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Facets of Gender

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					                            Facets of Gender

                               INTRODUCTION
Facets of gender colour our life from the day we are born until the day we die.
When the proud parents announce the birth of a child, the sex of the child is
what is first conveyed to relatives and friends who happily bring gifts in the
form of baby clothes of the ’right’ colour. As we grow up, we learn to separate
between girls’ and boys’ toys and games. Not surprisingly, children also learn
rather early in life that there are differences between male and female behaviour
(Fagrell 2000; Wernersson 1977). The first experiences of gender differences in
adult behaviour generally occur in the family of origin and in the household.
Although Swedish women and men on the whole work the same total number of
hours, women do more unpaid work than men do (e.g., Flood & Gråsjö 1997;
Nermo 1994; Statistics Sweden 2003). Women spend more hours doing
housework than men do, and the difference is more pronounced in families with
small children (Ahrne & Roman 1997; Flood & Gråsjö 1997; Hörnqvist 1997;
Statistics Sweden 2003). The fact that women often take the primary
responsibility for childcare and housework affects their opportunities in the
labour market. Employers, aware of women’s larger household and care burden,
tend to see women as more ‘risky’ labour than men, and as a consequence, they
may choose not to invest in women to the same extent as in men (Becker 1975;
Lazear & Rosen 1990). Interactive processes make gender differences and
inequalities in the household difficult do disentangle from differences and
inequalities in the labour market (cf., Acker 1990).
       In this thesis, the first two papers focus on how gender differences are
expressed within the household. In Paper I, I study gender differences in the
housework young Swedish boys and girls perform. The analyses show that even
among these children, age 10 to 18, the division of work is gendered. The recent
and rich data – The Swedish Child Level of Living Survey 2000 – which include
first hand information from both parents and children are used to study the
extent to which parents’ division of work is related to their children’s work. In
Paper II, the focus is on theories behind the division of housework in adult
couples. The purpose is to study the relative importance of the resource-


                                       1
bargaining perspective and the ‘doing gender’ approach for predicting the
division of housework among adult women and men in Sweden and the United
States. The longitudinal nature of the American Panel Study of Income
Dynamics (PSID) and the Swedish Level of Living Survey
(Levnadsnivåundersökningen; LNU) allows comparison both across countries
and over time, an unusual strength in these types of studies.
       In Paper III, the public and private spheres are most clearly linked when
differences in labour market outcomes after divorce are in focus. The work and
family history data of the LNU 1991 are used to estimate hazard regression
models of the competing risks of changing to a job of higher versus lower
occupational prestige. The results show that women’s ability to improve their
job situation, i.e. to change to a job of higher prestige after divorce, is dependent
on their investment in paid labour during the time they were cohabiting or
married. In the fourth and final paper, I also focus on advancement
opportunities, but this time in terms of gender differences in formal on-the-job
training and its consequences for the gender wage gap. By using the Swedish
Survey of Living Conditions (Undersökningen av levnadsförhållanden, ULF)
from the mid 1990s, I am able to distinguish between different types of training,
such as firm-specific training, industry-specific training and general training. A
fourth type of training that cuts across the other three is training that increases
promotion opportunities. A distinction between different types of training is
important, not least with regard to estimating gender differences in the returns
on training.
       The purpose of this introductory chapter is to provide a background to the
papers included in the thesis. First, the Swedish context is depicted. The
description focuses on gender equality and gender differences in the labour
market and in the home in Sweden. A brief account of some historically
significant political developments and changes is also given. After the section on
the Swedish context is a discussion of theories concerning the division of work
in the household, followed by a brief account of two theories of discrimination,
i.e. taste discrimination and statistical discrimination. The theory part is
concluded with a discussion of social closure processes and gendered
organizational structures. Last but not least, the four empirical papers are
summarized.



                                         2
            GENDER INEQUALITY IN THE SWEDISH CONTEXT
Today, Sweden is known as a comparatively gender egalitarian country. When
the United Nations in 1995 used the Gender-Related Development Index (GDI)1
to estimate the degree of gender inequality in 130 countries, Sweden was found
to be the country with the fewest gender disparities (Human Development
Report 1995). The fact that Sweden today, together with the other Nordic
countries, is leading with regard to gender equality is due to several factors,
most of which will be discussed below.

      The gender equality/female employment debate in the 1960s and the
  introduction of separate taxation and parental leave insurance in the 1970s.
In the 1950s, female employment was exceptionally low in Sweden (see Nermo
1999, Fig. 2.1). Instead, in the 1950s and early 1960s, labour immigration was
substantial. From the mid 1960s, however, the union lobby became concerned
about immigration (including tourist immigration).2 Partly due to the union
lobby instead stressing the importance of employing traditionally weak Swedish
labour groups such as youth, women and the elderly, labour immigration ceased
in the late 1960s and early 1970s (Lundh & Olsson 1994). In the early 1960s,
women and men’s traditional roles were debated, and in the mid 1960s, both the
political establishment and the women’s movement saw married women’s
employment as crucial for gender equality (Baude 1992). Labour shortage led to
a demand for political reforms that would facilitate female employment and,
gradually, the incentives for women to work increased. In 1965, special (i.e.,
especially low) ‘women’s wages’ were formally abandoned after an agreement
between the employers’ organization SAF (Svenska arbetsgivareföreningen) and
the trade union federation LO (Landsorganisationen, organizing manual
workers). In 1971, individual taxation was introduced, and in 1974 the parental
leave insurance replaced the maternity leave system.3 Although many married
women already benefited from split taxation due to a deduction for working
married women that was introduced in 1952 (Elvander 1974), the reform in
1971 signalled the commitment of the government and the social democratic
party to support women’s employment. This was reinforced by a strong
expansion of public sector employment in service occupations, primarily care
and education. Together, this led to a rapid increase in the number of gainfully


