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StandardS _ GuidelineS Crochet Knitting

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  • pg 1
									 The Craft Yarn Council of America is the yarn industry’s trade association. For
more than 25 years, it has heightened consumer awareness of yarn crafts through
                                                                                               ndard




                                                                                      arnSta
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education and promotion programs. Its membership represents the leading yarn
  companies, fiber producers, needle and hook manufacturers and publishers.

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                                                                                     Y
                                                                                   StandardS
                                                                                       &
                                  P.O. Box 9
                           Gastonia, NC 28053-0009
                                704-824-7838
                                                                                   GuidelineS
                              Fax: 704-824-0630

                       E-mail: info@craftyarncouncil.com                                       for
                   Web sites: www.knitandcrochet.com,
               www.learntoknit.com; www.learntocrochet.com;
                         www.teachknitting.com;
                                                                                     Crochet
                            www.Knit911.com
                                                                                             and
                                                                                     Knitting
               www.Crochet911.com; www.craftyarncouncil.com




                                                                                              Compiled by
    This Standards & Guidelines booklet and downloadable symbol artwork
                              are available at:                                       Craft Yarn Council of America



                     YarnStandards.com                                                    YarnStandards.com
         STANDARDS & GUIDELINES FOR CROCHET AND KNITTING                                                    STANDARDS & GUIDELINES FOR CROCHET AND KNITTING




Standards &                          well as designers and consumers.
                                     Ultimately, our objective is to                         Crochet abbreviations Master list
Guidelines                           design global standards and
                                     guidelines that will be used by                         Following is a list of crochet abbreviations used in patterns by
                                     companies worldwide. To this                            yarn industry designers and publishers. The most commonly used
The publishers, fiber, needle and                                                            abbreviations are highlighted. In addition, designers and publishers
                                     end, we have reached out to
hook manufacturers and yarn                                                                  may use special abbreviations in a pattern, which you might not find on
                                     individuals, manufacturers and
members of the Craft Yarn Council                                                            this list. Generally, a definition of special abbreviations is given at the
                                     trade associations in the United
of America have worked together                                                              beginning of a book or pattern.
                                     Kingdom, Germany, Italy, France,
to set up a series of guidelines
                                     as well as in Australia and New                         Abbreviation Description                                  Abbreviation Description
and symbols to bring uniformity
                                     Zealand to ask for their input.
to yarn, needle and hook labeling                                                            [ ] . . . . . . . work instructions within brackets as    FPdc. . . . . front post double crochet
and to patterns, whether they                                                                                  many times as directed                  FPsc . . . . . front post single crochet
appear in books, magazines,          Table of Contents                                       ( ) . . . . . . . work instructions within parentheses    FPtr . . . . . front post treble crochet
                                                                                                               as many times as directed               g . . . . . . . . gram
leaflets or on yarn labels. Our
                                     Abbreviations                                           * . . . . . . . . repeat the instructions following the   hdc . . . . . . half double crochet
goal is to make it easier for                                                                                  single asterisk as directed             inc . . . . . . increase/increases/increasing
industry manufacturers, publishers     Crochet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1      * * . . . . . . repeat instructions between asterisks     lp(s) . . . . . loops
and designers to prepare               Knitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2                       as many times as directed or repeat     m . . . . . . . meter(s)
consumer-friendly products           Skill Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3                       from a given set of instructions        MC . . . . . . main color
and for consumers to select the      Sizing/Standard Body                                    ” . . . . . . . . inch(es)                                mm . . . . . millimeter(s)
right materials for a project and    Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4           alt . . . . . . . alternate                               oz . . . . . . . ounce(s)
                                       Baby . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5   approx . . approximately                                  p . . . . . . . picot
complete it successfully.                                                                    beg. . . . . . begin/beginning                            pat(s)
                                       Child . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
                                                                                             bet . . . . . . between                                    or patt . . pattern(s)
We urge manufacturers, publishers      Woman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6        BL. . . . . . . back loop(s)                              pc . . . . . . . popcorn
and designers, to adopt these          Man . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7    bo . . . . . . . bobble                                   pm . . . . . . place marker
guidelines. Downloads of the           Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7     BP . . . . . . back post                                  prev . . . . . previous
graphic symbols are available at     Yarn Weight System. . . . . . . . . . . .8              BPdc . . . . back post double crochet                     rem . . . . . remain/remaining
                                     Sistema de Peso                                         BPsc . . . . . back post single crochet                   rep . . . . . . repeat(s)
www.YarnStandards.com at no
                                     Estandar para Estambre . . . . . . . .9                 BPtr. . . . . . back post treble crochet                  rnd(s). . . . round(s)
charge. We ask that if you use                                                               CA. . . . . . . color A                                   RS. . . . . . . right side
them in any publication that you     Système Standard                                        CB. . . . . . . color B                                   sc . . . . . . . single crochet
advise us in an e-mail of your       de Grosseur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10          CC. . . . . . . contrasting color                         sc2tog . . . single crochet 2 stitches together
intention to use them and that the   Hooks & Needles . . . . . . . . . . . . 11              ch . . . . . . . chain stitch                             sk . . . . . . . skip
following credit line be given:      Yarn Label Info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12          ch- . . . . . . refers to chain or space previously       Sl st . . . . . slip sitich
                                     DESIGNERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13                            made: e.g., ch-1 space                  sp(s). . . . . space(s)
                                       Submitting a Project                                  ch-sp . . . . chain space                                 st(s) . . . . . stitch(es)
Source: Craft Yarn                                                                           CL . . . . . . . cluster                                  tch
Council of America’s                   Idea: Where to Start . . . . . . . 13
                                                                                             cm. . . . . . . centimeter(s)                              or t-ch. . . . turning chain
www.YarnStandards.com                  Designer Pit Falls . . . . . . . . . . 14             cont . . . . . continue                                   tbl . . . . . . . through back loop
                                       Designer Guidelines:                                  dc . . . . . . . double crochet                           tog . . . . . . together
We received valuable input from        Once you’ve received                                  dc2tog . . . double crochet 2 stitches together           tr. . . . . . . . treble crochet
allied associations in the United      the go ahead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16            dec . . . . . . decrease/decreases/decreasing             trtr. . . . . . . triple treble crochet
                                                                                             dtr . . . . . . . double treble                           WS . . . . . . wrong side
States, such as The National
                                                                                             FL . . . . . . . front loop(s)                            yd(s) . . . . yard(s)
NeedleArts Association, the                                                                  foll . . . . . . follow/follows/following                 yo . . . . . . . yarn over
Crochet Guild of America, and                                                                FP . . . . . . . front post                               yoh . . . . . . yarn over hook
The Knitting Guild Association, as

