The impact of climate change on the supply of aquafeed ingredients

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					                                                        May | June 2011
Feature title: The impact of climate change on the supply of aquafeed ingredients

                   International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom.
                   All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies,
                   the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of
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                   or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058

       The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
                                                                                                      vehicles (biodiesel and bioethanol), is a very      with the first-
                                                                                                      promising alternative                               generation bio-
                                                                                                         A series of factors must be taken into
                                                                                                      account when selecting microalgae as a
                                                                                                                                                          fuels obtained
                                                                                                                                                          from conven-                                                                                                                                                   Aqua News
               Feed Management                                                                        source of biofuel precursors, such as: high
                                                                                                      productivity, temperature tolerance, toler-
                                                                                                                                                          tional agricultur-
                                                                                                                                                          al crops, and bio-
                                                                                                                                                                                     full list of sessions open for abstract and where delegates can discuss
                                                                                                      ance to pH, high performance in fermenta-           mass production

                                                                                                                                                                                     submission. Abstract submission will with Commission representatives

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           AQuA NOr
                                                                                                      ble carbohydrates for ethanol production            and processing
                                                                                                                                                                                     continue to be available after the about future research plans.

                                                      Impact of rising feed ingredient                or in fatty acids transformable to biodiesel,
                                                                                                      for example.
                                                                                                         We also need to establish the most
                                                                                                                                                          must therefore
                                                                                                                                                          be substantially
                                                                                                                                                          improved so that
                                                                                                                                                                                     deadline of mid-April 2011, although            Finally, other European networks,
                                                                                                                                                                                     the session moderators will already projects and initiatives will present                           International exhibition

                                                              prices on aquafeeds and                                                                                                have started to select the best oral their activities at AE2011.                                    16 - 19 August 2011 • Trondheim • Norway
                                                                                                      suitable type of cultivation system to be           the price of the
                                                                                                                                                                                     and poster presentations at that time,
                                                                                                      used (open, closed or mixed), and the most          product can be
                                                                                                                                                                                     so you are strongly advised to submit The conference centre                                          Meet the future!
                                                                aquaculture production:               favourable operating conditions (batch,
                                                                                                      semi-continuous, continuous, number of
                                                                                                                                                          reduced by an
                                                                                                                                                          order of magni-
                                                                                                                                                                                     on time.                                        AE2011 will take place at the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Rodos Palace Luxury Convention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Follow the latest development of aquaculture research, technology, feed,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       fish health, education, financing, environmental protection etc.
                                                                                                      phases, etc.).                                      tude at least.
                                                                                                                                                                                     Other events                                                                                      Visitors from more than 50 nations will be present.
                                                     The impact of climate change on the supply
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Resort, located just 12km from
                                                                                                         Tables 2 and 3 below show some exam-                 AlgaEnergy
                                                                                                                                                                                       AE2011, as all Aquaculture Europe          Rhodes Diagora international                         International conferences and seminars in connection with Aqua Nor will
                                                                                                      ples of cyanobacteria as potential sources          is      currently
                                                                                                                                                                                     events, is a platform for exchange of airport. Rhodes can be reached                              focus on research and challenges of the aquaculture industry.
                                                                         of aquafeed ingredients      of fermentable carbohydrates for ethanol
                                                                                                      production and the lipid content of some
                                                                                                                                                          engaged in the
                                                                                                                                                          construction of
                                                                                                                                                                                     ideas and communications on the directly from many European
                                                                                                                                                                                     development of aquaculture.                  and international airports, or
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Exhibitor, visitor or conference participant?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       For more information:
                                                                                                      microalgae for biodiesel production.                its first plant, a
                                                                                                                                                                                       The AE2011 International Trade through Athens, and is only a short positive contribution to the success from the Mediterranean aquacul-
                                                                                                         The expectations raised by microalgae            Te c h n o l o g i c a l                                                                                                     AQuA NOr – the Frei ture sector supporting for the
                                                                                                                                                                                     Event will showcase new products boat trip from the main aquacul- of AE2011. Our local agent, most important international venue Aquaculture
                                                                                                      as Siriwardena second-generation bio-
                                                                           by Krishen J Rana, Sunil a source of and Mohammad R HasanPlatform                                 for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        also lined industry.
                                                                                                                                                                                     and services offered to the aquacul- ture production sites in Turkey. The Travel hasaquacultureup other accom- Europe 2011 and providing much
                                                                                                      fuels have led to the creation of a large           Experimentation
                                                                                                                                                                                     ture sector.                                 island is well known for the warmth modation for all budgets, as well as needed input for its success. EAS,
                                                                                                      number of companies, some of which have             with Microalgae
                   The third article in a series, taken from a new aquaculture book                   made significant investment. Our company            ( P T E M ) ,
                                                                                                                                                                                       The EAS Student Group will also of its welcome, its magnificent natural tours to local sights and to fish farms FGM and HCMR are extremely
                                                                                                                                                                                     be organising another of its very suc- beauty and climate, its monuments on the island.                                                   grateful to them.
                                                                                                      AlgaEnergy is convinced that in the near            located at the
                                                                                                                                                                                     cessful student forums and a field trip and historical sites as well as for its
                                                                                                      future microalgae will be able to provide           International
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             AE2011 Sponsors

