List of NEA Resolutions

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					            List of NEA Resolutions
A. SERVE AS THE NATIONAL                  A-20.	 Federal	Impact	Aid
VOICE FOR EDUCATION                       A-21.	 Educational/Economic	Stability	
                                                 of	States
PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF                     A-22.	 Tax	Reform
EDUCATION                                 A-23.	 Privatization	and	Subcontracting	
A-1.	 Public	Education                           Programs
A-2.	 Educational	Opportunity	for	All     A-24.	 Voucher	Plans	and	Tuition	Tax	
A-3.	 Understanding	and	Support	of	              Credits
       Public	Education                   A-25.	 Deleterious	Programs
A-4.	 Parental	Involvement                A-26.	 For-Profit	Schools
A-5.	 American	Education	Week             A-27.	 Funding	for	Extracurricular	
A-6.	 Excellence	in	Education                    Programs
            D
A-7.	 U.S.	 epartment	of	Education        A-28.	 Local	Education	Foundations
A-8.	 Appointments	by	the	President	of	
       the	United	States                  QUALITY EDUCATION
A-9.	 Business	Support	for	Public	        A-29.	 Educational	Bureaucracy
       Education                          A-30.	 Improving	and	Maintaining	
A-10.	 School	Boards                             Educational	Facilities
A-11.	 Use	of	Closed	Public	School	       A-31.	 Acceptable	Charter	Schools	and	
       Buildings                                 Other	Nontraditional	Public	
A-12.	 Black	Higher	Education	                   School	Options
       Institutions                       A-32.	 Takeover	of	Public	Schools	or	
A-13.	 School	Accountability                     Public	School	Districts
                                          A-33.	 Federally	or	State-Mandated	
FINANCING OF PUBLIC                              Choice/Parental	Option	Plans
EDUCATION                                 A-34.	 School	Restructuring
A-14.	 Financial	Support	of	Public	       A-35.	 Media	Utilization
       Education                          A-36.	 Community	Education
A-15.	 Federal	Financial	Support	for	     A-37.	 Rural	Education
       Education                          A-38.	 Urban	Development
A-16.	 Financial	Support	for	             A-39.	 U.S.	Federal	Schools
       Postsecondary	Education
A-17.	 Higher	Education	Research	and	     B. ADVANCE THE CAUSE OF PUBLIC
       Study	Grants                       EDUCATION FOR ALL INDIVIDUALS
A-18.	 Financial	Crisis
A-19.	 Public	Education/National	         LIFELONG LEARNING
       Defense                            B-1.	 Early	Childhood	Education


                                                                               189
Resolutions

B-2.	 Independent	Reading	Skills           SPECIFIC PROGRAMS FOR
B-3.	 Middle	School	and	Junior	High	       INDIVIDUALS
      School	Programs                      B-24.	 Alternative	Programs	for	At-Risk	
B-4.	 Color	Vision	Deficient	Students             and/or	Students	With	Special	
B-5.	 High	School	Diploma/                        Needs
      Equivalency                          B-25.	 Gifted,	Talented,	and	Creative	
B-6.	 Adult	Education                             Students
B-7.	 Higher	Education                     B-26.	 Educational	Programs	for	English	
                                                  Language	Learners
EDUCATIONAL EQUITY                         B-27.	 Speakers	of	Nonstandard	English
B-8.	 Class	Size                           B-28.	 Education	for	All	Students	with	
B-9.	 Diversity                                   Disabilities
B-10.	 Racial	Diversity	Within	Student	    B-29.	 Educational	Programs	for	
       Populations                                Adolescent	Parents
B-11.	 Racism,	Sexism,	Sexual	             B-30.	 Homebound	Instruction
       Orientation,	and	Gender	            B-31.	 Correspondence	Programs
       Identification	Discrimination       B-32.	 Youth	and	Adult	Training	
B-12.	 American	Indian/Alaska	Native	             Programs
       Education                           B-33.	 Education	Through	Service	
B-13.	 Hispanic	Education                         Learning	and	Community	Service
B-14.	 Asian	and	Native	Hawaiian	or	
       Other	Pacific	Islander	Education    CURRICULUM CONTENT
B-15.	 Black	American	Education            B-34.	 Junior	Reserve	Officer	Training	
B-16.	 Discriminatory	Academic	                   Corps
       Tracking                            B-35.	 Multicultural	Education
B-17.	 Equal	Opportunities	Through	        B-36.	 Global	Education
       Mathematics	and	Science	            B-37.	 Multiple	World	Language	
       Education                                  Education
B-18.	 Left-Handed	Students                B-38.	 School-to-Work/Career	Education
B-19.	 Student	Peer	Mentoring	Programs     B-39.	 Vocational,	Career,	and	Technical	
B-20.	 Education	of	Refugee	and	                  Education
       Undocumented	Children	and	          B-40.	 Vocational,	Career,	and	Technical	
       Children	of	Undocumented	                  Student	Organizations
       Immigrants                          B-41.	 Fine	Arts	Education
B-21.	 Education	of	Migrants               B-42.	 Physical	Education
B-22.	 Communication	Between	              B-43.	 Family	and	Consumer	Sciences	
       Educators	and	Non-English	                 Education
       Speaking	Parents,	Guardians,	and	   B-44.	 Family	Life	Education
       Caregivers                          B-45.	 Environmental	Education
B-23.	 Equity	for	Incarcerated	Persons     B-46.	 Science	Education


190
                                                                         Resolutions

B-47.	   Sex	Education                       C. PROMOTE THE HEALTH AND
B-48.	   HIV/AIDS	Education                  WELFARE OF CHILDREN AND/OR
B-49.	   Lifesaving	Techniques               STUDENTS
B-50.	   Democracy	and	Citizenship	
         Education                           HEALTH, WELFARE, SAFETY
B-51.	   Labor	Movement	Education            C-1.	 Health	Care	for	All	Children
B-52.	   Metric	System                       C-2.	 Nutrition
B-53.	   Accurate	United	States	and	World	   C-3.	 Substance	Abuse
         Maps                                C-4.	 Tobacco	Products
B-54.	   Driver	Education                    C-5.	 Family	Stability	for	Children
B-55.	   Education	on	Peace	and	             C-6.	 Dependent	Children	of	Military	
         International	Understanding                Personnel
B-56.	   Genocide                            C-7.	 Child	Care
B-57.	   The	Holocaust                       C-8.	 Community	Violence
                                             C-9.	 Family/Domestic	Violence
LEARNING ISSUES NOT RELATED                  C-10.	 Standards	for	Family/Domestic	
TO SPECIFIC DISCIPLINES                             Crisis	Care
B-58.	 Homework                              C-11.	 Child	Abuse,	Neglect,	and	
B-59.	 Discipline                                   Exploitation
B-60.	 Conflict	Resolution	Education         C-12.	 Out-of-Home	Placement	of	
B-61.	 Standards	for	Student	Learning               Juveniles
B-62.	 Assessment	of	Student	Learning        C-13.	 Protection	of	Infants	with	
B-63.	 Standardized	Testing	of	Students             Disabilities
B-64.	 Student	Assessment	Programs	in	       C-14.	 Child	Support	Payments
       Higher	Education                      C-15.	 Extremist	Groups
B-65.	 School	Library	Media	Programs         C-16.	 Telephone	and	the	Internet
B-66.	 Media                                 C-17.	 School	Facilities:	Design,	
B-67.	 Technology	in	the	Educational	               Construction,	and	Function
       Process                               C-18.	 Environmentally	Safe	Schools
B-68.	 Cell	Phones	and	Personal	             C-19.	 Programs	Before	and	After	
       Communication	Devices	in	                    School
       Schools                               C-20.	 Prevention	of	Child	Abduction
B-69.	 Internet	Access                       C-21.	 Missing	Children
B-70.	 Distance	Education                    C-22.	 School	Transportation
B-71.	 Communication	Between	Hearing	        C-23.	 Comprehensive	School	Health,	
       and	Deaf/Hard	of	Hearing	People              Social,	and	Psychological	
B-72.	 Credit-Hour	Evaluation                       Programs	and	Services
B-73.	 Transfer	of	Student	Records           C-24.	 School	Guidance	and	Counseling	
B-74.	 Classroom	Use	of	Animals                     Programs
B-75.	 Home	Schooling                        C-25.	 Student	Stress	and	Anger


                                                                                191
Resolutions

C-26.	 Safe	and	Orderly	School	Climates	    D-2.	 Teacher	Preparation	Programs:	
       and	Communities                             Recruitment
C-27.	 School	Emergency	Plans               D-3.	 Teacher	Preparation	for	Education	
C-28.	 Student	Sexual	Orientation	and	             Support	Professionals
       Gender	Identification                D-4.	 Teacher	Preparation	Programs:	
C-29.	 Suicide	Prevention	Programs                 Admissions
C-30.	 Youth	Camp	Safety                    D-5.	 Teacher	Preparation	Programs:	
                                                   Affiliate	Participation
STUDENT RIGHTS/CONCERNS                     D-6.	 Teacher	Preparation	Programs:	
C-31.	 Student	Rights	and	                         Content	and	Evaluation
       Responsibilities                     D-7.	 Teacher	Preparation	Programs:	
C-32.	 Drug	and	Alcohol	Testing	of	                Clinical	Practice
       Students                             D-8.	 Hiring	Policies	and	Practices	for	
C-33.	 HIV/AIDS	Testing	of	Students                Teaching	Positions
C-34.	 Optimizing	Students’	Time	To	        D-9.	 Teacher	Induction
       Learn                                D-10.	 Mentor	Programs
C-35.	 Media,	Games,	Products,	and	         D-11.	 Peer	Assistance	Programs	and	
       Children                                    Peer	Assistance	and	Review	
C-36.	 Effect	of	Poverty	on	Children	and	          Programs
       Youth                                D-12.	 Administrator	Preparation
C-37.	 Effect	of	Homelessness	on	
       Children	and	Youth                   APPROPRIATE STAFFING
                                            D-13.	 Supervision	of	Extracurricular	
EQUAL ACCESS                                       Activities
C-38.	 Placement	of	Students	with	HIV/
       AIDS                                 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
C-39.	 Extracurricular	Participation        D-14.	 Professional	Development	for	
C-40.	 Gender	Equity	in	Athletic	                  Education	Professionals
       Programs                             D-15.	 Professional	Development	for	
C-41.	 Reduction	of	Gang-Related	Crime             Education	Support	Professionals
C-42.	 Juvenile	Offenders                   D-16.	 Professional	Development	
C-43.	 Advertising	of	Alcoholic	                   Resource	Centers
       Beverages	and/or	Tobacco	
       Products                             COMPETENCY
                                            D-17.	 Professional	Development	
D. PROMOTE PROFESSIONAL                            in	Behavior	Management,	
EXCELLENCE AMONG EDUCATORS                         Discipline,	Order,	and	Safety
                                            D-18.	 Neurological	Disorder	Awareness
PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION                    D-19.	 Teacher	Exchange	Programs
D-1.	 The	Teaching	Profession               D-20.	 Education	Employee	Evaluation


192
                                                                          Resolutions

D-21.	 Competency	Testing	of	Licensed	       F. PROTECT THE RIGHTS OF
       Teachers                              EDUCATION EMPLOYEES AND
D-22.	 Evaluation	and	Promotion	in	          ADVANCE THEIR INTERESTS AND
       Higher	Education                      WELFARE
D-23.	 Promote	the	Retention	of	
       Experienced	Education	                PAY EQUITY/COMPARABLE
       Professionals                         WORTH
                                             F-1.	 Nondiscriminatory	Personnel	
E. GAIN RECOGNITION OF THE                         Policies/Affirmative	Action
BASIC IMPORTANCE OF THE                      F-2.	 Pay	Equity/Comparable	Worth
TEACHER IN THE LEARNING                      F-3.	 Uniform	Compensation
PROCESS AND OTHER EMPLOYEES                  F-4.	 Tax	Deductions	for	Professional	
IN THE EDUCATIONAL EFFORT                          Expenses

ACADEMIC FREEDOM                             COLLECTIVE BARGAINING
E-1.	 Instructional	Excellence               PROCESS
E-2.	 Time	To	Teach                          F-5.	 Collective	Bargaining	Rights
E-3.	 Selection	and	Challenges	              F-6.	 Collective	Bargaining	and	
       of	Materials	and	Teaching	                  Grievance	Procedures
       Techniques                            F-7.	 Strikes
E-4.	 Development	of	Curriculum
E-5.	 Development	of	Materials               BARGAINING ISSUES
E-6.	 Cultural	Diversity	in	Instructional	   F-8.	 Basic	Contract	Standards
       Materials	and	Activities              F-9.	 Salaries	and	Other	Compensation
E-7.	 Women	in	Instructional	Materials       F-10.	 Minimum	Criteria	for	Additional	
E-8.	 Religious	Heritage	in	                        Compensation	Beyond	the	Single	
       Instructional	Materials                      Salary	Schedule
E-9.	 Impact	of	Federal	and	State	           F-11.	 Benefits
       Legislative	Mandates                  F-12.	 Education	Professionals	Outside	
E-10.	 Academic	and	Professional	                   the	Traditional	K–12	Schools
       Freedom                               F-13.	 Faculty	Reward	Structures	in	
E-11.	 Professional	Discretion	in	the	              Higher	Education
       Classroom                             F-14.	 Economic	Welfare
E-12.	 Intellectual	Property	and	Access	     F-15.	 Constitutional	and	Civil	Rights—
       to	Copyrighted	Materials                     Employment	Protection
E-13.	 Support	Professionals	in	the	         F-16.	 Continuing	Employment	and	Fair	
       Education	Process                            Dismissal	Practices
                                             F-17.	 Reduction	in	Force
                                             F-18.	 Mandated	Training/Retraining



                                                                                  193
Resolutions

F-19.	 Protection	of	Education	            F-39.	 Health	Examinations
       Employees                           F-40.	 Drug	and	Alcohol	Testing
F-20.	 Personnel	Policies	and	Procedures   F-41.	 HIV/AIDS	Testing	of	Education	
F-21.	 Site-Based	Decision	Making                 Employees
F-22.	 Faculty-Staff	Governance	in	        F-42.	 Employees	with	HIV/AIDS
       Higher	Education                    F-43.	 Hepatitis	Vaccinations
F-23.	 Job	Sharing                         F-44.	 Health	Care	Issues	Awareness
F-24.	 Intern	Programs                     F-45.	 Color	Vision	Deficient	Employees
F-25.	 Student	Workers	in	Educational	     F-46.	 Stress	Management	and	Wellness	
       Institutions                               Programs
F-26.	 Education	Support	Professionals	    F-47.	 Medication	and	Medical	Services	
       in	the	Classroom                           in	Schools
F-27.	 Summer	School,	Alternative	         F-48.	 School	Nurses
       Calendars,	Extended	School	Day/     F-49.	 Save	Harmless/Education	
       Year,	and	Year-Round	Schools               Employee	Liability
                                           F-50.	 Protection	of	Individuals	in	
PROTECTION OF EDUCATION                           Clinical	Practice	Programs
EMPLOYEES                                  F-51.	 Transportation	Liability	Insurance
F-28.	 Education	Employees	Injured	on	     F-52.	 Part-Time	or	Temporary	
       the	Job                                    Education	Employees
F-29.	 Unemployment/Disability	            F-53.	 Volunteers	in	Public	Schools
       Compensation                        F-54.	 Substitute	Teachers
F-30.	 Subcontracting/Contracting	Out      F-55.	 Substitute	Education	Support	
F-31.	 Confidentiality	of	Employee	               Professionals
       Records                             F-56.	 Education	Employees	and	Active	
F-32.	 Right	to	Privacy	for	Education	            Duty	Service
       Employees                           F-57.	 Employment	in	Federal	Schools
F-33.	 Privileged	Communications           F-58.	 Education	in	Correctional	and	
F-34.	 Protection	of	Education	Employee	          Rehabilitation	Agencies
       Advocates
F-35.	 Protection	of	Education	            RETIREMENT/SOCIAL SECURITY
       Employees	from	Age	Harassment       F-59.	 Retirement
F-36.	 Protection	of	Education	            F-60.	 Investment	of	Retirement	System	
       Employees	from	Harassment	                 Assets	and	Protection	of	Earned	
       Because	of	a	Disability                    Benefits
F-37.	 Employee	Rights	Pending	Court	      F-61.	 Social	Security
       Action                              F-62.	 Medicare
F-38.	 Allegations	Against	Education	
       Employees



194
                                                                       Resolutions

G. SECURE PROFESSIONAL                    I. PROMOTE AND PROTECT
AUTONOMY                                  HUMAN AND CIVIL RIGHTS

PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS,                   INTERNATIONAL RIGHTS
CERTIFICATION, LICENSURE                  I-1.	 Peace	and	International	Relations
G-1.	 State	Professional	Standards	       I-2.	 International	Court	of	Justice
      Boards                              I-3.	 International	Criminal	Court
G-2.	 National	Certification              I-4.	 World	Hunger
G-3.	 Licensure                           I-5.	 Covert	Operations	and	
                                                 Counterintelligence	Activities
ACCREDITATION                             I-6.	 Nuclear	Freeze/Cessation
G-4.	 Accreditation	in	Higher	Education   I-7.	 Nuclear	Facilities,	Radioactive/
G-5.	 Accreditation	of	Teacher	                  Chemical	Pollutants,	and	Waste	
      Preparation	Institutions                   Incineration
                                          I-8.	 Global	Warming
H. UNITE EDUCATION EMPLOYEES              I-9.	 Global	Environmental	Restoration
FOR EFFECTIVE CITIZENSHIP                 I-10.	 International	Consumer	
                                                 Protection
CITIZENSHIP RIGHTS
H-1.	 The	Education	Employee	as	a	        HUMAN AND CIVIL RIGHTS
       Citizen                            I-11.	 Human	Rights
H-2.	 The	Right	To	Know                   I-12.	 Civil	Rights
H-3.	 The	Right	To	Vote                   I-13.	 Human	and	Civil	Rights	of	
            C
H-4.	 U.S.	 onstitutional	Convention             Children	and	Youth
H-5.	 Member	Involvement	in	              I-14.	 Self	Determination	of	Indigenous	
       Community	Organizations                   Peoples
H-6.	 Participation	in	Professional	      I-15.	 Family	Planning
       Associations                       I-16.	 The	Right	To	Organize
H-7.	 National	Health	Care	Policy         I-17.	 Displaced	Workers
H-8.	 Energy	Programs                     I-18.	 Use	of	Union-Made	Products	and	
H-9.	 Environmental	Responsibility               Services
H-10.	 Historic	Preservation              I-19.	 Migrant	Workers
H-11.	 Statehood	for	the	District	of	     I-20.	 Immigration
       Columbia                           I-21.	 Housing	and	Health	Care	for	All
                                          I-22.	 Fair	Housing
                                          I-23.	 Invasion	of	Privacy
                                          I-24.	 Freedom	of	Creative	Expression
                                          I-25.	 Violence	Against	Women	and	
                                                 Girls	Worldwide
                                          I-26.	 Sexual	Assault


                                                                               195
Resolutions

I-27.	   Human	Relations	in	the	School      I-52.	 Inclusive	Medical	Studies
I-28.	   Bullying                           I-53.	 Sexual	Harassment
I-29.	   Martin	Luther	King,	Jr.	 Day       I-54.	 Equal	Opportunity	for	Women
I-30.	   Freedom	of	Religion                I-55.	 Personal	Relationships	in	Higher	
I-31.	   Gun-Free	Schools	and	the	                 Education
         Regulation	of	Deadly	Weapons       I-56.	 Businesses	Owned	by	Minorities	
I-32.	   Victims	of	a	Crime                        and/or	Women
I-33.	   Military	Veterans
I-34.	   Veterans	Day                       INTEGRATION AND
I-35.	   Traffic	Safety                     DESEGREGATION
I-36.	   Federal	and	State	Support	for	     I-57.	 Integration	in	the	Public	Schools
         Public	Welfare                     I-58.	 Ethnic-Minority	Educators

RIGHTS OF SPECIFIC GROUPS                   J. OBTAIN FOR ITS MEMBERS THE
I-37.	 Protection	of	Senior	Citizens        BENEFITS OF AN INDEPENDENT,
I-38.	 People	Living	with	HIV/AIDS          UNITED EDUCATION PROFESSION
I-39.	 Disabilities	Awareness
I-40.	 Accessibility	for	Persons	with	      STRONG EFFECTIVE
       Disabilities                         ASSOCIATIONS/AFFILIATES
I-41.	 Protection	of	Persons	with	Mental	   J-1.	 Strong	Professional	Associations
       Disabilities                         J-2.	 Supporting	Locals	in	Jeopardy
I-42.	 Care	of	the	Mentally	Ill
                                            MEMBERSHIP PARTICIPATION
OPPOSITION TO ALL FORMS OF                  J-3.	 Membership	Participation	in	the	
DISCRIMINATION                                    Association
I-43.	 Elimination	of	Discrimination        J-4.	 Minority	Participation	in	the	
I-44.	 Discrimination	by	Organizations            Association
I-45.	 Institutional	Discrimination         J-5.	 Student	Member	Participation
I-46.	 Use	of	Prejudicial	Terms	and	        J-6.	 Retired	Member	Participation
       Symbols                              J-7.	 Promotion	of	Teaching	as	a	
I-47.	 Hate-Motivated	Violence                    Career	Choice
I-48.	 Violence	Against	and	Exploitation	
       of	Asians/Pacific	Islanders          GLOBAL EDUCATION
I-49.	 Internment/Containment	Policies      PROFESSION
I-50.	 Reparation	of	Native	American	       J-8.	 Universal	Education	Employee	
       Remains                                    Rights
I-51.	 Linguistic	Diversity                 J-9.	 Organizations	of	Other	Nations