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               STANDARDS & GUIDELINES FOR CROCHET AND KNITTING                                                                           STANDARDS & GUIDELINES FOR CROCHET AND KNITTING




Knitting abbreviations Master list                                                                                         Skill levels
Following is a list of knitting abbreviations used by yarn industry designers                                              SKILL LEVELS FOR KNITTING
and publishers. The most commonly used abbreviations are highlighted.                                                      1                       Beginner              Projects for first-time knitters using basic
In addition, designers and publishers may use special abbreviations in a                                                                                                 knit and purl stitches.
pattern, which you might not find on this list. Generally, a definition of                                                                                               Minimal shaping.
special abbreviations is given at the beginning of a book or pattern.
                                                                                                                           2                       Easy                  Projects using basic stitches, repetitive
Abbreviation Description                                     Abbreviation Description                                                                                    stitch patterns, simple color changes, and
[ ] . . . . . . . work instructions within brackets as       pat(s)                                                                                                      simple shaping and finishing.
                   many times as directed                     or patt . . pattern(s)
( ) . . . . . . . work instructions within parentheses       pm . . . . . . place marker                                   3                       Intermediate          Projects with a variety of stitches, such as
                   in the place directed                     pop . . . . . . popcorn                                                                                     basic cables and lace, simple intarsia,
* * . . . . . . repeat instructions following the            p2tog. . . . purl 2 stitches together                                                                       double-pointed needles and knitting in
                   asterisks as directed                     prev . . . . . previous                                                                                     the round needle techniques, mid-level
* . . . . . . . . repeat instructions following the single   psso . . . . . pass slipped stitch over
                   asterisk as directed                      pwise . . . . purlwise
                                                                                                                                                                         shaping and finishing.
” . . . . . . . . inch(es)                                   rem . . . . . remain/remaining                                4                       Experienced           Projects using advanced techniques and
alt . . . . . . . alternate                                  rep . . . . . . repeat(s)                                                                                   stitches, such as short rows, fair isle,
approx . . approximately                                     rev St st . reverse stockinette stitch
beg. . . . . . begin/beginning                               RH. . . . . . . right hand
                                                                                                                                                                         more intricate intarsia, cables, lace
bet . . . . . . between                                      rnd(s). . . . round(s)                                                                                      patterns, and numerous color changes.
BO . . . . . . bind off                                      RS. . . . . . . right side
CA. . . . . . . color A                                      sk . . . . . . . skip
CB. . . . . . . color B                                      skp . . . . . . slip, knit, pass stitch over—one stitch       SKILL LEVELS FOR CROCHET
CC. . . . . . . contrasting color                                              decreased                                   1                       Beginner              Projects for first-time crocheters using
cm . . . . . . centimeter(s)                                 sk2p. . . . . slip 1, knit 2 together, pass slip stitch                                                     basic stitches.
cn . . . . . . . cable needle                                                  over the knit 2 together; 2 stitches
                                                                                                                                                                         Minimal shaping.
CO . . . . . . cast on                                                         have been decreased
cont . . . . . continue                                      sl. . . . . . . . slip                                        2                       Easy                  Projects using yarn with basic stitches,
dec . . . . . . decrease/decreases/decreasing                sl1k . . . . . slip 1 knitwise                                                                              repetitive stitch patterns, simple color
dpn . . . . . double pointed needle(s)                       sl1p . . . . . slip 1 purlwise
                                                                                                                                                                         changes, and simple shaping and
fl . . . . . . . . front loop(s)                             sl st . . . . . slip stitch(es)
foll. . . . . . . follow/follows/following                   ss . . . . . . . slip stitch (Canadian)                                                                     finishing.
g . . . . . . . . gram                                       ssk . . . . . . slip, slip, knit these 2 stiches              3                       Intermediate          Projects using a variety of techniques,
inc . . . . . . increase/increases/increasing                                  together—a decrease
                                                                                                                                                                         such as basic lace patterns or color
k or K. . . . knit                                           sssk . . . . . . slip, slip, slip, knit 3 stitches together
k2tog . . . . knit 2 stitches together                       st(s) . . . . . stitch(es)                                                                                  patterns, mid-level shaping and finishing.
kwise. . . . . knitwise                                      St st . . . . . stockinette stitch/stocking stitch            4                       Experienced           Projects with intricate stitch patterns,
LH . . . . . . . left hand                                   tbl. . . . . . . through back loop
lp(s) . . . . . loop(s)                                      tog . . . . . . together
                                                                                                                                                                         techniques and dimension, such as
m . . . . . . . meter(s)                                     WS . . . . . . wrong side                                                                                   non-repeating patterns, multi-color
M1 . . . . . . make one—an increase—several                  wyib. . . . . with yarn in back                                                                             techniques, fine threads, small hooks,
                   increases can be described as ”M1”        wyif . . . . . with yarn in front                                                                           detailed shaping and refined finishing.
M1 p-st . . . make one purl stitch                           yd(s) . . . . yard(s)
MC . . . . . . main color                                    yfwd . . . . yarn forward                                     This Standards & Guidelines booklet and downloadable symbol artwork are available at: YarnStandards.com
mm . . . . . millimeter(s)                                   yo . . . . . . . yarn over
oz . . . . . . . ounce(s)                                    yrn . . . . . . yarn around needle
p or P. . . . purl                                           yon . . . . . . yarn over needle
                                                         2                                                                                                                    3
          STANDARDS & GUIDELINES FOR CROCHET AND KNITTING                                    STANDARDS & GUIDELINES FOR CROCHET AND KNITTING

