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					                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         City : NSF Grant # DUE 0653291
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         SWC: NSF Grant # DUE 0653234




                                                                       Ana Ascencio | Applied Mathematics Major | Southwestern College | ana_asc@hotmail.com
                                                                     Angelica Sarmiento | Electrical Engineering Major | San Diego City College | lilo519@yahoo.com
                                                                                                                                       lianne-
                                                                          Lihua Huang | Mathematics Major | Southwestern College | lianne-hlh@hotmail.com




      -INTRODUCTION-                                                                            -Method-                                                          Lasers and Optics                                                           Outreach
    This novel world is abundant with technology continuously
evolving toward becoming more convenient, universally adaptable, and                              Optimization                                                  In the lab, the primary laser in use is a 308 nm Xenon                                        In the lab our high school
ubiquitous. Furthermore, it is important not only to explore new ways              Optimization is an essential process in several business,              Chloride XeCl pulsed laser. Because this laser functions in the                                     student was Angie Lopez,
of developing these technologies to be more compact and cost efficient,        management, and engineering applications to make systems that              Ultra Violet range of the electromagnetic spectrum, the beam                                        a young lady from St.
but also it is important to explore the combination of all the facets of       function to the fullest of their capacity. During this internship, we      is invisible to human eyes and can cause tissue damage if                                           Mary’s Academy. Who, by
these advancements to find an optimized state.                                 optimized the function of a circulator, a three-port device used to        exposed. For this reason, caution must be used at all times in                                      the end of her internship
    The Space and Naval Warfare Systems (SPAWAR), San Diego,                   simultaneously send and receive signals through a single antenna.          the lab, especially in processes such as ablation, where a                                          created a small hologram,
more locally known as SSC-Pacific, works to promote innovations that           The objective is to create a circulator with maximum isolation             material is superheated into a molten substance and small                                           assembled a computer, set
aid the United States Navy and Department of Defense (primarily in             (separation of signal levels) and minimum insertion (loss of signal                                                                                                            up a laser communication
                                                                                                                                                          particles are ejected off the surface. We use this process to
the area of communication).                                                    power over the frequency band.)                                                                                                                                                system, and learned the
                                                                                                                                                          form particles in the micro level with a spherical shape so that
   In the Advanced Technology Branch at SSC-Pacific, projects are                                                Multi-objective Optimization refers      we can couple light around them. Below are ablated samples                                          fundamentals of waves,
geared toward optimizing processes, the use of fiber optic                                                                                                                                                                                                    optics, and chemistry.
                                                                                                              to a set of acceptable trade-off optimal    of silicon seen using an scanning electron microscope (SEM).
communication, and the development of technology in the micro and
nano level with the use of lasers.
         Mentorship and outreach is very
                                                                                                                     solutions called a Pareto front. A
                                                                                                           solution belongs to the Pareto set if there
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          -Results-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                After running the GAM
     much a part of the mission at                                                                               is no other solution that has a lower                                                                       and PAL methods four times
      SPAWAR because for these                                                                              value. Minimal points can be found with                                                                          based on the 6 local minimal
       innovations to continue in ,                                                                          optimization methods, such as the Goal                                                                          points of a random 100 points,
         it is extremely important                                                                               Attainment Method (GAM) and the                                                                             we found 40 Pareto minimal
           for the next generation to                                                                                  Point and Line Method (PAL).                                                                          points, chose one point, and
             be inspire to lead in the                                             We estimated the Pareto point                                                                                                             found out the matrix that
              years to come. During this                                       for multipart transformers                                                                                                                    represents the turns ratios of
                internship we had the opportunity to                           matching our 81 MHz circulator.                                                                                                               that circulator.
                 explore the projects in progress at SPAWAR, such as           The transformers are                                                          After the spheres are fabricated
                  circulator optimization and coupling light around            parameterized by the 9-element                                             in the laser lab, light can be
                                                                               turns ratios. The turns ratios are                                                                                                                In regards to the laser, unfortunately, the gases
                   particles, to co- mentor high school interns, and to help                                                                              coupled around the sphere
                                                                               represented by a 3x3 matrix, and                                                                                                              used to generate the laser were consumed near the end
                    organize outreach events. In this way, we were able                                                                                   because the internal reflection of
                                                                               the ratio of the number of turns                                                                                                              of the internship and we could not fabricate more
                     to experience the full cycle of how technology is                                                                                    the surface on the sphere can
                                                                               affects isolation and insertion..                                                                                                             micro spheres. However, we were able to etch the
                      developed, improved, and passed on.                                                                                                 bend the light wave to propagate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             optical fiber and create a set-up that will ideally be
                                                                                                                                                          around the sphere as opposed to
                                                                                                          Process                                                                                                            able to couple light around the spheres after they are
                    -GOALS-                                                                                                                               the expected result of it passing.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             fabricated.