                                       3
employed women. In 1968, about half of all married women were employed. In
1981, this share had increased to 82 percent (Axelsson 1992). The results of the
expansion of the public sector for female employment were twofold. First, by
putting care work in the hands of the municipalities, women could get paid for
doing what they normally did without any pecuniary rewards at home. Second,
as the public childcare system was gradually expanded, mothers were able to
send their pre-school children to high quality state-subsidized childcare during
their work hours.
       The introduction of the parental leave insurance in 1974 was aimed at
allowing women to combine work and childcare, as well as to increase equality
between women and men in the labour market and in the household
(Government Bill 1973:47). Fathers and mothers were given equal rights to take
parental leave for six months with the right to return to the same employer after
the leave (the latter right was also included in the maternity leave insurance).
The income replacement level was set to 90 percent of the individual’s gross
income (up to a ceiling). Parents who did not work at the time of the child’s
birth received only a much lower flat-rate benefit. Since that time, the parental
leave insurance has been extended several times, and in 2002 the mother and the
father together have the right to take 480 days of leave (of which 90 days are
replaced at the lower basic level). Parents can give up all but 60 days to the
partner. These 60 days are an extension of what was first termed ‘the daddy’s
month’ at the introduction in 1995. The replacement level has varied and since
1998 the parental leave insurance covers 80 percent of the parent’s gross
income.
       The parental leave insurance gives young women strong incentives to
work for some time before the birth of the first child (due to the larger
compensation for the employed). The right to paid leave with job security has
meant that almost all mothers stay at home for a majority of the currently
permitted parental-leave period, at the same time as it has accelerated the rate at
which the group with earlier ‘home-maker’ characteristics returns to work after
childbirth (Jonsson & Mills 2001; Rønsen & Sundström 1996). One of the aims
of the parental leave insurance has thus been realized: Women’s possibilities to
combine work and children have increased. The extent to which it has promoted
gender inequality in the home and in the labour market is, however,
questionable. Women still use the majority of all leave: in 2002 men took only


                                        4
16 percent of all parental leave days (The National Swedish Social Insurance
Board 2003). Men take a larger share of the parental leave in families where the
mother has a higher education, and the higher the income the father has – up to a
ceiling – the more parental leave he takes (The National Swedish Social
Insurance Board 2002; Sundström & Duvander 2002). This indicates that gender
equality in the home has increased the most for highly educated women and for
women with a high-income husband.

                    Gender inequality in the labour market
A large majority of all Swedish women are gainfully employed. The economic
activity rate among women 16-64 years of age was 76 percent in 2001 compared
to 80 percent among men. In the same year, about 48 percent of all employed
were women. Among those, 66 percent worked full-time (Statistical Yearbook
of Sweden 2003). Hence as much as a third of all gainfully employed women
work part-time. The fact that parents are given the right to work part-time when
they have children under eight is reflected in the proportion of female part-time
workers in this category: about 50 percent worked part-time in 1999 (Båvner
2001). Part-time is defined as working less than 35 hours a week and a majority
of all women work long part-time, i.e. between 20 and 34 hours per week.
Worth noting is that part-time workers in Sweden do not fall outside either the
social security or the pension scheme. They also have the same legal rights as
full-time workers concerning, e.g., employment security.
       The Swedish labour market is segregated by sex. This segregation is
apparent across industries as well as occupations and jobs. Women more often
work in the health and medical care industry, in social services and education.
Men more often work in manufacturing industries, in construction and transport
(see Paper IV, Appendix 1). The sex segregation by industry is mirrored in
segregation by employment sector: Whereas a majority of all men work in the
private sector, half of the women work in the public sector (Statistics Sweden
2002). Although 74 percent of all those employed in the public sector are
women, they only represent 55 percent of the managers in this sector. In the
private sector, 81 percent of all managers are men, whereas men make up 63
percent of all those employed in that sector (SOU 2003:16). In the labour market