                                                                                FIT                                       LENGTH FOR wOmEN
Standard Body Measurements/Sizing                                               Very-close fitting: Actual chest/bust     Waist length: Actual body measurement
                                                                                measurement or less
Most crochet and knitting pattern         However, consideration must           Close-fitting: 1–2”/2.5–5cm               Hip length: 6”/15cm down from waist
instructions will provide general         be given to the project pattern.      Standard-fitting: 2–4”/5–10cm             Tunic length: 11”/28cm down from
sizing information, such as the           Certain sizing changes may alter      Loose-fitting: 4–6”/10–15cm               waist
chest or bust measurements                the appearance of a garment.          Oversized: 6”/15cm or more
of a completed garment. Many                                                                                              LENGTH FOR mEN
patterns also include detailed            HOw TO mEASuRE                        LENGTH FOR CHILDREN
schematics or line drawings.                                                                                              Men’s length usually varies only
                                          1. Chest/Bust                         Waist length: Actual body measurement
These drawings show specific                                                                                              1–2”/ 2.5–5cm from the actual “back
                                          Measure around the fullest part of    Hip length: 2”/5cm down from waist
garment measurements (bust/                                                                                               hip length” measurement (see chart)
                                          the chest/bust. Do not draw the       Tunic length: 6”/15cm down from waist
chest, neckline, back, waist, sleeve
                                          tape too tightly.
length, etc.) in all the different
pattern sizes. To insure proper           2. Center Back Neck–to-Cuff
fit, always review all of the sizing      With arm slightly bent, measure       Baby’s size        3 months 6 months 12 months 18 months 24 months
information provided in a pattern         from back base of neck across         1. Chest (in.)        16       17        18        19        20
before you begin.                         shoulder around bend of elbow to         (cm.)             40.5      43       45.5       48       50.5
   Following are several sizing charts.   wrist.                                2. Center Back        101⁄2       111⁄2       121⁄2    14        18
These charts show Chest, Center                                                    Neck-to-Cuff       26.5         29         31.5    35.5      45.5
                                          3. Back Waist Length
Back Neck-to-Cuff, Back Waist
                                          Measure from the most prominent       3. Back Waist          6           7          71⁄2     8         81⁄2
Length, Cross Back, and Sleeve
                                          bone at base of neck to the natural      Length             15.5        17.5        19      20.5      21.5
Length actual body measurements for
                                          waistline.                            4. Cross Back          71⁄4        73⁄4       81⁄4     81⁄2     83⁄4
babies, children, women, and men.
These measurements are given in           4. Cross Back                            (Shoulder to       18.5        19.5        21      21.5      22
both inches and centimeters.              Measure from shoulder to                 shoulder)
   When sizing sweaters, the              shoulder.                             5. Sleeve Length       6           61⁄2       71⁄2     8         81⁄2
fit is based on actual chest/                                                      to Underarm        15.5        16.5        19      20.5      21.5
                                          5. Sleeve Length
bust measurements, plus ease
                                          With arm slightly bent, measure
(additional inches or centimeters).                                             Child’s size           2            4          6       8        10
                                          from armpit to cuff.
The first chart entitled “Fit”
recommends the amount of ease                                                   1. Chest (in.)         21          23          25     26 ⁄2
                                                                                                                                         1
                                                                                                                                                 28
to add to body measurements                                                        (cm.)               53         58.5        63.5     67        71
if you prefer a close-fitting                                                   2. Center Back         18         191⁄2       201⁄2    22        24
garment, an oversized garment, or                                                  Neck-to-Cuff       45.5        49.5         52      56        61
                                                           1.
something in-between.                                                           3. Back Waist          81⁄2        91⁄2       101⁄2   121⁄2      14
   The next charts provide average                                                 Length             21.5         24         26.5    31.5      35.5
lengths for children’s, women’s
and men’s garments.                                                             4. Cross Back          91⁄4        93⁄4       101⁄4   103⁄4     111⁄4
   Both the Fit and Length                                                         (Shoulder to       23.5         25          26      27       28.5
                                               2.                       4.         shoulder)
charts are simply guidelines.
For individual body differences,                      5.                        5. Sleeve Length       81⁄2       101⁄2       111⁄2   121⁄2     131⁄2
changes can be made in body and                                                    to Underarm        21.5        26.5         29     31.5      34.5
sleeve lengths when appropriate.                                 3.
                                                                                                                                        continued on page 11
                                      4                                                                                   5
                STANDARDS & GUIDELINES FOR CROCHET AND KNITTING                                                      STANDARDS & GUIDELINES FOR CROCHET AND KNITTING
                                                                                                  1.
Child’s (cont.)         12          14             16                                                  man’s Size           Small      medium          Large      X-Large XX-Large
1. Chest (in.)          30          311⁄2         321⁄2
                                                                                                       1. Chest (in.)       34–36        38–40      42–44       46–48             50–52
    (cm.)               76           80           82.5
                                                                                                            (cm.)          86–91.5     96.5–101.5 106.5–111.5 116.5–122          127–132
2. Center Back          26           27            28
                                                                                                       2. Center Back      32–321⁄2     33–331⁄2       34–341⁄2    35–351⁄2      36–361⁄2
   Neck-to-Cuff         66          68.5           71
                                                                                                          Neck-to-Cuff     81–82.5      83.5–85       86.5–87.5     89–90       91.5–92.5
3. Back Waist           15          151⁄2          16
                                                                                                       3. Back Hip          25–251⁄2   261⁄2–263⁄4     27–271⁄4   271⁄2–273⁄4    28–281⁄2
   Length               38          39.5          40.5
                                                                                                          Length           63.5–64.5    67.5–68        68.5–69    69.5–70.5      71–72.5
4. Cross Back           12          121⁄4          13
                                                                                                       4. Cross Back        151⁄2–16    161⁄2–17       171⁄2–18    18–181⁄2      181⁄2–19
   (Shoulder to        30.5          31            33
                                                                                        2.                (Shoulder to     39.5–40.5         4.
                                                                                                                                         42–43        44.5–45.5    45.5–47        47–48
   Shoulder)
                                                                                                          Shoulder)
5. Sleeve Length        15           16           161⁄2
                                                                                                       5. Sleeve Length         18        181⁄2          191⁄2        20           201⁄2
   to Underarm          38          40.5           42
                                                                                             5.           to Underarm          45.5       47             49.5        50.5          52