                                                                                                                                                                                     around the conference.                       gastronomy.
                                                                                                      us with these forms of clean energy so              Airport             of                                                                                                                                                   More inforMation:
                      he uncertainly concerning           Supply will be also influenced by climate        The droughts of 2006 in Ukraine and the                                     The Research Directorate General              With its 785 rooms, the Rodos            EAS Premium Sponsor, Intervet
                                                                                                      necessary for the sustainable economic              Madrid-Barajas.                                                                                                                                                          AE2011
                      the availability of tradi-      change indirectly through its impacts on             Russian Federation continued into 2007.                                   of the European Commission Palace resort provides excellent, Schering Plough Animal Health,
                                                                                                      development of our societies. Not only is           This is intended                                                                                                                                                         Mario Stael
                      tional fishmeal and fish        economic growth, income distribution and                 Turkey also experienced drought in                                    will also See of the EU exceptionally stylish accommodation AE2011 Gold Sponsor, Biomar and
                                                                                                                                                                                                  host another
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Doris Woo / Esther
                                                                                                      constant research and development the               to be a model                                                                                                                                                            Email:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Organiser: The Nor-Fishing Foundation
                      oil and rising prices have      agricultural demand (Schmidhuber and                 2007, which reduced yields in rain-fed                                    FORUMS, where latest European with top-class conference and exhi- AE2011 Silver Sponsor Alltech head 73 56 86 40, Fax +47 73 56 86 41,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Klostergata 90, NO-7030 Trondheim, Tel +47      Website:
                                                                                                      basis for a continuous innovation process           platform of its
         required major industrial aquafeed           Tubiello, 2007).                                     production areas.                                                         research initiatives will be presented bition facilities that will make a very a number of corporate sponsors
         manufactures to identify and evaluate            During the past few years, unpredictable             In the Americas, a late heavy freeze over                           Wenger_Ad_2010_210x147mm 5/24/10 9:37 AM Page 1
         alternate protein and oil sources.
onal AquAFeed | May-June 2011                         weather resulted in a critical shortfall of          several consecutive days destroyed large      May-June 2011 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 25
         Considerable progress has been made          major grain and oilseed ingredients used for         tracts of hard red winter wheat and in the
         in recent years on substitution of fish      on–farm aquafeeds as well as for complete            United States of America reduced yields                                                                                                                                         Protein Technology
         protein and oil with proteins and oils       commercial diets.                   IAF11.03.indd 25 over large areas, while in Canada, a hot and                                                                                                             04/05/2011 09:07       innovations 2011
         of plant origin.                                 Unfavourable weather reduced crop                dry summer growing season resulted in
                                                      yield and production in some countries               lower yields for wheat, barley and rapeseed.                                                                                                            innovation is our enduring legacy.
             Grain crop yields, as with other arable  in 2006. The crop yields in the Russian                  In South America, a late freeze followed
         crops, when negatively affected by variable  Federation and Ukraine were markedly                 by a drought in Argentina reduced corn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Since 1935, we've been help-
         and adverse weather conditions, increase     lower due to drought. Australia encoun-              and barley yields (see Box 2). Droughts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ing customers solve problems
         uncertainty about grain supplies and prices. tered two years (2006 and 2007) of severe            in northwest Africa and Australia in 2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            and capitalize on opportuni-
