Ch. 7 by liuhongmei


									      Ch. 7
The Executive Branch
    The President’s Job: Ch. 7.2
   The President’s main job is to carry out
    the laws passed by Congress.

   The Constitution gives the president power
    to veto, call Congress into special session,
    serve as commander-in-chief, and receive
    foreign officials.

   The president can also make treaties,
    appoint judges and top government
    officials, and pardon convicted criminals
        Jobs of the President
 The Constitution also requires the
 president to give Congress an update
 of the nation with the ―State of the
 Union‖ address.

 Thepresident discusses the most
 important issues facing the nation
 and describes new legislation he
 would liked passed.
      7 Roles of the President
1.   Chief Executive
2.   Chief Diplomat
3.   Commander-in-Chief
4.   Chief Legislator
5.   Head of State
6.   Economic Leader
7.   Party Leader
             Chief Executive
   As Chief Executive, the president is in
    charge of 15 cabinet departments and
    more than 3 million government workers.

   The president appoints the heads of
    cabinet departments and large agencies
    (Senate must approve)

   Ex. Dept. of Defense, State Dept., Dept.
    of Treasury
             Chief Executive
   The president does not have any
    legislative powers (can not make laws),
    but he can issue executive orders—rules
    or commands that have the force of law.

   Can be good for the nation—Ex. Order
    9981 (1948) desegregates military

   Can be detrimental to the country—Ex.
    Order 9066 (1942) Japanese American
    Internment camps
               Chief Executive
   The president can appoint federal judges,
    including Supreme Court justices.

   This is important because the way the Supreme
    Court interprets laws greatly affects life in the

   Most presidents will appoint justices who share
    views similar to their own

   Influence will be felt long after they leave the
    White House
               Chief Executive
   Besides the power of appointment, the president
    does have some judicial powers.

   The president can grant pardons, or declarations
    of forgiveness and freedom from punishment

   The president can also issue a reprieve, an order
    to delay a person’s punishment until a higher
    court can hear the case.

   Can also grant amnesty, a pardon toward a
    group of people.
            Chief Diplomat
 The president is responsible for
 directing foreign policy, or the
 country’s strategy on how we deal
 with foreign nations and the
 relationships we build

 Directsthe U.S. in making key
 decisions about how we conduct
 ourselves in the world
 As commander-in-chief, the
 president is in charge of all branches
 of the armed forces.

 Congress and the president share
 the power to make war. Only
 Congress can declare war, but only
 the president can order soldiers into
   Congress has declared war only 5 times, yet presidents
    have sent troops into action over 150 times.

   Can potentially threaten the system of checks and balances

   After the undeclared Vietnam War, Congress passed the
    War Powers Act. This law requires the president to notify
    Congress immediately when troops are sent into battle.

   The troops must be brought home after 60 days unless
    Congress approves a longer stay or declares war.
               Chief Legislator
   Only Congress may introduce bills, but the
    executive branch proposes most legislation.

   All presidents have a legislative program that
    they want Congress to pass.

   The speeches they give to key members of
    Congress and the public is done so to build
    support for their programs.

   The presidents’ staff works on the laws with
    members of Congress. Ex. Patriot Act or tax cuts
                 Chief Legislator
   The president and Congress often disagree.

   A main reason for that the president represents the whole
    nation. Congress members only represent their states or

   Another reason is that the president can only serve two
    terms. Many Congress members win reelection many times
    and remain in office sometimes for decades.

   As a result, the president often wants to move faster on
    programs than members of Congress do. (Status Quo v.
          Head of State
 Thepresident is the living symbol of
 the U.S.

 Ashead of state, the president is
 responsible for hosting visiting
 foreign leaders and carrying out
 ceremonial functions. Ex. Awarding
 medals or throwing out the first pitch
 at a baseball game.
        Economic Leader
 Asa country’s economic leader, it is
 the presidents’ job to ensure that the
 economy is prospering.

 The president must plan the federal
 budget and try to deal with problems
 such as unemployment, rising prices
 (inflation), and high taxation.
                Party Leader
   The president is the face of his or her
    political party.

   Members of the political party work hard
    to elect the president into office.

   In return, the president gives speeches to
    raise campaign money and help fellow
    party members win political office in the
    Senate, House, and Governor’s seats.
 Making Foreign Policy: Ch. 7.3
    Foreign policy is a nations’ overall plan
     for dealing with other nations.

    There are many goals our country tries
     to achieve:

1.   National Security
2.   International Trade
3.   Promotion of World Peace
4.   Promotion of Human Rights and
      Foreign Policy Bureaucracy
 The Executive Branch includes a
  large foreign policy bureaucracy.

 It   includes:
  -   State Department
  -   Department of Defense
  -   Central Intelligence Agency
  -   National Security Council (NSC)
   Congress v. the President
 Thepresident and Congress share
 the power to conduct foreign affairs.

 Thepresident is the chief diplomat
 and commander-in-chief, but
 Congress has the power to declare
 war, prohibit certain military actions,
 and spend or withhold money for
   Congress v. the President
 TheConstitution does not make clear
 how the executive and legislative
 branches can use their powers.