196
         NEA Resolutions 2007–2008
A. SERVE AS THE NATIONAL                          social,	political,	and	religious	differences	
VOICE FOR EDUCATION                                  i.	 Use	leisure	time	effectively	and	de-
                                                  velop	sound	physical	health	habits	
PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF                                j.	 Develop	skills	in	and/or	an	appre-
EDUCATION                                         ciation	 for	 the	 practical/vocational	 and	
                                                  fine	arts.
A-1. Public Education                                The	Association	believes	that	its	mem-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	        bers	 should	 support	 public	 education	 by	
believes	 that	 public	 educational	 oppor-       sending	 their	 children	 to	 public	 educa-
tunities	for	every	American	must	be	pre-          tional	institutions.	(1969,	1998)
served	and	strengthened.	
    The	Association	also	believes	that	pub-       A-2. Educational Opportunity for All
lic	education	is	the	cornerstone	of	our	so-           The	 National	 Education	 Association	
cial,	economic,	and	political	structure	and	      believes	 that	 each	 student	 has	 the	 right	
is	 of	 utmost	 significance	 in	 the	 develop-   to	a	free	public	education	that	should	be	
ment	of	our	moral,	ethical,	spiritual,	and	       suited	to	the	needs	of	the	individual	and	
cultural	 values.	 The	 Association	 further	     guaranteed	by	state	constitutions	and	the	
believes	 that	 each	 state	 must	 maintain	 a	   United	 States	 Constitution.	 Education	 is	
system	 of	 public	 education	 that	 prepares	    a	 lifelong	 process,	 and	 public	 education	
its	citizens	to—	                                 serves	 a	 constituency	 that	 embraces	 all	
    a.	 Achieve	 functional	 proficiency	 in	     age	 groups.	 Access	 to	 and	 opportunities	
English,	 with	 emphasis	 on	 the	 develop-       for	 postsecondary	 education	 should	 be	
ment	of	basic	reading,	writing,	speaking,	        widely	available,	and	no	qualified	student	
and	listening	skills	                             should	 be	 denied	 such	 opportunities	 be-
    b.	 Compute	 effectively	 to	 procure	        cause	of	financial	considerations.	
and/or	dispense	services	and	materials	               The	Association	also	believes	that	all	
    c.	 Use	 critical	 thinking,	 creative	       schools	must	be	accredited	under	uniform	
thinking,	and	problem-solving	skills	             standards	 established	 by	 the	 appropriate	
    d.	 Exercise	 attitudes	 of	 good	 citizen-   agencies	 in	 collaboration	 with	 the	 Asso-
ship,	 societal	 productivity,	 and	 global	      ciation	and	its	affiliates,	and	that	the	ac-
awareness	                                        creditation	process	must	provide	sufficient	
    e.	 Care	for	the	environment	                 flexibility	to	enable	individual	schools	to	
    f.	 Appreciate	the	aesthetic	and	moral	       achieve	 educational	 excellence	 and	 re-
qualities	of	life	                                spond	 to	 the	 needs	 of	 their	 students	 and	
    g.	 Formulate	values	 that	lead	 to	con-      community.	The	development	of	a	period-
tinual	growth	and	self-fulfillment	               ic	review	of	locally	established	programs	
    h.	 Recognize	and	appreciate	cultural,	       should	 involve	 community	 members,	          	


                                                                                             197
Resolutions

parents/guardians,	students,	teachers,	and	       A-4. Parental Involvement
education	support	professionals.	The	As-              The	 National	 Education	 Association	
sociation	further	believes	that	individuals,	     believes	that	a	community	engaged	in	the	
at	their	expense,	should	be	free	to	choose,	      life	of	its	public	schools	is	paramount	to	
to	supplement,	or	to	substitute	education	        the	 future	 of	 public	 education.	 The	 As-
in	 privately	 supported,	 nonsegregated,	        sociation	also	believes	that	a	strong	part-
nonpublic	schools.	                               nership	 must	 be	 formed	 among	 parents/
    The	 Association	 believes	 tax-exempt	       guardians,	 schools,	 the	 Association,	 and	
status	 should	 be	 denied	 to	 those	 institu-   the	community	to	address	the	mutual	in-
tions	 whose	 policies	 and/or	 practices	        terests	of	the	entire	community.	
prevent	the	integration	of	the	institutions.	         The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
(1969,	2006)                                      parents/guardians	who	are	active	partici-
                                                  pants	 in	 the	 education	 of	 their	 children	
A-3. Understanding and Support of                 increase	 the	 likelihood	 of	 the	 achieve-
Public Education                                  ment	 of	 educational	 excellence.	 Parents/
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	        guardians,	teachers,	other	education	em-
recognizes	 its	 responsibility	 to	 promote	     ployees,	 school	 board	 members,	 and	 the	
an	understanding	of	the	history	and	con-          community	must	set	high	expectations	for	
tinuing	 importance	 of	 public	 education	       student	 behavior	 and	 academic	 success	
and	to	support	public	education	and	pub-          and	provide	the	encouragement	and	sup-
lic	education	employees.	The	Association	         port	for	each	student	to	achieve	his	or	her	
encourages	wide	community	and	parental	           full	potential.	
participation	 in	 achieving	 and	 maintain-          The	 Association	 believes	 that	 innova-
ing	educational	excellence.	The	Associa-          tive	programs	should	be	developed	and	re-
tion	believes	that	school	boards	and	other	       sources	committed	to	promote	and	increase	
stakeholders	also	have	a	responsibility	to	       family	 and	 community	 involvement	 in	
promote	public	understanding	of	the	im-           public	schools	and	to	promote	and	increase	
portance	of	public	schools.	                      the	involvement	of	education	employees	in	
    The	Association	also	believes	that	the	       the	 community.	 The	 Association	 encour-
success	of	our	nation	depends	upon	high	          ages	 its	 affiliates	 to	 work	 collaboratively	
standards	of	educational	excellence.	The	         with	 the	 community	 in	 establishing	 such	
Association	 supports	 a	 positive	 school	       programs	and	finding	the	resources	neces-
environment;	 excellence	 in	 teaching;	          sary	to	make	the	programs	successful.	
high	standards	for	success,	learning,	and	            The	Association	also	believes	that	par-
student	 behavior;	 and	 extensive	 parental	     ents/guardians	 should	 be	 encouraged	 to	
involvement.	The	Association	also	recog-          visit	their	children’s	schools	and	commu-
nizes	its	responsibility	to	promote	excel-        nicate	 with	 their	 children’s	 teachers	 and	
lence	in	public	education	and	supports	ef-        other	 education	 employees	 with	 whom	
forts	to	improve	it.	(1969,	2007)                 the	 children	 have	 daily	 contact.	 In	 addi-
                                                  tion,	 schools	 should	 communicate	 with	


198
                                                                                       Resolutions

parents/guardians	 in	 their	 native	 lan-          A-7. U.S. Department of Education
guage.	 The	 Association	 further	 believes	            The	 National	 Education	 Association	
that	parents/guardians,	students,	commu-            believes	 that	 the	 U.S.	 Department	 of	
nity	 members,	 teachers,	 other	 education	        Education	 must	be	 a	 viable	force	for	the	
employees,	 and	 school	 board	 members	            maintenance	 and	 improvement	 of	 public	
should	promote	the	successes	of	the	col-            education.	The	Association	also	believes	
laboration	 between	 the	 school	 and	 the	         that	 Association	 members	 must	 be	 fully	
community.	(2001,	2007)                             involved	 in	 establishing	 goals	 and	 plan-
                                                    ning	programs	with	the	Department.	
A-5. American Education Week                            The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	          internal	and	external	attempts	to	disman-
believes	 that	 American	 Education	 Week	          tle	 and	 to	 erode	 the	 effectiveness	 of	 the	
is	an	important	observance	during	which	            Department	of	Education	through	the	fed-
positive	 attention	 should	 be	 focused	 on	       eral	budgetary	process	are	detrimental	to	
the	contributions	of	public	education	and	          the	public	interest.	(1980,	1988)
education	employees.	(1997,	2006)
                                                    A-8. Appointments by the President
A-6. Excellence in Education                        of the United States
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	              The	 National	 Education	 Association	
believes	 that	 continued	 success	 of	 the	        believes	 that	 the	 need	 for	 quality	 educa-
United	 States	 as	 a	 participatory	 democ-        tion	demands	that	criteria	for	presidential	
racy	 and	 as	 a	 world	 leader	 is	 dependent	     appointments	 in	 the	 field	 of	 education	
upon	a	shared	national,	state,	community,	          shall	include	a	commitment	to	public	edu-
and	 individual	 commitment	 to	 excel-             cation	and	significant	contributions	to	the	
lence	in	education.	The	Association	also	           education	community.	Education	employ-
believes	 that	 excellence	 in	 education	 re-      ees	 should	 be	 included	 in	 such	 appoint-
quires	 that	 students	 achieve	 mastery	 of	       ments.	(1970,	1990)
learning	 so	 that	 they	 have	 the	 ability	 to	
use	what	has	been	taught	and	have	com-              A-9. Business Support for Public
mand	 of	 subjects	 sufficient	 for	 problem	       Education
solving,	 decision	 making,	 and	 further	              The	 National	 Education	 Association	
educational	 growth.	 The	 Association	             believes	that	the	business	community	and	
supports	high	standards	for	teaching	and	           the	Association	should	work	cooperative-
learning	in	which	the	student	becomes	an	           ly	in	promoting,	planning,	implementing,	
active	participant	in	the	mastery	process.	         and	 evaluating	 school-community-busi-
   The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	       ness	partnerships	in	the	support	of	public	
sufficient	 resources,	 interventions,	 and	        education.	
program	 alternatives	 must	 be	 provided	              The	 Association	 welcomes	 from	 the	
for	the	proper	placement	of	each	student.	          business	 community	 supplementary	 ac-
(1983,	2004)                                        tivities	 such	 as	 cooperative	 programs,	


                                                                                                199
Resolutions

resource	assistance,	release	of	employees	          provisions	 should	 be	 made	 for	 parents/
for	 parent-teacher	 conferences,	 funding	         guardians	 of	 students	 who	 are	 attending	
for	scholarships,	and	the	donation	of	spe-          school	in	a	district	other	than	their	home	
cialized	equipment.	                                district	as	part	of	a	court-ordered	interdis-
   The	Association	also	believes	that	the	          trict	busing	plan	to	have	substantive	influ-
use	of	programs	that	involve	the	market-            ence	on	board	actions	and	policies.	
ing	and/or	promoting	of	products	that	ex-               The	 Association	 believes	 that	 student	
ploit	 students	 and/or	 institutions	 should	      participation	 in	 a	 school	 board’s	 delib-
be	prevented.	(1984,	1996)                          erative	 process	 should	 be	 encouraged,	
                                                    and	 that	 student	 input	 in	 the	 voting	 pro-
A-10. School Boards                                 cess	should	be	advisory	only.	Wherever	a	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	          school	 board	 includes	 student	 members,	
believes	 that	 it	 is	 the	 responsibility	 of	    they	should	be	excluded	from	participat-
school	boards	to	provide	a	quality	educa-           ing	in	discussions,	receiving	information,	
tion	 to	 each	 student	 within	 a	 school	 dis-    and	voting	on	issues	dealing	with	educa-
trict.	 The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	     tion	employees	and	items	contained	in	ne-
school	boards	must	provide	resources	and	           gotiated	agreements.	
support	 so	 that	 each	 school	 in	 a	 district	       The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
meets	 standards	 for	 educational	 excel-          school	 board	 meetings	 must	 be	 held	 at	
lence.	 The	 Association	 further	 believes	        times	and	places	that	allow	education	em-
that	 school	 boards	 must	 promote	 public	        ployees,	local	affiliates,	and	the	commu-
understanding	of	the	importance	of	public	          nity	to	participate	in	educational	decision	
education	 and	 the	 schools	 and	 programs	        making.	(1980,	2006)
within	their	school	districts.	
    The	Association	believes	that	the	com-          A-11. Use of Closed Public School
position	 of	 school	 boards	 must	 be	 rep-        Buildings
resentative	 of	 the	 population	 within	 the	         The	 National	 Education	 Association	
school	district,	including	minority	groups;	        believes	 that	 closed	 public	 school	 build-
that	 board	 members	 must	 be	 elected	 by	        ings	 that	 have	 been	 deemed	 safe	 can	 be	
the	voters	in	the	school	district;	and	that	        used	effectively	for	public	preschool,	day	
board	members	must	be	elected	from	rep-             care,	 job	 training,	 and	 adult	 education	
resentative	districts.	The	Association	op-          centers.	 The	 Association	 also	 believes	
poses	federal,	state,	and	local	takeovers	of	       that	closed	public	school	buildings	should	
public	schools,	public	school	districts,	and	       be	sold	or	leased	only	to	those	organiza-
their	 governing	 boards.	 The	 Association	        tions	 that	 do	 not	 provide	 direct	 educa-
also	 believes	 that	 the	 closing	 of	 schools	    tional	services	to	students	and/or	are	not	
by	school	boards	to	avoid	legislative	cor-          in	direct	competition	with	public	schools.	
rective	action	is	not	in	the	best	interest	of	      (1982,	2000)
students,	 parents,	 or	 school	 employees.	
The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	      	


200
                                                                                     Resolutions

A-12. Black Higher Education                       school,	district,	state,	and	national	levels	
Institutions                                       share	 the	 responsibility	 for	 establishing	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	         clear	 goals,	 adopting	 high	 expectations	
recognizes	 that	 historically	 Black	 insti-      for	 student	 learning,	 demonstrating	 mul-
tutions	 of	 higher	 education	 have	 played	      tiple	methods	of	student	success,	and	pro-
a	vital	role	in	helping	Americans	in	their	        viding	 adequate	 and	 equitable	 funding	
efforts	toward	building	a	truly	pluralistic	       and	support	systems.	
society.	                                              The	Association	further	believes	that	a	
    The	Association	believes	that	the	pro-         school	accountability	system	must—	
grams	 of	 historically	 Black	 institutions	          a.	 Promote	educational	excellence	
should	 continue	 to	 be	 reviewed	 and	 up-           b.	 Ensure	the	alignment	of	standards,	
dated	 so	 that	 they	 maintain	 diverse	 and	     assessments,	and	curricula	
quality	faculties	and	student	bodies.	                 c.	 Balance	its	focus	on	school	context,	
    The	Association	urges	its	affiliates	to	       process,	and	student	performance	
be	in	the	forefront	of	all	efforts	that	seek	          d.	 Set	high	standards	for	student	learn-
to	 support,	 maintain,	 and	 promote	 these	      ing,	levels	of	support	by	each	stakeholder,	
invaluable	 institutions,	 their	 programs,	       and	clearly	defined	goals	for	the	school	as	
and	 their	 full	 participation	 in	 the	 main-    a	unit	
stream	of	education.	The	Association	also	             e.	 Provide	 for	 the	 development	 and	
believes	 that	 closing,	 downgrading,	 or	        implementation	of	a	valid	methodology	for	
merging	historically	Black	institutions	is	        use	as	an	assessment	tool	to	determine	the	
not	in	the	best	interest	of	the	educational	       required	 funding	 necessary	 to	 enable	 all	
community.	(1980,	1995)                            students	to	achieve	educational	excellence	
                                                       f.	 Provide	 professional	 development	
A-13. School Accountability                        for	 all	 education	 employees	 prior	 to	 im-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	         plementation	of	the	system
supports	 effective	 and	 fair	 school	 ac-            g.	 Use	 multiple	 assessment	 tools	 that	
countability	 systems.	 	 The	 Association	        are	 universally	 designed	 and	 sources	 of	
believes	that	these	systems	must	promote	          data	that	are	meaningful,	relevant,	valid,	
high	levels	of	student	excellence	that	re-         and	reliable	
flect	 meaningful,	 high	 quality	 learning	           h.	 Include	 necessary	 accommoda-
and	 ensure	 that	 the	 best	 teaching	 prac-      tions	and	modifications	to	maximize	the	
tices	are	supported	and	utilized.		The	As-         success	of	all	students	
sociation	 also	 believes	 that	 the	 focus	 of	       i.	 Include	measures	to	improve	school	
the	accountability	system	must	be	on	the	          accountability	
school,	not	on	individual	stakeholders,	as	            j.	 Identify	 how	 the	 school	 as	 a	 unit	
the	 unit	 for	 evaluation	 and	 improvement	      achieves	its	goals	
of	student	learning.		Development	and	im-              k.	 Identify	 the	 quality,	 quantity,	 and	
plementation	of	the	accountability	system	         impact	of	support	provided	by	each	stake-
must	 ensure	 that	 the	 stakeholders	 at	 the	    holder	


                                                                                              201
Resolutions

   l.	 Identify	 and	 address	 the	 internal	      to	achieve	educational	excellence.	Such	an	
and	 external	 factors	 that	 impact	 student	     education	requires	adequate	and	equitable	
learning	and	development                           funding	from	public	tax	sources	for	schools	
   m.	Provide	for	the	timely	dissemination	        to	 obtain	 the	 resources	 (e.g.,	 personnel,	
of	assessment	results	to	all	stakeholders	         programs,	 materials,	 buildings,	 and	 tech-
   n.	 Be	 applied	 in	 a	 fair	 and	 equitable	   nology)	to	meet	the	needs	of	all	students.	
manner	                                            The	Association	also	believes	that—	
   o.	 Include	 periodic	 evaluation	 and	             a.	 An	 increasing	 portion	 of	 public	
modification	of	the	system	                        funds	 should	 be	 for	 direct	 instruction	 of	
   p.	 Provide	 for	 the	 development	 of	 a	      students.	
school	improvement	plan.                               b.	 The	 amount	 of	 aid	 must	 be	 gener-
   The	 Association	 believes	 that	 the	          ally	 predictable	 for	 long-range	 planning	
school	 improvement	 process	 must,	 at	 a	        and	 specifically	 predictable	 for	 year-to-
minimum—                                           year	planning.
   a.	 Involve	 all	 school	 staff	 as	 active	        c.	 Present	 programs	 of	 specific	 aid	
partners	in	the	development	of	the	plan	           must	be	expanded	and	improved	by	con-
   b.	 Provide	the	additional	funding,	re-         solidation	and	simplification	of	adminis-
sources,	 and	 assistance	 necessary	 to	 ac-      tration.
complish	the	plan	                                     d.	 Tax	 revision	 favorable	 to	 public	
   c.	 Identify	the	responsibilities	of	each	      education	should	be	encouraged	and	con-
stakeholder—students,	 education	 em-              tinually	 reviewed	 at	 every	 governmental	
ployees,	 parents/guardians,	 community	           level.	
members,	 government,	 policymakers,	                  e.	 Local	 governing	 boards	 must	 be	
social	 agencies,	 and	 taxpayers—in	 the	         fiscally	independent,	and	restrictive	limits	
implementation	of	the	plan                         must	not	be	imposed	on	their	budgets	or	
   d.	 Provide	 time	 for	 planning,	 imple-       long-term	borrowing.	
mentation,	and	reassessment	                           f.	 The	state	and	local	share	of	finance	
   e.	 Be	 consistent	 with	 education	 em-        must	be	derived	from	a	tax	system	that	is	
ployees’	rights	and	responsibilities	as	set	       balanced	 and	 complementary	 in	 nature,	
forth	 in	 laws,	 contracts,	 policies,	 and/or	   includes	 all	 broad-based	 taxes,	 reduces	
local	agreement	processes.	(1971,	2007)            the	excessive	reliance	on	property	taxes,	
                                                   and	protects	subsistence	income.
FINANCING OF PUBLIC EDUCATION                          g.	 Provisions	 must	 be	 made	 for	 re-
                                                   search,	 development,	 implementation,	
A-14. Financial Support of Public                  continuation,	and	improvement	in	educa-
Education                                          tion	practices.	Funding	must	be	included	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	          for	resources	such	as	personnel,	time	for	
believes	that	every	state	should	ensure	its	       staff	 planning,	 training	 and	 professional	
students	a	quality	education	by	providing	         development,	 facilities,	 equipment,	 and	
the	funding	needed	to	enable	all	students	         materials.	


202
                                                                                      Resolutions

    h.	 State	 and	 federal	 mandates	 affect-     gender,	 or	 sexual	 orientation	 and	 gender	
ing	 public	 education	 programs	 must	 be	        identification	stereotypes	and/or	biases.
accompanied	 by	 adequate	 and	 equitable	             o.	 Public	funds	must	not	be	expended	
funding.	                                          in	 institutions	 where	 either	 specific	 pro-
    i.	 School	trust	lands	must	be	admin-          grams	 or	 the	 institution	 has	 been	 found	
istered	 with	 the	 generation	 of	 funds	 for	    guilty	of	discrimination.	
public	education	as	a	primary	goal	and	in	             p.	 Categorical	 funding	 must	 be	 as-
a	manner	that	ensures	the	sustainable	use	         sured	in	areas	such	as	special	education,	
of	those	lands	by	current	and	future	gen-          bilingual/English	 as	 a	 second	 language,	
erations.	 State	 school	 trust	 funds	 should	    class	 size	 reduction,	 and	 the	 economi-
be	fairly	compensated	by	the	federal	gov-          cally/educationally	disadvantaged.	
ernment	for	school	trust	lands	included	in	            q.	 Any	institution,	agency,	or	individ-
national	parks,	monuments,	or	wilderness	          ual	 receiving	 financial	 aid	 from	 federal,	
areas.	                                            state,	 or	 local	 governments	 must	 adhere	
    j.	 Efforts	should	be	made	at	the	state	       to	 all	 applicable	 state	 and	 federal	 laws,	
and	 federal	 levels	 to	 ensure	 stable,	 ad-     rules,	and	regulations.
equate,	 and	 equitable	 funding	 of	 public	          r.		 Full-day,	 every	 day	 kindergarten	
schools	 historically	 receiving	 revenues	        programs	should	be	fully	funded.
derived	from	state	and	federal	lands	and	              s.		 Federal,	 state,	 and,	 as	 appropri-
natural	 resources.	 These	 efforts	 should	       ate,	 local	 governments	 should	 provide	
include,	 but	 not	 be	 limited	 to,	 ensuring	    funds	sufficient	to	make	pre-kindergarten	
the	 sustainable	 use	 of	 these	 public	 lands	   available	 for	 all	 three-	 and	 four-year-old		
and	 resources	 by	 current	 and	 future	      	   children.
generations.	                                          t.		 It	 is	 inappropriate	 to	 support	 the	
    k.	 Additional	 funding	 must	 be	 pro-        educational	 programs	 of	 a	 public	 school	
vided	 to	 cover	 the	 cost	 of	 achieving	 the	   by	 the	 sale	 of	 non-nutritious	 foods	 and	
goals	 of	 raising	 student	 performance,	         beverages	 to	 students	 during	 the	 school	
implementing	new	programs,	and	raising	            day.
standards	of	student	learning.	                        u.	 Public	 funds	 should	 be	 based	 on	
    l.	 Funding	should	be	greater	for	stu-         student	 enrollment	 rather	 than	 student	     	
dents	 facing	 social,	 economic,	 and/or	         attendance.
education	challenges.	                                 The	 Association	 opposes	 providing	
    m.	Funds	 must	 be	 provided	 for	 pro-        any	public	revenues	to	pre-K	through	12	
grams	 to	 alleviate	 race,	 gender,	 and	         schools	for	sectarian	instruction.	The	As-
sexual	 orientation	 discrimination	 and	 to	      sociation	also	opposes	providing	such	rev-
eliminate	 portrayal	 of	 race,	 gender,	 sex-     enues	to	sectarian	and	nonsectarian	pre-K	
ual	orientation,	and	gender	identification	        through	12	private	schools	or	to	nonpublic	
stereotypes	in	the	public	schools.                 school	students	in	pre-K	through	12	edu-
    n.	 Public	funds	must	not	be	expended	         cation,	unless	such	revenues	are	used	for	
for	 any	 materials	 used	 to	 promote	 race,	     educational	services	that	are	not	available	


