Chapter 22 - Section 1 by xiangpeng


									Moving Toward Conflict
1. Summarize Vietnam’s history as a French colony
   and its struggle for independence.
2. Examine how the US became involved in the
   Vietnam conflict.
3. Describe the expansion of US military involvement
   under President Johnson.
French Rule in Vietnam
   From the late 1800’s until World War II, France ruled most of
       French colonists exploited the Vietnamese peasantry
           French actions in the region resulted in a growing unrest amongst
            the Vietnamese people
                In response to this, French rulers reacted harshly by restricting freedom
                 of speech and assembly and by jailing many Vietnamese nationalists
   Many Vietnamese revolutionaries fled to China, where in 1924 they
    began to organize under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh
       In 1930, Ho Chi Minh established the Indochinese Communist Party
            Orchestrated Vietnam’s growing independence movement from
             exile in China and the USSR
   In 1940, the Japanese took control of Vietnam
       Ho Chi Minh returned to Vietnam and helped form the Vietminh, an
        organization whose goal was to win Vietnam’s independence from
        foreign rule
            With the Allied defeat of Japan in 1945, the Vietminh’s goal was
             realized, and Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam and independent nation
America Supports France in
   France Battles the Vietminh
       France had no intention of relinquishing its former colony
            French troops moved back into Vietnam in 1945 and seized control of the southern half of
             the country
                  Ho Chi Minh vowed to fight from the North to liberate the South from French control
       In 1950, the US entered the war in support of France
            Provided economic aid to finance France’s war
   The Vietminh Drive Out the French
       Domino Theory – Likened countries on the brink of Communism to dominoes in
        which one falls after another
             Justified US intervention in halting the spread f Communism throughout the
       Despite US aid, the French could not retake Vietnam
             Dien Bien Phu (1954)
       In a meeting in 1954, the anti-communist nationalist government of South Vietnam and
        the Vietminh signed a peace agreement
             The Geneva Accords
                   Divided Vietnam along the 17th parallel
                        North belonged to the communists under Ho Chi Minh
                        South belonged to the nationalists
                   An election to unify the country would be held in 1956
The United States Steps In
   In the wake of France’s defeat, the US took a more active role in Vietnam
        Provided military and economic aid to the south
   Diem Cancels Elections
        Ngo Dinh Diem – South Vietnam’s president
             Recognizing Ho Chi Minh’s popularity, Diem refused to take part in the
              nation wide elections in 1956
                  US backed Diem
                       Diem ran a corrupt government that suppressed all opposition
                       Offered little or no land distribution to peasants
                       Diem, a Catholic, angered the Vietnam’s large Buddhist
                        population by restricting Buddhist practices
       By 1957, a Communist opposition group in the South known as the
        Vietcong had begun attacks on the Diem government
            Assassinated thousands of government officials
       Ho Chi Minh supported the Vietcong, and began to supply them via a
        network of paths along the borders of Vietnam
            Ho Chi Minh Trail
The United States Steps In
   Kennedy and Vietnam
       Wary of accusations of being soft on Communism,
        Kennedy increased US financial aid to South
           Sent thousands of military advisers to help train South
            Vietnamese troops
       In the 1960’s, Diem’s popularity continued to decline
           As a result, South Vietnam became more unstable
               On November 1, 1963, a US supported military coup
                overthrew Diem’s regime
                   Diem assassinated
President Johnson Expands the
   The South Grows More Unstable
       Diem’s death brought more chaos to South Vietnam
                    Vietcong’s influence grew
       President Johnson believed that a Communist takeover of South Vietnam would be disastrous
             Also feared that he might be viewed as soft on Communism
   The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
       On August 2, 1964, a North Vietnamese patrol boat fired a torpedo at an American destroyer in the
        Gulf of Tonkin off the coast of North Vietnam
             Accounts of the attack are conflicting
       The alleged attack on a US ship prompted President Johnson to launch bombing strikes on North
             Gulf of Tonkin Resolution – Granted the president the power to take all necessary action to repel any
              attack against US forces and to prevent further aggression
                    While not a declaration of war, the resolution granted Johnson broad military powers in Vietnam
                            Johnson did not tell Congress that the US was already leading secret raids against the North Vietnamese
       In February 1965, a Vietcong attack that killed eight Americans prompted Johnson to launch
        “Operation Rolling Thunder”
             First sustained bombing of North Vietnam
       In March 1965, the first American combat troops arrived in Vietnam
             By June, 50,000 US soldiers were in Vietnam
                    The Vietnam War had become Americanized

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