                                                                 drought and South Africa also             also affected major growing areas. The                                                                                                                                                                           ties faced by their businesses.
                                                                 experienced drought.                      accumulative result of bad weather in 2007
      Climate change, which is being                                 Consequently, the reduced             resulted in the second consecutive drop                                                                                                                                                                          Seventy-five years ago, a key
                                                                 world production and supply of            in global average yields for grains and                                                                                                                                                                          answer was a molasses mixer.
      driven by global warming caused                            grains and oilseeds contributed           oilseeds, causing a further decline in the                                                                                                                                                                       Today, the solutions tend to
                                                                 to a further decline in the global        global stocks–to–use ratio and creating                                                                                                                                                                          be more technologically com-
      mainly by carbon emissions from                            stock–to–use ratio for aggregate          uncertainty among importers about the                                                                                                                                                                            plex – but our founding
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            pledge remains unchanged.
      industrialised countries, will                             grains and oilseeds, and also to          future availability of supplies. This placed an
                                                                 rising prices. In September 2006,         upward pressure on prices of plant proteins
      continue to influence temperature                          maize prices began a significant          and oils used as aquafeed ingredients.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            At Wenger, we innovate to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            solve customer challenges.
      and precipitation patterns around                          rise to a new high.
                                                                     Adverse weather patterns              La Niña weather                                                                                                                                                                                                  And then we do it again.
      the world.                                                 continued into 2007 negatively                In 2009, a La Niña weather event
                                                                 affecting yields and global grain         affected crop production in the Southern
                                                                 supplies on most continents               Hemisphere, bringing rains to the main
             Therefore, the reliability of grain sup- and in a great number of key countries               arable areas of Australia, serious drought                                                                                                                            28 & 29 September 2011, Amsterdam (The Netherlands)
         plies for aquafeeds in the future will be    supplying global markets with aquafeed               to Argentine wheat production areas,                                                                                 Inventing the new original since 1935.           Trends & Developments for Food, Feed, Petfood Industries
         influenced by short–term weather patterns    ingredients such as rapeseed, soybean                reducing production by 48 percent, and
         and long–term predicted global warming       and grains.                                          sufficient rain for cereal crops in South                                                                                                                             Health & Texture Innovations | Sustainability & Bio-Refinery Challenges |
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Operational Excellence
         directly through its impact on crop yields,      Northern Europe encountered a dry                Africa. This weather event, which was                                                                    SABETHA, KANSAS USA 785-284-2133 INFO@WENGER.COM WWW.WENGER.COM
         crop pests and diseases and soil fertility   spring and floods during harvesting time,            characterised by low surface-water tem-                                                                              USA           BELGIUM          TAIWAN            New protein technology innovations with successful implementations for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               BRASIL              CHINA              TURKEY
         and condition.                               while southeast Europe suffered a drought.           peratures in the Equatorial Pacific, was                                                                                                                              protein foods, ingredients and processing technologies.