                 ♦ Develop a Pareto front tracker for circulators using
                  multi- objective optimization methods.
                                                                                                                                                                                         A challenging factor is being
                                                                                                                                                                                      able to chemically etch the optical             -Conclusion-
                  ♦ Learn how to use Matlab and utilize it                                                                                                                            fibers using hydrofluoric acid            As mathematicians and engineers we were not only
                    for optimization                                                                                                                                                  close enough to the fibers core,       able to learn basic fundamentals such as critical thinking
                    ♦ Use laser to manufacture Silicon micro-spheres                                                                                                                  where the light is propagating, so     and concept adaptability, but also we were able to learn
                     ♦ Etch fiber with Hydrofluoric Acid                                                                                                                              that light can be lost to couple       processes used in the industry. Through becoming
                      ♦ Couple light around micro spheres                                                                                                                             around the microsphere.                familiar with software like Matlab and creating set-ups
                      ♦Help to put together a two-day                                                                                                                                                                        such as the ones described for coupling light around a
                                                                                                                                                                                          This process can be used for
                        workshop on Conservation of Energy                                                                                                                                                                   micro-sphere, we gained invaluable training for research
                                                                                                                                                                                      many applications such as optical
                        ♦ Mentor high school interns to                                                                                                                                                                      and observation in our future careers. Furthermore, the
                                                                                                                                                                                      filters, fabricating Raman micro-
                         grasp main concepts behind the                                                                                                                                                                      connections made in the industry level and exposure to
                                                                                                                                                                                      lasers, optical switching,
                          workings of these procedures                                                                                                                                                                       other projects in the center helped in becoming more
                                                                                                                                                                                      rotational detections, and several
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             aware of the areas of study open to specific majors.
                                                                                                                                                                                      others that we may and may have
                                                                                                                                                                                      not yet discovered.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 -Acknowledgements-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    First and foremost, we want to thank the National
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Science Foundation, the LIPP Family Foundation,
                                                                                                                                                                                  Process                                         and SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific for hosting us
                                                                                 1. Get the circulator: Hurdsman circulator of 81 MHz.                                                                                                and the means for our internship. Moreover, we
                                                                                 2. Generate lots of suboptimal points in the performance image.          1. Fabricate silicon micro-spheres through laser ablation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   would like to thank our mentors and directors, Dr.
                                                                                                                                                          2. Use SEM to categorize particles by shape and size
                                                                                 3. Select minimal elements of the performance image.                                                                                               James Rohr, Ashley Nekoui, Ayax Ramirez, Sarah
                                                                                                                                                          3. Chemically etch optical fiber to use to couple light
                                                                                 4. Apply the goal-attainment method (GAM) using each                                                                                                 Lauff, Dr. Jeff Allen, Dr. Ryan Lu, Christopher
                                                                                                                                                             around the spheres.                                                   Huyhn, the Advance Technology Branch, Angeline
                                                                                    pre-image of the minimal elements as a starting point.
                                                                                                                                                          4. Create a feasible set-up to couple light around spheres                    Yang, as well as Southwestern College MESA
                                                                                 5. Apply the Point and Line Test (PAL).
                                                                                                                                                          4. Apply this technology to improve other processes                      Center Director Dr. Raga Bakhiet and City College
                                                                                 6. Repeat the methods until getting a Pareto front.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             MESA Program Director Rafael Alvarez.

				
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