woman’s size          X-Small      Small      medium          Large
1. Bust (in.)          28–30       32–34       36–38      40–42
   (cm.)               71–76       81–86      91.5–96.5 101.5–106.5
                                                                                                                          3.
2. Center Back        27–271⁄2     28–281⁄2   29–291⁄2        30–301⁄2
   Neck-to-Cuff       68.5–70      71–72.5    73.5–75         76–77.5
                                                                                                       Head Circumference Chart
3. Back Waist          161⁄2         17           171⁄4        171⁄2
   Length               42           43           43.5         44.5                                                                 Infant/Child
                                                                                                                          ____________________________                              Adult
                                                                                                                                                                                _____________
4. Cross Back         14–14 ⁄2 1
                                   14 ⁄2–15
                                     1
                                              16–16 ⁄2    1
                                                              17–17 ⁄2 1                                                  Premie       Baby          Toddler      Child         Woman       Man
   (Shoulder to       35.5–37       37–38     40.5–42         43–44.5                                  6. Circumference
   Shoulder)                                                                                                    (in.)       12           14            16          18             20        22
                                                                                                               (cm.)       30.5         35.5          40.5        45.5           50.5       56
5. Sleeve Length       161⁄2         17            17          171⁄2
   to Underarm          42           43            43          44.5
                                                                                                                                               For an accurate head measure, place a
woman’s (cont.)         1X           2X           3X            4X           5X                                                                tape measure across the forehead and
                                                                                                                                               measure around the full circumference of
1. Bust (in.)          44–46        48–50      52–54           56–58        60–62                                                              the head. Keep the tape snug for accurate
     (cm.)           111.5–117     122–127    132–137         142–147      152–158                        6.                                   results.
2. Center Back        31–31 ⁄2 1
                                   31 ⁄2–32
                                     1
                                              32 ⁄2–33
                                                  1
                                                              32 ⁄2–33
                                                                1
                                                                           33–33 ⁄2 1

   Neck-to-Cuff       78.5–80      80–81.5    82.5–84         82.5–84       84–85
3. Back Waist          173⁄4         18            18          181⁄2        181⁄2
   Length               45          45.5          45.5          47           47
4. Cross Back          171⁄2         18            18          181⁄2        181⁄2
   (Shoulder to        44.5         45.5          45.5          47           47
   Shoulder)
5. Sleeve Length       171⁄2         18            18          181⁄2        181⁄2
   to Underarm         44.5         45.5          45.5          47           47

                                              6                                                                                                      7
                STANDARDS & GUIDELINES FOR CROCHET AND KNITTING                                                             STANDARDS & GUIDELINES FOR CROCHET AND KNITTING




            Standard Yarn Weight System                                                                                                                       Spanish

  Categories of yarn, gauge ranges, and recommended needle and hook sizes
                                                                                                              Sistema de Peso estandar para estambre
                                                                                                                                                    Numeros y Nombres
Yarn Weight
Symbol &
Category               Lace       Super Fine     Fine       Light      Medium        Bulky        Super
Names                                                                                             Bulky       Nuevos
Type of              Fingering      Sock,       Sport,       DK,       Worsted,     Chunky,       Bulky,      Nombres
Yarns in             10 count     Fingering,    Baby        Light      Afghan,       Craft,       Roving      de la               Liston      Super Fino     Fino       Ligero      Medio       Abultado     Super
Category              crochet        Baby                  Worsted      Aran          Rug                     Categoria                                                                                     Abultado
                       thread                                                                                 Tipos de           Estambre      Calcetin,    Deporte, Doble tejido Estambre      Fornido, Abultado,
Knit Gauge           33 –40**       27–32       23–26       21–24       16–20        12–15         6–11       Estambres           delgado     Digitación,     Bebe    de punto, (lana peinada), Grueso, Voluminoso,
Range* in               sts          sts         sts         sts         sts          sts           sts       Actuales dentro     Crochet       Bebe                  Tejido de     Afgano, Manualidad, Mecha
Stockinette                                                                                                   de la Categoria    calibre 10                 estambre   Afgan,      Alfombra
Stitch to 4 inches                                                                                                                                            ligero    Aran