                                       5
at large and in the private sector in particular, women are restricted from
attaining supervisory positions (Hultin 1998).
        The female labour force is more concentrated in certain occupations than
the male labour force is: In 2001, the 30 largest Swedish occupations employed
58 percent of all gainfully employed women compared to 37 percent of all
gainfully employed men (Statistics Sweden 2002).4 Although sex segregation
still is considerable, the level of segregation has declined. In 1968, 68 percent of
all employed women (or men) would have needed to change occupation in order
for the labour market to be sex-integrated, whereas the corresponding figure in
1991 was 53 percent (Nermo 1996).5 The sex-segregated Swedish labour market
is, however, not exceptional in an international perspective (Charles 1992;
Nermo 2000) (See, however, Padavic & Reskin 2002 for a somewhat divergent
view).6
        The sex-segregated labour market is partly a result of women and men
choosing different educational tracks and as a consequence different
occupations. Although women have dominated academic secondary and tertiary
education in Sweden since the early 1980s – except at the post-graduate level –
the horizontal sex segregation in type of educational track chosen has not
decreased (Jonsson 1999). The reason for the gender difference in educational
choice is, according to Jonsson (1999), partly due to the comparative advantages
that girls and boys (expect to) have in different educational programmes.7 It is
worth noting, however, that the expected success in a given educational area –
and in a subsequent occupation – is most likely also affected by factors outside
the individual’s control, such as expected difficulties in belonging to the
minority sex in a given occupation (cf., Kanter 1977).8 Even when boys and
girls choose the same education at the gymnasium level, they tend to occupy
different jobs after education is completed (Hoem 1995; Statistics Sweden
1991). Also in predominantly female occupations, men tend to occupy the more
qualified positions (cf., Hultin 2003; Statistics Sweden 1991).
        Educational and occupational segregation are reflected in wage
differences between women and men. In 2000, women earned 82 percent of
what men earned (Statistics Sweden 2002). A large fraction of the gender
difference in pay is due to women working in industries and occupations that
pay less than do those that men work in (le Grand 1997; le Grand et al. 2001).
Also, more women than men work part-time (see above). Controlling for age,


                                         6
education, work hours, employment sector and occupational group, the
remaining gender wage difference is 8 percent (Statistics Sweden 2002). In an
international context, the Swedish gender wage gap is low (Blau & Ferber 1992;
Blau & Kahn 1996; Sørensen 2001). The greatest change in the gender wage gap
came about in the 1960s and 1970s when union power peaked and blue-collar
trade unions promoted a ‘solidaristic wage policy’ (i.e., focussed on raising the
wages for the lowest paid) in wage negotiations. Still, the decisive factor behind
the reduction in the gender wage gap appeared to be market forces and the
excess demand for female labour (Svensson 2003). Since the 1980s, the
reduction in the gender wage gap has stagnated (le Grand et al. 2001; Svensson
2003).

 Economic dependency, divorce and the distribution of work in the household.
The high female employment rate together with the comparatively narrow
gender wage gap in Sweden contributes to greater gender equality in the home.
Swedish women’s economic dependency on their spouse is low in an
international perspective (Hobson 1990; Sørensen 2001; see also Paper II,
Appendix 1). In 1995, Swedish women living with a partner and at least one
child under seven years of age had an average dependence of 0.23, meaning that
they relied on their spouse for 23 percent of their share of the couple’s combined
earnings (Sørensen 2001). The economic dependency indicator (originally
derived from Sørensen & McLanahan 1987) does not, however, take into
account income from earnings-determined transfers such as employment
insurance, disability insurance and parental leave schemes (Sørensen 2001). As
a consequence, it overestimates Swedish women’s economic dependency. When
instead the gender poverty ratio9 is estimated – and social transfer incomes are
included – Swedish women’s poverty rate is actually lower than men’s (Caspar
et al. 1994; Christopher et al. 2002). Overall poverty rates in Sweden are low in
an international perspective, and according to this definition, only 3 percent of
men and 2 percent of women are living in poverty (Christopher et al. 2002).
Single mothers have a poverty rate of 5 percent (Ibid.). In an international
perspective, this is an exceptionally low figure.10 The Swedish tax and transfer
system is of considerable importance with regard to reducing poverty among
single mothers (Christopher et al. 2002; Båvner 2001). It also plays an important



                                        7
role in reducing the overall sex-poverty ratio (Christopher et al. 2002). Worth
noting, however, is that although Swedish single mothers fare financially well in
an international perspective, their life is far from problem free (see Gähler
1998). Also, recent research shows that single mothers’ financial situations
worsened during the 1990s (Gähler 2001; Hobson 2003; Hobson & Takahashi
1997).
       All in all, however, as is obvious from the above discussion, Swedish
women have a comparatively high capacity to form and maintain an autonomous
household – i.e. to survive and support their children (if any) without having to
marry to gain access to a breadwinner’s income (Orloff 1993). Perhaps partly as
a consequence, the divorce rate in Sweden is high – in a 16-country comparison,
Andersson (2003) showed that only the US has higher figures of separation
(merging marriages with consensual unions) than does Sweden, though the
Swedish figures are not so high internationally when counting only couples with
children (Andersson 2002). In 2001, 13.5 of 1000 marriages in Sweden ended in
divorce (Statistical Yearbook of Sweden 2003). This is about 25 times the
divorce rate at the start of the century (Statistics Sweden 1990). The largest
increase in the divorce rate has taken place since the late 1960s, i.e. since
married women’s participation in gainful employment started to rise again (see
above). There appears to be a direct link between women’s employment (i.e.,
their reduced economic dependency) and the divorce rate as marriage
dissolution is higher in families in which the spouses make about the same
contribution to the family income (Henz & Jonsson 2003).11
       One of several reasons for divorce and separation can be conflicts about
the division of work in the home (Wadsby & Svedin 1993). Even in families that
are intact, conflicts about the division of housework are not uncommon. Ahrne
and Roman (1997) found that 35 percent of women stated that they sometimes
or often had disagreements with their spouse about the division of housework
and 66 percent said that they sometimes or often wanted their spouse to do more
housework. That conflicts about the division of housework are comparatively
common is probably due not only to a general time-squeeze in two-earner
families, but also to the fact that women still do the majority of all housework.
At the beginning of the 1990s, cohabiting women spent about 19 hours per week
in housework (Flood & Gråsjö 1997; Hörnqvist 1997; Nermo 1994).
Information concerning the amount of time men spend on this type of work at