                                                                                               203
Resolutions

in	public	schools	to	which	students	have	           of	 federal	 funding	 for	 elementary	 and	
reasonable	access.	(1997,	2006)                     secondary	 education	 through	 a	 program	
                                                    of	 general	 aid	 and	 categorical	 assistance	
A-15. Federal Financial Support for                 along	with	the	mandatory	full	funding	of	
Education                                           mandated	federal	programs.	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	              b.	 Federal	 education	 funding	 is	 clear	
believes	 that	 the	 federal	 government	 has	      and	identifiable	within	the	federal	budget.	
a	 legitimate	 and	 proper	 concern	 and	 re-           c.	 Federally	funded	instructional	pro-
sponsibility	for	the	quality	of	public	edu-         grams	 have	 maximum	 teacher	 involve-
cation	provided	to	its	citizens.	                   ment	 in	 their	 development	 at	 the	 federal	
    The	federal	government	should—	                 level	and	must	be	implemented	at	the	lo-
    a.	 Ensure	equity	and	adequacy	of	ed-           cal	 level	 only	 after	 the	 involvement	 and	
ucational	opportunity	for	all	                      approval	 of	 the	 recognized	 bargaining	
    b.	 Collect	 basic	 data	 to	 be	 used	 in	     agent	or	local	affiliate.	
public	schools	and	to	engage	in	research,	              d.	 Advisory	committees	for	federally	
development,	 and	 consultation	 activities	        funded	programs	reflect	the	ethnic	make-
that	support	quality	state	and	local	educa-         up	 of	 local	 communities	 and	 maintain	 a	
tion	programs                                       gender	 balance	 to	 ensure	 accountability	
    c.	 Grant	 supplemental	 aid	 to	 states	       and	 equity.	 Parents/guardians,	 students,	
that	 are	 not	 able	to	 raise	 adequate	 funds	    and	educators	should	be	included	as	mem-
to	provide	all	students	with	a	high-quality	        bers	of	these	committees.	
education	and	to	provide	funding	to	sup-                e.	 The	 amount	 of	 aid	 is	 generally	
port	 state	 and	 local	 government	 efforts	   	   predictable	 for	 long-range	 planning	 and	
in	 pursuit	 of	 national	 interests	 in	 public	   specifically	 predictable	 for	 year-to-year	
education.	                                         planning.	
    Federal	 funding	 formulas	 should	 re-             f.	 Federal	 legislation	 complies	 with	
flect	 the	 most	 current	 and	 accurate	 ac-       civil	rights	statutes	and	is	consistent	with	
counting	of	the	public	school	population;	          the	constitutional	provision	respecting	the	
measurements	of	poverty;	and	the	state’s	           establishment	of	religion	and	provides	for	
ability	to	raise	adequate	funds.	The	Asso-          judicial	review	as	to	its	constitutionality.
ciation	also	believes	that	funding	for	fed-             g.	 Categorical	 funding	 is	 assured	 in	
eral	programs	should	be	substantially	in-           areas	 such	 as	 special	 education,	 bilin-
creased,	 not	 merely	 redistributed	 among	        gual/English	 as	 a	 second	 language,	 and	
states	or	other	federal	initiatives.	               the	 economically/educationally	 disad-
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	      vantaged.	
there	should	be	federal	support	for	educa-              The	 Association	 believes	 that	 federal	
tion	whereby:	                                      monies	budgeted	for	pre-K	through	adult	
    a.	 The	 federal	 government	 assumes	          education	must	be	equitably	and	adequate-
a	 full	 partnership	 role	 with	 local	 school	    ly	expended	for	public	education.	The	As-
districts	 by	 providing	 significant	 levels	      sociation	opposes	any	federal	legislation,	


204
                                                                                    Resolutions

laws,	 or	 regulations	 that	 provide	 funds,	    private	 sectors	 should	 provide	 research	
goods,	 or	 services	 to	 sectarian	 schools.	    and	study	grants	to	higher	education	fac-
The	 Association	 also	 opposes	 providing	       ulties	in	all	academic	areas.	Such	grants	
such	funds,	goods,	or	services	to	nonsec-         should	 be	 awarded	 on	 the	 basis	 of	 merit	
tarian	private	schools	or	nonpublic	school	       without	 discrimination.	 The	 dissemina-
students	in	pre-K	through	adult	education,	       tion	of	grants	should	not	be	used	to	influ-
unless	those	funds,	goods,	or	services	are	       ence	university	decisions	and	policies.	
used	 for	 educational	 services	 that	 are	          The	Association	also	believes	that	the	
not	 available	 in	 public	 schools	 to	 which	   process	of	study	and	research	grants	pro-
students	have	reasonable	access.	The	As-          vided	should	not	influence	undergraduate	
sociation	condemns	and	deplores	federal	          or	 graduate	 curricula	 until	 such	 time	 as	
policies	and	programs	that	serve	to	under-        the	research	is	completed	and	systemati-
mine	America’s	historical	commitment	to	          cally	integrated	into	the	curricula.	
free	public	education.	(1983,	2007)                   The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
                                                  our	 national	 economic	 well-being	 is	 de-
A-16. Financial Support for                       pendent	upon	the	expansion	of	the	highest	
Postsecondary Education                           quality	research	and	training	in	our	pro-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	        fessional	and	graduate	schools	as	well	as	
supports	 the	 maintenance	 and	 expansion	       the	recruitment	and	training	of	a	diverse	
of	 funding	 for	 postsecondary	 education,	      and	highly	skilled	workforce.	
including	 programs	 of	 institutional	 and	          The	Association	believes	that	academ-
scholar	support,	research	grants,	support	        ic	 freedom	 applies	 to	 research	 and	 the	
for	historically	Black	and	developing	in-         dissemination	 of	 research	 results.	 (1985,	
stitutions,	and	student	financial	assistance	     2001)
to	assure	access	and	choice	for	all	quali-
fied	 students—regardless	 of	 personal	 fi-      A-18. Financial Crisis
nancial	means—who	wish	to	pursue	post-                 The	 National	 Education	 Association	
secondary	 education.	 The	 Association	          believes	 that	 free	 public	 education	 is	 in	
believes	that	student	need	and	enrollment	        a	 financial	 crisis.	 The	 Association	 seeks	
should	 be	 criteria	 for	 funding	 postsec-      to	maintain	and	expand	educational	pro-
ondary	 education.	 The	 Association	 also	       grams	 for	 students	 by	 advocating	 ade-
believes	that	need-based	student	financial	       quate	and	equitable	public	and	legislative	
assistance	should	be	available	through	all	       financial	 support.	 The	 Association	 also	
postsecondary	education	institutions	and	         believes	 that	 quality	 education	 requires	
governmental	agencies.	(1986,	1998)               adequate	 personnel,	 teaching	 materials,	
                                                  and	supplies	as	priorities	to	be	considered	
A-17. Higher Education Research                   in	the	event	of	financial	crisis.	
and Study Grants                                       The	Association	opposes	the	establish-
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	         ment	of	ad	hoc	classrooms	in	the	event	of	
believes	 that	 both	 the	 governmental	 and	     school	closures.	(1975,	2002)


                                                                                             205
Resolutions

A-19. Public Education/National                     A-21. Educational/Economic
Defense                                             Stability of States
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	               The	 National	 Education	 Association	
believes	 that	 maintenance	 of	 a	 strong	         believes	 that	 the	 educational	 well-being	
system	of	public	education	is	paramount	            of	the	country	depends	upon	the	econom-
to	maintaining	a	strong	national	defense.	          ic	health	of	each	of	the	regions,	states,	and	
Whenever	 there	 is	 a	 redirection	 of	 re-        localities.	
sources	 from	 military	 purposes,	 the	 As-            The	Association	supports	efforts	to	al-
sociation	 supports	 a	 policy	 of	 economic	       leviate	 the	 effects	 of	 unemployment	 and	
conversion	 to	 facilitate	 the	 orderly	 redi-     supports	 retraining	 and	 appropriate	 job-
rection	 of	 such	 resources	 to	 alternative	      creation	legislation.	
civilian	uses,	with	public	education	being	             The	Association	also	supports	efforts	to	
one	of	the	highest	priorities.	(1985,	2007)         correct	policies	that	contribute	to	the	par-
                                                    ticular	economic	difficulties	of	individual	
A-20. Federal Impact Aid                            regions,	states,	and	localities.	(1981,	1993)
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	
supports	funding	to	maintain	quality	edu-           A-22. Tax Reform
cation	for	students	in	school	districts	im-            The	 National	 Education	 Association	
pacted	 by	 federal	 policies,	 lands,	 activi-     supports	 tax	 reform	 and	 believes	 that	 it	
ties,	 and	 installations.	 A	 financial	 crisis	   should—	
exists	 in	 many	 impacted	 areas	 because	     	      a.	 Increase	tax	fairness	and	raise	rev-
of	 insufficient,	 temporary,	 year-to-year	        enue	 necessary	 to	 finance	 quality	 public	
appropriations.	                                    education	and	other	public	services	
    The	 Association	 urges	 a	 permanent	             b.	 Prevent	excessive	reliance	on	prop-
solution	 to	 the	 financial	 problems	 of	 se-     erty	tax	or	any	other	single	tax	
verely	impacted	school	districts,	ensuring	            c.	 Reflect	the	findings	of	comprehen-
federal	support	at	least	to	the	degree	that	        sive	 studies	 of	 the	 total	 individual	 and	
their	local	revenues	are	impaired	or	their	         corporate	tax	burden	
costs	increased.	                                      d.	 Assure	 a	 tax	 burden	 distribution	
    The	Association	endorses	the	concept	           that	 reflects	 the	 ability	 to	 pay	 and	 that	
of	 a	 national	 payments-in-lieu-of-taxes	         safeguards	family	subsistence
program.	 This	 endorsement	 does	 not	 af-            e.	 Assure	that	statewide	uniformity	in	
fect	 the	 Association’s	 continued	 support	       property	tax	effort	be	required	
of	 current	 impact	 aid	 programs.	 The	              f.	 Provide	 for	 increased	 local	 and	
establishment	 of	 any	 payments-in-lieu	           state	funding	of	public	education	
program	 should	 not	 adversely	 affect	 any	          g.	 Not	be	used	to	place	arbitrary	max-
locality	 currently	 receiving	 impact	 aid.	       imum	limits	on	any	state	or	local	govern-
(1970,	1994)                                        ment’s	ability	to	spend	or	tax,	particularly	
                                                    since	 such	 limits	 have	 a	 negative	 impact	
                                                    on	the	full	funding	of	schools	


206
                                                                                     Resolutions

   h.	 Eliminate	tax	laws	and	rulings	that	           f.	 Has	 not	 been	 agreed	 to	 by	 the	 af-
are	 harmful	 to	 education	 employees	 and	       fected	affiliate.	(2000)
educational	needs.	(1978,	1996)
                                                   A-24. Voucher Plans and Tuition
A-23. Privatization and                            Tax Credits
Subcontracting Programs†                               The	 National	 Education	 Association	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	         believes	 that	 voucher	 plans,	 tuition	 tax	
believes	 in	 promoting	 the	 importance	 of	      credits,	 or	 other	 funding/financial	 ar-
quality	 public	 education,	 the	 principle	       rangements	that	use	tax	monies	to	subsi-
of	 separation	 of	 church	 and	 state,	 the	      dize	pre-K	through	12	private	school	edu-
economic	 security	 of	 public	 education	         cation	 can	 undermine	 public	 education;	
employees,	 and	 racial	 integration	 in	 the	     reduce	the	support	 needed	to	adequately	
public	schools.	                                   fund	public	education;	cause	racial,	eco-
    The	Association	opposes	any	privatiza-         nomic,	and	social	segregation	of	students;	
tion	or	subcontracting	arrangement	that—	          and	threaten	the	constitutional	separation	
    a.	 Has	the	potential	to	reduce	the	re-        of	church	and	state	that	has	been	a	corner-
sources	that	otherwise	would	be	available	         stone	of	American	democracy.	
to	 achieve	 and/or	 maintain	 a	 system	 of	          The	 Association	 opposes	 voucher	
quality	 public	 education	 or	 the	 potential	    plans,	 tuition	 tax	 credits,	 or	 other	 such	
to	otherwise	negatively	impact	on	public	          funding	arrangements	that	pay	for	students	
education	                                         to	attend	sectarian	schools.	The	Associa-
    b.	 Allows	public	funds	to	be	used	for	        tion	also	opposes	any	such	arrangements	
religious	education	or	other	religious	pur-        that	pay	for	students	to	attend	nonsectar-
poses	or	thatotherwise	weakens	the	wall	           ian	 pre-K	 through	 12	 private	 schools	 in	
of	separation	between	church	and	state             order	 to	 obtain	 educational	 services	 that	
    c.	 Places	 the	 economic	 security	 of	       are	available	to	them	in	public	schools	to	
public	education	employees	at	risk,	with-          which	they	have	reasonable	access.	
out	regard	to	individual	job	performance,	             The	Association	also	believes	that	any	
so	that	the	services	in	question	can	be	per-       private	 school	 or	 agency	 that	 receives	
formed	by	private	sector	employees	                public	 funding	 through	 voucher	 plans,	
    d.	 Replaces	 services	 that	 are,	 or	        tax	credits,	or	other	funding/financial	ar-
could	feasibly	be,	provided	by	the	public	         rangements	must	be	subject	to	all	account-
schools	                                           ability	measures	and	regulations	required	
    e.	 Has	 the	 purpose	 or	 effect	 of	 caus-   of	public	schools.	(1970,	2003)
ing	 or	 maintaining	 racial	 segregation	 in	
the	public	schools	                                A-25. Deleterious Programs
                                                      The	 National	 Education	 Association	
†
                                                   believes	 that	 tax	 credit	 programs,	 man-
 	See	the	Policy	Statement	on	Privatization	and	
Subcontracting	adopted	by	the	2000	Representa-     agement-by-objective	 systems,	 block	
tive	Assembly.	                                    grants,	 and	 revenue	 sharing	 programs	


                                                                                              207
Resolutions

have	at	times	been	implemented	in	ways	            organizations	 whose	 boards	 represent	
that	are	harmful	to	public	education.	The	         local	 community	 and	 education	 leaders.	
Association	 also	 believes	 that	 such	 pro-      Each	LEF	is	unique	in	its	operation	with	
grams	 should	 be	 monitored	 to	 prevent	         the	 purpose	 of	 generating	 resources	 for	
such	abuses.	(1974,	2000)                          local	public	education	programs.
                                                       The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
A-26. For-Profit Schools                           LEFs	 should	 be	 separate	 from	 the	 local	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	          board	 of	 education	 and	 district	 adminis-
believes	that	there	is	an	inherent	conflict	       tration	 and	 must	 not	 supplant	 local	 bud-
between	serving	the	needs	of	children	and	         gets.	 The	 Association	 further	 believes	
serving	 the	 needs	 of	 stockholders	 in	 an	     that	 education	 employees	 in	 positions	
educational	 setting,	 and	 opposes	 educa-        within	 an	 LEF-funded	 program	 must	 be	
tion	for	profit.	(2000)                            a	part	of	an	existing	collective	bargaining	
                                                   unit	 or,	 in	 nonbargaining	 jurisdictions,	
A-27. Funding for Extracurricular                  must	be	subject	to	the	existing	legislation,	
Programs                                           employer	policy,	and/or	other	sources	that	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	          establish	the	terms	and	conditions	of	em-
believes	that	 every	 public	 school	 student	     ployment.	 The	 Association	 believes	 that	
must	have	an	opportunity	to	participate	in	        projects	and	programs	developed	by	LEFs	
school-sanctioned	 and	 funded	 extracur-          must	not	replace	current	educational	pro-
ricular	programs.	                                 grams	offered	by	the	district	and	must	not	
   The	 Association	 urges	 that	 equi-            displace	members	from	assignments	held	
table	 funds	 for	 transportation,	 facilities,	   in	the	district.	The	district	must	be	reim-
equipment,	 and	 remuneration	 of	 staff	 be	      bursed	for	the	use	of	facilities,	resources,	
provided	 for	 all	 school-sanctioned	 extra-      or	services	at	the	full	rate.
curricular	 activities.	 Funding	 should	 be	          The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
equitably	distributed	between	athletic	and	        LEFs	 should	 grant	 awards	 to	 education	
nonathletic	extracurricular	activities.	The	       employees	 in	 a	 fair,	 equitable,	 and	 non-
Association	 also	 believes	 that	 extracur-       discriminatory	 process.	 LEFs	 should	
ricular	 fundraising	 is	 not	 an	 acceptable	     establish,	 publish,	 and	 implement	 clear	
substitute	for	district	funding	of	extracur-       guidelines	for	granting	awards.	
ricular	activities.	(1975,	2001)                       The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
                                                   education	 employees	 included	 in	 LEF	
A-28. Local Education Foundations                  grant	 programs	 must	 be	 protected	 from	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	          reproach	 by	 school	 and/or	 community	
believes	that	local	education	foundations	         members.	(2006,	2007)
(LEFs)	can	strengthen	the	educational	ob-
jectives	of	a	school	system	by	supporting	
programs	that	will	enhance	the	approved	
                                         	
school	 curriculum.	 LEFs	 are	 nonprofit	


208
                                                                                     Resolutions

QUALITY EDUCATION                                  The	Association	believes	that	acceptable	
                                                   charter	schools,	which	comply	with	Asso-
A-29. Educational Bureaucracy                      ciation	 criteria,	 and	 other	 nontraditional	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	          public	school	options	have	the	potential	to	
believes	 that	 expanding	 the	 educational	       facilitate	 reforms,	 such	 as	 decentralized	
bureaucracy	severely	limits	optimal	class-         and	shared	decision	making,	diversity	in	
room	 instruction.	 Affiliates	 should	 work	      educational	offerings,	and	the	removal	of	
toward	 a	 teacher-led	 educational	 system	       onerous	 administrative	 requirements.	 By	
that	will	reduce	bureaucracy.	(1977,	1996)         developing	 new	 and	 creative	 methods	 of	
                                                   teaching	 and	 learning	 that	 can	 be	 repli-
A-30. Improving and Maintaining                    cated	in	mainstream	public	schools,	these	
Educational Facilities                             schools	may	be	agents	for	positive	change.	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	         The	Association	also	believes	that,	when	
believes	 that	 many	 educational	 facilities	     concepts	 such	 as	 charter	 schools	 and	
are	 in	 a	 state	 of	 decay,	 neglect,	 and/or	   other	 nontraditional	 school	 options	 are	
deterioration.	 The	 Association	 supports	        proposed,	 affected	 public	 education	 em-
funding	 to	 modernize,	 expand,	 replace,	        ployees	should	be	directly	involved	in	the	
and/or	 maintain	 these	 facilities	 in	 order	    design,	 implementation,	 and	 governance	
to	 provide	 a	 safe,	 healthy,	 and	 effective	   of	these	programs.	
teaching	 and	 learning	 environment	 for	             The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
students	and	education	employees.	                 plans	 should	 not	 negatively	 impact	 the	
    The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	        regular	 public	 school	 program	 and	 must	
the	 community,	 parents/guardians,	 stu-          include	 adequate	 safeguards	 covering	
dents,	 and	 education	 employees	 must	 be	       contract	 and	 employment	 provisions	 for	
effectively	 involved	 in	 the	 development	       all	 employees,	 voluntary	 participation,	
of	plans	to	modernize,	expand,	and/or	re-          health	 and	 safety	 standards	 for	 all	 stu-
place	facilities.	                                 dents	 and	 employees,	 nondiscrimination	
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	     and	equal	educational	opportunity,	staff-
preventive	maintenance	in	all	facilities	is	       ing	 by	 licensed	 education	 professionals,	
equally	important	in	achieving	this	goal.	         and	financial	responsibility.	
(1969,	2003)                                           The	 Association	 believes	 that	 pro-
                                                   grams	 must	 be	 adequately	 funded,	 must	
A-31. Acceptable Charter Schools                   comply	 with	 all	 standards	 for	 academic	
and Other Nontraditional Public                    assessment	 applicable	 to	 regular	 public	
School Options†                                    schools,	 must	 include	 start-up	 resources,	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	          must	 not	 divert	 current	 funds	 from	 the	
supports	 innovation	 in	 public	 education.	      regular	public	school	programs,	and	must	
                                                   contain	appropriate	procedures	 for	regu-
†
  	See	the	Policy	Statement	on	Charter	Schools	    lar	periodic	assessment	and	evaluation,	as	
adopted	by	the	2001	Representative	Assembly.



                                                                                             209
Resolutions

well	 as	 adequate	 attendance	 and	 record	            i.	 Charter	schools	should	be	nonsec-
keeping	procedures.	                                tarian	in	nature.
    The	 granting	 of	 charters	 should	 be	            j.	 Private	 schools	 should	 not	 be	 able	
consistent	with	the	following	principles:	          to	convert	to	charter	school	status.	If	state	
    a.	 Charter	 schools	 should	 serve	 as	        law	allows	such	conversions,	the	charter-
a	 laboratory	 for	 field-testing	 curricular	      ing	 agency	 should	 ensure	 that	 the	 con-
and	 instructional	 innovations	 and/or	 to	        verted	school	is	significantly	different	in	
provide	educational	opportunities	for	stu-          student	 body,	 governance,	 and	 education	
dents	who	cannot	adequately	be	served	in	           program	than	its	predecessor.	This	assur-
mainstream	public	schools.	                         ance	should	be	especially	vigorous	in	the	
    b.	 Charter	 school	 programs	 must	 be	        case	of	schools	with	prior	religious	affili-
qualitatively	different	from	what	is	avail-         ation.	
able	in	mainstream	public	schools	and	not	              k.	 Charters	 should	 be	 granted	 for	 a	
just	an	avenue	for	parental	choice.                 limited	 period,	with	five	 years	being	 the	
    c.	 Local	school	boards	should	be	the	          norm.	
only	entity	that	can	grant	or	renew	charter	            l.	 Charter	 schools	 should	 be	 moni-
applications.	                                      tored	on	a	continuing	basis	and	the	char-
    d.	 The	 criteria	 for	 granting	 a	 charter	   ter	 should	 be	 subject	 to	 modification	 or	
should	include	a	description	of	clear	ob-           revocation	at	any	time	if	the	children’s	or	
jectives,	 missions,	 and	 goals.	 Renewal	         the	public’s	interest	is	at	stake.	
of	 a	 charter	 should	 be	 contingent	 on	 the	        m.	Charters	should	not	be	granted	un-
achievement	of	these	objectives,	missions,	         less	the	chartering	agency	is	satisfied	that	
and	goals.                                          adequate	startup	resources	will	be	avail-
    e.	 Appeals	 of	 local	 school	 board	 de-      able.
cisions	 in	 charter	 applications	 should	 be	         n.	 Charter	 schools	 should	 secure	 in-
made	to	a	state	education	agency	but	ap-            surance	 for	 liability,	 financial	 loss,	 and	
peals	should	be	heard	only	on	the	grounds	          property	 loss.	 A	 school	 district	 should	
of	 arbitrary,	 capricious,	 or	 unreasonable	      not	 be	 responsible	 for	 debts	 of	 a	 charter	
decision	 making,	 not	 on	 the	 educational	       school,	except	for	debts	previously	agreed	
judgment	of	the	local	school	board.	                upon	 in	 writing	 by	 both	 the	 district	 and	
    f.	 Private,	 for-profit	 entities	 should	     the	governing	body	of	the	charter	school.	
not	be	eligible	to	receive	a	charter.	                  o.	 School	 boards	 must	 be	 authorized	
    g.	 Charter	schools	should	have	a	lim-          to	 deny	 applications	 that	 do	 financial	
ited	right	to	contract	with	for-profit	enti-        harm	to	the	authorizing	school	districts.
ties	 for	 services	 only	 to	 the	 extent	 that	       Charter	 schools	 should	 be	 designed	
mainstream	public	schools	can	do	so.	               and	operated	in	accordance	with	the	fol-
    h.	 Charters	should	not	be	granted	for	         lowing	principles:
the	 purpose	 of	 home	 schooling,	 includ-             a.	 Charter	 schools	 may	 have	 flexibil-
ing	providing	services	over	the	Internet	to	        ity	 within	 the	 requirements	 of	 law	 deal-
home	schooled	students.	                            ing	with	curriculum,	instruction,	staffing,	


