Cold War Timeline - PowerPoint

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					   1945 -- Yalta With the defeat of Nazi Germany
 imminent, the Big Three Allies meet in the Crimean
 resort town of Yalta from February 4-11. Roosevelt,
 Churchill and Stalin agree to jointly govern postwar
Germany, while Stalin pledges fair and open elections
                       in Poland.
1946 -- Iron Curtain
   On March 5, at
  College in Fulton,
  Missouri, Winston
 Churchill declares,
 "From Stettin in the
  Baltic to Trieste in
the Adriatic, an Iron
      Curtain has
  descended across
    the continent."
 1947 -- Truman Doctrine On
  March 12, President Truman
requests $400 million in aid from
Congress to combat communism
   in Greece and Turkey. The
  Truman Doctrine pledges to
provide American economic and
military assistance to any nation
   threatened by communism.
1947 -- Marshall Plan On June
   5, U.S. Secretary of State
  George Marshall proposes a
 massive aid program to rebuild
  Europe from the ravages of
World War II. Nearly $13 billion in
U.S. aid was sent to Europe from
1948 to 1952. The Soviet Union
and communist Eastern Europe
 decline U.S. aid, citing "dollar
 1948 -- Berlin airlift On June 24, the Soviet Union
makes a bid for control of Berlin by blockading all land
access to the city. From June 1948 to May 1949, U.S.
and British planes airlift 1.5 million tons of supplies to
the residents of West Berlin. After 200,000 flights, the
            Soviet Union lifts the blockade.
 1949 -- China In June,
   Chinese communists
    declare victory over
     Chiang Kai-shek's
Nationalist forces, which
 later flee to Taiwan. On
October 1, Mao Tse-tung
  proclaims the People's
 Republic of China. Two
months later, Mao travels
   to Moscow, where he
    negotiates the Sino-
      Soviet Treaty of
Friendship, Alliance and
    Mutual Assistance.
1950 -- Korean War On
 June 25, North Korean
communist forces cross
   the 38th parallel and
invade South Korea. On
June 27, Truman orders
U.S. forces to assist the
South Koreans while the
  U.N. Security Council
 condemns the invasion
  and establishes a 15-
   nation fighting force.
Chinese troops enter the
  conflict by year's end.
1951 -- Rosenberg Spy
  Case On March 29,
    Julius and Ethel
     Rosenberg are
convicted of selling U.S.
 atomic secrets to the
   Soviet Union. The
Rosenbergs are sent to
  the electric chair in
 1953, despite outrage
   from liberals who
portray them as victims
 of an anti-communist
      witch hunt.
 1952 -- Hydrogen bomb On November 1, the United
States explodes the first hydrogen bomb at a test site in
the Marshall Islands. Less than a year later, the Soviets
     announce their first test of a hydrogen bomb.
    1953 -- Stalin dies;
     Korean War ends
   Soviet leader Joseph
Stalin dies of a stroke on
 March 5. On July 27, an
     armistice is signed
 ending the Korean War,
 with the border between
North and South roughly
 the same as it had been
 in 1950. The willingness
of China and North Korea
to end the fighting was in
 part attributed to Stalin's
  1954 -- Dien Bien Phu
     After a long siege,
 Vietnamese communists
under Ho Chi Minh defeat
 French colonial forces at
 Dien Bien Phu on May 7.
    In July, the Geneva
Accords divide the country
    at the 17th parallel,
   creating a North and
    South Vietnam. The
  United States assumes
 the chief responsibility of
providing anti-communist
   aid to South Vietnam.
 1955 -- Massive Retaliation
     On January 12, U.S.
Secretary of State John Foster
  Dulles first announces the
     doctrine of Massive
 Retaliation. It threatens full-
  scale nuclear attack on the
 Soviet Union in response to
    communist aggression
    anywhere in the world.
1956 -- Khrushchev's 'secret speech'
  In a speech before Communist Party
members on February 14, Soviet leader
    Nikita Khrushchev denounces the
policies of Stalin. Khrushchev rejects the
 Leninist idea of the inevitability of war
   and calls for a doctrine of "peaceful
   coexistence" between capitalist and
           communist systems.
   1957 -- Sputnik On
  October 4, the Soviet
 Union launches Sputnik,
    the first man-made
satellite to orbit the Earth.
In 1958, the U.S. creates
the National Aeronautics
         and Space
 Administration, and the
space race is in full gear.
   1959 -- Castro takes power On January 1, leftist
forces under Fidel Castro overthrow the government of
Fulgencio Batista in Cuba. Castro soon nationalizes the
  sugar industry and signs trade agreements with the
  Soviet Union. The next year, his government seizes
               U.S. assets on the island.