                                       8
the same time varies between 5-6 hours (Hörnqvist 1997; Nermo 1994) and ten
hours (Flood & Gråsjö 1997). 12 This means that women on average spend (at
least) about twice the amount of time on housework as men do. This is also the
case in 2000/01 (Statistics Sweden 2003). Worth noting, though, is that men
spend more time than women on maintenance and repair work, although this
work is less time consuming than housework (Statistics Sweden 2003, cf. also
Paper I). When women and men are singles, they spend about the same amount
of time on housework (Hörnqvist 1997).13 In light of this, the unequal division
of work among cohabiting and married women and men calls for an explanation.
In the next section, two overarching theories or approaches that set out to
explain this unequal division of work are discussed.

                DOING GENDER AND BARGAINING THEORY
Both the ‘doing gender’ approach and theories about household bargaining
contribute to our understanding of the division of work in the household, and
women’s larger housework burden in particular (see Paper I and II). A third
theory that has been used to explain various differences in women’s and men’s
work and behaviour is sex role theory. This theory has, however, been
abandoned by most feminist sociologists and I will initially give a brief account
for why this has occurred.
        Sex role was an established concept in conventional family studies in the
1960s and 1970s. As a consequence, many feminist scholars adopted the
concept and only criticized the normative implications of its theoretical
framework (Feree 1990). In the late 1970s and 1980s, however, several scholars
started to question the usefulness of sex role theory as a tool for understanding
gender differences and their genesis. The most radical criticism concerned the
static nature of the theory, i.e. actors do unto others what was done to them in an
infinite regress (Connell 1985). Hence sex role theory offers no explanation for
historical changes. Criticism was also directed towards the theoretical and
empirical problems that resulted from the term ‘sex role’. It was being used as a
catch-all term for everything from structural disadvantage to implied personality
traits, even though the term ‘role’ should only prescribe specific behaviours
towards specific others (Lopata & Thorne 1978). As Feree (1990) summarized
her review of the critique of the sex roles approach: “..the concept of “sex roles”



                                        9
[is] rooted in socialization, internalized in individuals, and merely echoed in and
exploited by other social institutions, [it] cannot encompass the actual variation
in men’s and women’s lives – individually over the life course and structurally
in the historical context of race and class” (Feree 1990:868).
       Partly as a consequence of this, West and Zimmerman (1987) stressed the
importance of gender as a routine, methodical, and recurring accomplishment in
their article “Doing Gender”. Hence rather than seeing gender as something
internal to the individual, gender is here seen as an emergent feature of social
situations. Gender is created in social interaction and it is recurrently created by
women and men whose competence as members of society is built on the very
doing of gender (Ibid). West and Zimmerman (1987) emphasized the distinction
between sex, sex category and gender. Whereas sex is the socially agreed upon
biological criteria for classifying persons as males and females, the placement in
a sex category is based on the socially required identificatory displays that
proclaim one’s membership in one or the other category (for instance, gendered
clothing, hairstyles and cosmetics). Gender, on the other hand, is the activity of
managing situated conduct in light of normative conceptions of attitudes and
activities appropriate to one’s sex category (West & Zimmerman 1987:127).
Thus, doing gender involves making visible differences between boys and girls,
men and women, that are not biological, natural or essential (Ibid.). However,
once these differences are made visible through institutions, discourse, media
images and daily practice, they are often perceived as natural and used to
reinforce the essentialness of gender. An example of this is the division of
housework. Even when both the woman and the man work fulltime, the woman
generally spends more time doing housework than does the man (see Papers I
and II for Sweden). As Fenstermaker Berk (1985) argued, household members
appear to do gender as they do housework and childcare. Doing gender means
engaging in behaviour at the risk of gender assessment (West & Zimmerman
1987). In virtually everything we do, we are assessed and held accountable on
the basis of gender. A tangible example might again be with respect to
housework. If the home is untidy and/or the kids are not clean, most people
would hold the mother – rather than the father – responsible for this, regardless
of whether they both work the same number of hours in gainful employment
(cf., Lorber 1994:175).



                                        10
        The doing gender approach has, among other things, been criticized for
having a functionalist tilt. By emphasizing the maintenance and reproduction of
normative conceptions, the proponents of this approach tend to neglect
countervailing processes of resistance, conflict and change (Thorne in
Fenstermaker & West 2002). As Lorber (1994) argued, gendered roles change –
today men’s share of the housework is greater than it used to be and more
fathers are taking care of children, for example. Even so, gender is a social
institution. It is one of the most important conceptions according to which
human beings organize their lives. Boys and girls, men and women, are assigned
different roles and responsibilities. Different life experiences lead to different
feelings, motivations and behaviours. The gendering process that creates these
differences is legitimated by religion, law, science, and society’s entire set of
values (Lorber 1994). Consequently, even if the definitions of appropriate male
and female conduct and behaviour are not as strict today as they were fifty years
ago, we all still do gender consciously and unconsciously in social interactions
in everyday life.
        If the doing gender approach (simplified here) suggests that the division
of housework in heterosexual families is the result of gender-creating processes,
the household bargaining approach suggests that the division of housework is
the outcome of implicit or explicit bargaining processes where one’s bargaining
power is a function of one’s resources. Whereas several related perspectives
could be summarized under the latter heading, I will concentrate on two of them:
cooperative bargaining models (e.g., Lundberg & Pollak 1996; cf., also England
& Kilbourne 1990; Hobson 1990) and the relative resource-bargaining
perspective (e.g., Blood & Wolfe 1960). A third theory that has often been used
with regard to explaining gender differences in the household is the theory of
specialization (also referred to as the altruist model or the common preference
model) (Becker 1981; 1985). According to this theory, the family is seen as a
single utility maximizing unit with an altruist head who distributes resources
justly among family members. A major problem with this theory, however, is
that it fails to recognize power and male dominance in the family (e.g., England
1993; England & Budig 1998). Also, empirical evidence suggests that the family
income pooling assumption that forms the basis of this theory must be rejected.
If this assumption were credible, only total income – not the person distributing
the income within the family – should play a part in family consumption. In