Recommended           1.5–2.25    2.25—3.25    3.25—3.75   3.75—4.5    4.5—5.5       5.5—8            8       Rango del           33 a 40      27 a 32      23 a 26     21 a 24     16 a 20      12 a 15     6 a 11
Needle in               mm           mm           mm          mm         mm           mm            mm        Calibre del           sts          sts          sts         sts         sts          sts         sts
Metric Size                                                                                         and       Punto en
Range                                                                                              larger     Tela de Punto de
                                                                                                              4 Pulgadas
Recommended           000 to 1      1 to 3      3 to 5      5 to 7      7 to 9       9 to 11         11
Needle U.S.                                                                                         and       Aguja              1.5 a 2.25   2.25 a 3.25 3.25 a 3.75 3.75 a 4.5    4.5 a 5.5    5.5 a 8     8 mm
Size Range                                                                                         larger     Recomendada           mm            mm          mm         mm            mm          mm        y mas
                                                                                                              en el Rango de
Crochet Gauge*         32-42        21–32       16–20       12–17       11–14         8–11          5–9       Tamaño Metrico
Ranges in Single       double        sts         sts         sts         sts           sts          sts
Crochet              crochets**                                                                               Aguja               000 a 1       1a3          3a5         5a7         7a9         9 a 11        11
to 4 inch                                                                                                     Recomendada                                                                                    y mas
                                                                                                              en el Rango de
Recommended            Steel***    2.25—3.5     3.5—4.5    4.5—5.5     5.5—6.5       6.5—9           9        Tamaño para E.U.
Hook in Metric       1.6–1.4mm        mm          mm         mm          mm           mm           mm
Size Range             Regular                                                                   and larger   Calibre de          32 a 42      21 a 32      16 a 20     12 a 17     11 a 14      8 a 11       5a9
                         hook                                                                                 Crochet en           punto         sts          sts         sts         sts          sts         sts
                      2.25 mm                                                                                 Crochet Sencillo      alto
                                                                                                              de 4 Pulgadas
Recommended           Steel***    B–1 to E–4   E–4 to 7    7 to I–9     I–9 to      K–101⁄2 to     M–13
Hook U.S.              6, 7, 8                                          K–101⁄2      M–13           and       Gancho           Acero   2.25 a 3.5           3.5 a 4.5   4.5 a 5.5   5.5 a 6.5    6.5 a 9     9 mm
Size Range            Regular                                                                      larger     Recomendado 1.6 a 1.4 mm    mm                   mm          mm          mm          mm        y mas
                     hook B–1                                                                                 en el Rango de  Gancho
                                                                                                              Tamano Metrico  normal
* GUIDELINES ONLY: The above reflect the most commonly used gauges and needle or hook sizes for                              2.25 mm
  specific yarn categories.
                                                                                                              Gancho             Acero        B–1 a E–4     E–4 a 7     7 a I–9       I–9 a     K–101⁄2 a    M–13
** Lace weight yarns are usually knitted or crocheted on larger needles and hooks to create lacy,             Recomendado        6, 7, 8                                             K–101⁄2     M–13        y mas
openwork patterns. Accordingly, a gauge range is difficult to determine. Always follow the gauge stated       en el Rango de    Gancho
in your pattern.                                                                                              Tamano para E.U. normal B-1
*** Steel crochet hooks are sized differently from regular hooks--the higher the number, the smaller the
hook, which is the reverse of regular hook sizing.
This Standards & Guidelines booklet and downloadable symbol artwork are available at: YarnStandards.com

                                                     8                                                                                                            9
                 STANDARDS & GUIDELINES FOR CROCHET AND KNITTING                                                                STANDARDS & GUIDELINES FOR CROCHET AND KNITTING



                                                     French
                                                                                                              Hooks & needles
                 Système Standard de Grosseur                                                                 The Council’s hook and needle manufacturers have agreed to make
                             Pour Fils À Tricoter • Numéros et Noms                                           metric (millimeter/mm) sizing more prominent on packaging. The U.S.
                                                                                                              sizes, both numbers and/or letters, will also appear on packaging.
                                                                                                                More prominent labeling of metric sizing, which is an actual
Nouvelle                                                                                                      measurement, should help eliminate consumer questions about the
Catégorie                                                                                                     differences among the letter and number sizing of some needles
Noms                  Dentelle       Super Fin      Fin         Léger       Moyen       Bulky       Super     and hooks. As noted in the introduction, with the cooperation of
                                                                                                    Bulky
                                                                                                              manufacturers, publishers and designers these changes will be
Fil à tricoter        Fingering         Bas,       Sport,        DK,       Worsted,    Chunky,      Bulky,    implemented as packaging is reprinted and new patterns are published.
Actuel                   fil á       Fingering,    Bébé         Léger      Afghan,     Artisanat,   Roving
Genre en              crocheter        Bébé                    Worsted      Aran         Tapis
Catégorie                #10                                                                                  Knitting Needle Sizes                                                Crochet Hook Sizes
Gamme de               33 à 40        27 à 32      23 à 26      21 à 24     16 à 20     12 à 15     6 à 11    Millimeter Range                      U.S. Size Range                Millimeter Range                    U.S. Size Range*
Tension au tricot        sts            sts          sts          sts         sts         sts         sts     2.25 mm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1      2.25 mm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B–1
en Point Jersey
Sur 4 pouces                                                                                                  2.75 mm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2      2.75 mm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C–2
Aiguilles             1.5 à 2.25     2.25 à 3.25 3.25 à 3.75 3.75 à 4.5    4.5 à 5.5    5.5 à 8     8 mm      3.25 mm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3      3.25 mm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D–3
Recommandées             mm              mm          mm         mm            mm          mm        et plus   3.5 mm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4     3.5 mm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E–4
en métrique
                                                                                                              3.75 mm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5      3.75 mm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F–5
Aiguilles              000 à 1         1à3          3à5          5à7         7à9        9 à 11        11
Recommandées                                                                            et plus
                                                                                                              4 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6    4 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .G–6
Américaines                                                                                                   4.5 mm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7     4.5 mm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Tension au             32 à 42       21 à 32 m    16 à 20 m    12 à 17 m   11 à 14 m   8 à 11 m     5à9m      5 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8    5 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .H–8
Crochet                 bride
                                                                                                              5.5 mm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9     5.5 mm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I–9
en mailles serrées
Sur 4 pouces                                                                                                  6 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10     6 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J–10
Crochets                Acier        2.25 à 3.5   3.5 à 4.5    4.5 à 5.5   5.5 à 6.5    6.5 à 9     9 mm      6.5 mm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1⁄2     6.5 mm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K–10 1⁄2
Recommandés           1.6 à 1.4         mm           mm           mm          mm          mm        et plus   8 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11     8 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L–11
en métrique             mm
                     Crochet ré                                                                               9 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13     9 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M/N–13
                     gulier 2.25                                                                              10 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15      10 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N/P–15
                        mm
                                                                                                              12.75 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17         15 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P/Q
Crochets             Acier 6, 7, 8   B–1 à E-4     E–4 à 7      7 à I–9     I–9 à      K–101⁄2 à    M–13
Recommandés          Crochet ré                                            K–101⁄2      M–13        et plus   15 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19      16 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q
Américains            gulier B-1                                                                              19 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35      19 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S
                                                                                                              25 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50