210
                                                                                         Resolutions

budget,	 internal	 organization,	 calendar,	         educating	the	student.	Indirect	screening	
and	schedule.                                        such	as	denying	admission	because	of	the	
    b.	 Charter	 schools	 must	 meet	 the	           cost	 of	 transportation	 of	 a	 student	 shall	
same	requirements	as	mainstream	public	              not	be	permitted.	
schools	 with	 regard	 to	 licensure/certifi-            i.	 Charter	 schools	 should	 meet	 the	
cation	 and	 other	 requirements	 of	 teach-         needs	of	at-risk	students	and	those	students	
ers	 and	 education	 employees,	 health	 and	        requiring	special	education	services.
safety,	 public	 records	 and	 meetings,	 fi-            j.		 Employment	 in	 a	 charter	 school	
nance	 and	 auditing,	 student	 assessment,	         should	 be	 voluntary.	 Employees	 in	 con-
civil	rights,	and	labor	relations.                   version	charter	schools	should	be	afforded	
    c.	 Teachers	 and	 education	 support	           an	opportunity	to	transfer	to	a	comparable	
professionals	should	be	considered	public	           position	 at	 another	 mainstream	 public	
employees.	                                          school.	
    d.	 Teachers	 and	 education	 support	               k.	 Charter	schools	should	not	dispro-
professionals	 should	 have	 the	 same	 con-         portionately	divert	resources	from	main-
stitutional	 and	 statutory	 rights	 as	 other	      stream	 public	 schools.	 Charter	 schools	
public	employees.	                                   should	receive	the	same	amount	of	money	
    e.	 Charter	 schools	 should	 be	 subject	       as	a	comparable	mix	of	students	in	a	main-
to	 the	 same	 public	 sector	 labor	 relations	     stream	 public	 school.	 Adequate	 funds	
laws	 as	 mainstream	 public	 schools	 and	          must	be	available	for	capital	expenditures	
charter	school	employees	should	have	the	            such	as	buildings	and	equipment	that	do	
same	 collective	 bargaining	 rights	 under	         not	come	from	the	operating	budget	of	the	
law	 and	 local	 practice	 as	 their	 counter-       charter	school	or	the	host	district.	(1993,	
parts	in	mainstream	public	schools.	                 2007)
    f.	 Students	should	not	be	charged	tu-
ition	or	required	to	pay	a	fee	to	attend	a	          A-32. Takeover of Public Schools or
charter	school.	                                     Public School Districts
    g.	 Students	should	not	be	involuntari-              The	 National	 Education	 Association	
ly	assigned	to	attend	a	charter	school.	             believes	 that	 the	 locally	 elected	 school	
    h.	 Charter	 schools	 should	 have	 some	        board	should	govern	the	school	district	to	
discretion	 in	 selecting	 or	 rejecting	 stu-       provide	an	educational	program	designed	
dents	if	they	are	designed	to	serve	a	tar-           to	meet	the	needs	of	all	students	in	the	dis-
geted	 student	 population.	 Students	 shall	        trict.	School	boards	of	public	school	dis-
not	 be	 screened	 on	 the	 basis	 of	 race,	 re-    tricts	undergoing	a	program	improvement	
ligion,	 gender,	 sexual	 orientation	 and/or	       process	 should	 maintain	 their	 authority	
gender	 identification,	 English-language	           over	school	district	business	as	duly	elect-
proficiency,	 family	 income,	 athletic	         	   ed	officials	of	the	school	district.
ability,	 special	 needs,	 parental	 involve-            The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	 if	
ment	 in	 school	 affairs,	 intellectual	 po-        a	 takeover	 of	 a	 public	 school	 or	 a	 public	
tential,	academic	achievement,	or	cost	of	           school	 district	 occurs,	 current	 collective	


                                                                                                  211
Resolutions

bargaining	 agreements	 and	 due	 process	         A-34. School Restructuring
rights	must	be	maintained.	Employees	of	              The	 National	 Education	 Association	
these	public	schools	and	public	school	dis-        believes	 that	 school	 restructuring	 efforts	
tricts	should	remain	bargaining	unit	mem-          must	 employ	 a	 democratic	 process	 that	
bers	of	local,	state,	and	national	affiliates.     meaningfully	 involves	 local	 associations	
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	     and	 other	 stakeholders	 in	 all	 decision	
federal,	state,	and	local	support	should	be	       making.	Such	efforts	must	–	
given	to	public	schools	and	public	school	            a.	 Adhere	 to	 collectively	 bargained	
districts	undergoing	a	 program	improve-           labor	agreements
ment	process.	Support	should	also	be	pro-             b.	 Comply	with	all	appropriate	school	
vided	by	local	and	state	affiliates,	as	well	      board	policies
as	the	Association.                                   c.	 Provide	 the	 funding	 necessary	 to	
    The	Association	believes	that	if	char-         implement	and	sustain	the	restructuring
ter	 schools	 are	 created	 to	 replace	 public	      d.	 Weigh	the	consequences	of	restruc-
schools	 that	 have	 been	 taken	 over,	 they	     turing	on	all	students,	education	employ-
must	 follow	 all	 current	 laws	 regarding	       ees,	 the	 entire	 school	 system,	 and	 the	
charter	schools	and	comply	with	the	As-            community.	(2006)
sociation’s	criteria	for	acceptable	charter	
schools.	(2006)                                    A-35. Media Utilization
                                                       The	National	Education	Association	be-
A-33. Federally or State-Mandated                  lieves	that	the	broadcasting	industry	must	
Choice/Parental Option Plans                       serve	 the	 public	 interest	 and	 educational	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	         process.	 The	 Association	 encourages	 the	
believes	that	federally	or	state-mandated	         creative	 and	 innovative	 use	 of	 media	 for	
parental	 option	 or	 choice	 plans	 compro-       improving	 instruction.	 It	 is	 essential	 that	
mise	free,	equitable,	universal,	and	qual-         teachers	or	their	designees	have	the	right	
ity	 public	 education	 for	 every	 student.	      to	 record	 programs	 off	 the	 air	 and	 play	
Therefore,	 the	 Association	 opposes	 such	       them	back	on	a	delayed	basis	sufficient	to	
federally	or	state-mandated	choice	or	pa-          meet	the	needs	of	effective	teaching.	
rental	option	plans.	                                  The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
    The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	        the	 Public	 Broadcasting	 Service	 (PBS),	
local	 districts,	 in	 partnership	 with	 state	   National	 Public	 Radio	 (NPR),	 and	 ex-
and	federal	governments,	must	provide	a	           panding	 cable	 television	 (CATV)	 should	
quality	education	for	every	student	by	se-         provide	communication	services	for	edu-
curing	sufficient	funding	to	maintain	and	         cation.	 Federal	 regulations	 should	 guar-
enhance	 excellence	 in	 each	 local	 public	      antee	the	reservation	of	at	least	20	percent	
school	district.	                                  of	the	channel	capacity	of	CATV	systems	
    The	 Association	 supports	 alternative	       for	public	school	access	and	other	public	
programs	 for	 specific	 purposes	 in	 the	        purposes.	
public	schools.	(1989,	2001)                           The	Association	urges	its	affiliates	to	


212
                                                                                      Resolutions

become	 involved	 in	 the	 program	 devel-         should	 be	 concerned	 about	 the	 quality	
opment	 and	 utilization	 of	 each	 of	 these	     of	 life	 in	 our	 cities	 and	 should	 advocate	
media	 resources.	 The	 Association	 also	         policies	or	programs	concerning	land	use,	
urges	 continued	 local,	 state,	 and	 federal	    zoning,	 urban	 development,	 economic	
financial	support	for	public	broadcasting.	        growth,	plant	closings,	mass	transit,	rent	
(1981,	1996)                                       subsidy,	 or	 other	 issues	 vitally	 affecting	
                                                   patterns	 of	 community	 development	 and	
A-36. Community Education                          subsequently	 the	 quality	 of	 education	 in	
    The	National	Education	Association	be-         our	schools.	(1974,	1988)
lieves	that	the	concept	of	community	edu-
cation	encourages	schools	to	provide	lead-         A-39. U.S. Federal Schools
ership	in	solving	community	problems.	                The	 National	 Education	 Association	
    The	 Association	 urges	 its	 state	 affili-   believes	 that	 all	 federal	 schools,	 except	
ates	to	become	involved	in	the	promotion,	         those	under	the	control	of	the	Bureau	of	
expansion,	 and	 implementation	 of	 com-          Indian	 Affairs,	 should	 come	 under	 the	
munity	education	programs	in	their	states.	        auspices	of	the	U.S.	Department	of	Edu-
(1977,	1986)                                       cation.	
                                                      The	Association	also	believes	that	all	
A-37. Rural Education                              dependents	 of	 U.S.	 government	 employ-
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	          ees	in	Department	of	Defense	Education	
supports	 a	 strong	 rural	 educational	 sys-      Activity	 (DoDEA)	 schools	 should	 be	 af-
tem	 and	 the	 preservation	 of	 the	 commu-       forded	 the	 opportunity	 to	 attend	 such	
nity	infrastructure	in	rural	America.	             schools	and	opposes	any	attempt	by	Con-
   The	 Association	 believes	 that	 rural	        gress	 to	 privatize	 these	 federal	 schools.	
areas	 contain	 a	 range	 of	 conditions	 that	    (1980,	2002)
make	 them	 unique	 and	 supports	 the	 de-
velopment	 of	 programs	 that	 recognize	          B. ADVANCE THE CAUSE OF PUBLIC
and	 deal	 with	 rural	 needs.	 The	 Associa-      EDUCATION FOR ALL INDIVIDUALS
tion	recognizes	that	equal	per	pupil	fund-
ing	may	not	provide	equal	education.	The	          LIFELONG LEARNING
Association	also	believes	in	equal	educa-
tional	programs	and	the	equitable	funding	         B-1. Early Childhood Education†
of	such	programs,	and	that	neither	should	            The	 National	 Education	 Associa-
be	 dependent	 on	 geographical	 location,	        tion	 supports	 early	 childhood	 education	   	
density	of	population,	or	consolidation	of	        programs	 in	 the	 public	 schools	 for	 chil-
rural	schools.	(1976,	1997)                        dren	 from	 birth	 through	 age	 eight.	 The	

A-38. Urban Development                            †
                                                    	See	the	Policy	Statement	on	Kindergarten	and	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	          Pre-Kindergarten	adopted	by	the	2003	Represen-
believes	 that	 professional	 organizations	       tative	Assembly.



                                                                                               213
Resolutions

Association	 also	 supports	 a	 high-quality	         The	 Association	 recognizes	 the	 im-
program	 of	 transition	 from	 home	 and/or	      portance	 of	 parental	 involvement	 in	 a	
preschool	 to	 the	 public	 kindergarten	 or	     child’s	 development.	 The	 Association	
first	grade.	This	transition	should	include	      further	supports	the	provision	of	training	
communication	 and	 cooperation	 among	           programs	 that	 prepare	 parents/guardians	
parents/guardians,	 the	 preschool	 staff,	       to	take	an	active	role	in	the	child’s	educa-
and	the	public	school	staff.	The	Associa-         tion.	 These	 programs	 should	 provide	 an	
tion	 believes	 that	 such	 programs	 should	     awareness	of	the	expectations	that	will	be	
be	 held	 in	 facilities	 that	 are	 appropri-    placed	 on	 the	 child	 as	 well	 as	 familiar-
ate	 to	 the	 developmental	 needs	 of	 these	    ization	with	new	policies	and	procedures	
children.	 The	 Association	 also	 believes	      that	the	child	will	experience	in	the	new	
that	early	childhood	education	programs	          environment.	
should	 include	 a	 full	 continuum	 of	 ser-         The	Association	also	believes	that	fed-
vices	for	parents/guardians	and	children,	        eral	legislation	should	be	enacted	to	assist	
including	 child-care,	 child	 development,	      in	organizing	the	implementation	of	fully	
developmentally	appropriate	and	diversi-          funded	 early	 childhood	 education	 pro-
ty-based	curricula,	special	education,	and	       grams	offered	through	the	public	schools.	
appropriate	 bias-free	 screening	 devices.	      These	 programs	 must	 be	 available	 to	 all	
Early	childhood	education	programs	also	          children	on	an	equal	basis	and	should	in-
must	 be	 sensitive	 to	 and	 meet	 the	 physi-   clude	mandatory	kindergarten	with	com-
cal,	social,	mental,	and	emotional	health	        pulsory	attendance.	
and	nutritional	needs	of	children.	                   The	 Association	 supports	 regulations	
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	    requiring	 children	 starting	 kindergarten	
early	 childhood	 education	 programs	            to	have	reached	age	five	at	the	beginning	
should	 maintain	 small	 group	 size	 with	       of	a	kindergarten	program.	
appropriate	staff/child	ratios	for	each	age	          The	 Association	 advocates	 the	 estab-
level.	These	programs	must	be	staffed	by	         lishment	of	fully	funded	early	childhood	
the	appropriate	ratio	of	teachers,	adminis-       special	 education	 programs.	 These	 pro-
trators,	and	support	staff	who	are	prepared	      grams	 and	 necessary	 services	 should	 be	
in	early	childhood	education	and	child	de-        readily	 accessible	 for	 children	 with	 dis-
velopment.	 When	 two	 half-day	 sessions	        abilities	and	staffed	by	certified/licensed	
are	taught	by	one	teacher,	the	total	class	       teachers,	qualified	support	staff,	and	ther-
load	for	both	sessions	should	not	exceed	         apists.	(1975,	2003)
the	 number	 of	 students	 in	 a	 first-grade	
class.	 Males	 should	 be	 encouraged	 and	       B-2. Independent Reading Skills
recruited	to	enter	and	be	actively	involved	         The	 National	 Education	 Association	
in	early	childhood	education.	Preparation	        believes	that	it	is	critical	that	students	be-
programs	for	staff	should	lead	to	creden-         come	 independent	 readers	 to	 succeed	 in	
tials	consistent	with	the	educational	stan-       school	and	life.	Reading	instruction,	with	
dards	in	each	state.	                             appropriate	intervention,	especially	in	the	


214
                                                                                      Resolutions

early	 grades,	 is	 essential	 for	 learning	 in	   an	 alternate	 method	 of	 identifying	 these	
all	 content	 areas	 and	 for	 achieving	 high	     items	 of	 information	 such	 as	 numbering	
standards.	Teachers	at	all	levels	should	be	        or	labeling	the	names	of	each	color.	
provided	 adequate	 resources,	 including	              The	 Association	 encourages	 preser-
a	fully	funded	and	staffed	school	library	          vice	 preparation	 and	 staff	 development	
media	center,	and	encouraged	to	use	their	          for	 education	 employees	 that	 present	
expertise	to	address	the	diverse	needs	of	          strategies	 for	 working	 with	 color	 vision	
students.	                                          deficient	 students.	 Such	 training	 should	
    The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	         also	address	sensitizing	instructional	staff	
teachers’	 efforts	 to	 value	 and	 promote	        to	the	needs	of	color	vision	deficient	stu-
reading	 should	 be	 supported	 by	 parents/        dents.	(2004,	2005)
guardians,	 school	 library	 media	 special-
ists,	other	education	employees,	and	com-           B-5. High School Diploma/
munities.	(1998,	2005)                              Equivalency
                                                        The	 National	 Education	 Association	
B-3. Middle School and Junior High                  supports	 the	 concept	 of	 a	 high	 school	
School Programs                                     education	 for	 all	 and	 believes	 that	 every	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	          student	 should	 earn	 a	 high	 school	 diplo-
recognizes	 the	 academic,	 personal,	 and	         ma	or	its	equivalent.	The	Association	also	
special	 needs	 of	 the	 early	 adolescent	 or	     believes	in	the	value	of	academic	prepa-
middle	school	learner.	                             ration,	 school	 attendance,	 and	 social	 in-
    The	 Association	 encourages	 develop-          teraction	for	meeting	the	requirements	of	
ment	of	a	curriculum	that	establishes	re-           high	school	graduation.	
alistic	 academic	 challenges	 that	 include	           The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
character	 development,	 career	 explora-           high	 school	 equivalency	 testing	 can	 be	
tion,	 and	 self-awareness	 that	 foster	 posi-     misused	 and	 can	 have	 a	 negative	 impact	
tive	self-esteem.	                                  on	secondary	education.	The	Association	
    The	 Association	 also	 encourages	 the	        recognizes	that	in	some	instances	the	use	
development	 of	 guidance	 and	 counsel-            of	high	school	equivalency	tests	is	accept-
ing	programs	that	stimulate	parental	and	           able	 when	 the	 best	 interests	 of	 the	 stu-
community	 involvement,	 and	 promote	              dents	are	served.	
health	services.	(1976,	2005)                           The	 Association	 believes	 that	 any	
                                                    state	 or	 district	 plan	 to	 use	 equivalency	
B-4. Color Vision Deficient Students                testing	as	the	basis	for	qualification	for	a	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	          high	school	diploma	should	be	developed	
believes	 that	 the	 needs	 of	 all	 students,	     cooperatively	 by	 classroom	 teachers,	 ad-
including	 color	 vision	 deficient	 students,	     ministrators,	 and	 governing	 boards.	 The	
must	 be	 met.	 All	 educational	 materi-           plan	should	include	provisions	for	recom-
als	 that	 use	 color	 coding	 for	 referencing	    mendations	from	the	local	school	faculty.	
information	 should	 be	 accompanied	 by	           Recommendations	 should	 be	 based,	 at	


                                                                                               215
Resolutions

a	 minimum,	 upon	 achievement	 record,	          grant	 programs,	 including	 fully	 funded	
ability,	 and	 age;	 and	 should	 be	 devel-      health	 care	 insurance.	 Guaranteed	 loans	
opmentally	 appropriate	 for	 the	 student.	      should	 be	 made	 available	 for	 all	 stu-
(1976,	1995)                                      dents.	 Criteria	 for	 grants	 should	 include	
                                                  the	total	financial	situation	of	the	family,	
B-6. Adult Education                              other	family	members	currently	enrolled	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	         in	 institutions	 of	 higher	 education,	 and	
supports	 adult	 education	 programs	 that	       parents’/guardians’	 ability	 to	 contribute	
provide	 lifelong	 educational	 and	 career	      financially.	
opportunities.	 The	 Association	 recog-              The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
nizes	 the	 importance	 of	 high	 school	         clear	 admission	 and	 graduation	 stan-
completion,	 English	 language	 acquisi-          dards,	 careful	 student	 counseling,	 tuto-
tion,	parenting	education,	career	training,	      rial	and	other	support	services,	the	right	
and	 other	 adult	 education	 programs	 that	     to	 complete	 coursework	 during	 or	 after	
provide	 students	 with	 an	 opportunity	 to	     the	quarter/semester	missed	due	to	docu-
become	productive,	effective,	and	respon-         mented	extended	illness,	active	participa-
sible	 parents,	 citizens,	 and	 community	       tion	of	students	in	their	own	learning,	and	
members.	(2006)                                   a	thoughtfully	articulated	curriculum	can	
                                                  significantly	 help	 increase	 the	 number	   	
B-7. Higher Education                             of	students	successfully	completing	their	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	        degrees.	
supports	 higher	 education	 as	 an	 essen-           The	 Association	 believes	 that	 all	
tial	 part	 of	 the	 education	 process.	 The	    courses	 must	 be	 offered	 with	 sufficient	
Association	 believes	 that	 postsecondary	       frequency	 and	 with	 a	 sufficient	 number	
education	 serves	 an	 invaluable	 function	      of	sections	to	enable	students	to	graduate	
for	 intellectual	 development,	 research	        within	 the	 time	 prescribed	 for	 each	 pro-
and	 scholarship,	 career	 preparation,	 and	     gram.	(1980,	2002)
preparation	for	life.	
    The	 Association	 also	 supports	 access	     EDUCATIONAL EQUITY
to	postsecondary	programs	for	all	quali-
fied	 students	 without	 regard	 to	 age,	 gen-   B-8. Class Size
der,	sexual	orientation,	gender	identifica-           The	 National	 Education	 Association	
tion,	disability,	race,	military	registration	    believes	that	excellence	in	the	classroom	
status,	or	ability	to	pay.	The	Association	       can	best	be	attained	by	small	class	size.	
also	 believes	 that	 postsecondary	 institu-         The	 Association	 also	 believes	 in	 an	
tions	should	not	penalize	degree-holding	         optimum	 class	 size	 of	 fifteen	 students	
students	who	return	to	upgrade	or	develop	        in	 regular	 programs	 and	 a	 proportion-
new	skills.	                                      ately	 lower	 number	 in	 programs	 for	 stu-
    The	 Association	 further	 supports	 ful-     dents	 with	 exceptional	 needs.	 Class	 size	
ly	 funded,	 guaranteed	 student	 loan	 and	      maximums	must	be	based	on	the	type	of	       	


216
                                                                                       Resolutions

students,	 subject	 area	 content,	 physical	       population	is	essential	for	all	elementary/
facilities,	 and	 other	 criteria.	 Weighted	       secondary	 schools,	 colleges,	 and	 univer-
class	size	formulas	should	be	implement-            sities	 to	 promote	 racial	 acceptance,	 im-
ed	 to	 reflect	 the	 inclusion	 of	 exceptional	   prove	 academic	 performance,	 and	 foster	
students.	 State	 departments	 of	 education	       a	robust	exchange	of	ideas.	The	Associa-
should	 collect	 and	 report	 class	 size	 data	    tion	 also	 believes	 that	 a	 racially	 diverse	
that	 reflect	 the	class	size	 experienced	by	      student	population	may	not	be	achieved	or	
most	students.	(1982,	1997)                         maintained	in	all	cases	simply	by	ending	
                                                    discriminatory	 practices	 and	 treating	 all	
B-9. Diversity                                      students	equally	regardless	of	race.	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	              The	Association	further	believes	that,	
believes	that	a	diverse	society	enriches	all	       to	achieve	or	maintain	racial	diversity,	it	
individuals.	 Similarities	 and	 differences	       may	be	necessary	for	elementary/second-
among	race,	ethnicity,	color,	national	ori-         ary	 schools,	 colleges,	 and	 universities	 to	
gin,	 language,	 geographic	 location,	 reli-       take	 race	 into	 account	 in	 making	 deci-
gion,	 gender,	 sexual	 orientation,	 gender	       sions	 as	 to	 student	 admissions,	 assign-
identification,	 age,	 physical	 ability,	 size,	   ments,	and/or	transfers.	(1999)
occupation,	and	marital,	parental,	or	eco-
nomic	status	form	the	fabric	of	a	society.	         B-11. Racism, Sexism, Sexual
    The	Association	also	believes	that	edu-         Orientation, and Gender
cation	should	foster	the	values	of	appreci-         Identification Discrimination
ation	and	acceptance	of	the	various	quali-              The	 National	 Education	 Association	
ties	 that	 pertain	 to	 people	 as	 individuals	   believes	in	the	equality	of	all	individuals.	
and	as	members	of	diverse	populations.	             Discrimination	and	stereotyping	based	on	
    The	Association	further	believes	in	the	        such	factors	as	race,	gender,	sexual	orien-
importance	 of	 observances,	 programs,	            tation,	 gender	 identification,	 disability,	
and	curricula	that	accurately	portray	and	          ethnicity,	immigration	status,	occupation,	
recognize	 the	 roles,	 contributions,	 cul-        and	religion	must	be	eliminated.	
tures,	and	history	of	these	diverse	groups	             The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
and	individuals.                                    these	 factors	 should	 not	 affect	 the	 legal	
    The	 Association	 encourages	 affiliates	       rights	 and	 obligations	 of	 the	 partners	 in	
and	members	to	become	part	of	programs	             a	 legally	 recognized	 domestic	 partner-
and	observances	that	may	include	cultural	          ship,	civil	union,	or	marriage	in	regard	to	
and	 heritage	 celebrations	 and/or	 history	       matters	involving	the	other	partner,	such	
months.	(1995,	2002)                                as	 medical	 decisions,	 taxes,	 inheritance,	
                                                    adoption,	and	immigration.
B-10. Racial Diversity Within                           The	 Association	 further	 believes	
Student Populations                                 that	 plans,	 activities,	 and	 programs	 for	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	           education	 employees,	 students,	 parents/
believes	 that	 a	 racially	 diverse	 student	      guardians,	and	the	community	should	be	