                                       11
contrast to this, studies have found that children tend to do better in families in
which the mother controls a larger fraction of the family resources (Haddad &
Hoddinott 1994; Thomas 1990; 1994, referred to in Lundberg & Pollak 1996).
       In cooperative bargaining models, the family is seen as consisting of two
or more agents with distinct preferences with regard to (for instance) family
consumption (Lundberg & Pollak 1996; Manser & Brown 1980; McElroy &
Horney 1981). Cooperative bargaining models can be divided into external and
internal threat point models (Lundberg & Pollak 1996). According to the
external threat point model, also termed the divorce-threat bargaining model,
when agreement is not reached simply, agent A’s chances of having things
his/her way are dependent on the threat-point or the fallback options A would
have if he or she were to leave the relationship. The better the fallback options,
the better the negotiated outcome (see Lundberg & Pollak 1996 for a more
detailed and economically advanced account of the theory). The divorce threat
point, however, is not only determined by the income received by the husband
and the income received by the wife, but also by environmental factors such as
conditions in the remarriage market and income directed to divorced women and
men (e.g., welfare payments to single mothers) (Ibid.).
       Some sociologists have expressed the same concepts in slightly different
language. Hobson (1990) elaborates on Hirschman’s framework of exit and
voice (Hirschman 1970). According to Hobson, the more economically
dependent the agent is, the weaker his/her voice (i.e., the ability to make claims
in family decision making), the lower his/her earnings potential, the fewer
his/her exit possibilities – and the fewer the exit possibilities, the weaker the
voice (Hobson 1990). A similar approach was suggested by England and
Kilbourne (1990). According to them, an agent’s power in negotiations
concerning consumption and other decisions in the family is dependent on
“…how much one contributes to a relationship, the ease with which one could
leave the relationship and take the fruits of such contributions, the extent to
which one is inclined toward self-interested bargaining, how much one’s
contributions are valued by the partner, how this compares to the value the
partner places on what could be had outside this relationship, and how one
compares what is had within the current relationship to what could be had
outside it.” (England & Kilbourne 1990: 170). Hence in practice, this



                                        12
corresponds to a divorce-threat bargaining model in which the threat point is the
maximal utility attainable outside the marriage (cf., Lundberg & Pollak 1996).
       Whereas according to the divorce-threat bargaining model threat points
are seen as external to the marriage, in the separate spheres bargaining model
threat points are internal to the marriage (Lundberg & Pollak 1996). This means
that instead of implicitly threatening to leave the relationship, one can (threaten
to) withhold one’s own contributions from the spouse to some extent. This is
similar to Blood and Wolfe’s (1960) relative resource-bargaining perspective,
according to which the amount of domestic work performed by each spouse is
determined by the distribution of relative resources between them. The more
resources a person has at his/her disposal (e.g. financial, educational and social
status resources), the more likely this person will be to negotiate away this work.
The latter perspective does however not include external contextual factors
(such as financial support to single mothers) among the factors predicting the
outcome.
       The theories discussed above contribute to our understanding of gender
differences in unpaid work. Such work, however, only constitutes a part of all
work performed by women and men. In paid work, gender differences are also
prevalent, and although part of these differences can be referred to as differences
in men’s and women’s preferences for different jobs (Marini & Fan 1997;
Okamoto & England 1999) among other things, the discussion in the following
will focus on gender discrimination in the labour market. That is, when two
equally qualified individuals are treated differently solely on the basis of their
gender (Blau & Ferber 1992, referring to Becker 1971).

   THEORIES ON GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN THE LABOUR MARKET
The most common example of a direct effect of discrimination is when unequal
treatment results in women’s wages being lower than men’s even when they
have the same productivity-related characteristics or qualifications (Altonji &
Blank 1999). Two other examples are when a woman, in a corresponding
situation, is denied access to employer-sponsored training (Blau & Ferber 1992)
(a problem treated in Paper IV), or when she is restricted from getting access to
authority positions in the workplace (Hultin 1998; Hultin & Szulkin 1999).
Indirect effects of discrimination can occur if discrimination has feedback



