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Microalgae and cyanobacteria provide us a high percentage of the oxygen we need to breathe. They are also in the aquatic environment, the first link in the food chain. We therefore owe our lives to them ... and they will change our way of life.
May | June 2011 Feature title: Microalgae and cyanobacteria International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2009 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058 The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry F: Microalgae F: Microalgae Table 2: Cyanobacteria as a potential source of fermentable carbohydrates (Vargas et al. 1998, J. Phycol. 34, 812) required to achieve this Carbohydrates ambitious goal, but also Strain (% of dry the combination of this weight) process with a realistic Strategic and Business Plan. Anabaena sp. ATCC 33047 28.0 ± 2.0 Anabaena variabilis 22.3 ± 2.5 Figure 1: AlgaEnergy’s CO2BIOCAP R&D and mobile laboratory Anabaenopsis sp. 16.3 ± 1.5 a realistic Nodularia sp. (Chucula) 16.9 ± 2.6 Business Plan AlgaEnergy is developing a kind, which will incorporate four types of Nostoc commune 37.6 ± 2.5 responsible scientific agenda photobioreactors (PBR): columns, tubular Nostoc paludosum 26.6 ± 1.9 aimed at achieving the commer- reactors, semi-open and in a second stage, Nostoc sp. (Albufera) 26.8 ± 4.0 cially viable production of biofuels raceways. The plant will be entirely auto- Nostoc sp. (Caquena) 23.3 ± 1.7 derived from microalgae. The mated and controlled by specially designed Nostoc sp. (Chile) 23.3 ± 2.0 R&D programmes provided for software, which manages all the cultivation that purpose include the selection parameters. Its goal is to research and Nostoc sp. (Chucula) 15.7 ± 1.8 and genetic engineering work on develop new PBR processes and technolo- Nostoc sp. (Llaita) 20.2 ± 1.5 various types of microalgae, which gies in this field. For this reason, the plant Microalgae and cyanobacteria Nostoc sp. (Loa) 32.1 ± 1.2 carry substantial quantities of lipids will have the flexibility and capacity to grow or carbohydrates (some of which simultaneously different species of micro- and for transport), and the flue gases from are patented), the development of algae in different growing conditions, using conventional energy generation facilities new photobioreactors more efficient and indoor and outdoor PBR. The cultivation We owe them our lives ... and they will change our way of life can therefore be used as a source of CO2 for large-scale microalgae cultivation with lower costs, and the establishment of a suitable and scalable production process. area will be initially of about 1,000 m2 and the culture volume up to 72,000 l. installations. At present, biofuels produced from AlgaEnergy’s plant will be visited during by Juan Pablo Jiménez Martín, Agricultural Engineer, Sales Manager, AlgaEnergy SA, Spain The production of liquid biofuels for microalgae are not financially competitive the 3rd Algae World Europe congress that vehicles (biodiesel and bioethanol), is a very with the first- M promising alternative generation bio- icroalgae and cyanobac- their contribution to climate change is water and it does not compete with human A series of factors must be taken into fuels obtained teria provide us a high also a reality that is endangering the future food because it does not require the use of account when selecting microalgae as a from conven- percentage of the oxygen of the earth and mankind. Is sustainable agricultural land. source of biofuel precursors, such as: high tional agricultur- we need to breathe.They development still possible in view of all this? Microalgae cultivation consumes harmful productivity, temperature tolerance, toler- al crops, and bio- are also in the aquatic environment, CO2 gas as an essential nutrient (the main ance to pH, high performance in fermenta- mass production being the first step in the food chain. Microalgae & biofuels agent of the anthropogenic GHGs that ble carbohydrates for ethanol production and processing We therefore owe our lives to them Microalgae are microorganisms that result from burning the fossil fuels used or in fatty acids transformable to biodiesel, must therefore ... and they will change our way of life. contain chlorophyll and other pigments for energy production in various industries for example. be substantially and are able to perform oxygenic We also need to establish the most improved so that Indeed, in the near future, they are going photosynthesis, releasing oxygen Table 1: Comparison of some sources of biodiesel suitable type of cultivation system to be the price of the to be able to generate clean energy and into the atmosphere