                                                                                                217
Resolutions

developed	 to	 identify	 and	 eliminate	 dis-      and	prejudices,	including,	but	not	limited	
crimination	and	stereotyping	in	all	educa-         to,	 racism,	 sexism,	 and	 homophobia,	 that	
tional	settings.	Such	plans,	activities,	and	      might	 limit	 the	 opportunities	 and	 growth	
programs	must—	                                    of	students	and	education	employees	
    a.	 Increase	 respect,	 understanding,	            i.	 Offer	 positive	 and	 diverse	 role	
acceptance,	 and	 sensitivity	 toward	 indi-       models	 in	 our	 society,	 including	 the	 re-
viduals	 and	 groups	 in	 a	 diverse	 society	     cruitment,	 hiring,	 and	 promotion	 of	 di-
composed	of	such	groups	as	American	In-            verse	 education	 employees	 in	 our	 public	
dians/Alaska	Natives,	Asians,	Native	Ha-           schools
waiian	or	other	Pacific	Islanders,	Blacks,	            j.	 Coordinate	with	organizations	and	
Hispanics,	 women,	 gays,	 lesbians,	 bisex-       concerned	agencies	that	promote	the	con-
uals,	 transgendered	 persons,	 and	 people	       tributions,	 heritage,	 culture,	 history,	 and	
with	disabilities	                                 special	 health	 and	 care	 needs	 of	 diverse	
    b.	 Eliminate	 discrimination	 and	 ste-       population	groups	
reotyping	in	curricula,	textbooks,	resource	           k.	 Promote	a	safe	and	inclusive	envi-
and	instructional	materials,	activities,	etc.      ronment	for	all.	
    c.	 Foster	 the	 dissemination	 and	 use	  	       The	 Association	 encourages	 its	 af-
of	 nondiscriminatory	 and	 nonstereotypi-         filiates	to	develop	and	implement	training	
cal	 language,	 resources,	 practices,	 and	       programs	on	these	matters.	(1996,	2006)
activities	
    d.	 Eliminate	 institutional	 discrimi-        B-12. American Indian/Alaska
nation	                                            Native Education
    e.	 Integrate	 an	 accurate	 portrayal	 of	        The	 National	 Education	 Association	
the	 roles	 and	 contributions	 of	 all	 groups	   recognizes	 that	 the	 complex	 and	 diverse	
throughout	 history	 across	 curricula,	 par-      needs	of	American	Indian/Alaska	Native	
ticularly	groups	that	have	been	underrep-          children	 require	 the	 direct	 involvement	
resented	historically                              of	 parents/guardians,	 Native	 educators,	
    f.	 Identify	 how	 prejudice,	 stereotyp-      tribal	 leaders,	 and	 other	 Native	 groups	
ing,	 and	 discrimination	 have	 limited	 the	     in	developing	programs	that	preserve	the	
roles	and	contributions	of	individuals	and	        rich	heritage	of	their	cultures.	
groups,	 and	 how	 these	 limitations	 have	           The	Association	believes	that	funding	
challenged	and	continue	to	challenge	our	          for	 American	 Indian/Alaska	 Native	 edu-
society	                                           cation	 must	 provide	 for	 improvements.	
    g.	 Eliminate	 subtle	 practices	 that	 fa-    The	 Association	 supports	 the	 movement	
vor	the	education	of	one	student	over	an-          toward	 self-determination	 by	 American	
other	on	the	basis	of	race,	gender,	sexual	        Indians/Alaska	 Natives	 provided	 that	
orientation,	gender	identification,	disabil-       such	programs	are	voluntary.	Any	termi-
ity,	ethnicity,	or	religion                        nation	of	federal	support	as	either	a	direct	
    h.	 Encourage	all	members	of	the	educa-        or	 an	 indirect	 result	 of	 efforts	 to	 extend	
tional	community	to	examine	assumptions	           self-determination	is	opposed.	


218
                                                                                      Resolutions

    The	 Association	 also	 believes	 in	 ef-       Alaska	 Native	 organizations	 and	 con-
forts	that	provide	for—	                            cerned	agencies	that	promote	the	values,	
    a.	 Involvement	and	control	of	the	edu-         heritage,	language,	culture,	and	history	of	
cation	of	American	Indian/Alaska	Native	            American	Indian/Alaska	Native	peoples	
students	by	their	parents/guardians,	com-              l.	 Dissemination	 of	 information	 and	
munities,	and	educators                             programs	 that	 include	 the	 values,	 heri-
    b.	 Opportunities	for	higher	education	         tage,	 language,	 culture,	 and	 history	 of	
for	 all	 American	 Indian/Alaska	 Native	          American	Indians/Alaska	Natives	
students	through	direct	governmental	as-               m.	Control	of	Native	lands	by	Ameri-
sistance	 in	 graduate	 and	 undergraduate	         can	Indians/Alaska	Natives.	(1976,	2000)
programs	
    c.	 Involvement	 of	 American	 Indians/         B-13. Hispanic Education
Alaska	 Natives	 in	 lobbying	 efforts	 for	            The	 National	 Education	 Association	
federal	programs	                                   recognizes	 that	 the	 complex	 and	 diverse	
    d.	 Protection	and	maintenance	of	the	          needs	 of	 Hispanic	 children	 require	 the	
integrity	of	American	Indian/Alaska	Na-             direct	involvement	of	Hispanic	educators,	
tive	 families	 and	 their	 tribal	 cultures	 so	   parents/guardians,	 and	 community	 lead-
that,	if	a	child	has	to	be	removed	from	his	        ers	in	developing	programs	that	meet	the	
or	 her	 home,	 placement	 should	 be	 deter-       cultural,	 language,	 and	 learning	 charac-
mined	by	the	child’s	tribe	                         teristics	of	these	children.	
    e.	 Recognition	 of	 American	 Indian/              The	 Association	 believes	 in	 efforts	
Alaska	Native	educators	as	role	models	             that	provide	for—	
    f.	 Involvement	 of	 American	 Indians/             a.	 Programs	 establishing	 appropriate	
Alaska	 Natives	 in	 professional	 develop-         educational	 opportunities	 for	 Hispanic	
ment	programs	dealing	with	cultural	plu-            students	
ralism	and	Native	values	                               b.	 Grants	and	scholarships	for	higher	
    g.	 American	 Indian/Alaska	 Native	            education	 that	 will	 facilitate	 the	 recruit-
involvement	 in	 developing	 multicultur-           ment,	entry,	and	retention	of	Hispanics	
al	 learning	 centers	 at	 higher	 education	   	       c.	 Recognition	of	Hispanic	educators	
institutions	                                       as	role	models	
    h.	 English	 proficiency	 programs	 that	           d.	 Hiring	 and	 promotion	 of	 Hispanic	
are	designed	to	meet	the	language	needs	of	         educators	 at	 all	 levels	 of	 the	 education	
American	Indian/Alaska	Native	students              profession	
    i.	 Instruction	in	treaty	rights	and	tradi-         e.	 The	recruitment,	training,	and	em-
tional	hunting,	fishing,	and	gathering	prac-        ployment	of	bilingual	teachers,	counselors,	
tices	by	American	Indians/Alaska	Natives	           and	other	professional	and	support	staff	to	
    j.	 Assistance	 to	 affiliates	 in	 meeting	    meet	the	needs	of	Hispanic	students	
the	educational	needs	of	American	Indi-                 f.	 English	 proficiency	 programs	 that	
an/Alaska	Native	students                           are	designed	to	meet	the	language	needs	
    k.	 Coordination	with	American	Indian/	         of	Hispanic	students	


                                                                                               219
Resolutions

    g.	 Dissemination	 of	 information	 and	      Hawaiian	or	other	Pacific	Islander	educa-
programs	 that	 include	 the	 values,	 heri-      tors	as	role	models.	
tage,	 language,	 culture,	 and	 history	 of	         The	 Association	 encourages	 opportu-
Hispanics.	                                       nities	to	preserve,	promote,	and	perpetu-
    The	 responsibility	 for	 developing	 and	    ate	 Asian	 and	 Native	 Hawaiian	 or	 other	
implementing	 programs	 for	 Hispanic	            Pacific	 Islander	 heritage	 and	 culture.	
children	 should	 be	 realized	 by	 state	 and	   (1979,	2007)
local	agencies,	regardless	of	the	availabil-
ity	of	federal	funds.	(1972,	2000)                B-15. Black American Education
                                                      The	 National	 Education	 Association	
B-14. Asian and Native Hawaiian or                recognizes	 that	 the	 complex	 and	 diverse	
Other Pacific Islander Education                  needs	of	Black	American	children	require	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	        the	direct	involvement	of	Black	American	
recognizes	 that	 the	 complex	 and	 diverse	     educators,	parents/guardians,	community	
needs	 of	 Asian	 and	 Native	 Hawaiian	 or	      leaders,	and	groups	to	assure	the	develop-
other	Pacific	Islander	children	require	the	      ment	 of	 adequate	 and	 equal	 educational	
direct	involvement	of	Asian	and	Native	Ha-        programs.	
waiian	or	other	Pacific	Islander	educators,	          The	Association	believes	that	the	infu-
parents/guardians,	and	community	leaders	         sion	 of	 Black	 studies	 and/or	 Afrocentric	
in	the	development	of	programs	that	pre-          curricula	 into	 the	 instructional	 program	
serve	the	rich	heritage	of	their	cultures.	       acknowledges	 the	 contributions	 of	 Afri-
    The	 Association	 believes	 in	 efforts	      can	 Americans	 to	 history	 and	 Africa	 as	
that	provide	for	the—	                            an	integral	part	of	world	history.	The	As-
    a.	 Preservice	 and	 continuing	 educa-       sociation	also	believes	that	these	curricu-
tion	of	teachers	                                 la	must	show	a	correlation	among	social,	
    b.	 Development	 of	 curriculum	 and	         historical,	 political,	 and	 economic	 de-
instructional	materials	and	programs,	in-         velopments	 and	 events	 regarding	 Africa,	
cluding	English	proficiency	programs	that	        African-Americans,	Europeans,	and	their	
are	designed	to	meet	the	language	needs	          descendants	worldwide.	
of	 Asian	 and	 Native	 Hawaiian	 or	 other	          The	Association	further	believes	in	ef-
Pacific	Islander	students	                        forts	that	provide	for—	
    c.	 Education	 of	 Asian	 and	 Native	            a.	 The	preservation	of	Black	heritage	
Hawaiian	 or	 other	 Pacific	 Islander	 adult	    and	culture	
refugees	                                             b.	 Funding	 of	 scholarships	 to	 facili-
    d.	 Dissemination	 of	 programs	 and	         tate	 the	 entry	 of	 Black	 students	 into	 the	
information	that	include	the	values,	heri-        teaching	profession	
tage,	 language,	 culture,	 and	 history	 of	         c.	 Recognition	 of	 Black	 educators	 as	
Asian	 and	 Native	 Hawaiian	 or	 other	 Pa-      role	models	
cific	Islanders	                                      d.	 Recruitment,	hiring,	retention,	and	
    e.	 Recognition	 of	 Asian	 and	 Native	      promotion	of	Black	educators,	especially	


220
                                                                                    Resolutions

Black	males	at	all	levels	of	the	education	       education	provide	women	and	minorities	
profession	                                       access	 to	 equal	 opportunities	 and	 equi-
   e.	 Involvement	 of	 Black	 educators	 in	     table	treatment	for	employment	in	math-
developing	educational	materials	used	in	         ematics	and	science-related	careers.	
classroom	instruction	                                The	Association	supports	the	develop-
   f.	 English	 proficiency	 programs	 in	        ment	and	maintenance	of	gender-free	and	
the	regular	instructional	process	for	those	      culturally	unbiased	mathematics	and	sci-
Black	 students	 experiencing	 difficulty	        ence	 programs.	 The	 Association	 encour-
with	standard	English                             ages	 the	 recruitment	 of	 females	 and	 mi-
   g.	 Programs	that	address	the	alarming	        norities	to	enroll	and	participate	actively	
dropout	 rate	 among	 Black	 male	 students	      in	mathematics	and	science	courses	and/
and	 the	 disproportionate	 teen	 pregnancy	      or	to	become	professionals	in	those	fields.	
rate	 among	 Black	 female	 students	 and	        (1992,	1999)	
encourage	 continued	 education,	 thereby	
increasing	their	participation	in	the	work	       B-18. Left-Handed Students
force                                                 The	 National	 Education	 Association	
   h.	 Development	 of	 athletic	 programs	       believes	 that	 the	 needs	 of	 all	 students,	
that	 promote	 educational	 excellence,	 not	     including	left-handed	students,	should	be	
just	athletic	power	                              met.	 The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
   i.	 Opposition	 to	 the	 resegregation	 of	    appropriate	 governing	 agencies	 should	
the	public	schools	through	special	classes	       provide	desks,	scissors,	and	all	other	ma-
   j.	 Dissemination	 of	 information	 and	       terials	and	instruments	necessary	for	left-
programs	 that	 include	 the	 values,	 heri-      handed	 students	 to	 achieve	 on	 an	 equal	
tage,	 language,	 culture,	 and	 history	 of	     basis	with	right-handed	students.	
Black	Americans.	(1981,	2000)                         The	Association	strongly	recommends	
                                                  preservice	preparation	and	staff	develop-
B-16. Discriminatory Academic                     ment	 for	 education	 employees	 that	 pres-
Tracking                                          ent	strategies	for	handwriting	instruction	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	         to	 left-handed	 students.	 Such	 training	
believes	 that	 the	 use	 of	 discriminatory	     should	 also	 address	 sensitizing	 instruc-
academic	 tracking	 based	 on	 economic	          tional	 staff	 to	 the	 needs	 of	 left-handed	
status,	ethnicity,	race,	or	gender	must	be	       students.	(1979,	2001)
eliminated	 in	 all	 public	 school	 settings.	
The	Association	urges	its	affiliates	to	op-       B-19. Student Peer Mentoring
pose	these	practices.	(1988,	2005)	               Programs
                                                     The	 National	 Education	 Association	
B-17. Equal Opportunities Through                 supports	student	peer	mentoring	programs	
Mathematics and Science Education                 that	provide	incoming	students	the	oppor-
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	         tunity	to	make	a	smooth	transition	to	new	
                                         	
believes	 that	 mathematics	 and	 science	        schools.	 The	 Association	 believes	 that	


                                                                                            221
Resolutions

student	 peer	 mentoring	 programs	 should	         unique	educational	needs.	
be	supervised	by	appropriate	staff	and/or	             The	Association	advocates	the	imple-
administration.	Such	programs	should	be	            mentation	 of	 bilingual/bicultural	 and	
student-based	and	ongoing.	(2004)			                remedial	 instructional	 programs	 that	 ad-
                                                    dress	 the	 individual	 instructional	 needs	
B-20. Education of Refugee                          of	migrant	students	in	the	United	States,	
and Undocumented Children                           regardless	 of	 the	 availability	 of	 federal	
and Children of Undocumented                        and	state	funds	to	support	such	programs.	
Immigrants                                          (1975,	1996)
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	
believes	that,	regardless	of	the	immigra-           B-22. Communication Between
tion	 status	 of	 students	 or	 their	 parents,	    Educators and Non-English
every	student	has	the	right	to	a	free	public	       Speaking Parents, Guardians, and
education	 in	 an	 environment	 free	 from	         Caregivers
harassment.	The	Association	supports	ac-               The	 National	 Education	 Association	
cess	to	higher	education	for	undocument-            believes	that	meaningful	communication	
ed	 students	 and	 access	 to	 financial	 aid	      between	educators	and	parents,	guardians,	
and	 in-state	 tuition	 to	 state	 colleges	 and	   and	caregivers	who	lack	English	language	
universities	in	the	state	where	they	reside.	       proficiency	is	necessary	to	assist	in	their	
The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	 the	        children’s	 development	 and	 the	 family’s	
determination	of	legal	residency	status	is	         integration	 into	 United	 States	 society.	
the	responsibility	of	the	Immigration	and	          Such	 communication	 is	 especially	 im-
Naturalization	Service,	not	of	educational	         portant	when	communicating	educational	
systems	or	their	employees.                         plans	for	students	with	special	needs.
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	         The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
students	 who	 have	 resided	 in	 the	 United	      school	 districts	 should	 compile	 a	 direc-
States	for	at	least	five	years	at	the	time	of	      tory	of	individuals	fluent	in	specific	lan-
high	school	graduation	should	be	granted	           guages	who	could	be	available	to	translate	
amnesty	by	the	Immigration	and	Natural-             when	necessary.
ization	 Service,	 granted	 legal	 residency	          The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
status,	and	allowed	to	apply	for	U.S.	citi-         educators	who	fulfill	the	role	of	translator	
zenship,	and	that	legalization	not	be	used	         beyond	 the	 scope	 of	 their	 normal	 duties	
as	 an	 incentive	 for	 or	 be	 dependent	 on	      should	be	compensated	at	their	equivalent	
military	service.	(1980,	2005)	                     hourly	rate.	(2005)

B-21. Education of Migrants                         B-23. Equity for Incarcerated
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	           Persons
believes	 that	 migrant	 workers	 and	 their	          The	 National	 Education	 Association	
children	 are	 entitled	 to	 educational	 op-       believes	that	incarcerated	persons,	regard-
portunities	that	address	their	diverse	and	         less	of	gender	or	age,	are	entitled	to	equal	


222
                                                                                       Resolutions

access	to	medical	and	mental	health	ser-               Programs	 should	 include	 appropri-
vices	as	well	as	educational,	recreational,	       ate	 monitoring	 of	 student	 progress	 and	
and	 rehabilitative	 programs	 within	 all	        emphasize	 a	 broad	 range	 of	 approaches	
correctional	systems.	                             for	 addressing	 students’	 differing	 behav-
    The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	        ioral	 patterns,	 interests,	 needs,	 cultural	
when	 a	 student	 is	 incarcerated	 and	 has	      backgrounds,	 and	 learning	 styles.	 These	
been	 identified	 as	 having	 a	 disability	 by	   programs	must	be	evaluated	on	stated	ob-
standards	of	the	Individuals	with	Disabili-        jectives	and	standards.	Teachers	in	these	
ties	Education	Act	or	a	504	plan,	the	plans	       programs	 must	 have	 a	 major	 role	 in	 de-
for	 the	 student	 should	 be	 implemented	        signing	 the	 objectives	 and	 evaluations	
during	 the	 duration	 of	 the	 incarceration.	    and	working	with	appropriate	school	and	
(1990,	2007)                                       community	 personnel	 to	 execute	 these	
                                                   objectives	and	evaluations.	
SPECIFIC PROGRAMS FOR                                  The	 Association	 believes	 that	 at-risk	
INDIVIDUALS                                        students	 who	 are	 assigned	 to	 an	 alterna-
                                                   tive	 placement	 due	 to	 discipline	 issues	
B-24. Alternative Programs for At-                 should	 be	 required	 to	 exhibit	 regular	 at-
Risk and/or Students With Special                  tendance	 and	 adequate	 academic	 and	
Needs                                              behavioral	 progress,	 in	 accordance	 with	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	         planned	interventions	for	the	student’s	in-
recognizes	 that	 there	 must	 be	 increased	      dividual	 needs,	 prior	 to	 their	 return	 to	 a	
development	and	maintenance	of	alterna-            regular	educational	setting.	
tive	programs	to	meet	the	needs	of	at-risk	            The	Association	also	believes	that	the	
and/or	students	with	special	needs,	pre-K	         rights	of	students	who	are	protected	under	
through	 adult.	 The	 Association	 recom-          the	provisions	of	the	Individuals	with	Dis-
mends	early	access	to	intervening	services	        abilities	 Education	 Act	 and	 Americans	
and	 appropriate	 identification	 and	 place-      with	Disabilities	Act	must	be	preserved.	
ment	of	these	students.	Teachers,	related	             The	 Association	 urges	 its	 affiliates	
service	 providers,	 and	 administrators	          to	 seek	 adequate	 compensation,	 plan-
should	receive	necessary	training	in	diag-         ning	time,	materials,	and	facilities	for	all	
nostic	processes	and	alternative	methods	          education	professionals	involved	in	these	       	
of	 teaching	 and	 learning,	 including	 cul-      programs.	
turally	responsive	teaching	practices.	Ap-             The	Association	supports	the	efforts	of	
propriate	training	should	also	be	provided	        its	affiliates	to	negotiate	and	legislate	for	
to	education	support	professionals.		In	ad-        the	training	of	teachers	seeking	addition-
dition,	parents/guardians,	school	security	        al	certification	and	hiring	of	an	increased	
personnel,	 and	 other	 school	 community	         number	of	teachers	with	education	in	spe-
members	should	be	encouraged	to	acquire	           cial	areas.	
the	training	to	effectively	meet	the	needs	            In	 higher	 education	 settings,	 faculty	
of	these	students.                                 and	education	support	professionals	who	