 Becauseof this, the branches
 compete for control of foreign policy.
          Tools of Foreign Policy
Treaties and Executive Agreements
 Treaties are formal agreements between the governments
  of two or more countries.

   Some treaties, such as NATO (April 1949), are agreements
    among nations for mutual defense; NAFTA was made as an
    economic free trade agreement.

   The Senate must approve a treaty by a 2/3 vote.

   President can however make an executive agreement
    with the leader of another country without Senate approval.
    Deal with routine matters
        Tools of Foreign Policy
Appointing Ambassadors
 An ambassador is an official
  representative of a country’s government.

   The president appoints ambassadors, with
    Senate approval.

   Ambassadors are only sent to countries
    where the U.S. accepts the government as
    legally in power.
        Tools of Foreign Policy
Foreign Aid
 The U.S. gives foreign aid in the
  form of money, food, military
  assistance, or other supplies to help
  other countries.

 Ex.The Marshall Plan 1947-1951
 which helped rebuild Western Europe
 after World War II. $13 Billion total.
         Tools of Foreign Policy
International Trade
 The president makes agreements with other
  nations about what products may be traded and
  the rules of trade.

   Sometimes the rules include trade sanctions –
    efforts to punish another country by imposing
    trade barriers.

   Another punishing tool is an embargo, an
    agreement among a group of nations that
    prohibits them all from trading with the target
        Tools of Foreign Policy
 Congress  takes the lead in imposing
 tariffs on imported goods and in
 joining international trade groups

 Onesuch trade group is the North
 American Free Trade Agreement
        Tools of Foreign Policy
Military Force
 As commander-in chief, presidents may
  use the military to carry out some foreign
  policy decisions that could involve
  deploying armed forces or launching
  missile attacks.

   Powerful tool, but must be used with care.

   Ex. Iraq and Afghanistan; Vietnam
    Ch. 7.4: Executive Office of the
   The Executive Office of the President
    (EOP) was created in 1939 by FDR.

   Assists the President in doing his job

   Includes over 2000 employees and $100
    million budget

   Prepares reports, drafts bills, checks the
    work of various executive agencies
            White House Staff
   Consists of 500 people/10-12 closest
    advisors to the President

   Most powerful person Chief of Staff:
    screens the flow of information and people
    to the President

   Press Secretary: deals with the media on
    behalf of the President. Updates press on
    the President’s position on various issues.
Office of Management and Budget
 Preparesthe federal budget and
 helps the President monitor
 government spending

        budget lays out the
 Federal
 administrations plans and goals for
 the upcoming year
National Security Council (NSC)
   Helps President coordinate the military
    and construct foreign policy.

   Includes the V.P., Sec. of State, Sec. of
    Defense, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of
    Staff, and top commanders of each of the
    armed forces.

   Forms our nations foreign policies and
    principles of the U.S. Supervises the CIA.
   Council of Economic Advisers
        three independent
 Contains
 members or economists

 Advise the President about economic
 matters: employment in the U.S.,
 tax policy, inflation, trade with other
 countries, etc.
   President’s Cabinet Depts
 Theseare the advisers who are the
 heads of the 15 top level executive
 depts. (state, treasury, justice,

 Head of the Dept. of Justice is the
 Attorney General. All other heads
 will have the title of secretary.
         Department Heads
 Must   be approved by the Senate

 Anyadvise given to the President will
 usually be on issues related to their

          will determine when they
 President
 meet and how much to rely on their
   The Federal Bureaucracy
 The Executive Branch is shaped like
 a triangle.

 Top   down: President


 hundreds of executive agencies
    The Federal Bureaucracy (cont.)
  Departments and agencies carry out
   government programs in 3 ways:
1. Develop procedures for putting new laws
   into practice
2. Administer day-to-day operations of
3. Regulate or police various governmental
This all helps shape government policy
        Independent agencies
    a part of any cabinet, but still
 Not
 have to report out to the President

3   types: Executive Agencies
            Government Corporations
              Regulatory Commissions
          Executive Agencies
     with specialized areas of
 Deal

    Government Corporations
    like private businesses but
 Act
 government owns and runs them.

 Theycharge for services, but are not
 supposed to make a profit, all $ go
 back into the business

 Ex.   U.S. postal service
       Regulatory Commissions

   President appoints the head of regulatory
    commissions but only Congress can
    remove (impeach)

   Protects the public by making and
    enforcing rules for certain industries

   Ex. FCC, FAA
        Political Appointees
 Top department jobs usually go to
 political appointees

 Employment  usually ends when the
 President leaves office

 90%of national government
 employees are civil service workers
           Political Appointees
 Usually   have permanent employment

      is usually based on open,
 Hiring
 competitive examinations and merit.

       1883, hiring was based on
 Before
 ―who you knew‖
          Spoils system
 Abuse  of the spoils system led to
 Congress passing the Pendleton Act
 or Civil Service Reform Act of 1883.

     established the Office of
 This
 Personnel Management

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