                                        13
effects such that it affects women’s behaviour in ways that result in them being
less well-qualified than men are (Blau & Ferber 1992). Most theoretical and
empirical work, however, has focussed on the direct effects of discrimination.
This is also what I will focus on below.
       Economic models of discrimination can be divided into two main classes:
competitive and collective models of discrimination.14 Most theoretical work by
economists has concentrated on competitive models of discrimination, i.e.
models in which agents act individually (as compared with collective models in
which one group acts collectively against another, cf. Reskin 1988, below). The
competitive framework emphasizes two types of discrimination, the first of
which is taste discrimination, meaning that at least some members of the
majority group have prejudices or ‘tastes’ against interacting with members of
the minority group (Becker 1971). The second is statistical discrimination by
employers in the presence of imperfect information about the skills or behaviour
of members of the minority group. In the following, I will concentrate on taste
discrimination among employers. Tastes against associating with the minority
group, however, can be held either by employers, co-workers or customers.15
       Taste discrimination among employers will result in a gender wage gap
when employers are willing to pay more to hire members of the preferred group
(i.e., men) than they are to pay equally qualified members of the disfavoured
group (women) (England 1992). The larger the number of prejudices held by
employers and the stronger the intensity of their preferences, the larger the
gender wage gap (Altonji & Blank 1999). As a consequence, employers that
lack a taste against women will be more profitable than prejudiced employers, as
the former will pay less for their – equally skilled – workforce than will
prejudiced employers. In the long run, this should, according to Becker and
other economists, lead to the abolition of taste discrimination and consequently
the elimination of the gender wage gap as low-profit prejudiced employers are
eliminated by high profit non-discriminatory employers. Because the gender
wage gap still exists, the conclusion, according to Altonji and Blank (1999), is
that a) either there is no taste discrimination or, b) it is not the primary form of
discrimination in the labour market or, c) all potential employers are
discriminators and/or, d) other factors interfere with the expansion of non-
discriminating firms, such as search friction or collective action. Worth noting is
that if the taste discrimination framework is extended to incorporate the


                                        14
possibility that employers’ preferences for female workers are dependent on the
type of job concerned, this leads to a theory of occupational segregation (Ibid).
       The basic premise of statistical discrimination is that employers have
limited information about the skills job applicants’ possess and their turnover
propensity. This uncertainty is especially great when potential new employees
are young and have little labour market history. If firms in these situations can
use readily observable characteristics such as gender in order to statistically
discriminate between in other respects equal applicants, they will do so if these
observable characteristics are correlated with performance (Altonji & Blank
1999). As is obvious from this description, statistical discrimination is often
assumed to be most influential in hiring decisions when the employer has little
information about the individual applicant. With regard to already employed
women’s and men’s assignment to employer-sponsored training programs or
promotions, statistical discrimination should play a minor part, as the employer
in these cases has been able to observe the employee and his/her skills for some
time. Worth noting is that the quality of employers’ information may differ due
to the gender of the employee (Altonji & Blank 1999; England 1992). This is
what England (1992) termed error discrimination. An example of this is if a
male manager is a worse judge of female employees than of male employees.
One reason for this may be that social networks tend to run along gendered lines
and personal contacts are an important source of information in the workplace
(cf., Hultin & Szulkin 1999).
       It has often been suggested that the occurrence of gender discrimination is
indicated by the ‘unexplained gap’ in wage regressions, i.e. the difference in
wages after controlling for a host of personal and job characteristics (Altonji &
Blank 1999). Reliance on a statistical residual, however, does leave the approach
open to criticism as to whether all relevant variables were actually included in
the regression (Blau & Kahn 2000). As a consequence, the ‘true’ gender
discrimination effect could either be overestimated or underestimated (see
Altonji & Blank 1999, and Blau & Kahn 2000, for a discussion). In spite of
these difficulties, Altonji and Blank (1999) concluded that the extensive
evidence for persistent unexplained gaps suggests that there is ongoing gender
discrimination in the labour market.




                                       15
     SOCIAL CLOSURE AND GENDERED LABOUR PROCESSES
Finally, two other theoretical approaches that contribute to our understanding of
gender segregation will be discussed. These are gendered social closure
processes (e.g., Reskin 1988; Tilly 1998; Tomaskovic-Devey 1993) and
gendered organizational processes (Acker 1990). The reason for focusing on
these two approaches here is that Tomaskovic-Devey and Skaggs (2002)
suggested that social closure and gendered labour processes may constitute part
of the explanation for women having less access to on-the-job training and to
jobs with long training periods (cf., Paper IV).
       Reskin (1988) argued that the basic source of the gender wage gap is not
sex segregation but “…men’s desire to preserve their advantaged position and
their ability to do so by establishing rules to distribute valued resources in their
favour” (Reskin 1988:61).16 Hence, according to the social closure approach, the
dominant group, i.e. men, will collectively use their dominance to advance their
own position vis-à-vis the dominated group, i.e. women. If this is not enough,
they will use their privileged position to rewrite the rules for rewards in their
favour. Reskin largely built her argument on an example used by Lieberson
(1985) in his critique of causal analysis. Lieberson (1985) argued that reducing
educational difference between blacks and whites would not reduce the black-
white income gap because whites, by being the dominant group, would find
another way to maintain their advantage. In dominance systems, differentiation
is the fundamental process. Gender differentiation can either be obtained
through physical segregation or behavioural differentiation (i.e., task
differentiation and social differentiation). Reskin put forward, among other
things, evidence of social closure processes by pointing to male resistance to
women’s entry into college dining clubs, private professional clubs and the
Rotary (see Reskin 1988 for references).17
       Tomaskovic-Devey and Skaggs (2002) argued that on-the-job training
may be one of the most powerful social closure mechanisms through which the
male workforce can exclude women from desirable jobs. This is, of course,
particularly likely with respect to informal on-the-job training, that is, when an
employee receives instructions or help from a fellow worker or supervisor.
However, the extent to which male workers, as an advantaged group, can
exclude women from formal on-the-job training18 is conditioned by their ability



