Barrington by liuhongmei


									                                         Chapter 13
            Comparative Politics: Structures and Choices
                                         By Lowell Barrington

  Public Policy and Government

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► “A policy is a temporary creed liable to be
  changed, but while it holds good it has got to be
  pursued with apostolic zeal.”
  – Mahatma Gandhi

► “Itwas once said that the moral test of
  government is how that government treats those
  who are in the dawn of life, the children; those
  who are in the twilight of life, the elderly; and
  those who are in the shadows of life, the sick, the
  needy and the handicapped.”
  – Hubert H. Humphrey
            Learning Objectives
► Explain the differences between domestic, foreign, and
  “intermestic” policy.
► Discuss the differences among first, second, and third
  order policy change and explain why third order
  changes are relatively rare.
► Describe the major indicators of successful government
► Explain how socioeconomic structures, political
  structures, and leadership can affect policy outcomes
  and discuss the extent to which policy is made through
  a process of rational decision making.
► Discuss major policy debates and measures of
  government performance in the United Kingdom,
  Germany, France, Mexico, Brazil, Russia, China, India,
  Nigeria, and Iran.
                Public Policy

                   Key Terms

►Comparative   public    ►Foreign policy
policy                   ►Inner-directed linkage
►Public administration   ►Outer-directed linkage
►Public policy           ►Intermestic policy
►Domestic policy
                 Public Policy
► Comparative        Public Policy
   Seeks to understand the causal factors influence
    policy outcomes
   Also looks at policy outcomes to evaluate their
Fig. 13.1 Understanding the Policy Process and Its Consequences
               Public Policy
► General Categories of Policies: Domestic,
  Foreign, and “Intermestic”
► Foreign Versus Domestic Policy
   Domestic policy: The set of government
    approaches designed to improve economic, social,
    and political conditions within a country
   Foreign policy: The set of government
    approaches related to international relations,
    national security, and defense
   Comparativists usually focus on domestic policy
    much more than foreign policy
Fig. 13.2 Types of Policies and Causes
              Public Policy
► Intermestic   Policy
   Policies that have characteristics of both
    domestic and foreign policy
   Increasingly important because of globalization
    and regionalization
   Includes policies like trade and immigration
   Major Types of Domestic and
        Intermestic Policy
                   Key Terms

►Fiscal policy        ►Development     policy
►Flat tax             ►Subsidy
►Progressive tax      ►Nationalization
►Budget surplus       ►Privatization
►Budget deficit       ►Tariff
►Government debt      ►Quota
►Monetary policy      ►State pension
►Central bank         ►Redistributive policies
  Major Types of Domestic and
       Intermestic Policy
         Policy: Fiscal, Monetary,
► Economic
 Developmental, and Trade
     Fiscal policy
     Monetary policy
     Developmental policy
     Trade policy
► Regulatory     Policy
  Major Types of Domestic and
       Intermestic Policy
               Policy: Retirement,
► Social Welfare
 Health, Unemployment, and
 Antipoverty Policies
     Old age and retirement policy
     Health policy
     Unemployment compensation
     Antipoverty policies
  Major Types of Domestic and
       Intermestic Policy
► Education
► Identity-Related Policies:
 Immigration, Integration, and
 Diversity Programs
   Citizenship requirements can be controversial
   Immigration
   Integration and other programs designed to
    address cultural and identity diversity
             Degrees of Policy
 First, Second, and Third Order Changes
► First order policy change
   Policy details change
   Goals and instruments stay the same
► Second order policy change
   Policy instruments change
   Goals stay the same
► Third order policy change
   Goals change
   A major policy reform (e.g., welfare reform in U.S.)
  Understanding Policy Outcomes
                     Key Terms

►Policy process                 ►Labor-led capitalism
►Policy environment             ►Social democratic system
►Capitalism                     ►Welfare state
►Market                         ►State-led capitalism
►Monopoly                       ►Mercantilism
►Socialism (central planning)   ►State capitalism
►Black market                   ►Policy convergence
►Mixed economies                ►Policy diffusion
Understanding Policy Outcomes

► Internal Structural Factors Influencing
 Policy Outcomes
   The economic system
       ►Free-market capitalism
       ►Mixed   systems
     Other economic structural factors
     Political culture and ideology
     Identity structure
     Political structures
Understanding Policy Outcomes
► External Structural Factors
   Existing policy models
   Policy imposition through conquest
   Pressure from international organizations
► Internal Choice Factors: Leadership
 and Rational Policymaking
   Leadership
   How rational was the decision-making process?
► External Choice Factors
      Think and Discuss:

 Are most government policies the result of
             rational calculations?
Which particular kinds of policies are most likely
    not to be made in a rational manner?
           Topic in Countries
       Policy & Policy Debates in the
► Public
 United Kingdom, Germany, and France
   The UK: Mixed economy with a strong welfare
    state; MPs of both parties support NHS, but
    have different views on implementation
   Germany: Social Market Economy (SME) offers
    broad protection based on conservative values;
    welfare state unsustainable in current form
   France: Dirigisme approach can be traced back
    to 17th & 18th century monarchs; immigration
    continues to be a contentious issue
            Topic in Countries
       Policy & Policy Debates in
► Public
 Mexico, Brazil, Nigeria, and India
   Mexico: Policy debates center on fiscal,
    monetary & trade policy; Nat’l health insurance
    program launched in 2004
   Brazil: Economic development is top policy
    concern; balance of equality vs. growth
   Nigeria: Tackling corruption remains largest
    issue; proper use of oil wealth; identity divisions
   India: Water access; proper role of Hindutuva
    (Hindu Nationalism); response to terrorists
           Topic in Countries
       Policy & Policy Debates in the
► Public
 Russian Federation, China, and Iran
   Russia: Moving from oligarchic capitalism to
    state capitalism; how to address identity issues
   China: Continued dramatic shift away from
    socialist economy; greater policy autonomy for
    regional governments
   Iran: Achieving both greater equality and
    economic growth; tightening gov’t regulations in
    areas such as gender relations
 Assessing Policy Performance:
              Do the Policies Work?
► Policy Evaluation by          Government
 Officials and Others
   What was the goal of the policy?
   Was the goal met? At what cost?
► Assessing Government Performance
► Common Goals           of Public Policy
     Increased political and social stability
     Economic performance
     Improved quality of life
     Greater equality
 Assessing Policy Performance:
         Do the Policies Work?

               Key Terms

►Equality of          ►Means-tested
opportunity           income maintenance
►Equality of result
     Think and Discuss:

 What is the most important indicator of
  successful government performance
(see pp. 519-521)? Why is that indicator
      more important than others?
           Topic in Countries
► Government Performance inthe United
 Kingdom, Germany, and France
   The UK: Implementation of evidence-based
    policymaking (EBP); low levels of public
    confidence in government
   Germany: Policies that discourage job growth
    have led to high unemployment; 2005 elections
    yielded a “hung parliament”
   France: Deep public frustrations with the
    government can be seen in repeated rioting and
    the failure of governments to win reelection
           Topic in Countries
► Government Performance in            Mexico,
 Brazil, Nigeria, and India
   Mexico: Gov’t has struggled to implement
    effective policies to reduce crime and corruption
   Brazil: President Lula has disappointed many;
    gov’t widely seen as inefficient and corrupt
   Nigeria: Corruption remains a serious problem;
    oil wealth has not led to improvements in health
    care or education
   India: Disruption and coalition gov’ts make
    policymaking difficult, exacerbated by the scale
    of problems such as identity and water issues
           Topic in Countries
► Government Performance in           Russia,
 China, and Iran
   Russia: Putin took office amid feelings that the
    gov’t was corrupt & incompetent; gaining public
    support through economic improvement
   China: Government highlights achievements
    and downplays negative news; has displayed
    surprising openness at times on issues such as
    efficiency and SARS
   Iran: Elections, while not free and fair, still
    indicate some support for moderates
     Think and Discuss:
    Do you agree with Hubert Humphrey’s
  contention that how a government treats
children, the elderly, the sick, the needy, and
  the handicapped is a “moral test” for that
       government? Why or why not?
       Comparative Exercise:
  9/11, Hurricane Katrina, and Political
    Performance in the United States
► Research Question, Hypotheses,
 Variables, and Cases
   Many viewed Pres. George W. Bush’s domestic
    response in the weeks following the 9/11 attacks to
    be a success
   Many viewed Pres. Bush’s response in the weeks
    following Hurricane Katrina to be a failure
   What explains the difference?
   Party-federalism hypothesis vs. the nature of the
    disaster hypothesis
       Comparative Exercise:
  9/11, Hurricane Katrina, and Political
    Performance in the United States

► Results
   Both hypotheses consistent with the difference
    in the dependent variable (success of response)
   In this case, no clear-cut answer
        Think and Discuss:
This Comparative Exercise examined the “party-
  federalism” hypothesis and the “nature of the
disaster” hypothesis to explain the different levels
  of successful response to September 11 and
 Hurricane Katrina. What other local or national
    factors might help explain the difference?

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