1960 -- The U-2 Affair On May 1, an American high-altitude U-2
spy plane is shot down on a mission over the Soviet Union. After
 the Soviets announce the capture of pilot Francis Gary Powers,
  the United States recants earlier assertions that the plane was
                 on a weather research mission.
  New kind of
• Foreign Policy top
   – World situation
• Flexible Response
• Crisis over Berlin
• Southeast Asia
   – Diem vs. Ho Chi Minh
• Cabinet
   – Best and brightest
• New Frontier
• Peace Corps
1961 -- Bay of Pigs An U.S.-organized invasion force
     of 1,400 Cuban exiles is defeated by Castro's
government forces on Cuba's south coast at the Bay of
 Pigs. Launched from Guatemala in ships and planes
 provided by the United States, the invaders surrender
on April 20 after three days of fighting. Kennedy takes
            full responsibility for the disaster.
     1961 -- Berlin Wall The United States rejects
 proposals by Khrushchev to make Berlin a "free city"
with access controlled by East Germany. On August 15,
communist authorities begin construction on the Berlin
   Wall to prevent East Germans from fleeing to West
  1962 -- Cuban Missile Crisis After the
  failed Bays of Pigs invasion, the Soviet
  Union installs nuclear missiles in Cuba
capable of reaching most of the continental
United States. After U-2 flights confirm their
     existence, Kennedy orders a naval
 blockade of Cuba on October 22 until the
   Soviet Union removes its missiles. On
 October 28, the Soviets agree to remove
   the missiles, defusing one of the most
dangerous confrontations of the Cold War.
   1963 -- Hot line The United
 States and Soviet Union agree
  on June 20 to install a hot line
   allowing the leaders of both
countries to directly communicate
   during a crisis. Kennedy and
Khrushchev were often forced to
   communicate through public
  broadcasts during the Cuban
          Missile Crisis.
1964 -- Gulf of Tonkin Resolution North Vietnamese
  patrol boats fired on the USS Mattox in the Gulf of
Tonkin on August 2. On August 7, the U.S. Congress
   approves the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, granting
 President Johnson authority to send U.S. troops to
                     South Vietnam.
 1967 -- Six Day War On
June 5, Israel launches an
attack that becomes known
as the Six Day War, seizing
  the Sinai and Gaza Strip
from Egypt, the West Bank
 and East Jerusalem from
    Jordan and the Golan
   Heights from Syria. The
 Soviet Union accuses the
       United States of
     encouraging Israeli
1968 -- Tet Offensive Viet Cong guerrillas and North
Vietnamese Army troops launch attacks across South
Vietnam on January 30, the start of the lunar new year
  Tet. In Saigon, guerrillas battle Marines at the U.S.
Embassy. In March, Johnson orders a halt to the U.S.
  bombing of North Vietnam and offers peace talks.
  1969 -- Vietnamization On June 8, U.S. President
 Richard Nixon announces his "Vietnamization" plan,
designed to withdraw U.S ground forces from Vietnam
 and turn control of the war over to South Vietnamese
1969 -- SALT On November 17,
 the first phase of Strategic Arms
     Limitation Talks begins in
  Helsinki, Finland. The finished
agreement, signed by Nixon and
Brezhnev in Moscow on May 26,
    1972, places limits on both
     submarine-launched and
intercontinental nuclear missiles.
1972 -- Nixon visits China Nixon becomes the first
U.S. president to visit China, meeting with Mao Tse-
  tung on February 21. The two countries issue a
communique recognizing their "essential differences"
while making it clear that "normalization of relations"
was in all nations' best interests. The rapprochement
  changes the balance of power with the Soviets.
  1973 -- Vietnam War agreement On January 27, 1973, the
United States, South Vietnam, North Vietnam and the Viet Cong
sign the Paris Peace Treaty, establishing a cease-fire and a 60-
  day window for the withdrawal of all U.S. troops. The United
  States is allowed to continue providing aid to South Vietnam.
                    Saigon falls in April 1975.
1975 -- Cambodia The communist Khmer Rouge takes power
  in Cambodia on April 16. Cambodia's educated and urban
   population is forced into the countryside as part of a state
 experiment in agrarian communism. Under the regime of Pol
Pot, as many as 3 million Cambodians die from 1975 to 1979.
1979 -- Afghanistan On December 25, 100,000 Soviet
   troops invade Afghanistan as communist Babrak
 Karmal seizes control of the government. U.S.-backed
 Muslim guerrilla fighters wage a costly war against the
   Soviets for nearly a decade before Soviet troops
                     withdraw in 1988.