through water (Chisti 2007; Biotechnol. Adv. 25, 294) used (open, closed or mixed), and the most product can be second-generation biofuels, as well as other photolysis and synthesising organic favourable operating conditions (batch, reduced by an Land Percent of products of benefit to mankind. This will material from oxidised forms of semi-continuous, continuous, number of order of magni- Oil yield area existing US also contribute to a sustainable develop- the primordial bioelements such as Crop phases, etc.). tude at least. (L/ha) needed cropping ment and to improve the environment on carbon dioxide or CO2, all at the (Mha)a areaa Tables 2 and 3 below show some exam- AlgaEnergy our planet. expense of an inexhaustible energy ples of cyanobacteria as potential sources is currently Energy is an essential component of source: sunlight. Over 30,000 spe- of fermentable carbohydrates for ethanol engaged in the Corn 172 1,540 846 economic and social development in our cies of microalgae exist on our production and the lipid content of some construction of times, and economic activity would be planet, with a multitude of shapes, Soybean 446 594 326 microalgae for biodiesel production. its first plant, a considerably limited without the thermal, sizes and colours. Together with the Canola 1,190 223 122 The expectations raised by microalgae Te c h n o l o g i c a l mechanical and electrical energy generated higher plants, as we have mentioned, Jatropha 1,892 140 77 as a source of second-generation bio- Platform for by burning fuel. they are the basic support of life fuels have led to the creation of a large Experimentation Coconut 2,689 99 54 Studies conducted by the International on earth and oxygenation of the number of companies, some of which have with Microalgae Energy Agency show that world evolution atmosphere. Oil Palm 5,950 45 24 made significant investment. Our company ( P T E M ) , of the demand for primary energy is set to The making of liquid biofuels for Microalgaeb 136,900 2 1.1 AlgaEnergy is convinced that in the near located at the increase at a rate of 1.8 percent per year, vehicles (biodiesel and bioethanol), Microalgaec 58,700 4.5 2.5 future microalgae will be able to provide International going from the 10,000Mtoe (million tonnes from certain microalgae and cyano- a For meeting 50% of all transport fuel needs in the us with these forms of clean energy so Airport of of oil equivalent) produced in 2000 to the bacteria is a very promising alterna- United States. necessary for the sustainable economic Madrid-Barajas. 17,000Mtoe estimated for 2030. tive as the production represents b 70% oil (by wt) in biomass. development of our societies. Not only is This is intended The significant increase in atmospheric a sustainable and scalable process, constant research and development the to be a model c 30% oil (by wt) in biomass. emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and it uses sea water, brine or waste basis for a continuous innovation process platform of its 24 InternatIonal AquAFeed May-June 2011 24 || InternatIonal AquAFeed || May-June 2011 May-June 2011 InternatIonal AquAFeed 25 May-June 2011 || InternatIonal AquAFeed || 25 F: Microalgae F: Microalgae programmes have enabled the company Table 4: Oil content of some microalgae to begin working in the aquaculture and (Chisti, 2007; Biotechnol. Adv. 25, cosmetics sectors. AlgaEnergy has paid 294) special attention to the aquaculture sector, and it now markets biomass from differ- Oil content Strain (% of dry ent microalgae with outstanding properties weight) and performance, under its brand name The research being conducted by Botryococcus braunii 25-75 AlgaEnergy is linked to major microalgae Chlorella sp. 28-32 research centres at outstanding universi- ties in this field – Seville, Almeria, and Crypthecodinium cohnii 20 Santiago de Compostela – and other Cylindrotheca sp. 16-37 organisations of international projection Dunaliella primolecta 23 and renown, including the Spanish National Isochrysis sp. 25-33 Research Council (CSIC) and the Spanish Monallanthus salina > 20 Institute of Oceanography (IEO). Figure 3: AlgaEnerg's CO2BIOCAP At the moment, the production takes Nannochloris sp. 20-35 mobile laboratory place at the Las Palmerillas Experimental Nannochloropsis sp. 31-68 Figure 2: Tubular photobioreactors at the Estación Station, which is equipped with large-sized Neochloris oleoabundans 35-54 Experimental “Las Palmerillas”, where AlgaEnergy is closed vertical and horizontal tubular and environment. If this is not done, this the world. AlgaEnergy therefore trust that currently producing its microalgae. Nitzschia sp. 45-47 photobioreactors that work in continuous threefold crisis will worsen and give rise its findings, technologies and microalgae- mode, enabling AlgaEnergy to ensure an Phaeodactylum tricornutum 20-30 to unpredictable consequences over time, derived products will contribute to this excellent quality and hygienisation in the Schizochytrium sp. 50-77 therefore we therefore need to acquire a progress and to preserving the environ- will take place in Madrid on May 16-17, of high added value products related to production process for its two key strains Tetraselmis suecica 15-23 more in-depth knowledge of microalgae ment and nature and life on our planet. 