Asian Americans by xiangpeng


Where Most Asian Pacific
    Islanders Live
Americans and
Intergroup Relations Continuum
Government Policies toward the Chinese,
   The Chinese came to the U.S. during the 1850s
    California gold rush.
   They encountered racial hostility despite the
    overwhelming need for manual labor in the mid-19th
    century; were often expelled from mining camps, barred
    from schools and from obtaining citizenship, denied the
    right to testify in court, and murdered.
   After the Civil War, anti-Chinese tensions increased,
    culminating in the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882.
      The Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) marked the first
       time the government enacted a human embargo on a
       particular race of laborers.
      Expelled from various trades and occupations as well
       as from many residential areas, Chinese immigrants
       had no choice but to congregate in Chinatowns.
       Government Policies (continued)

   Stages in the development of Chinatowns
      Involuntary choice in response to societal

       prejudice & discrimination
      Defensive insulation as a protection to against

       racist hostility
      Voluntary segregation as group consciousness

      Gradual assimilation, a process markedly slowed

       by voluntary segregation and social isolation
   Congress ended the ban on immigration from China
    in 1943.
      Government Policies (continued)
 Most Chinese who came in the 19th century were
  farmers, artisans, craftsmen, political exiles, and
  refugees. Many were sojourners.
 Visible because of their race, appearance, and
  practices, the Chinese aroused both curiosity and
 A major social problem affecting most Asian
  immigrants through the 1940s was the shortage in
  the U.S. was the shortage of Asian women.
    After World War II a greater number of Asian

     women migrated to the U.S.
 The Chinese built much of the western part of the
  transcontinental railroad and cost the railroad
  company 2/3 as whites to maintain.
Government Policies towards the Japanese
 The Japanese arrived in 1868 and settled in the
  western states where anti-Chinese sentiment was still
 Early immigrants entered manufacturing and service
  occupations. Hostility from union members, resenting
  Asians’ willingness to work for lower wages and under
  poor conditions, produced inevitable clashes.
 Most Japanese entered agricultural work, first as
  laborers and eventually as tenant farmers or small
  landholders; other Japanese became contract
  gardeners on the estates of whites.
 The Immigration Law of 1924 denied entry to
  specifically barred the Japanese because it denied
  entry to all aliens ineligible for citizenship.
     Government Policies (continued)
 By the late 19th century, labor supply exceeded
  demand, and laborers, union organizers, and
  demagogues mounted racist denunciation of
  Chinese “competition.”
 1941 - Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor; and the
  subsequent war led to removal of 110,000
  Japanese from their homes and placement in
  “relocation centers.”
    Traditional Anti-Asian sentiment, opposition to
     Japanese agricultural business, and “fear” of
     the Japanese were underlining reasons for this
    National security was the primary justification.

    The Supreme Court case, Endo v. United
     States, brought an end to this forcible
Evacuation Camps
       Government Policies (continued)
     The Evacuation Claims Act (1948) brought
      token repayment of about 10% of actual
      Japanese American losses.
     Civil Rights Act, signed by Ronald Reagan,
      authorized reparation amounting to $20,000 tax
      free for surviving Japanese.

                    The Filipino
 1898   - the Philippines became a U.S. possession;
  Filipinos came to the U.S. with a unique status as
  U.S. nationals there was no quota restriction on their
  entry until 1935.
 1908 - The Gentlemen’s Agreement curtailed
  Japanese emigration; the Hawaiian Sugar Planters’
  Association recruited Filipinos to work the
       Government Policies (continued)
 Of every 100 Filipinos coming to California between
  1920-1929, 93 were male.
 1924 - California growers, faced with the loss of
  Mexican labor because of quota restrictions in the
  Immigration Act recruited Filipinos.
 Many young Filipino males went to urban areas
  seeking jobs. Discrimination, along with lack of
  education and job skills, resulted in their getting only
  low-paying domestic and personal service work in
  hotels, restaurants, other businesses, and residences.
 Feeling that they were being exploited by their
  employers, Filipinos often joined unions (or formed
  their own unions when denied membership in existing
  unions) and went on strike, intensifying management
  resentment. Ironically, the union hierarchy also
  disliked them and later joined in efforts to bar Filipinos
  from the U.S.
   Since the Immigration Act of 1965, Filipino
    immigration has been quite high.
      About half of all Filipino Americans speak only

      The largest concentration of Filipinos outside the

       Philippines is in Hawaii.