                                                                                                              *Letter or number may vary. Rely on the millimeter (mm) sizing.
                                                                                                              NOTE ABOUT STEEL HOOKS: Steel crochet hooks are generally used with lace weight yarns and crochet
                                                                                                              threads. They are sized differently than regular hooks: the higher the number, the smaller the hook,
                                                                                                              which is the reverse of regular hook sizing. The smallest steel hook is a #14 or .9 mm; the largest is a
                                                                                                              00 or 2.7 mm.
                                                          bk                                                                                                                      bl
          STANDARDS & GUIDELINES FOR CROCHET AND KNITTING                          STANDARDS & GUIDELINES FOR CROCHET AND KNITTING




Yarn label information                                                    designer Standards
                                                                          & Guidelines
                                                                          As the demand for more and             Council and industry publishers.
                                                                          more crochet and knitting              Accordingly, if designers want their
                                                                          patterns has grown over the past       submissions to be accepted, it is
Symbols                                                                   decade, so has the demand from         important for them to incorporate
                                                                          consumers for easier to read,          these standards into their project
Symbols are used to                                                       accurate patterns. Concerned           patterns.
designate the various                                                     about the growing number of
weights (thicknesses)                                                     pattern complaints by consumers,       YOu wANT TO SuBmIT
of yarn on labels and                                                     the Craft Yarn Council of America      A PROJECT IDEA…
the skill level (beginner                                                 members convened a special             wHERE DO YOu START?
to experienced) of a                                                      meeting to identify challenges at
pattern.                                                                  every level of pattern production—     You want to submit a project idea
  For yarn weights a                                                      from the designer, where the           to a yarn company or magazine
ball/skein will be used                                                   pattern process begins, through to     but don’t know where to begin.
containing a number                                                       the final editing/printing process.    Here are a few basic guidelines.
between 0–6, with 0                                                       The committee spoke extensively
the finest and 6 the                                                      with editors and designers and all     Contact the company or magazine
thickest.                                                                 agreed our ultimate goal is to keep    and ask how they prefer to have
  The skill level                                                         today’s knitters and crocheters        project ideas submitted. If you are
symbol is a horizontal                                                    enjoying these crafts for years        not sure how to contact them,
bar divided into four                                                     to come.                               check the magazine’s masthead
sections. When one section of          what the new                                                              for an address or a yarn label
the bar is shaded, it indicates a      symbols will                       With this objective in mind            to see where a company is
beginner pattern; four shaded          represent. (To                     and based on industry input,           headquartered.
sections indicate a pattern for        download symbol artwork, go        the Council has compiled the
experienced knitters or crocheters.    to: www.YarnStandards.com) As      following helpful designer             Each company/magazine will
  Below is how you can expect to       noted in the introduction, these   guidelines. They include everything    have its own company-specific
see the yarn symbols used on a         changes will be implemented        from tips on submitting a project      requirements or refer you to this
label; and how the yarn and skill      over time with the printing of     idea, to common pitfalls to avoid,     web site.
level symbols might appear in a        new labeling and the publishing    and finally, to guidelines that
pattern. See charts on pages 3         of new books, patterns and         should always be followed when         Generally, companies/magazines
and 8 for more information about       magazines.                         sending your final project.            will ask you to submit a sketch
                                                                                                                 and knitted/crocheted swatch,
                                                                          These guidelines do not replace        rather than a completed project,
                                                                          those of individual companies.         however, many will consider a
                                                                          However, many will follow them,        completed project.
                                                                          and they represent the base
                                                                          standards, which have been             Submit your design concept to
                                                                          adopted by all members of the          ONE company or magazine at
                                      bm                                                                        bn
         STANDARDS & GUIDELINES FOR CROCHET AND KNITTING                                 STANDARDS & GUIDELINES FOR CROCHET AND KNITTING


