Chapter 13 Comparative Politics: Structures and Choices By Lowell Barrington Public Policy and Government Performance This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: • any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; • preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; • any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Quotations ► “A policy is a temporary creed liable to be changed, but while it holds good it has got to be pursued with apostolic zeal.” – Mahatma Gandhi ► “Itwas once said that the moral test of government is how that government treats those who are in the dawn of life, the children; those who are in the twilight of life, the elderly; and those who are in the shadows of life, the sick, the needy and the handicapped.” – Hubert H. Humphrey Learning Objectives ► Explain the differences between domestic, foreign, and “intermestic” policy. ► Discuss the differences among first, second, and third order policy change and explain why third order changes are relatively rare. ► Describe the major indicators of successful government performance. ► Explain how socioeconomic structures, political structures, and leadership can affect policy outcomes and discuss the extent to which policy is made through a process of rational decision making. ► Discuss major policy debates and measures of government performance in the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Mexico, Brazil, Russia, China, India, Nigeria, and Iran. Public Policy Key Terms ►Comparative public ►Foreign policy policy ►Inner-directed linkage ►Public administration ►Outer-directed linkage ►Public policy ►Intermestic policy ►Domestic policy Public Policy ► Comparative Public Policy Seeks to understand the causal factors influence policy outcomes Also looks at policy outcomes to evaluate their effectiveness Fig. 13.1 Understanding the Policy Process and Its Consequences Public Policy ► General Categories of Policies: Domestic, Foreign, and “Intermestic” ► Foreign Versus Domestic Policy Domestic policy: The set of government approaches designed to improve economic, social, and political conditions within a country Foreign policy: The set of government approaches related to international relations, national security, and defense Comparativists usually focus on domestic policy much more than foreign policy Fig. 13.2 Types of Policies and Causes Public Policy ► Intermestic Policy Policies that have characteristics of both domestic and foreign policy Increasingly important because of globalization and regionalization Includes policies like trade and immigration Major Types of Domestic and Intermestic Policy Key Terms ►Fiscal policy ►Development policy ►Flat tax ►Subsidy ►Progressive tax ►Nationalization ►Budget surplus ►Privatization ►Budget deficit ►Tariff ►Government debt ►Quota ►Monetary policy ►State pension ►Central bank ►Redistributive policies Major Types of Domestic and Intermestic Policy Policy: Fiscal, Monetary, ► Economic Developmental, and Trade Fiscal policy Monetary policy Developmental policy Trade policy ► Regulatory Policy Major Types of Domestic and Intermestic Policy Policy: Retirement, ► Social Welfare Health, Unemployment, and Antipoverty Policies Old age and retirement policy Health policy Unemployment compensation Antipoverty policies Major Types of Domestic and Intermestic Policy ► Education Citizenship, ► Identity-Related Policies: Immigration, Integration, and Diversity Programs Citizenship requirements can be controversial Immigration Integration and other programs designed to address cultural and identity diversity Degrees of Policy Transformation: First, Second, and Third Order Changes ► First order policy change Policy details change Goals and instruments stay the same ► Second order policy change Policy instruments change Goals stay the same ► Third order policy change Goals change A major policy reform (e.g., welfare reform in U.S.) Understanding Policy Outcomes Key Terms ►Policy process ►Labor-led capitalism ►Policy environment ►Social democratic system ►Capitalism ►Welfare state ►Market ►State-led capitalism ►Monopoly ►Mercantilism ►Socialism (central planning) ►State capitalism ►Black market ►Policy convergence ►Mixed economies ►Policy diffusion Understanding Policy Outcomes ► Internal Structural Factors Influencing Policy Outcomes The economic system ►Free-market capitalism ►Socialism ►Mixed systems Other economic structural factors Political culture and ideology Identity structure Political structures Understanding Policy Outcomes ► External Structural Factors Existing policy models Policy imposition through conquest Pressure from international organizations ► Internal Choice Factors: Leadership and Rational Policymaking Leadership How rational was the decision-making process? ► External