                                        16
to take part in decisions regarding the allocation and implementation of such
training.
       Acker (1990) argued that organizations are inherently gendered in
fundamental ways. By this she means that “…advantage and disadvantage,
exploitation and control, action and emotion, meaning and identity, are patterned
through and in terms of a distinction between male and female, masculine and
feminine” (Acker 1990:146). An illuminating example of this is the abstract
definition of a job or a hierarchy. In organizational logic, the abstract job is
filled by a disembodied worker who exists only for the work. Hence no factors
outside the job – such as for instance children – can impinge upon the job
(Acker 1990). Given that women are the ones that take prime responsibility for
children the concept of ‘a job’ is highly gendered even though organizational
logic presents it as gender neutral. Hierarchies are also gendered to the extent
that they sort workers, i.e. women and men, into hierarchical positions on the
basis of ‘commitment’. Those who are seen as fully committed to their job are
more suited to responsibility and authority than are those who must divide their
commitment (for instance between work and childcare). Gendered
organizational processes not only affect processes within the organization, but
the division between paid and unpaid work is also partly created through
organizational processes. As a consequence, some aspects of gender identity too
are products of organizational processes and pressures. Hence, widely
disseminated cultural images of gender are invented and reproduced in
organizations, partly as a consequence of the disembodied abstraction of a job,
the job valuation process, hierarchies, etc.
       As is evident from the above, men and women are likely to end up in jobs
at different hierarchical levels due to gendered organizational structures and
practices. With regard to on-the-job training that leads to promotions, men
would, according to this approach, be more likely to be assigned to this training
than women. In the fourth paper of this thesis, gender differences in formal on-
the-job training, as well as differences in types of training, are studied. Gendered
organizational processes, together with gender discrimination and especially
prejudiced discrimination, are suggested as possible mechanisms through which
these differences can come about. In the following section, the four papers are
summarized, starting with those focussed on gender differences in the
household.


                                        17
                                    PAPER I:
   The Reproduction of Gender. Housework and Attitudes Towards Gender
           Equality in the Home Among Swedish Boys and Girls
The housework Swedish girls and boys age 10 to 18 do, and their attitudes
towards gender equality in the home are studied. One aim is to see whether the
work children do is gendered and if so, whether they follow their parents’, often
gendered, pattern in housework. A second aim is to see whether parents’
division of work and/or children’s own work is related to the children’s attitude
to gender equality in the home. The data used are the Swedish Child Level of
Living Survey 2000. This survey, in combination with the Level of Living
Survey 2000, gives us detailed first-hand information both from parents and
from children on housework, attitudes to gender equality in the home, and a
number of other factors, which enables analyses of parents’ and children’s
housework that are rare in an international perspective.
       Results indicate that girls and boys in two-parent families are more prone
to engage in gender atypical work the more their parent of the same sex engages
in this kind of work. The fact that girls still do more housework than boys in all
families, independent of the parental division of housework, the mother’s
educational level and her work hours, indicates that housework to some extent
signifies gender also to children. However, the more both boys and girls help out
in the household, the more likely they are to state that gender equality in the
home is important. No relation between parents’ division of work and the child’s
attitude towards gender equality in the home is found.

                                   PAPER II:
    Dependence Within Families and the Household Division of Labour –
          A Comparison Between Sweden and the United States.
                   - together with Magnus Nermo. Submitted.
This paper assesses the relative explanatory value of the resource-bargaining
perspective and the doing gender approach for the division of housework in the
United States and Sweden, in the period from the early 1970s to 2000. By
comparing data from the Swedish Level of Living Survey with the American
Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we conclude that housework is truly gendered


                                       18
work in the US as well as in Sweden during the entire period. However, an
empirical analysis of the doing gender approach – as tested by Brines (1994) and
others (Bittman et al. 2003; Greenstein 2000) – indicates that gender-creating
processes prevail more in the US than in Sweden. The results indicate that
women in the United States, but not Sweden, use time spent in housework as a
way to neutralize gender deviance. Our results question the finding from Brines
(1994). She found that only dependent men took part in gender display, i.e. did
less housework than would be predicted by bargaining theories. We, on the other
hand, find indications that women married to or cohabiting with dependent men
increase their housework, as if to shore up their husbands’ masculinity. This
leads to a curvilinear effect of women’s relative earnings on housework in three
out of four years in the US: in 1981, 1991 and 1999.

                                   PAPER III
     Divorce and Labour-Market Outcomes. Do Women Suffer or Gain?
       Published in Jonsson, J. O. and C. Mills. 2001. “Cradle to Grave.
    Life-course change in modern Sweden.” Durham, UK: Sociologypress.
Earlier studies indicate that women in Sweden tend to increase their working
hours in paid labour after a separation, partly because the negative economic
consequences of a divorce often are considerable. Can changes like these and
others partly derived from separation/divorce influence individuals’
opportunities in the labour market?
       The data used in this study are retrospective work and family histories
collected in the Swedish Level of Living Survey in 1991. These data render
possible complex analyses of the interconnected nature of family and work. A
hazard regression model with competing risks reveals that women’s chances of
improving their occupational prestige appear to be better after a divorce
compared to before; that is, the first job change after a divorce is often to the
better for women. Increased working hours and perhaps also increased energy
invested in the job may pay off in better occupational opportunities. Worth
noting, however, is that the outcome among women with a less firm labour
market attachment is more often to a job of lower prestige than to a job of higher
prestige. Hence, after a divorce, the labour market outcome for women is to
some extent conditioned by their labour market attachment at the time of


                                       19
divorce. Men, on the other hand, in most cases seem to suffer occupationally
from divorce. For separated men the risk of negative changes in occupational
prestige is greater than for cohabiting men.