                                                                 444 InternatIonal AquAFeed May-June 2011
                                                                       | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2011
                                                                44 || InternatIonal AquAFeed || May-June 2011                                                                                                                                         May-June 2011 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 5
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"It is now widely                                                                                      agricultural output in industrialised nations
acknowledged that global                                                                               will rise by a predicted 7.7 percent, whereas        this productivity. It’s an investment in quality that is sure to show a rapid return –
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unstable and that the                                                                                      Similarly, in sub–Saharan Africa (SSA),
                                                                                                       Asia and Latin America, the output is pre-
frequencies of adverse                                                                                 dicted to fall by 17, 7 and 13 percent
                                                                                                       respectively. Thus, SSA and Latin America
climatic conditions are likely                                                                         are the two developing regions most vul-
                                                                                                       nerable to global warming.
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                                                                                                       and Canada, the Russian Federation, China, ,
  expected to continue well into March and             developed to predict the degree of impact       India, Malaysia, Indonesia and Australia are
  April 2009.                                          of such climate change on agricultural          major producers and global suppliers of key
     The predictably of rainfall can also affect       output.                                         protein and oils used in aquafeeds.
  supplies of grains. In Australia, in 2009, inter-       All models use varying assumptions (for          These predicted changes, which show
  mittent rain during the growing season and           a comprehensive review see Cline, 2007).        intra–regional variation, show production                                                                                                            GranulexTM
  heavy rains during harvesting time reduced              The key assumption is that carbon con-       gains for high latitude countries and pro-
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     It is now widely acknowledged that                as a result of greenhouse gas emissions         mainly developing nations.                                                                                                                           hammer mill.
  global weather patterns are unstable and             from the current (2007) 365ppm to above             To mitigate against such probable losses,
  that the frequencies of adverse climatic             a threshold of around 585ppm, reach-            countries can limit their losses due to
  conditions are likely to increase. Climate           ing 735ppm by 2080. This would foster           climate change by switching to agricultural                                                                                                          Powerful 400 kW motor for high
  change, which is being driven by global              increased production through increased          imports rather than growing the products                                                                                                             capacity grinding.
  warming caused mainly by carbon emissions            photosynthetic activity, a phenomenon           imported (Cline, 2007).
  from industrialised countries, will continue         referred to as carbon fertilisation and hence                                                                                                                                                        Largest screen area of any 400 kW
  to influence temperature and precipitation           increased yields (Cline, 2007).                   Coming in                                                                                                                                          hammer mill reduces wear of
  patterns around the world. This, in turn, will          This positive effect, however, is reduced      the next                                                                                                                                           screens and hammers.
  place severe upward pressure on water                and reversed when the atmospheric tem-            issue of The
  supplies in water-stressed regions of the            perature rises above 12–14 deg C. By              International                                                                                                                                      Screens and hammers designed for
  world and may result in shifts in geo–               combining information on carbon fertilisa-        Aquafeed                                                                                                                                           replacement by a single person in
  physical growing areas for the major protein         tion with information on changes in average       magazine                                                                                                                                           less than 30 minutes.
  crops and oil-plant crops yields of which are        annual temperatures and precipitations,           (May/June
  used in aquafeed production.                         Cline (2007) predicted the potential impact       issue) will be                                                                                                                                     Smooth running sliding doors on
     The effects of changing weather patterns          of these changes on national agricultural         an excerpt of                                                                                                                                      both sides for fast and easy
  are complex and several models have been             output.                                           chapter two                                                                                                                                        maintenance.
                                                                                                         from Impact of rising feed ingredient
                                                                                                         prices on aquafeeds and aquaculture                                                                                                                Closed machine housing
                                                                                                         production.                                                                                                                                        preventing dust settlements and
                                                                                                         The full publication can be found at:                                                                                                              easy to clean, plain surfaces.
In Australia, in 2009, intermittent rain                                                       
during the growing season and heavy                                                                      docrep/012/i1143e/i1143e00.htm

rains during harvesting time reduced                                                                     More information:
crop yields and available supplies of                                                                    Krishen J. Rana & Sunil Siriwardena
                                                                                                         Institute of Aquaculture University of Stirling,
wheat.                                                                                                   Stirling, United Kingdom

                                                                                                         Mohammad R. Hasan
                                                                                                         Aquaculture Management and Conservation
                                                                                                         Service, Fisheries and Aquaculture
                                                                                                         Management Division, FAO Fisheries and
                                                                                                         Aquaculture Department Rome, Italy

                                                                                                         Food and Agriculture Organization of the
                                                                                                         United Nations (FAO)
                                                                                                                                                            Innovations for a better world.

                                                      46 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2011
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Description: The uncertainly concerning the availability of traditional fishmeal and fish oil and rising prices have required major industrial aquafeed manufactures to identify and evaluate alternate protein and oil sources. Considerable progress has been made in recent years on substitution of fish protein and oil with proteins and oils of plant origin.