a time. If a company/magazine           DESIGNER PIT FALLS!                      • Gauge swatch is not made in              • Designer does not explain
accepts a design, they will expect                                                 the pattern stitches, nor using            nonstandard abbreviations.
it to be exclusive to them.             Here’s a list of the most common           the hook or needle size most
                                                                                                                            • Pattern stitch (with multiples)
                                        designers’ mistakes. It’s helpful to       used. Most importantly, the
When you submit a swatch/                                                                                                     was not listed before the actual
                                        review it before you are thinking          gauge swatch does not match
sketch or sample, remember                                                                                                    garment instructions.
                                        of proposing a project idea, when          the project submitted.
to label it with your name and                                                                                              • Pattern repeats are not
                                        you are working on the project,
contact information, including your                                            3. Materials                                   indicated; rows and stitches are
                                        and before you submit the final
address, phone number and area                                                                                                not indicated.
                                        project.                                 • Yarn colors and precise
code, and e-mail address. Include
a postage-paid envelope with your                                                  amounts are frequently                   • There was not general
                                        Refer to YarnStandards.com                 missing. For example, a                    description of item included in
submission if you want it returned.
It is the responsibility of the                                                    designer may use terms such                the instructions.
                                        1. Number one problem:                     as “a small amount of yarn.”
designer to pay for postage.                                                                                                • Right side/wrong side or
                                           Designers do not follow
                                           company’s guidelines.                 • Designer used discontinued                 left side/right side are not
Many companies/magazines will
                                                                                   yarn colors.                               indicated on the pattern.
confirm that they have received
your submission and will tell you       2. Submissions                           • Accessories are not indicated            • Designer does not take notes
approximately when they will get            • Do not submit your ideas or          in the Materials Supply List.              while they are creating garment
back to you, or they may return               proposal to more than one            Quantities of button and                   and they could not remember
your idea immediately because it              manufacturer/editor at the           button sizes, specific lengths of          what they did.
does not fit their needs. Generally,          same time.                           ribbon when required, or purse
                                                                                                                            • Designer fails to keep a record
you can expect the submission                                                      handle size are missing.
                                            • When submitting yarn                                                            of her work so when tech
review process to take between
                                              swatch(s) with your idea                                                        editor calls she cannot answer
2 to 8 weeks.                                                                  4. Pattern Itself
                                              or proposal to a yarn                                                           intelligently.
Why does it take so long?                     manufacturer, always use that      • Designer submits “general
                                                                                                                            • Designer sends in the garment
Manufacturers or editors might                company’s yarn(s).                   instructions,” leaving the
                                                                                                                              to make a deadline before
be preparing for trade shows                                                       pattern writing and sizing to
                                                                                                                              writing the pattern, and then
or rushing to meet a magazine           3. Sizing Issues                           tech editors.
                                                                                                                              writes the pattern relying on
deadline. REFRAIN FROM                                                           • There are no written                       notes.
CONTINUALLY CALLING ABOUT                   • Designer fails to provide body
                                              measurements or they are             instructions, just a sketch with
YOUR SUBMISSION.                                                                   measurements.                        5. Graphics
                                              poorly calculated, especially
If your design idea is accepted,              when sizing up and especially      • Project math is incorrect—               • Designer fails to provide
generally a design fee will be                for men’s and children’s             numbers don’t add up.                      detailed schematics. Schematic
discussed in advance and a                    garments. Sizing charts from                                                    should include length from
                                              the Industry Standards &           • Stitch counts—especially at
contract issued. At this point, we                                                                                            shoulder to bottom, width at
                                              Guidelines web site (www.            end of increase/decrease
strongly urge that you read the                                                                                               armholes, depth of armholes,
                                              YarnStandards.com) are not           rows—were not included in the
information contained at this web                                                                                             length from cast on/foundation
                                              followed, which frequently           instructions.
site regarding Designer Pitfalls                                                                                              row to armholes, sleeve length
and the dos and don’ts of project             results in the problem of          • Standard punctuation and                   and for hats circumference at
submissions.                                  “gorilla” arms.                      pattern language were not                  widest point.
                                            • Instructions are provided for        used.
Good Luck!                                    only one size.
                                       bo                                                                              bp
          STANDARDS & GUIDELINES FOR CROCHET AND KNITTING                                   INDUSTRY STANDARDS & GUIDELINES for DESIGNERS


  • Designer fails to provide stitch
    pattern charts and/or color         induStrY                                   requested by the manufacturer
                                                                                   or magazine.
                                                                                                                                yarns should not be blocked
                                                                                                                                with heat because it flattens
    charts(Intarsia).
                                        StandardS &                               • Keep notes as you work on
                                                                                    your project so that you can
                                                                                                                                the fibers. If you have questions
                                                                                                                                about blocking a specific
                                        GuidelineS for
  • Designer does not prepare
                                                                                    refer to them when an editor                yarn, contact the company/
    schematics based on
                                                                                                                                publication.
                                        deSiGnerS
    measurements of the finished                                                    has questions. DO NOT RELY
    pieces BEFORE they are                                                          ON YOUR MEMORY TO WRITE                    • SKEIN BAND/YARN LABEL –
    assembled.                                                                      THE PATTERN.                                 Submit ALL skein bands/yarn
                                     Congratulations! You’ve received                                                            labels from the various yarns you
  • Designer provides photos for a                                                • SIZING—Check the Standards &
                                     the “go ahead” from a company                                                               used to complete the project.
    technique because she cannot                                                    Guidelines measurements chart
                                     or publication to prepare a sample
    put it into words, expecting the                                                and size your project accordingly      2. GAUGE SWATCH
                                     or project. Before you begin the
    tech editor to do it.                                                           (www.yarnstandards.com/                    • Swatch – Submit a gauge
                                     project and before you are ready to
                                                                                    sizing.html).                                swatch in the project pattern
  • Schematic is not drawn to scale. send in the completed item, there
                                     are specific guidelines you must             • Designers are urged to read                  stitch. It must be a minimum of
                                     follow in order for your project               Designer Pit Falls before you                4” square or larger if the pattern
6. Designer Don’ts
                                     to be accepted. Here is a helpful              begin your project.                          requires it. Both a stitch and row
  • Do not size by changing hook     checklist.                                                                                  count should be included. The
    or needle size.                                                             NOTE: As you are working on your                 exception to this rule is when
                                     NOTE: In addition to the following         project submission, if you feel there            there are crochet motifs. Usually
  • Do not block acrylic yarn with
                                     guidelines, you must also comply           is a problem with the yarn or yarn               with motifs, rounds are listed. For
    heat.
                                     with the specific instructions from        color, contact the manufacturer or               example, a motif that requires
  • Do not knit or crochet while you the company/publication to which           editor and discuss your concern. If              9 rounds would be stated as:
    smoke, eat or are near animals. you are submitting a design.                you have an alternative, suggest it.             Rounds 1– 9 = 5”
  • Do not make changes in the                                                                                                 • Gauge swatch must match
    contracted project without prior Before you begin the project               wHAT TO SuBmIT…                                  project gauge. Companies will
    permission.                                                                 1. ACTUAL PROJECT                                reject your submission if your
                                      • Reconfirm yarn and color
                                                                                                                                 gauge swatch does not match
  • Do not submit project without       selection with your editor or             • LABEL – Affix a label or hang                the gauge in the project.
    instructions, schematics or         design director AND check all               tag to the inside back of your
    charts.                             ball bands to be sure they are              project with your name and             3. PROJECT INSTRUCTIONS
                                        all the same dye lot number.                contact information, including             • Electronic Format – Project
  • Do not make the project in
                                      • Reconfirm with the yarn                     your address, phone number                   instructions must be submitted
    any other size than what the
                                        manufacturer that the yarn you              and area code, e-mail address,               in an electronic file. Generally,
    contract states.
                                        have chosen will be available               and project number (if                       a Microsoft Word file is
  • DO NOT BE LATE WITH YOUR            for at least the next year. Most            assigned).                                   acceptable, but always check
    SUBMISSIONS!                        magazines and book publishers             • CLEAN – Projects must be                     with your editor. Remember to
                                        work six months in advance.                 clean, free of cat/dog hair,                 write your name and contact
                                                                                    perfume or other scents and                  information, plus project
                                            • Reconfirm the size of the
                                                                                    cigarette smoke.                             number (if assigned) on the
                                              sample garment required to fit
                                                                                                                                 first page of the instructions.
                                              the photography model. DO           • FINISH & BLOCK – Proper                      Also, include a printout of the
                                              NOT create the project to fit         finishing is critical. Weave in all          instructions with your project
                                              YOU, unless it is the same size       yarn ends and pay attention                  submission to which you have
                                                                                    to blocking. Remember, acrylic
                                       bq                                                                                 br
         INDUSTRY STANDARDS & GUIDELINES for DESIGNERS                                        INDUSTRY STANDARDS & GUIDELINES for DESIGNERS