                                    PAPER IV
                       Formal On-the-job Training.
          A Gender-typed Experience and Wage-related Advantage?
   Published in European Sociological Review, Vol. 20, No. 1, January 2004.
Formal on-the-job training (FOJT) can have a positive impact on wages and on
promotion opportunities. According to theory and earlier research, a two-step
model of gender inequality in FOJT is predicted: First, women are less likely
than men to take part in FOJT and, second, once women do get the more
remunerative training – such as general training and training that increases
promotion opportunities – they are not rewarded for their new skills to the same
extent as men are. The ability to distinguish between different types of FOJT,
such as firm-specific training, industry-specific training and general training
together with training that increases promotion opportunities – a type of training
that cuts across the other three – is important, not least with regard to estimating
the rewards of training. However, few earlier studies have been able to make
these distinctions.
       Pooled cross-sectional data from the Swedish Survey of Living
Conditions in the mid-nineties were used. Logistic and OLS regression models
were estimated to address the hypotheses. Results show that women are
significantly less likely than men to take part in FOJT. Among those who do
receive training, women are more likely to take part in industry-specific training,
whereas men are more likely to participate in general training and training that
increases promotion opportunities. The two latter forms of training significantly
raise a man’s annual earnings but not a woman’s. Hence, the predicted model is
supported and it is argued that this gender inequality is partly due to employers’
discriminatory practices.




                                        20
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                                            NOTES

 1
     The GDI is the Human Development Index (HDI) adjusted for gender inequality. The HDI
     measures a country’s achievements in three aspects of human development: longevity,
     knowledge, and a decent standard of living. Longevity is measured by life expectancy at
     birth; knowledge is measured by a combination of the adult literacy rate and the combined
     gross primary, secondary, and tertiary enrolment ratio; and standard of living is measured
     by GDP per capita (Human Development Report 2000).
 2
     They, among other things, feared that ghettos of – partly unemployed – foreigners were
     being established in the larger cities.
 3
     Paid maternity leave was introduced in 1955. To start with, women were granted three
     months of paid leave. In 1963, the entitlement was extended to six months (Jonsson &
     Mills 2001).
 4
     Examples of large predominantly female occupations are assistant nurses, child minders,
     cleaners, secretaries and teachers in pre-school and the nine-year compulsory school.
     Examples of male occupations are truck-drivers, construction workers, systems engineers,
     and mechanical engineers (Statistics Sweden 2003).
 5
     Note, however, that this figure is affected by the degree of female labour force
     participation.
 6
     Padavic and Reskin (2002) found that, among the OECD countries, the Scandinavian
     countries have some of the most segregated labour markets.
 7
     The comparative advantage is calculated as the ratio between the pupil’s marks in one
     subject and their marks in another.
 8
     See also Bygren 2001 who finds that women in male dominated workplaces to a higher
     extent are excluded from these workplaces (i.e. their work episodes more often end in
     unemployment).
 9
     According to the definition used here, an individual is considered to be in poverty if he or
     she lives in a household with a (size-adjusted) disposable monetary income that is less
     than half the median for households in the nation. The gender poverty ratio is the ratio of
     women’s poverty rate to men’s poverty rate.
10
     As a comparison, the poverty rate among single mothers in the US is 47 percent and in the
     UK 32 percent (Christopher et al. 2002).
11
     In these families, both spouses generally work full-time. It could however be that women
      with lower income work part-time because they are more family oriented than others
      (Henz & Jonsson 2003).
12
     Flood and Gråsjö (1997) studies housework among individuals 18 to 40 years of age. They
     use the 1993 HUS survey (Household Market and Non Market Activities, Klevmarken &
     Olovsson 1993). Hörnqvist (1997) and Nermo (1994) use the 1991 Swedish Level of
     Living Survey (see Fritzell & Lundberg, 1994).




                                               29
13
     When single individuals with no children 20-59 years of age are studied, men on average
     spend 1,9 hours per week on housework compared to 2,2 hours for women (calculations
     from Hörnqvist 1997).
14
     Collective models of discrimination can be compared to what England (1992) refers to as
     monopoly or monopsony models of discrimination.
15
     The outcome, however, would be the same independent of who has the taste if employers
     need to consider co-workers' and customers’ tastes when making hiring decisions and
     promotions.
16
     As evidence of this conclusion, Reskin pointed to the lack of a clear link between changes
     in the sex segregation index and changes in the gender wage gap in the US.
17
     Although Reskin still adheres to the importance of social closure processes for
     occupational sex segregation, she regrets that we even today know little about “…how
     specific workplace mechanisms favour members of dominant groups to varying degrees,
     and how extra-workplace factors lead organisations to alter or maintain those rules.”
     (Reskin 2003: 4).
18
     Formal on-the-job training is often characterized by employer-run training sessions.




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