                                                                                                223
Resolutions

are	 working	 with	 students	 with	 special	        B-26. Educational Programs for
needs	should	be	provided	with	appropri-             English Language Learners
ate	resources	to	accommodate	these	stu-                 The	 National	 Education	 Association	
dents’	special	requirements.	                       believes	 that	 English	 Language	 Learn-
    The	 Association	 encourages	 its	 state	       ers	(ELLs)	must	have	programs	available	
affiliates	 to	 seek	 legislation	 that	 would	     to	 them	 that	 address	 their	 unique	 needs	
require	 any	 person	 offering	 services	 to	       and	that	provide	equal	opportunity	to	all	
remediate,	correct,	or	ameliorate	reading,	         students,	regardless	of	their	primary	lan-
speech,	 language,	 behavioral,	 emotional,	        guage.	Programs	for	ELL	students	should	
or	 learning	 disabilities,	 or	 related	 prob-     emphasize	English	proficiency	while	con-
lems	 to	 be	 licensed	 under	 regulations	 of	     currently	 providing	 meaningful	 instruc-
each	state’s	department	of	public	instruc-          tion	in	all	other	curriculum	areas.	In	plan-
tion	 or	 other	 appropriate	 agency.	 (1977,	      ning	 a	 comprehensive	 program	 for	 ELL	
2007)                                               students,	 age	 as	 well	 as	 academic	 needs	
                                                    must	be	considered.	
B-25. Gifted, Talented, and Creative                    The	Association	also	believes	that	ELL	
Students                                            students	should	be	placed	in	bilingual	ed-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	          ucation	programs	to	receive	instruction	in	
believes	 that	 there	 must	 be	 educational	       their	native	language	from	qualified	teach-
programs	and	services	for	gifted,	talented,	        ers	until	such	time	as	English	proficiency	
and	creative	students,	and	supports	feder-          is	achieved.	If	no	bilingual	programs	are	
al	and	state	funding	for	the	education	of	          available,	these	students	should	be	taught	
these	 students.	 The	 Association	 also	 be-       in	language	acquisition	and	development	
lieves	 that	 there	 must	 be	 well-developed	      programs	 designed	 to	 meet	 their	 spe-
criteria	and	guidelines	for	identifying	and	        cific	needs.	Students	should	be	in	classes	
teaching	 these	 students.	 Such	 identifica-       that	are	limited	in	size;	methods	such	as	
tion	must	be	culturally	sensitive	and	must	         weighted	 formulas	 should	 be	 used;	 and	
not	discriminate	on	any	basis	other	than	           additional	 staffing,	 modified	 scheduling,	
the	exceptionality	being	identified.	               and/or	 curriculum	 design	 to	 accommo-
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	      date	 the	 demands	 of	 each	 ELL	 student	
professional	 development	 programs	 in	            should	 be	 provided.	 Students	 should	 not	
gifted	 and	 talented	 education	 must	 be	         be	 enrolled	 in	 special	 education	 classes	
provided	 for	 all	 appropriate	 education	         solely	because	of	linguistic	differences.	
employees.	 This	 professional	 develop-                The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
ment	should	be	culturally	responsive.	              model	 bilingual	 education	 programs	 in	
    The	 Association	 urges	 its	 affiliates	 to	   which	 language	 minority	 students	 dem-
promote	the	development	and	implementa-             onstrate	an	increase	in	English	language	
tion	of	such	services	to	gifted	children	and	       acquisition	 and	 success	 throughout	 the	
support	for	all	educators	working	with	this	        grade	 levels	 should	 be	 promoted	 and	
special	needs	population.	(1980,	2007)              supported	 at	 the	 federal,	 state,	 and	 local	


224
                                                                                     Resolutions

levels.	 The	 Association	 advocates	 full	       them	 the	 opportunity	 to	 succeed	 in	 all	
funding	of	all	instructional	materials,	re-       aspects	 of	 daily	 life,	 and	 should	 concur-
sources,	 and	 programs	 for	 ELL	 students	      rently	 provide	 meaningful	 instruction	 in	
as	well	as	professional	development	pro-          all	other	curriculum	areas.	The	Associa-
grams	for	education	employees	who	work	           tion	 advocates	 programs	 that	 begin	 with	
with	these	students.	The	school	district	or	      the	 linguistic	 proficiencies	 demonstrated	
other	 appropriate	 agency	 should	 provide	      by	entering	students,	and	build	a	program	
released	time	for	the	training	of	teachers	       from	that	starting	point.	
who	instruct	ELL	students.	                           The	Association	further	believes	that,	
    Educators,	 through	 a	 bargaining	 or	       in	all	cases,	the	students’	linguistic	and/or	
other	 bilateral	 decision-making	 process,	      cultural	 backgrounds	 must	 be	 respected	
must	be	fully	involved	in	the	development	        within	 the	 school	 setting.	 Students	 who	
and	implementation	of	programs	serving	           speak	 nonstandard	 dialects	 must	 not	 be	
ELL	 students,	 including	 the	 assignment	       enrolled	 in	 special	 education	 classes	
of	teachers	and	the	terms	and	conditions	         solely	 because	 of	 linguistic	 differences.	
of	their	employment.	Teachers	should	be	          (1997)	
compensated	 at	 the	 teacher’s	 hourly	 rate	
of	 pay	 for	 any	 additional	 time	 spent	 in	   B-28. Education for All Students
training.	They	should	also	be	reimbursed	         with Disabilities
for	the	cost	of	tuition,	textbooks,	and	trav-         The	 National	 Education	 Association	
el	incurred	in	such	training.	                    supports	 a	 free,	 appropriate	 public	 edu-
    The	 Association	 values	 bilingual	 and	     cation	 for	 all	 students	 with	 disabilities	
multilingual	 competence	 and	 supports	          in	 a	 least	 restrictive	 environment,	 which	
programs	that	assist	individuals	in	attain-       is	 determined	 by	 maximum	 teacher	 and	
ing	 and	 maintaining	 proficiency	 in	 their	    parent/guardian	involvement.	There	must	
native	language	before	and	after	they	ac-         be	a	full	continuum	of	placement	options	
quire	proficiency	in	English.	(1981,	2007)        and	 services/delivery	 models	 available	
                                                  to	 students	 with	 disabilities.	 In	 order	 to	
B-27. Speakers of Nonstandard                     implement	 federal	 special	 education	 leg-
English                                           islation	effectively,	the	Association	recog-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	        nizes	that—
believes	 that	 students	 who	 enter	 school	         a.	 A	fully	accessible	educational	envi-
as	 speakers	 of	 nonstandard	 dialects	 are	     ronment,	 using	 appropriate	 instructional	
learners	 with	 unique	 needs,	 and	 these	       materials,	support	services,	and	pupil	per-
needs	 must	 be	 provided	 for	 in	 the	 over-    sonnel	services,	must	match	the	learning	
all	program	in	each	local	school	district.	       needs	of	both	students	with	and	students	
The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	 pro-      without	disabilities.	
grams	 for	 these	 students	 must	 provide	           b.	 Student	placement	must	be	based	on	
equal	opportunity,	should	emphasize	pro-          individual	needs	rather	than	on	available	
ficiency	in	standard	English	that	provides	       space,	 funding,	 or	 local	 philosophy	 of	 a	


                                                                                              225
Resolutions

school	 district.	 Student	 placements	 must	     agencies	 must	 be	 applied	 consistently	 to	
be	examined	on	a	regular	basis	to	ensure	         both	 students	 with	 and	 students	 without	
appropriateness	 whereby	 all	 needed	 ser-       disabilities	where	misconduct	is	shown	to	
vices	 and	 support	 will	 be	 provided	 and	     be	unrelated	to	either	the	disabling	condi-
should	 not	 be	 made	 disproportionately	        tion	or	to	improper	placement.	
by	 ethnicity	 or	 gender.	 Necessary	 build-         h.	 A	 plan	 recognizing	 individual	 dif-
ing/staff	modifications	must	be	provided	         ferences	 must	 be	 used	 in	 a	 systematic	
to	facilitate	such	placement.	                    evaluation	 and	 reporting	 of	 program	 de-
    c.	 General	 and	 special	 education	         velopment.	
teachers,	 pupil	 personnel	 and	 related	            i.	 Limitations	must	be	made	in	class	
service	 providers,	 and	 education	 support	     size,	 case	 loads,	 and/or	 work	 load	 of	
professionals	who	work	with	the	student,	         teachers,	 nurses,	 speech	 and	 language	
and	 administrators,	 parents/guardians,	         specialists,	and	other	designated	instruc-
and	 the	 student,	 as	 appropriate,	 should	     tional	 service	 specialists,	 using	 methods	
have	input	in	the	development	of	the	indi-        such	 as	 weighted	 formulas,	 modified	
vidualized	 education	 program	 (IEP)	 and	       scheduling,	 and/or	 curriculum	 design	 to	
must	have	access	to	the	IEP.                      accommodate	the	demands	of	each	IEP.
    d.	 General	and	special	education	teach-          j.	 All	 teachers	 who	 serve	 students	
ers;	 pupil	 personnel	 and	 related	 service	    with	disabilities	must	have	scheduled	ac-
providers;	 education	 support	 profession-       cess	 to	 resource	 personnel,	 instructional	
als;	 and	 administrators,	 parents/guard-        assistants,	paraprofessionals,	co-teachers,	
ians,	 and	 students,	 as	 appropriate,	 must	    and	special	education	teachers.	
share	 in	 implementing	 the	 IEP.	 Prior	 to	        k.	 The	 student’s	 IEP	 should	 not	 be	
implementation,	all	necessary	educational	        used	as	criteria	for	the	evaluation	of	edu-
materials,	 professional	 development,	 and	      cation	employees.	
supportive	services	must	be	provided.		               l.	 Communications	 must	 be	 main-
    e.	 Students	 with	 physical	 disabilities	   tained	among	all	involved	parties.	
and/or	 medical	 needs	 requiring	 nursing	           m.	Staff	must	not	be	reduced.	
procedures	must	have	their	medical	needs	             n.	 All	 school	 personnel,	 including	
met	 by	 certified/professional	 school	      	   substitutes,	 must	 be	 adequately	 prepared	
nurses.	                                          for	 their	 roles,	 including	 addressing	 the	
    f.	 All	 impacted	 staff	 members	 must	      identified	 individual	 needs	 of	 students,	
have	 an	 appeal	 procedure	 regarding	 the	      through	appropriate	licensing	and/or	on-
implementation	 of	 the	 IEP,	 especially	 in	    going	professional	development.
terms	 of	 student	 placement.	 The	 proce-           o.	 Incentives	for	participation	in	pro-
dure	 must	 include	 the	 right	 to	 have	 the	   fessional	 development	 activities	 should,	
dissenting	opinion	recorded	and	attached	         as	 mandated	 by	 law,	 be	 made	 available	
to	the	IEP.	                                      for	education	employees.	
    g.	 Suspension	 and	 expulsion	 policies	         p.	 Education	 employees,	 as	 mandated	
and	 practices	 used	 by	 local	 education	       by	law,	must	be	appointed	to	local	and	state	


226
                                                                                      Resolutions

advisory	bodies	on	special	education.	              students	who	are	parents	or	who	are	about	
   q.	 Education	 employees	 must	 be	 al-          to	become	parents.	Such	students	should	
lowed	 to	 take	 part	 in	 the	 U.S.	 Office	 of	   not	 be	 discriminated	 against	 or	 denied	
Special	 Education	 and	 Rehabilitative	            equal	educational	opportunities.	
Services	 on-site	 visits	 to	 states.	 Educa-          The	 Association	 recommends	 pro-
tion	employees	should	be	invited	to	these	          grams	for	these	students	that	include—	
meetings.	                                              a.	 Flexible	scheduling	and	attendance	
   r.	 Local	 affiliates	 and	 education	 em-       policies	
ployees	 must	 be	 recruited,	 trained,	 and	           b.	 Appropriate	 guidance	 in	 continu-
involved	 in	 monitoring	 school	 system	           ing/alternative	 education	 programs	 and	
compliance	 with	 federal	 special	 educa-          productive	employment	
tion	legislation.	                                      c.	 Career	development	skills
   s.	 Adequate	 released	 time	 or	 funded	            d.	 Development	of	self-esteem	
additional	time	must	be	made	available	so	              e.	 Promotion	of	sound	health	practic-
that	teachers	can	carry	out	the	increased	          es	 regarding	 nutrition,	 substance	 abuse,	
demands	 placed	 upon	 them	 by	 federal	           exercise,	 family	 planning,	 and	 parenting	
special	education	legislation.	                     skills
   t.	 Collective	 bargaining	 and	 other	              f.	 On-site	 preschool	 and	 child	 care	
means	 should	 be	 used	 to	 minimize	 the	         services	
potentially	severe	impact	on	staff	that	re-             g.	 Free	transportation.	(1987,	2005)
sults	from	the	implementation	of	special	
education	legislation.	                             B-30. Homebound Instruction
   u.	 Benefits	for	staff	working	with	stu-             The	 National	 Education	 Association	
dents	with	disabilities	must	be	negotiated	         believes	 that	 homebound	 students,	 those	
through	collective	bargaining	agreements	           educated	 in	 the	 home	 because	 of	 indi-
and	must	be	honored.	                               vidualized	 student	 needs	 determined	 by	
   v.	 Full	 funding	 must	 be	 provided	 by	       established	local	school	procedures,	must	
local,	state,	and	federal	governments.              receive	instruction	that	follows	the	regu-
   w.	 Students	 are	 better	 served	 if	 the	      lar	 curriculum.	 This	 instruction	 must	 be	
person	working	with	them	is	prepared	to	            implemented,	 documented,	 monitored,	
deal	with	their	needs.	Substitute	employ-           and	 assessed	 by	 a	 licensed	 teacher.	 The	
ees	should	be	made	aware	that	the	assign-           Association	 also	 believes	 that	 credits	
ment	offered	is	a	special	needs	program.	           earned	through	such	homebound	instruc-
(1978,	2007)                                        tion	should	be	accepted	toward	promotion	
                                                    and/or	 graduation	 requirements.	 (1988,	
B-29. Educational Programs for                      2002)
Adolescent Parents
   The	 National	 Education	 Associa-               B-31. Correspondence Programs
tion	 believes	 that	 school	 districts	 must	         The	 National	 Education	 Associa-
meet	the	educational	needs	of	adolescent	    	                                                     	
                                                    tion	 believes	 that	 state	 and	 local	 school	


                                                                                               227
Resolutions

correspondence	 programs	 that	 are	 fund-          community	service	should	be	encouraged	
ed	by	state	or	local	school	districts	must	         as	an	integral	part	of	a	student’s	education.	
be	 implemented	 by	 licensed	 educators.	          Participation	 by	 students	 in	 community	
These	 alternative	 programs	 must	 use	 a	         service	 and	 service	 learning	 programs	
curriculum	 approved	 by	 the	 state	 educa-        may	 be	 required	 for	 high	 school	 gradua-
tion	agency.	A	student’s	progress	must	be	          tion	or	made	available	for	elective	credit.	
documented	and	monitored	by	a	licensed	             The	Association	also	believes	that	school	
educator.	Such	approved	courses	must	be	            districts	 should	 work	 with	 community	
transferable	 as	 graduation	 requirements	         groups	to	provide	students	with	the	oppor-
for	the	participant.	(1988,	1993)                   tunity	to	participate	in	such	programs.	
                                                        Education	 employees	 who	 supervise	
B-32. Youth and Adult Training                      students	 involved	 in	 these	 programs	
Programs                                            should	 be	 given	 appropriate	 compensa-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	          tion,	 planning	 time,	 program	 support,	
believes	 that	 public	 schools	 should	 be	        recognition,	and	time	to	evaluate	the	ser-
involved	 as	 an	 equal	 partner	 with	 gov-        vice	 and	 learning	 goals.	 Participation	 of	
ernment,	 labor,	 business,	 agriculture,	          education	 employees	 in	 such	 programs	
and	 community-based	 groups	 in	 youth	            should	 be	 on	 a	 voluntary	 basis.	 (1990,	
and	 adult	 employment	 and	 training	 pro-         1997)
grams.	The	Association	also	believes	that	
these	 programs	 should	 supplement,	 and	          CURRICULUM CONTENT
not	 supplant,	 the	 vocational,	 career,	 and	
technical	education	programs	provided	in	           B-34. Junior Reserve Officer
public	schools.	                                    Training Corps
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	          The	 National	 Education	 Association	
the	 use	 of	 funds	 for	 and	 the	 duration	 of	   believes	 that	 the	 Junior	 Reserve	 Officer	
these	programs	should	be	flexible	in	order	         Training	 Corps	 programs,	 which	 exist	
to	 accommodate	 the	 differing	 learning	          within	 the	 public	 schools,	 must	 meet	 all	
needs	of	students.	The	amount	of	funding	           local	and	state	educational	standards	and	
should	be	predictable	in	order	to	facilitate	       policies,	including	the	employment	of	ful-
year-to-year	 planning.	 These	 programs	           ly	licensed	teaching	personnel.	Such	pro-
should	provide	opportunities	for	women,	            grams	should	be	subject	to	and	conform	to	
persons	 with	 disabilities,	 and	 ethnic	 mi-      the	provisions	of	the	collective	bargaining	
norities	 in	 nontraditional	 occupations.	         agreement.	 Any	 programs	 that	 currently	
(1980,	2006)                                        do	 not	 meet	 said	 conditions	 should	 be	
                                                    brought	into	compliance.	(1997,	1998)
B-33. Education Through Service
Learning and Community Service                      B-35. Multicultural Education
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	               The	National	Education	Association	be-
believes	 that	 learning	 through	 voluntary	       lieves	that	multiculturalism	is	the	process	


228
                                                                                     Resolutions

of	 valuing	 differences	 and	 incorporating	      world’s	resources	to	meet	mutual	human	
the	values	identified	into	behavior	for	the	       needs.	
goal	of	achieving	the	common	good.	The	                The	Association	also	believes	that	cur-
Association	also	believes	that	multicultur-        riculum	 and	 instruction	 about	 regional	
al	education	is	a	way	of	helping	students	         and	international	conflicts	must	present	a	
perceive	the	cultural	diversity	of	the	Unit-       balanced	view,	include	historical	context,	
ed	 States	 so	 that	 they	 may	 develop	 pride	   and	 demonstrate	 relevancy	 and	 sensitiv-
in	their	own	cultural	legacy	and	awaken	to	        ity	to	all	people.	The	achievement	of	this	
the	ideals	embodied	in	the	cultures	of	their	      goal	requires	the	mastery	of	global	com-
neighbors.	Multicultural	education	should	         munication	and	development	of	an	appre-
promote	the	recognition	of	individual	and	         ciation	 of	 the	 common	 humanity	 shared	
group	differences	and	similarities	in	order	       by	all	peoples.	
to	reduce	racism,	homophobia,	ethnic	and	              The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
all	other	forms	of	prejudice,	and	discrimi-        the	goal	of	appreciation	for	and	harmony	
nation	and	to	develop	self-esteem	as	well	         with	 our	 global	 neighbors	 depends	 on	 a	
as	respect	for	others.	                            national	commitment	to	strengthening	the	
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	     capability	 of	 the	 educational	 system	 to	
multicultural	 education	 encompasses	 at	         teach	American	children	about	the	world.	
least	three	things:	an	idea	or	concept,	an	        (1995,	1998)
educational	reform	movement,	and	a	pro-
cess.	As	an	idea	or	concept,	multicultural	        B-37. Multiple World Language
education	 assumes	 that	 all	 students	 can	      Education
learn.	 As	 an	 educational	 reform	 move-             The	National	Education	Association	be-
ment,	 multicultural	 education	 seeks	 to	        lieves	that	the	acquisition	of	multiple	world	
develop	 an	 entire	 school	 environment	          languages	is	a	vital	part	of	the	educational	
that	is	inclusive	of	cultural	considerations	      experience	and	that	those	who	leave	school	
(e.g.,	curriculum,	instructional	materials,	       speaking	more	than	one	language	will	be	
learning	 and	 testing,	 respect	 for	 cultural	   more	 competitive	 in	 the	 global	 market-
differences,	etc.).	As	a	process,	the	devel-       place.	 The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
opment	of	a	multicultural	school	environ-          the	 cumulative	 hours	 of	 exposure	 to	 the	
ment	is	ever	evolving	and	ongoing.	(1981,	         target	language	during	a	student’s	educa-
2001)                                              tional	career	is	the	most	important	deter-
                                                   minant	leading	to	fluency	and	proficiency	
B-36. Global Education                             in	a	second	language.	Students	should	have	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	         the	opportunity	to	acquire	age-appropriate	
believes	 that	 global	 education	 increases	      world	 language	 skills	 from	 an	 integrated	
respect	for	and	awareness	of	the	earth	and	        curriculum	throughout	the	pre-K	through	
its	peoples.	Global	education	imparts	in-          higher	education	experience.	
formation	about	cultures	and	an	apprecia-              The	Association	supports	the	mainte-
tion	of	our	interdependency	in	sharing	the	        nance	of	current	programs	and	the	further	


                                                                                             229
Resolutions

encouragement	and	development	of	world	            B-39. Vocational, Career, and
language	 instruction	 and	 international	         Technical Education
studies	at	all	educational	levels.	                    The	 National	 Education	 Association	
   The	 Association	 recognizes	 the	 need	        believes	 that	 preparation	 of	 students	 for	
for	 teacher	 preparation	 programs	 for	          vocational,	 career,	 and	 technical	 jobs	
world	 language	 teachers	 and	 supports	          should	be	the	responsibility	of	secondary,	
teacher	 and	 student	 exchange	 programs.	        adult,	and	higher	education	in	collabora-
(1981,	2006)                                       tion	with	labor	and	business.	Educational	
                                                   programs	 that	 ensure	 equal	 opportunity	
B-38. School-to-Work/Career                        for	 occupational	 development	 and	 en-
Education                                          courage	students	to	consider	nontradition-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	         al	 vocations	 should	 be	 developed	 for	 all	
believes	 that	 a	 goal	 of	 public	 education	    students	 at	 all	 levels.	 Vocational,	 career,	
is	 to	 provide	 all	 individuals,	 preschool	     and	technical	education	should	provide	a	
through	 adult,	 opportunities	 to	 become	        comprehensive	program	of	lifelong	learn-
effective,	 responsible,	 productive	 citi-        ing	 for	 the	 training,	 advancement,	 and	
zens.	 To	 achieve	 this	 goal,	 career	 edu-      promotion	of	all	students.	
cation	 must	 be	 interwoven	 into	 the	 total	        The	 Association	 supports	 vocational,	
educational	 system	 and	 should	 include	         career,	 and	 technical	education	 as	 a	 ma-
programs	in	gender-free	career	awareness	          jor	component	of	education	and	advocates	
and	 exploration	 to	 aid	 students	 in	 career	   that	 every	 student	 have	 the	 opportunity	
course	selection.	These	programs	should	           to	 enroll	 in	 such	 classes	 without	 restric-
be	combined	with	cooperative	efforts	on	           tions.	To	be	effective,	vocational,	career,	
the	 part	 of	 educators	 and	 leaders	 from	      and	 technical	 education	 should	 be	 pre-
labor,	 business,	 and	 the	 community	 to	        ceded	 by	 career	 awareness	 and	 explora-
provide	 school-to-work	 experiences	 that	        tion	 programs.	 These	 vocational,	 career,	
meet	rigorous	academic	standards	and	are	          and	technical	education	courses	should	be	
accorded	 the	 same	 level	 of	 accreditation	     coordinated	and	integrated	with	tradition-
as	other	education	programs.	                      ally	 academic	 courses.	 These	 integrated	
    The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	        programs	should	be	combined,	when	ap-
educational	 programs	 for	 all	 students	         propriate,	with	cooperative	efforts	on	the	
should	 offer	 a	 variety	 of	 exploratory	 ca-    part	of	educators	and	industrial	and	busi-
reer	experiences	that	are	developmentally	         ness	 leaders	 to	 provide	 school-to-work	
appropriate.	 In	 addition,	 these	 programs	      experiences	 for	 students.	 Organized	 vo-
should	 enhance	 self-esteem	 and	 assure	         cational,	 career,	 and	 technical	 education	
equal	opportunity	for	career	development	          programs	offer	a	sequence	of	courses	that	
and	equal	access	to	college	and	university	        are	 directly	 related	 to	 the	 preparation	 of	
admissions.	(1976,	2001)                           individuals	in	paid	or	unpaid	employment	
                                                   in	 current	 and	 emerging	 occupations.	
                                                   Such	programs	shall	include	competency-