Choice Factors Think and Discuss: Are most government policies the result of rational calculations? Which particular kinds of policies are most likely not to be made in a rational manner? Topic in Countries Policy & Policy Debates in the ► Public United Kingdom, Germany, and France The UK: Mixed economy with a strong welfare state; MPs of both parties support NHS, but have different views on implementation Germany: Social Market Economy (SME) offers broad protection based on conservative values; welfare state unsustainable in current form France: Dirigisme approach can be traced back to 17th & 18th century monarchs; immigration continues to be a contentious issue Topic in Countries Policy & Policy Debates in ► Public Mexico, Brazil, Nigeria, and India Mexico: Policy debates center on fiscal, monetary & trade policy; Nat’l health insurance program launched in 2004 Brazil: Economic development is top policy concern; balance of equality vs. growth Nigeria: Tackling corruption remains largest issue; proper use of oil wealth; identity divisions India: Water access; proper role of Hindutuva (Hindu Nationalism); response to terrorists Topic in Countries Policy & Policy Debates in the ► Public Russian Federation, China, and Iran Russia: Moving from oligarchic capitalism to state capitalism; how to address identity issues China: Continued dramatic shift away from socialist economy; greater policy autonomy for regional governments Iran: Achieving both greater equality and economic growth; tightening gov’t regulations in areas such as gender relations Assessing Policy Performance: Do the Policies Work? ► Policy Evaluation by Government Officials and Others What was the goal of the policy? Was the goal met? At what cost? ► Assessing Government Performance ► Common Goals of Public Policy Increased political and social stability Economic performance Improved quality of life Greater equality Assessing Policy Performance: Do the Policies Work? Key Terms ►Equality of ►Means-tested opportunity income maintenance ►Equality of result Think and Discuss: What is the most important indicator of successful government performance (see pp. 519-521)? Why is that indicator more important than others? Topic in Countries ► Government Performance inthe United Kingdom, Germany, and France The UK: Implementation of evidence-based policymaking (EBP); low levels of public confidence in government Germany: Policies that discourage job growth have led to high unemployment; 2005 elections yielded a “hung parliament” France: Deep public frustrations with the government can be seen in repeated rioting and the failure of governments to win reelection Topic in Countries ► Government Performance in Mexico, Brazil, Nigeria, and India Mexico: Gov’t has struggled to implement effective policies to reduce crime and corruption Brazil: President Lula has disappointed many; gov’t widely seen as inefficient and corrupt Nigeria: Corruption remains a serious problem; oil wealth has not led to improvements in health care or education India: Disruption and coalition gov’ts make policymaking difficult, exacerbated by the scale of problems such as identity and water issues Topic in Countries ► Government Performance in Russia, China, and Iran Russia: Putin took office amid feelings that the gov’t was corrupt & incompetent; gaining public support through economic improvement China: Government highlights achievements and downplays negative news; has displayed surprising openness at times on issues such as efficiency and SARS Iran: Elections, while not free and fair, still indicate some support for moderates Think and Discuss: Do you agree with Hubert Humphrey’s contention that how a government treats children, the elderly, the sick, the needy, and the handicapped is a “moral test” for that government? Why or why not? Comparative Exercise: 9/11, Hurricane Katrina, and Political Performance in the United States ► Research Question, Hypotheses, Variables, and Cases Many viewed Pres. George W. Bush’s domestic response in the weeks following the 9/11 attacks to be a success Many viewed Pres. Bush’s response in the weeks following Hurricane Katrina to be a failure What explains the difference? Party-federalism hypothesis vs. the nature of the disaster hypothesis Comparative Exercise: 9/11, Hurricane Katrina, and Political Performance in the United States ► Results Both hypotheses consistent with the difference in the dependent variable (success of response) In this case, no clear-cut answer Think and Discuss: This Comparative Exercise examined the “party- federalism” hypothesis and the “nature of the disaster” hypothesis to explain the different levels of successful response to September 11 and Hurricane Katrina. What other local or national factors might help explain the difference?