                      The Koreans

   Koreans arrived in substantial numbers after the
    Korean War and the Refugee Relief Act in 1953.
    The immigration law of 1965 opened the doors to
    Asian immigrants even more.
 Almost 70% of the Korean American population
  identifies itself as Christian.
 Nationwide, the 12% self-employment rate of
  Korean Americans is the highest of all ethnic or
  racial groups, including whites.
 Ethnic churches make important contributions to
  Korean immigrant communities, serving more than
  religious purpose. The church becomes a social
  organization, providing religious and ethnic
  fellowship, a personal community, and a family
  atmosphere within an alien and urban environment.
  Korean American churches serve as a focal point for
  enhancing ethnic identity.
         Koreans: Middleman Minority
 The 12 percent self-employment rate of Korean
  Americans is the highest of all groups. In cities and
  exurbs, small Korean family-operated businesses
  are especially conspicuous.
 In Los Angeles, they dominate the retail wig and
  liquor business. In D.C., Philadelphia, New York
  City, and Chicago, they are visible as grocery-store
  owners and fruit-stand operators. Others work as
  employees in these small stores and firms, which
  penetrate the black and Hispanic markets.
 Because they occupy an intermediate position in
  trade and commerce between producer and
  consumer, Koreans are a middleman minority.
              The Vietnamese
 As the Vietnam War ended, Vietnamese refugees
  entered the U.S.
    Immigration from Vietnam remains significant.

 Contributing to Vietnamese immigrants’ adjustment
  problem was the federal government’s policy of
  scattering the refugees throughout the U.S.
 Vietnamese have lower labor force participation, and
  median family incomes, higher poverty and
  unemployment rates, and disproportionate
  representation in low-skill, low-paying jobs, than
  most East Asian groups.
           Other Southeast Asians
   Of the approximately 1 million Indochinese
    Americans identified by the 2000 census
        24% were from Laos
       15% were from Cambodia (Kampuchea)
       61% were from Vietnam
       111,000 were from Thailand (formerly Siam)
   Asian American Political Activist and Interest Groups
Asian American Federation of Union Members (AAFUM)
Asian American for Equality (AAFE)
Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund (AALDEF)
Asian American Political Alliance (AAPA)
Asian American Women for Equality (AWE)
Asian Pacific American Coalition for Presidential Appointments (APACPA)
Asian Pacific American Labor Alliance (APALA)
Asian Pacific American Voters Project (APAVP)
Asian Pacific Labor Alliance (APLA)
Asian Pacific Voter Registration Project (APVRP)
Asian Immigrant Women Advocates (AIWA)
Association of Indians in America
Chinese Progressive Association (CPA)
Chinese Americans United for Self-Empowerment (CAUSE)
Chinese American Voter Education Committee (CAVEC)
   Asian American Political Activist and Interest Groups
Chinatown Voter Education Alliance
Chinese American Citizens Alliance
Coalition of Asian Pacific Americans for Fair Representation (CAPAFR)
Japanese Americans Citizens League (JACL)
Korean American Coalition (KAC)
Korean Immigrant Women Advocates (KIWA)
Little Tokyo’s People’s Rights Organization (LTPRO)
National Council of Japanese American Redress (NCJAR)
Organization of Chinese Americans (OCA)

          Inter Ethnic Cooperation in Political Activism
Black Korean Alliance (BKA)
Latino and Asian Coalition to Improve our Neighborhood (LACTION)
  Naturalization Rates by Years in U.S. and by Race, 1990
All immigrants (in thousands)                       17,612

Naturalization rates by years in U.S.
  0-10 years                                         15%
  11-20 years                                        45
  21 or more years                                   74

Naturalization rates by Race
  Non-Hispanic Whites                                63%
  Blacks                                             36
  Latinos                                            28
  Asians                                             43

The naturalization rates did not decrease for Asian immigrants between 1970 to 1990
U.S. Supreme Court Cases affecting Americans of Asian Origin

Yick Wo v. Hopkins, 118 U.S. 356 (1886)

Takao Ozama v. United States, 260 U.S. 178 (1922)

United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind, 261 U.S. 204 (1923)

Hirabayashi v. United States, 320 U.S. 81 (1943)

Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 (1994)

Oyama v. State of California, 332 U.S. 633 (1948)
      - California Alien Land Law of 1913 and 1920
Social Indicators About Asian-Americans
                             (in percentage)

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