230
                                                                                   Resolutions

based	 applied	 learning	 that	 contributes	     secondary	school	students.	Active	partici-
to	 an	 individual’s	 academic	 knowledge,	      pation	in	a	vocational,	career,	and	techni-
higher-order	reasoning	and	problem-solv-         cal	 student	 organization	 at	 the	 national,	
ing	 skills,	 work	 attitudes,	 interpersonal	   state,	 and	 local	 levels	 encourages	 young	
and	collaborative	skills,	general	employ-        men	 and	 women	 to	 become	 better	 pre-
ability	skills,	and	the	occupational-specif-     pared	for	the	multiple	adult	roles	of	wage	
ic	skills	necessary	for	economic	indepen-        earner,	 community	 leader,	 and	 family	
dence	 as	 a	 productive	 and	 contributing	     member.	(2001,	2002)
member	of	society.	
    The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	      B-41. Fine Arts Education
adequate	 resources	 must	 be	 provided	             The	 National	 Education	 Association	
for	 educators	 to	 maintain,	 enhance,	 and	    believes	that	artistic	expression	is	basic	to	
expand	 quality	 vocational,	 career,	 and	      an	individual’s	intellectual,	aesthetic,	and	
technical	education	programs;	to	procure	        emotional	development.	The	Association	
up-to-date	 equipment	 and	 materials	 for	      also	believes	that	fine	arts	transcend	cul-
those	 programs;	 and	 to	 prepare	 students	    tural	barriers,	foster	multicultural	under-
for	a	highly	technical	work	environment.	        standing,	 and	 enhance	 critical	 thinking	
The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	       skills.	The	Association	therefore	believes	
the	involvement	of	education	employees,	         that	 pre-K	 through	 adult	 education	 cur-
private	 sector	 employment	 and	 training	      ricula	 must	 include	 a	 balanced,	 compre-
program	 personnel,	 and	 the	 labor	 and	       hensive,	 and	 sequential	 program	 of	 fine	
business	 communities	 is	 essential	 to	 the	   arts	instruction	for	all	students	taught	by	
development	 of	 quality	 vocational,	 ca-       a	licensed	specialist	in	a	facility	or	room	
reer,	 and	 technical	 education	 programs.	     designed	 and	 equipped	 for	 that	 purpose.	
The	 Association	 believes	 such	 resources	     Resources	 must	 be	 provided	 to	 maintain	
should	 be	 substantially	 increased,	 not	      and	 upgrade	 materials	 and	 provide	 for	
merely	redistributed	among	states	or	oth-        emerging	technologies.	
er	federal	initiatives.	(1976,	2006)                 The	 Association	 urges	 its	 state	 affili-
                                                 ates	to	become	involved	in	the	promotion,	
B-40. Vocational, Career, and                    expansion,	 and	 implementation	 of	 an	
Technical Student Organizations                  academic	 fine	 arts	 program	in	 curricula.	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	       (1980,	2007)
believes	that	vocational,	career,	and	tech-
nical	 student	 organizations	 are	 an	 inte-    B-42. Physical Education
gral	 component	 of	 a	 quality	 vocational,	       The	 National	 Education	 Association	
career,	and	technical	education	program.	        believes	 that	 physical	 activity	 and	 exer-
Vocational,	career,	and	technical	student	       cise	are	essential	for	good	health	and	must	
organizations	 provide	 opportunities	 for	      be	encouraged	during	the	developmental	
leadership	 development,	 career	 prepa-         years	 of	 students.	 The	 Association	 also	
ration,	 and	 community	 involvement	 for	   	   believes	 that	 a	 comprehensive	 program	


                                                                                            231
Resolutions

of	physical	education	should	be	provided	             b.	 Be	developmentally	appropriate
daily	in	grades	pre-k	through	adult	in	or	            c.	 Be	 cooperative	 in	 nature	 and	 cul-
on	 facilities	 designed	 for	 that	 purpose.	     turally	sensitive.	(2005)
Physical	 education	 programs	 and	 curri-
cula	 should	 follow	 national	 standards	 as	     B-44. Family Life Education
set	 forth	 by	 the	 appropriate	 professional	        The	 National	 Education	 Association	
organizations;	 should	 be	 developmen-            recognizes	 the	 myriad	 family	 structures	
tally	appropriate,	sequential,	cooperative	        in	society	and	the	impact	of	these	family	
in	 nature,	 and	 culturally	 sensitive;	 and	     structures	 and	 other	 close	 personal	 rela-
should—	                                           tionships	on	the	quality	of	individual	lives	
    a.	 Emphasize	physical	activity,	fitness,	     and	 upon	 society.	 The	 Association	 also	
exercise,	and	good	health;	skills	of	sports,	      recognizes	 the	 importance	 of	 education	
games,	 dance,	 and	 basic	 movement;	 and	        in	the	maintenance	and	promotion	of	sta-
related	concepts	and	knowledge	                    ble,	 functional,	 healthy	 families	 and	 the	
    b.	 Assess	students,	including	physical	       emotional,	physical,	and	mental	health	of	
fitness	testing,	as	a	culmination	of	prepa-        people	within	these	families.	
ratory	activities                                      The	Association	believes	that	programs	
    c.	 Provide	for	the	special	needs	of	stu-      should	 be	 established	 for	 both	 students	
dents	 with	 low	 fitness,	 physical	 disabili-    and	 parents/guardians	 and	 supported	 at	
ties,	or	learning	disabilities                     all	educational	levels	to	promote—	
    d.	 Be	 taught	 by	 teachers	 licensed	 in	        a.		The	 development	 of	 self-esteem	
physical	education	                                and	positive	self-concept	in	individuals	of	
    e.		Be	 taught	 with	 the	 same	 student/      all	ages	in	various	family	roles
teacher	 ratio	 as	 other	 grade-level	 class	         b.	 Learning	 and	 practicing	 positive	
sizes.	(1991,	2004)	                               interpersonal	 communication	 skills	 and	
                                                   conflict	resolution	
B-43. Family and Consumer                              c.	 Education	 in	 human	 growth	 and	
Sciences Education                                 development	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	             d.	 Positive	 parenting	 techniques	 that	
believes	that	family	and	consumer	scienc-          include	strategies	to	deal	effectively	with	
es	 education	 programs	 prepare	 students	        violent	behavior	
to	manage,	with	reason	and	creativity,	the	            e.	 An	understanding	of	societal	issues	
challenges	 across	 the	 life	 span	 of	 living	   and	 problems	 related	 to	 children,	 spous-
and	working	in	a	global	society.                   es,	parents/guardians,	domestic	partners,	
    The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	        older	 generation	 family	 members,	 and	
family	 and	 consumer	 sciences	 education	        other	family	members.	
programs	should––                                      The	Association	also	believes	that	edu-
    a.	 Follow	 national	 standards	 as	 set	      cation	in	these	areas	must	be	presented	as	
forth	 by	 the	 appropriate	 professional	     	   part	of	an	antibiased,	culturally	sensitive	
organizations	                                     program.	(1994,	2001)


232
                                                                                     Resolutions

B-45. Environmental Education                     institutions	 and	 supports	 legislation	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	        and	 local	 policies	 that	 ensure	 a	 safe	 and	
believes	 that	 the	 environment	 must	 be	       healthy	environment.	(1973,	2006)
protected.	 The	 Association	 urges	 the	 es-
tablishment	 and	 maintenance	 of	 federal	       B-46. Science Education
wilderness	 areas,	 recreational	 areas,	 ref-       The	 National	 Education	 Association	
uge	areas,	and	designated	local	green	ar-         believes	that	the	content	in	science	educa-
eas.	The	Association	supports	educational	        tion	must	be	based	on	empirical	evidence	
programs	that	promote—	                           derived	 from	 the	 scientific	 method	 and	
    a.	 The	concept	of	the	interdependence	       must	include	the	processes	of	that	method.	
of	humanity	and	nature	                           The	Association	also	believes	that	content	
    b.	 An	awareness	of	the	effects	of	past,	     and	curriculum	must	be	based	on	the	Na-
present,	 and	 future	 population	 growth	        tional	Science	Education	Standards	of	the	
patterns	on	world	civilization,	human	sur-        National	Research	Council	(NRC)	and/or	
vival,	and	the	environment                        the	Benchmarks	for	Science	Literacy	of	the	
    c.	 The	 protection	 of	 endangered,	         American	 Association	 for	 the	 Advance-
threatened,	and	rare	species	                     ment	of	Science	(AAAS).	(2005,	2006)
    d.	 The	protection	of	the	Earth’s	finite	
resources	                                        B-47. Sex Education
    e.	 Solutions	 to	 environmental	 prob-           The	 National	 Education	 Association	
lems	 such	 as	 nonrenewable	 resource	 de-       believes	that	the	developing	child’s	sexu-
pletion,	pollution,	global	warming,	ozone	        ality	 is	 continually	 and	 inevitably	 influ-
depletion,	 and	 acid	 precipitation	 and	    	   enced	 by	 daily	 contacts,	 including	 expe-
deposition	                                       riences	 in	 the	 school	 environment.	 The	
    f.	 The	use	of	reusable	and	recyclable	       Association	recognizes	that	sensitive	sex	
products	 and	 discourage	 the	 use	 of	 dis-     education	can	be	a	positive	force	in	pro-
posable	products	                                 moting	 physical,	 mental,	 emotional,	 and	
    g.	 An	understanding	of	energy,	alter-        social	 health	 and	 that	 the	 public	 school	
native	energy	sources,	and	energy	conser-         must	 assume	 an	 increasingly	 important	
vation	                                           role	in	providing	the	instruction.	Teachers	
    h.	 The	 use	 of	 disposal	 methods	 that	    and	health	professionals	must	be	qualified	
do	not	contaminate	the	environment	               to	teach	in	this	area	and	must	be	legally	
    i.		 The	 recognition	 of	 and	 participa-    protected	from	censorship	and	lawsuits.	
tion	in	such	activities	as	Earth	Day,	Arbor	          The	Association	urges	that	formal	sex	
Day,	and	Energy	Education	Day                     education	should	include	parent/guardian	
    j.	 The	 understanding	 of	 the	 value	 of	   orientation	 and	 be	 planned	 and	 imple-
the	world’s	ecosystems.                           mented	with	careful	attention	to	develop-
    The	 Association	 also	 urges	 its	 af-       mental	needs,	appropriateness	to	commu-
filiates	 to	 support	 environmental	 pro-        nity	 settings	 and	 values,	 and	 respect	 for	
grams	in	school	systems	and	educational	      	   individual	differences.	


                                                                                              233
Resolutions

     The	Association	also	believes	that	to	fa-    input.	These	programs	should	be	present-
cilitate	the	realization	of	human	potential,	     ed	by	properly	licensed/trained	personnel	
it	is	the	right	of	every	individual	to	live	in	   and	 should	 be	 planned	 with	 the	 input	 of	
an	 environment	 of	 freely	 available	 infor-    parents/guardians	 and	 other	 community	
mation	 and	 knowledge	 about	 sexuality	         representatives.	(1987,	2000)
and	encourages	affiliates	and	members	to	
support	appropriately	established	sex	edu-        B-49. Lifesaving Techniques
cation	 programs.	 Such	 programs	 should	           The	 National	 Education	 Association	
include	information	on	sexual	abstinence,	        believes	 that	 education	 employees	 and	
birth	control	and	family	planning,	diversi-       students	should	be	trained	in	basic	emer-
ty	of	culture,	diversity	of	sexual	orientation	   gency	 lifesaving	 techniques.	 Such	 train-
and	gender	identification,	parenting	skills,	     ing	 should	 be	 included	 in	 both	 school	
prenatal	 care,	 sexually	 transmitted	 dis-      curriculum	 and	 staff	 development.	 The	
eases,	incest,	sexual	abuse,	sexual	harass-       Association	 also	 believes	 that	 education	
ment,	homophobia,	the	effects	of	substance	       employees	should	be	provided	the	oppor-
abuse	during	pregnancy,	and	problems	as-          tunity	for	training	in	CPR	and	the	proper	
sociated	with	and	resulting	from	pre-teen	        use	 of	 defibrillators	 by	 licensed/trained	
and	teenage	pregnancies.	(1969,	2002)             personnel.	(1982,	2007)

B-48. HIV/AIDS Education                          B-50. Democracy and Citizenship
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	        Education
believes	 that	 educational	 institutions	            The	 National	 Education	 Association	
should	 establish	 comprehensive	 human	          believes	 that	 education	 about	 democ-
immunodeficiency	 virus	 (HIV)	 and	 ac-          racy	 and	 the	 rights	 and	 responsibilities	
quired	 immunodeficiency	 syndrome	               of	citizens	is	essential	for	the	survival	of	
(AIDS)	education	programs	as	an	integral	         American	 democracy.	 The	 cornerstone	
part	of	the	school	curriculum.	HIV/AIDS	          of	 such	 education	 should	 be	 the	 United	
education	 must	 include	 education	 about	       States	Constitution	and	the	Bill	of	Rights.	
all	 means	 of	 transmission,	 including	 un-     The	Association	also	believes	that	demo-
protected	sex	and	unsanitary	methods	of	          cratic	ideals	should	be	practiced	as	part	of	
tattooing,	body	piercing,	and	intravenous	        the	 total	 education	 process.	 The	 follow-
drug	 use.	 Information	 on	 prevention	 op-      ing	concepts	should	be	an	integral	part	of	
tions	 must	 include	 abstinence	 and	 medi-      the	curriculum	within	public	schools	and	
cally	accepted	protective	devices.	Instruc-       other	educational	institutions:
tion	 in	 decision-making	 skills	 to	 assist	        a.	 The	 dignity	 and	 worth	 of	 the	   	
students	in	correlating	health	information	       individual	
and	personal	behavior	is	essential.	                  b.	 Due	process	of	law	
    The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	           c.	 Rule	 of	 the	 majority	 tempered	 by	
proper	implementation	of	these	programs	          respect	for	minority	rights	
requires	education	employee	training	and	             d.	 Individual	responsibility	


234
                                                                                     Resolutions

    e.	 Equal	justice	under	the	law	               B-53. Accurate United States and
    f.	 Civil	liberties	as	guarantors	of	indi-     World Maps
vidual	rights	                                         The	 National	 Education	 Association	
    g.	 One-person—one-vote	                       believes	 that	 all	 visual	 representations	
    h.	 Active	 citizen	 participation	 in	 all	   using	 maps	 of	 the	 United	 States	 should	
aspects	of	public	affairs                          depict	all	fifty	states	and	Puerto	Rico	in	
    i.	 Freedom	 of	 religion,	 speech,	 the	      their	correct	geographic	location	and	rel-
press,	petition,	and	assembly.	                    ative	 size.	 The	 Association	 also	 believes	
    The	 Association	 encourages	 teachers,	       that	maps	of	the	world	should	accurately	
lawyers,	 court	 personnel,	 and	 others	 to	      depict	national	boundaries	and	names	of	
work	together	to	develop	appropriate	ma-           countries.	(1995,	2005)
terials,	 including	 information	 about	 the	
justice	 system	 and	 constitutional	 issues,	     B-54. Driver Education
in	 order	 to	 teach	 students	 to	 be	 respon-       The	 National	 Education	 Association	
sible	citizens.	(1984,	2005)                       believes	that	driver	education	courses	that	
                                                   include	 both	 classroom	 and	 behind-the-
B-51. Labor Movement Education                     wheel	 experiences	 should	 be	 part	 of	 the	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	          education	 of	 all	 students	 and	 should	 be	
believes	 that	 the	 struggles	 of	 working	       taught	by	teachers	licensed	in	driver	edu-
men	 and	 women	 to	 establish	 unions	 and	       cation.	(1980,	1998)
the	 influence	 of	 the	 labor	 movement	 on	
the	growth	of	the	United	States	should	be	         B-55. Education on Peace and
an	integral	part	of	the	curriculum	in	our	         International Understanding
schools.	                                              The	 National	 Education	 Association	
   The	 Association	 urges	 teachers,	 cur-        believes	 that	 the	 United	 States	 and	 the	
riculum	 committees,	 and	 authors	 to	 in-        other	nations	of	the	world	should	promote	
clude	material	that	accurately	presents	the	       peace	 and	 international	 understanding.	
important	 contributions	 to	 our	 country’s	      Educational	strategies	for	teaching	peace	
history	 and	 growth	 that	 have	 been	 pro-       and	justice	issues	should	include	the	role	
vided	by	the	unions	involved	in	the	labor	         of	 individuals,	 social	 movements,	 inter-
movement	 and	 the	 individuals	 who	 led	         national	 and	 nongovernmental	 organiza-
that	movement.	(1988,	1996)                        tions	in	the	peaceful	resolution	of	conflict,	
                                                   and	the	use	of	fact	finding	and	reconcilia-
B-52. Metric System                                tion	processes	to	help	with	the	healing	of	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	          wounds	caused	by	conflicts.
believes	 in	 the	 adoption	 of	 the	 Interna-         The	Association	also	believes	that	ed-
tional	System	of	Units	(SI	metric	system).	        ucational	materials	should	include	activi-
The	 Association	 advocates	 that	 the	 SI	        ties	 dealing	 with	 peaceful	 resolution	 of	
system	be	taught	at	all	educational	levels.	       conflict,	 the	 effects	 of	 nuclear	 weaponry	
(1969,	1996)                                       and	 other	 weapons	 of	 mass	 destruction,	


                                                                                             235
Resolutions

strategies	 for	 disarmament,	 methods	 to	         LEARNING ISSUES NOT RELATED
achieve	peace,	historical	examples	of	fact	         TO SPECIFIC DISCIPLINES
finding	and	reconciliation	processes,	and	
consideration	of	current	situations	where	          B-58. Homework
such	 processes	 could	 be	 of	 value.	 Such	          The	 National	 Education	 Association	
curricular	 materials	 should	 also	 cover	         supports	the	assignment	of	homework	as	
major	 contributing	 factors	 to	 conflict,	        one	 means	 of	 reinforcing	 and	 furthering	
such	as	economic	disparity,	demographic	            classroom	instruction	and	learning.	
variables,	unequal	political	power	and	re-             The	Association	believes	that	the	type	
source	distribution,	and	the	indebtedness	          and	 the	 amount	 of	 homework	 assigned	
of	the	developing	world.	(1982,	2005)               should	 be	 determined	 by	 the	 classroom	
                                                    teacher	and	be	appropriate	to	a	student’s	
B-56. Genocide                                      developmental	level.	(1985,	1990)
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	
deplores	any	act	of	genocide,	which	is	the	         B-59. Discipline
deliberate	 and	 systematic	 eradication	 of	           The	 National	 Education	 Association	
members	of	any	group	based	on	culture,	             believes	 that	 a	 safe	 and	 orderly	 environ-
ethnicity,	 national	 origin,	 political	 affili-   ment	 in	 which	 students	 are	 treated	 with	
ation,	 race,	 religion,	 and	 sexual	 orienta-     dignity	will	provide	them	with	a	positive	
tion/gender	 identification.	 Acts	 of	 geno-       learning	 experience.	 Effective	 disciplin-
cide	 must	 be	 acknowledged	 and	 taught	          ary	procedures	enhance	high	expectations	
in	order	to	provide	insight	into	how	such	          and	 quality	 instruction,	 thereby	 promot-
inhumanity	 develops,	 prevent	 its	 occur-         ing	self-control	and	responsible	behavior	
rence,	and	preclude	its	recurrence.	(1993,	         in	students	while	ensuring	the	right	of	all	
2005)                                               students	 to	 due	 process	 and	 an	 orderly	
                                                    learning	environment.	
B-57. The Holocaust                                     The	 Association	 promotes	 the	 study,	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	           development,	and	funding	of	a	variety	of	
believes	that	a	way	to	prevent	events	that	         effective	 discipline	 procedures.	 The	 As-
have	 caused	 great	 human	 misery,	 such	          sociation	also	believes	that	its	local	affili-
as	the	Holocaust,	is	to	teach	all	students	         ates,	in	conjunction	with	other	stakehold-
about	the	Holocaust	not	only	as	an	histori-         ers,	should	develop	guidelines	for	effective	
cal	event	but	also	as	a	means	of	providing	         disciplinary	techniques.	The	Association	
insight	into	how	inhumanity	of	this	mag-            further	believes	that	governing	boards,	in	
nitude	 develops.	 The	 Holocaust	 must	 be	        conjunction	with	local	affiliates,	parents/
taught	so	that	never	again	can	doubt	of	its	        guardians,	students,	education	employees,	
occurrence	be	raised	and	never	again	can	           and	community	members,	should	develop	
like	action	occur.	(1981,	1993)                     policies	 and	 standards	 that	 provide	 the	
                                                    necessary	administrative	support	to	edu-
                                                    cation	employees	for	the	maintenance	of	


236
                                                                                       Resolutions

a	positive,	safe	school	environment.	               clear	expectations	for	what	students	should	
   The	Association	condemns	the	misuse	             know	and	be	able	to	achieve.	Throughout	
of	discipline	as	a	means	of	excluding	stu-          the	 implementation	 of	 content	 and	 per-
dents	 from	 the	 school	 setting	 until	 other	    formance	standards,	all	students	must	be	
methods	 of	 behavioral	 intervention	 have	        provided	 the	 instructional	 opportunities	
been	 exhausted.	 This	 does	 not	 preclude	        and	 learning	 conditions	 necessary	 to	 at-
the	 removal	 of	 the	 offender	 from	 the	         tain	the	standards.	 The	Association	 sup-
school	 setting	 to	 protect	 other	 students	      ports	the	development	and	use	of	a	variety	
and	 education	 employees.	 Disruptive	             of	assessments	that	are	appropriate	to	the	
students	 should	 not	 be	 placed	 in	 voca-        standards.	 The	 Association	 also	 believes	
tional,	 technical,	 unified	 arts,	 or	 special	   that	 there	 should	 be	 no	 financial	 incen-
education	classes	solely	for	the	purpose	of	        tives	or	consequences	linked	to	the	devel-
solving	disciplinary	problems.	The	Asso-            opment,	 adoption,	 or	 implementation	 of	
ciation	believes	that	corporal	punishment	          national	standards.
should	 not	 be	 used	 as	 a	 means	 of	 disci-         The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
plining	students.	(1975,	2000)                      state	and	local	affiliates	must	participate	
                                                    in	the	planning,	development,	implemen-
B-60. Conflict Resolution Education                 tation,	and	refinement	of	standards,	con-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	          ditions,	and	assessments	to	ensure	that—	
supports	the	adoption	and	use,	at	all	edu-              a.	 Students,	 parents/guardians,	 edu-
cational	levels,	of	proven	conflict	resolu-         cation	 employees,	 community	 members,	
tion	 strategies,	 materials,	 and	 activities	     and	 governmental	 officials	 are	 involved	
by	school	districts,	education	employees,	          and	share	the	accountability
students,	 parents/guardians,	 and	 school	             b.	 Education	 employees	 are	 afforded	
security	 personnel	 as	 well	 as	 the	 school	     released	 time	 and/or	 compensation	 in	
community	to	encourage	nonviolent	reso-             order	to	have	opportunities	to	work	with	
lution	 of	 interpersonal	 and	 societal	 con-      colleagues	on	a	regular	basis	throughout	
flicts.	                                            the	school	year	on	how	to	teach	and	assess	
    The	 Association	 recognizes	 the	 im-          student	proficiency	in	the	standards
portance	of	students	having	the	appropri-               c.	 Full	 funding	 and	 resources	 are	     	
ate	 social	 skills	 necessary	 to	 participate	    provided
in	 a	 democratic	 society.	 Programs	 that	            d.	 Curriculum	 includes,	 but	 is	 not	
teach	the	skills	of	positive	social	interac-        limited	to,	required	standards;	standards	
tion	should	be	incorporated	into	academic	          are	 introduced	 into	 the	 curriculum	 at	 a	
programming.	(1986,	2007)                           rate	that	allows	education	employees	op-
                                                    portunities	 to	 adapt	 their	 practice,	 work	
B-61. Standards for Student                         with	 each	 other,	 and	 pilot	 the	 work	 in	 a	
Learning                                            concerted	fashion
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	               e.	 Appropriate	 attention	 is	 given	 to	
believes	 in	 high	 standards	 that	 describe	      each	 student’s	 progress	 toward	 attaining	