2011. The company is also corporate spon- food for human consumption, animal feed, Nannochloropsis gaditana PREMIUM and today and give greater use to their Microalgae, these living beings, can be sor of such an important international pigments, dermocosmetics, nutraceuticals, Isochrysis galbana, which have demonstrated revolution, this time led by mankind, with enormous potential, as this is of huge paid a tribute in one phrase: “we owe event it the algae field. biomedicine and even wastewater treat- outstanding properties as food for rotifers the objective of remedying the triple significance and will bring sustainability them our lives... and they will change our ment. Considerable development of these and for the green waters technique. crisis affecting humanity: food, energy and wellbeing to the different regions of way of life”. Products derived applications and their corresponding bioin- Another market we expect to enter in from microalgae dustries is to be expected until the produc- the near future is in the weaning and finish- Apart from biofuel production, these tion of biofuels from microalgae is made ing feed for aquaculture. We consider that photosynthetic microorganisms provide profitable. The chart below shows some of animal feed needs to be provided with extra a whole host of business opportunities the products derived from microalgae, their quality, and this can be achieved through the DP for the totally natural products derived destination markets and their prices. use of microalgae. However, the current low LS LS M 4 LS from them. Microalgae are therefore an price of fattening feed makes it difficult for important and exclusive natural source of Microalgae in the microalgae to be incorporated to it. aquaculture sector LS many compounds and essential products In any case, taking into account both the for meeting the needs of numerous markets AlgaEnergy has identified the market price variations of vegetable proteins and the LS 5 today. requirements and set up major R&D pro- quality that would be provided by the cells Microalgae in fact have a huge bio- grammes with the corresponding budget. of these organisms, with their high omega-3 M M 6 6 6 L LS technological potential for the generation The results being obtained from these acid content, we believe that microalgae DP MCC 2 could be included in microparticu- LS L 10 MCC 1 Table 3: comercially produced microalgae: amounts, locations, applications and market value late, weaning or finishing feed, as a (2004) (Brennan and Owende 2010) LS partial substitute for the flour and Microalga Annual Production Producer Country Application/Product Price fish oil used at present. Human nutrition 36€/kg Conclusion China, India, Animal nutrition In the distant past, oxygenic Arthrospira (Spirulina) 3000t d.w. U.S.A., Myanmar, Cosmetics photosynthesis by cyanobacte- Japan Phycobiliproteins 11€/mg ria and microalgae created the Human nutrition conditions that enabled a huge Taiwan, Germany, 36€/kg Chlorella 2000t d.w. Cosmetics energy revolution to occur in the Japan 50€/L Aquaculture living world, allowing the devel- Human nutrition opment of aerobic respiration Australia, Israel, 215-2150€/ Dunaliella salina 1200t d.w. Cosmetics U.S.A., Japan kg and the emergence of new forms Beta carotene of life based on it, which finally Aphanizomenon flos-aque 500t d.w. U.S.A. Human nutrition led to the appearance of human U.S.A., India, Aquaculture 50€/L beings on our planet. Haematococcus pluvialis 300t d.w. Israel Astaxanthin 7150€/kg Cyanobacteria and micro- Crypthecodinium cohnil 240t DHA oil U.S.A. DHA oil 43€/g algae may now be called upon Shizochytrium 10t DHA oil U.S.A. DHA oil 43€/g to play a leading role in a new 26 InternatIonal AquAFeed May-June 2011 26 || InternatIonal AquAFeed || May-June 2011 May-June 2011 InternatIonal AquAFeed 27 May-June 2011 || InternatIonal AquAFeed || 27 LINKS This digital re-print is part of the May | June 2011 edition of International Aquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com. 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