 1983 -- Star Wars On March 23, Reagan outlines his
  Strategic Defense Initiative, or "Star Wars," a space-
based defensive shield that would use lasers and other
 advanced technology to destroy attacking missiles far
 above the Earth's surface. Soviets accuse the U.S of
      violating the 1972 Antiballistic Missile Treaty.
1985 -- Gorbachev comes to power On March 11, Gorbachev
   comes to power in the Soviet Union, ushering in an era of
   economic reforms under perestroika and greater political
                 freedoms under glasnost.
 1987 -- INF On December 8, Reagan and Gorbachev sign the
  Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty in Washington. It
mandates the removal of more than 2,600 medium-range nuclear
missiles from Europe, eliminating the entire class of Soviet SS-20
            and U.S. Cruise and Pershing II missiles.
  1989 -- Berlin Wall falls Gorbachev renounces the
Brezhnev Doctrine, which pledged to use Soviet force to
 protect its interests in Eastern Europe. On September
10, Hungary opens its border with Austria, allowing East
   Germans to flee to the West. After massive public
 demonstrations in East Germany and Eastern Europe,
           the Berlin Wall falls on November 9.
   1990 -- German unification At a September 12
 meeting in Moscow, the United States, Soviet Union,
 Great Britain, France and the two Germanys agree to
end Allied occupation rights in Germany. On October 3,
East and West Germany unite as the Federal Republic
                      of Germany.
       1991 -- Soviet Union
 collapses While vacationing
  in the Crimea, Gorbachev is
        ousted in a coup by
    Communist hard-liners on
    August 19. The coup soon
  falters as citizens take to the
  streets of Moscow and other
   cities in support of Russian
  President Boris Yeltsin, who
 denounced the coup. Military
units abandon the hard-liners,
   and Gorbachev is released
from house arrest. He officially
   resigns on December 25 as
 the Soviet Union is dissolved.
1991 Operation Desert Storm
In August of 1990, the country of
Iraq under dictator Saddam
Hussein invades the small
country Kuwait in order to help
pay for debts incurred during their
war with Iran. In January of ’91,
President G.H.W. Bush along with
the United Nations attack Iraq and
clear them from Kuwait. The
United States makes a
controversial decision and does
not overthrow Hussein’s regime.
Instead the U.S. will keep a
presence in the middle East and
enforce no fly zones over the
northern and southern parts of the
No Fly Zones 1991-2008
Terrorism on Americans
   World Trade Center Bombing, February 26, 1993: The
 World Trade Center in New York City was badly damaged
when a car bomb planted by Islamic terrorists exploded in an
underground garage. The bomb left 6 people dead and 1,000
  injured. The men carrying out the attack were followers of
 Umar Abd al-Rahman, an Egyptian cleric who preached in
                  the New York City area.
 Bombing of the Federal Building in Oklahoma City, April 19,
 1995: Right-wing extremists Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols
 destroyed the Federal Building in Oklahoma City with a massive
truck bomb that killed 166 and injured hundreds more in what was
      up to then the largest terrorist attack on American soil.
 U.S. Embassy Bombings in East Africa, August 7, 1998: A
  bomb exploded at the rear entrance of the U.S. Embassy in
   Nairobi, Kenya, killing 12 U.S. citizens, 32 Foreign Service
  Nationals (FSNs), and 247 Kenyan citizens. Approximately
5,000 Kenyans, 6 U.S. citizens, and 13 FSNs were injured. The
U.S. Embassy building sustained extensive structural damage.
  Almost simultaneously, a bomb detonated outside the U.S.
  Embassy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, killing 7 FSNs and 3
     Tanzanian citizens, and injuring 1 U.S. citizen and 76
Tanzanians. The explosion caused major structural damage to
 the U.S. Embassy facility. The U.S. Government held Usama
                     Bin Laden responsible.
   Attack on U.S.S. Cole, October 12, 2000: In
  Aden, Yemen, a small dingy carrying explosives
rammed the destroyer U.S.S. Cole, killing 17 sailors
  and injuring 39 others. Supporters of Usama Bin
               Laden were suspected.
Terrorist Attacks on U.S. Homeland, September 11,
    2001: Two hijacked airliners crashed into the twin
towers of the World Trade Center. Soon thereafter, the
    Pentagon was struck by a third hijacked plane. A
   fourth hijacked plane, suspected to be bound for a
  high-profile target in Washington, crashed into a field
   in southern Pennsylvania. The attacks killed 3,025
 U.S. citizens and other nationals. President Bush and
 Cabinet officials indicated that Usama Bin Laden was
the prime suspect and that they considered the United
 States in a state of war with international terrorism. In
 the aftermath of the attacks, the United States formed
         the Global Coalition Against Terrorism.

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