 stapled all of the ball bands or              crochet.html or                           write out complete shaping       NOTE: Grid size may vary from
 skein bands.                                  www.yarnstandards.com/                    directions for both sides.       publishers to publisher. Size of
                                               knit.html for a complete list.)          d. Be sure to mention finishing grid paper is not as important as
NOTE: To speed up the technical
                                           f. List all measurements                         details such as bind off or   ACCURACY.
editing process, some companies
may ask you to e-mail your                    including finished chest, back                fasten off; sew up the side   In addition, schematic should
instructions before you send in               and armhole measurements                      seams, or set in or sew       show the direction of working. For
your project/garment.                         for each size submitted in                    sleeves in place.             example, if a sleeve or the entire
                                              the case of garments AND                  e. ALWAYS DOUBLE CHECK            garment is worked from the top
• IMPORTANT INFORMATION–                      indicate which size was                                                     down, the piece should be shown
  All companies require the                                                                YOUR MATH!
                                              made. For accessories, list the                                             oriented that way. If worked side-
  following information in the                finished dimensions of the                f. Project schematic, including to-side, then that should be show
  pattern instructions you submit:            project.                                     each piece of the project/     on the schematic as well. If different
   a. Indicate the type yarn used,                                                         garment, must be submitted parts are worked in different
                                         • PATTERN SIZING – It is the                      with your submission (see
      put up (skein/ball yardage                                                                                          direction, arrows showing the
                                          designer’s job to write multiple                 below).
      and weight), fiber content,                                                                                         direction of work are very helpful.
                                          sizes for a pattern, taking into
      the number of skeins/balls                                                        g. Using recommended
                                          account shaping and pattern                                                     5. INVOICE
      required for each project                                                            Industry Symbols, project
                                          repeats.                                                                          • An invoice should be submitted
      size, AND record all yarn                                                            charts for stitch or color
      amounts.                           • SKILL LEVEL – Using the                         (intarsia) patterns also must      along with your completed
                                           Standards & Guidelines Skill                    be submitted.                      project. (Fees are generally
   b. Indicate Yarn Weight
                                           Level chart, indicate what                                                         negotiated when your design
     symbols using the Yarn                                                        4. PROJECT SCHEMATIC
                                           skill level you think the                                                          concept is first accepted by a
     Standards & Guidelines.
                                           project requires and insert               • GRID PAPER – Generally, a              manufacturer/magazine.) On
   c. Note all needle or hook sizes                                                    project schematic is drawn             the invoice include an invoice
                                           the appropriate symbol at the
      in millimeter and U.S. sizes.                                                    on 8-squares-to-the-inch grid          number, your name, current
                                           beginning of the pattern. You
   d. List all materials required          can download these symbols                  paper. Include measurements            address, phone number, e-mail
       to complete the project,            from the CYCA Standards Web                 for all sizes, taking into account     address, social security number
       including necessary                 site:                                       shaping and maintaining                or tax ID, name and number
       additional supplies and             www.yarnstandards.com/skill.                pattern stitches. (Grid paper can      of design if you have one,
       accessories such as buttons         html).                                      be downloaded from several             and brief description of the
       and beads with specific                                                         sites on the Internet, or you          project. Generally, companies
       sizes and quantities noted,       • INSTRUCTIONS – Here is                      can create a grid with most            require that a signed Design
       snaps, purse handles, etc.,         important information to                    basic software programs.) A            Agreement/Contract must be
       and source information              include in your project                     scan of the grid paper is usually      included with the invoice.
       if possible, i.e., where a          instructions:                               acceptable provided the grid is 6. RETURN SHIPPING
       consumer most likely will            a. Indicate right side/wrong               clearly legible.
       find these items.                       side, right side/left side.                                                Return shipping is the expense of
                                                                                     • Schematic must be drawn            the designer. Return all unused and
   e. Note any unusual                      b. Always mention the total                to scale. Schematic should         used yarn.
      abbreviations or terms not                number of stitches in a row/           show actual knitted/crocheted
      found in the Standards &                  round after an increase or             measurements of the pieces,        Complete your project on time!
      Guidelines Knitting and                   decrease.                              not finished measurements.
      Crocheting Abbreviations              c. If a project, such as a cardigan,
      Master List. (See web site:              has sides that are mirror
      www.yarnstandards.com/                   images of one another,
                                    bs                                                                                  bt

								
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