
    relevance)



                                          4-23
     Dimensions of Involvement
             (Cont’d)
• Product class involvement may vary
  across cultures
• Involvement profile components as basis
  for market segmentation




                                    4-24
Strategies to Increase Involvement
• Appeal to hedonistic
  needs
• Use novel stimuli in
  commercials
• Use prominent stimuli in
  commercials
• Include celebrity endorsers
  in commercials
• Build consumer bonds via
  ongoing consumer
  relationships
                                4-25
             Consumer Values
• Value: a belief that some
  condition is preferable to its
  opposite
   – E.g., freedom is preferable to
     slavery; looking younger is
     preferable to looking older
• Products/services = help in
  attaining value-related goal
• We seek others that share
  our values/beliefs
   – Thus, we tend to be exposed to
     information that supports our
     beliefs                          4-26
                 Core Values
• Every culture has its own set of values
  – E.g., individualism vs. collectivism
• Value system
• Enculturation vs. acculturation
  – Socialization agents: parents, friends, teachers
  – Media as agent
• Discussion: Core values evolve over time. What
  do you think are the 3–5 core values that best
  describe Americans today?

                                                  4-27
       Using Values to Explain
        Consumer Behavior
• LOHAS
  – Worry about environment
  – Want products produced in sustainable way
  – Advance personal development/potential
• Discussion: “College students‟ concerns
  about the environment and vegetarianism
  are just a passing fad; a way to look
  „cool.‟”
  – Do you agree?
                                        4-28
      Using Values to Explain
    Consumer Behavior (Cont’d)
• Rokeach Value Survey
  – Terminal values (e.g., comfortable life)
  – Instrumental values (e.g., ambitious)
  – Marketing researchers have not widely used
    this survey
    • Consumption microcultures within larger culture




                                                4-29
      Using Values to Explain
    Consumer Behavior (Cont’d)
• List of Values (LOV)
  – Nine consumer segments/endorsed values
  – Values by consumer behaviors
  – E.g., those who endorse sense of belonging
    read Reader‟s Digest & TV Guide, drink &
    entertain more, and prefer group activities




                                          4-30
      Using Values to Explain
    Consumer Behavior (Cont’d)
• Means-End Chain Model
  – Very specific product
    attributes are linked at
    levels of increasing
    abstraction to terminal
    values
  – Alternative means to attain
    valued end states
    • Products = means to an end
  – Laddering technique
    • Hierarchical value maps
                                   4-31
      Using Values to Explain
    Consumer Behavior (Conc’d)
• Syndicated Surveys
  – Track changes in values via
    large-scale surveys (e.g.,
    Yankelovich MonitorTM)
• Materialism vs. voluntary
  simplifiers
  – “The good life”...“He Who
    Dies with the Most Toys,
    Wins”
  – Those with highly material
    values tend to be less happy
  – Burning Man project
                                   4-32
     Consumer Behavior in the
        Aftermath of 9/11
• Need for balance…
  – 9/11 & consumer
    values
• Redirecting focus
  from luxury goods to
  community/family
• Terror Management
  Theory
• Consumer privacy vs.
  security
                            4-33
                Discussion
• How do you think consumers have
  changed as a result of 9/11?
  – Are these long-term changes or will we start
    to revert back to our pre-2001 mindset?




                                           4-34

				
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