                                                                                                237
Resolutions

the	standards	and	to	his	or	her	needs	and	       utilize	a	variety	of	measures	to	accurately	
developmental	level                              assess	 student	 growth.	 All	 methods	 of	
   f.	 Age	 appropriate	 placement,	 when	       assessment	 shall	 provide	 the	 necessary	
used,	 includes	 appropriate	 interventions	     accommodations,	 modifications,	 and	 ex-
and	 supports	 designed	 to	 enhance	 skills	    emptions,	and	be	free	of	cultural,	racial,	
in	order	to	achieve	grade	level	                 and	gender	biases.	
   g.	 Professional	 development	 is	 pro-           The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
vided	for	all	education	employees	to	help	       classroom	 teachers	 must	 be	 involved	 in	
align	their	practices	to	the	standards	          the	 development	 of	 assessment	 systems	
   h.	 Education	employees	participate	in	       and	 are	 best	 qualified	 to	 determine	 the	
the	 review	 and	 refinement	 of	 standards	     criteria	 for	 assessment	 of	 students	 and	
and	assessments                                  dissemination	of	results.	Instruments	used	
   i.	 Achievement	 gaps	 are	 eliminated.	      to	communicate	student	progress	must	be	
(1997,	2007)                                     accurate	and	meaningful	to	students,	par-
                                                 ents/guardians,	 and	 other	 stakeholders.	
B-62. Assessment of Student                      (1981,	2007)
Learning
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	       B-63. Standardized Testing of
supports	 ongoing	 comprehensive	 assess-        Students
ment	of	student	growth.	A	student’s	level	           The	 National	 Education	 Association	
of	performance	is	best	assessed	with	au-         believes	that	standardized	tests	and/or	as-
thentic	 measures	 directly	 linked	 to	 the	    sessments	should	be	used	only	to	improve	
lessons	 taught	 and	 materials	 used	 by	       the	 quality	 of	 education	 and	 instruction	
teachers.	                                       for	students.	 Standardized	tests,	whether	
    The	Association	believes	that	the	pri-       norm-,	 criterion-,	 or	 standards-refer-
mary	purposes	of	assessment	are	to—	             enced,	 can	 validly	 assess	 only	 a	 limited	
    a.	 Assist	 students	 and	 their	 parents/   range	of	student	learning.	Therefore,	they	
guardians	 in	 identifying	 the	 students’	      should	 be	 only	 an	 adjunct	 or	 supple-
strengths	and	needs	                             ment	 to	 information	 obtained	 through	
    b.	 Encourage	students	to	become	life-       school-	 and	 classroom-based	 assessment	
long	learners	                                   conducted	 by	 teachers	 for	 purposes	 of	
    c.	 Measure	a	program’s	effectiveness,	      supporting	and	strengthening	instruction	
communicate	 learning	 expectations,	 and	       as	 well	 as	 for	 summarizing	 and	 evaluat-
provide	 a	 basis	 for	 determining	 instruc-    ing	 student	 learning.	 Standardized	 tests	
tional	strategies	                               are	 most	 useful	 when	 designed	 by	 the	
    d.	 Develop	appropriate	learning	expe-       educational	 professionals	 closest	 to	 the	
riences	for	students.	                           classroom	 and	 integrated	 with	 assess-
    The	Association	also	believes	that	no	       ment	 information	 specific	 to	 local	 pro-
one	measure	should	be	used	to	determine	         grams.	Affiliates	should	advocate	for	and	
a	student’s	performance.	Teachers	should	        states	 and	 test	 designers	 should	 employ	


238
                                                                                     Resolutions

a	 variety	 of	 developmentally	 appropri-         appropriate	 alternative	 options	 to	 stan-
ate	 assessment	 techniques	 that	 allow	 for	     dardized	 testing	 to	 measure	 individual	
universal	design,	necessary	accommoda-             progress	and	proficiencies.	
tions,	modifications,	and	exemptions	and	              The	 Association	 opposes	 the	 use	 of	
are	bias-free,	reliable,	and	valid.	When	a	        standardized	 tests	 and/or	 assessments	
test	and/or	assessment	is	mandated	at	the	         when—
local,	state,	or	national	level,	it	should	be	         a.	 Used	as	the	criterion	for	the	reduc-
reviewed	by	a	panel	of	appropriate	subject	        tion	 or	 withholding	 of	 any	 educational	
area	specialists	and	teachers	to	ascertain	        funding	
the	relevance	of	the	test	to	the	subject	area	         b.	 Results	 are	 used	 to	 compare	 stu-
and	be	used	only	to	evaluate	a	program’s	          dents,	teachers,	programs,	schools,	com-
effectiveness	toward	meeting	local,	state,	        munities,	and	states	
or	national	standards	and/or	goals.	                   c.	 Used	as	a	single	criterion	for	high-
    The	Association	also	believes	that,	in	        stakes	 decision	 making,	 such	 as	 gradua-
order	 for	 standardized	 achievement	 tests	      tion	requirements	or	grade	promotion
and/or	 assessments	 to	 support	 quality	             d.	 The	results	lead	to	sanctions	or	oth-
education—	                                        er	punitive	actions	
    a.	 Standards	 must	 be	 prioritized	 to	          e.	 Arbitrary	standards	are	required	
support	effective	curriculum,	instruction,	            f.	 They	do	not	match	the	motor	skills	
professional	 development,	 and	 assess-           and/or	academic	developmental	levels	or	
ment.	                                             language	proficiency	of	the	student	
    b.	 Stakeholders	 must	 determine	 high	           g.	 Student	scores	are	used	to	evaluate	
priority	standards.	These	standards	must	          teachers	or	to	determine	compensation	or	
be	 clearly	 and	 thoroughly	 described	 so	       employment	status	
that	 the	 knowledge	 and	 skills	 students	           h.	 Programs	are	specifically	designed	
need	to	demonstrate	are	evident.	                  to	teach	to	the	test	
    c.	 Valid	results	of	assessment	of	high-           i.	 Testing	 programs	 or	 tests	 limit	 or	
priority	standards	must	be	reported	stan-          supplant	instructional	time	
dard-by-standard	for	each	student,	school,	            j.	 Every	student	is	required	to	be	test-
and	district.	                                     ed	every	year	
    d.	 The	breadth	of	the	curriculum	must	            k.	 Students	and	parents/guardians	are	
be	 monitored	 to	 ensure	 that	 attention	 is	    not	provided	with	a	complete	report	of	the	
given	 to	 all	 standards	 and	 subject	 areas,	   individual	student’s	test	results	
including	those	that	are	not	assessed.	                l.	 Time	 required	 to	 administer	 the	
    e.	 Progress	 should	 be	 continually	         test	 exceeds	 reasonable	 and	 appropriate	
monitored	to	ensure	that	assessments	are	          limits	for	the	age	of	the	student	
appropriate	 for	 the	 purposes	 for	 which	           m.	Test	 preparation	 impedes	 or	 dis-
they	are	intended.                                 courages	 learning,	 constrains	 the	 cur-
    f.	 Students	with	special	needs	and/or	        riculum	in	ways	that	threaten	the	quality	
limited	 English	 proficiency	 should	 have	       of	teaching	and	 learning	for	 students,	 or	


                                                                                              239
Resolutions

limits	 and/or	 curtails	 future	 educational	        c.	 Be	implemented	in	accordance	with	
opportunities	of	learners	                         collective	 bargaining	 contracts	 where	
    n.	 Scores	are	used	to	track	students          such	contracts	exist	
    o.	 Students	with	special	needs	or	lim-           d.	 Be	 sufficiently	 flexible	 to	 accom-
ited	 English	 proficiency	 are	 required	 to	     modate	 the	 cultural,	 economic,	 and	 lin-
take	 the	 same	 tests	 as	 regular	 education	    guistic	diversity	among	students	
students	without	modifications	and/or	ac-             e.	 Provide	 tests	 appropriate	 for	 stu-
commodations.                                      dents	with	identified	learning	disabilities	
    The	 administration	 of	 a	 standardized	         f.	 Provide	faculty	with	information	to	
test	and/or	assessment	includes	the	respon-        improve	individual	student	learning	styles	
sibility	 to	 educate	 the	 stakeholders	 about	   and	aptitude.
the	purpose	of	the	test,	the	meaning	of	the	          The	 Association	 supports	 student	 as-
test	results,	and	the	accurate	interpretation	     sessment	 programs	 in	 higher	 education	
of	its	conclusions.	The	Association	further	       only	if—	
believes	 that	 students,	 parents/guardians,	        a.	 They	are	accompanied	by	adequate	
teachers,	 administrators,	 schools,	 and	         funding	 for	 remedial	 programs	 and	 ad-
school	districts	should	not	be	penalized	for	      visement	
parents/guardians	 exercising	 their	 legal	          b.	 Remedial	 programs	 are	 designed	
rights	to	exempt	their	children	from	stan-         and	 provided	 to	 meet	 the	 deficiencies	
dardized	 tests	 and/or	 assessments.	 The	        identified	through	assessment
Association	believes	that	states	should	be	           c.	 Advisement	 is	 designed	 and	 pro-
encouraged	to	make	test	items	public	after	        vided	 to	 link	 the	 remediation	 of	 indi-
they	are	no	longer	used.	(1978,	2007)              vidual	students	to	the	completion	of	their	
                                                   degrees,	certificates,	or	other	appropriate	
B-64. Student Assessment                           courses	of	study.
Programs in Higher Education                          The	Association	strongly	opposes—	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	            a.	 The	use	of	student	assessment	pro-
believes	that	student	assessment	programs	         grams	 to	 deny	 access	 to,	 or	 exclude	 stu-
in	 higher	 education,	 properly	 designed	        dents	from,	educational	opportunities	
and	 administered,	 can	 be	 crucial	 tools	          b.	 The	 use	 of	 any	 single	 test	 to	 deny	
for	 diagnosing	 student	 and	 institutional	      access	to	regular	credit	classes	
needs,	 improving	 instruction	 and	 coun-            c.	 The	use	of	student	assessment	pro-
seling	services,	and	designing	long-range	         grams	for	the	purpose	of	evaluating	fac-
plans.	The	Association	also	believes	that	         ulty,	 academic	 programs,	 or	 institutions.	
such	 student	 assessment	 programs	 in	           (1995,	2001)
higher	education	should—	
    a.	 Be	 designed	 institutionally	 rather	     B-65. School Library Media
than	by	the	state	                                 Programs
    b.	 Be	 planned,	 designed,	 implement-           The	 National	 Education	 Associa-
ed,	and	evaluated	by	faculty	                                                                   	
                                                   tion	 believes	 every	 student	 must	 have	 a	


240
                                                                                     Resolutions

comprehensive	school	library	media	pro-            should	 include	 closed	 captioning	 for	 the	
gram	within	his	or	her	educational	setting.	       deaf/hard	of	hearing	and	read-along	cap-
This	program	should	include	a	certified/li-        tions	 on	 children’s	 commercial	 and	 edu-
censed	school	library	media	specialist	and	        cational	programs.	(1969,	2004)
qualified	education	support	professionals;	
a	variety	of	print,	nonprint,	and	electronic	      B-67. Technology in the Educational
resources	to	supplement	and	complement	            Process
curricular,	 personal,	 and	 leisure	 needs;	          The	 National	 Education	 Association	
relevant	technology;	and	instruction	in	li-        believes	that	technology	in	the	education-
brary	research	and	information	skills.	The	        al	 process	 improves	 learning	 opportuni-
Association	 believes	 that	 school	 library	      ties	 for	 students,	 quality	 of	 instruction,	
media	 programs	 are	 negatively	 impacted	        effectiveness	of	education	employees,	and	
if	a	media	specialist	does	not	have	a	sub-         provides	 opportunities	 to	 reduce	 educa-
stitute	during	his	or	her	absence.                 tional	inequities.	
    The	Association	encourages	increased	              The	Association	supports	increased	fed-
funding	 for	 school	 library	 media	 pro-         eral,	state,	and	local	resources,	along	with	
grams	from	federal,	state,	and	local	gov-          public/private	 partnerships,	 to	 fully	 fund	
ernments	as	well	as	other	sources	such	as	         equipment	purchases/leases/upgrades,	
public	and/or	private	partnerships.	(1980,	        maintenance,	 technical	 support,	 training,	
2005)	                                             evaluation,	and	staffing	to	support	the	full	
                                                   use	of	technology	in	public	schools,	public	
B-66. Media                                        colleges,	and	public	universities.	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	             The	Association	also	believes	that—	
believes	 that	 the	 media	 has	 a	 significant	       a.	 Education	 employees	 must	 have	
effect	 on	 the	 education	 of	 the	 public.	      access	to	necessary	technology	for	man-
The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	 the	       aging	 and	 advancing	 instruction.	 Such	
media	 has	 an	 obligation	 to	 provide	 full,	    technology	must	be	compatible	with	and	
constructive,	balanced,	and	accurate	pre-          on	 at	 least	 the	 same	 level	 as	 technology	
sentations	to	the	public.	The	Association	         in	general	use	outside	education.	Further,	
further	believes	that	the	concentration	of	        education	 employees	 should	 be	 provided	
media	ownership	within	a	limited	number	           training,	 encouragement,	 time,	 and	 re-
of	individuals	or	corporate	entities	is	not	       sources	 to	 experiment	 with	 and	 to	 re-
conducive	to	the	presentation	of	divergent	        search	applications	of	technology	in	order	
views	and	opinions.	                               to	integrate	technology	into	all	curricula	
    The	 Association	 supports	 the	 media’s	      as	a	regular	part	of	the	instructional	day.
right	 to	 protect	 information	 and	 sources	         b.	 Education	 employees,	 including	
of	 information	 from	 mandated	 disclo-           representatives	of	the	local	affiliate,	must	
sures	and	search	and	seizure.	                     be	 involved	 in	 all	 aspects	 of	 technology	
    The	 Association	 believes	 that	 media	       utilization,	including	planning,	materials	
should	be	accessible	to	all.	Visual	media	         selection,	implementation,	and	evaluation.	


                                                                                              241
Resolutions

Additional	preparation	time	and	ongoing	               j.	 Education	employees’	participation	
technological	support	must	be	granted	to	          in	distance	education	must	be	mutually	es-
teachers	using	technology	to	enrich	their	         tablished	in	employer	policies,	locally	ne-
instruction.	 Further,	 classroom	 teachers,	      gotiated	agreements,	and/or	other	sources	
higher	education	faculty,	and	library/me-          that	establish	the	terms	and	conditions	of	
dia	 specialists	 must	 have	 collaborative	       employment	for	education	employees.
planning	time.	                                        k.		Equity	 and	 freedom	 of	 access	 to	
    c.	 Teacher	preparation	in	instruction-        information	 unimpeded	 by	 geographic,	
al	technology,	including	the	development	          economic,	 social,	 or	 cultural	 constraints	
of	effective	materials,	and	appropriate	in-        is	essential.
structional	strategies	must	be	included	in	            l.	 Education	 employees	 should	 own	
college	and	university	programs.	                  the	copyright	to	materials	that	they	create	
    d.	 Ongoing	 professional	 development	        in	the	course	of	their	employment.	(1981,	
must	be	provided	for	education	employees	          2005)
in	the	use,	integration,	and	applications	of	
technologies	to	enhance	instruction.               B-68. Cell Phones and Personal
    e.	 Students	 must	 have	 access	 to	 and	     Communication Devices in Schools
instruction	in	technology	and	the	respon-             The	 National	 Education	 Associa-
sible	 use	 of	 technology.	 Further,	 there	      tion	believes	that	schools	should	develop	
must	 be	 equity	 in	 training,	 funding,	 and	    guidelines	for	the	appropriate	use	of	cell	
participation	for	all	students.	                   phones	 and	 personal	 communication	 de-
    f.	 Instructional	technology	should	be	        vices	during	the	school	day.	Such	guide-
used	 to	 support	 instruction	 and	 must	 be	     lines	should	promote	respect	for	privacy,	
directed	by	a	licensed	teacher.	                   intellectual	integrity,	and	a	positive	learn-
    g.	 Instructional	technology	should	be	        ing	environment.	(2006)
used	 to	 improve	 the	 learning	 opportuni-
ties	 for	 students,	 the	 quality	 of	 instruc-   B-69. Internet Access
tion,	and/or	the	effectiveness	of	education	           The	 National	 Education	 Association	
employees,	 rather	 than	 to	 reduce	 posi-        believes	that	every	school	classroom,	of-
tions,	hours,	or	compensation.	                    fice,	 teacher	 workroom,	 and	 library/me-
    h.	 The	 evaluation	 of	 education	 em-        dia	 center	 should	 have	 affordable,	 high-
ployees	 in	 any	 technological	 program	          speed,	seamless,	and	equal	access	to	the	
should	 be	 conducted	 openly,	 be	 tailored	      Internet.	
to	 the	 medium,	 and	 meet	 the	 require-             The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
ments	 of	 the	 local	 collective	 bargaining	     education	 employees	 are	 essential	 to	 the	
agreement	or	evaluation	policy.	                   development	 of	 an	 acceptable	 use	 policy	
    i.	 The	impact	of	technology,	telecom-         (AUP)	 and	 to	 the	 appropriate	 use	 of	 the	
munications,	 and	 distance	 education	 on	        Internet.	
education	employees	should	be	subject	to	              The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
local	collective	bargaining	agreements.	           an	 AUP	 that	 requires	 the	 signatures	 of	


242
                                                                                       Resolutions

parents/guardians	 and	 students	 must	 be	         instructors	and	online	classmates,	and	of-
in	place	before	allowing	student	access.	           fer	opportunities	for	offline	activities.	
    The	Association	believes	that	Internet	             b.	 Teachers	 who	 provide	 distance	
access	and	activities	should	be	age	appro-          education	 at	 the	 elementary/secondary	
priate	 and	 monitored	 and	 should	 foster	        school	level	should	be	licensed	in	the	sub-
critical	use.	Any	documentation	material	           ject	matter	taught	and	be	skilled	in	learn-
produced	 as	 a	 result	 of	 Internet	 access	      ing	 theories,	 technologies,	 and	 teaching	
should	be	properly	cited	and	comply	with	           pedagogies	appropriate	for	an	online	en-
copyright	laws.	(1993,	2000)                        vironment.	 Ongoing	 professional	 devel-
                                                    opment	 is	 essential	 to	 ensure	 that	 teach-
B-70. Distance Education†                           ers	maintain	the	skills	appropriate	for	an	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	          online	environment.	
believes	 that	 quality	 distance	 education	           c.	 Students	 who	 take	 distance	 edu-
can	create	or	extend	learning	opportuni-            cation	 courses	 should	 receive	 the	 prepa-
ties	but	is	not	an	alternative	to	traditional	      ration	 and	 support	 necessary	 to	 enable	
education	that	allows	for	regular	face-to-          them	to	function	effectively	in	an	online	
face	 interaction	 among	 students,	 peers,	        environment,	which	at	a	minimum	should	
and	instructors.	                                   include—	
    The	 Association	 opposes	 arrange-                     1.	 Appropriate	 equipment,	 techni-
ments	 whereby	 elementary,	 secondary,	            cal	support,	libraries,	and	laboratories	
and	undergraduate	students	receive	all	or	                  2.	 Appropriate	 services	 for	 el-
most	of	their	education	through	distance	           ementary/secondary	 students,	 including	
education	 and	 rarely,	 if	 ever,	 convene	 in	    on-site	 education	 employees	 to	 monitor	
an	actual	classroom.	The	Association	rec-           student	performance	and	act	as	a	liaison	
ognizes	that	exceptions	may	be	warranted	           to	the	distance	education	instructor	
in	particular	cases.		                                      3.	 Accurate	 course	 descriptions	
    The	Association	also	believes	that	stu-         and	clear	expectations	prior	to	enrollment	
dents	must	be	able	to	participate	in	distance	              4.	 Reasonable	student	to	instructor	
education	on	an	equitable	basis	without	re-         ratios	that	allow	for	individualized	inter-
gard	to	social	or	economic	status.	                 action	with	instructors	
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	              5.	 Opportunities	 for	 appropriate	
the	following	principles	represent	a	frame-         student-to-student	interaction	
work	to	ensure	quality	distance	education:	                 6.	 Courses	 that	 are	 as	 rigorous	 as	
    a.	 Distance	education	courses	should	          similar	 courses	 delivered	 by	 more	 tradi-
be	 managed	 to	 ensure	 effective	 student	        tional	means	
and	school	participation,	provide	for	regu-                 7.	 Courses	that	meet	accreditation	
lar	interaction	between	students	and	their	         standards.	
                                                        d.	 Support	 systems	 should	 provide	
†	
  See	the	Policy	Statement	on	Distance	Education	   resources	 to	 instructors,	 students,	 and	
adopted	by	the	2002	Representative	Assembly.        parents	that	are	comparable	to	those	that	


                                                                                                243
Resolutions

would	 accompany	 face-to-face	 courses,	          nation’s	 colleges	 and	 universities	 often	
as	 well	 as	 any	 additional	 support	 neces-     cause	difficulties	in	the	evaluation	of	tran-
sary	for	the	online	environment.	                  scripts.	 The	 Association	 therefore	 urges	
    e.	 Multiple	mechanisms,	including	ap-         the	 nation’s	 colleges	 and	 universities	 to	
propriate	technological	safeguards,	should	        develop,	in	cooperation	with	the	Associa-
be	used	on	a	regular	basis	to	validate	and	        tion,	a	uniform	formula	to	evaluate	credit	
authenticate	student	work.	(1997,	2004)            hours.	(1977,	1986)

B-71. Communication Between                        B-73. Transfer of Student Records
Hearing and Deaf/Hard of Hearing                      The	 National	 Education	 Association	
People                                             supports	 the	 development	 of	 an	 effective	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	         process	for	the	transfer	of	student	records.	
believes	that	the	lack	of	communications	          To	 expedite	 the	 confidential	 information	
between	 hearing	 and	 the	 deaf/hard	 of	         exchanges	 between	 schools	 when	 stu-
hearing	 has	 detracted	 from	 the	 potential	     dents	 transfer,	 the	 process	 should	 follow	
of	a	broadly	distributed	group	to	contrib-         a	national	format	designed	by	educational	
ute	fully	to	our	total	society.	                   and	legal	professionals.	This	process	must	
    The	 Association	 recommends	 that	            protect	 the	 rights	 of	 students	 and	 should	
instruction	 be	 given	 to	 hearing	 students,	    facilitate	the	continuity	of	their	education.	
staff,	 and	 administrators	 that	 will	 help	        The	 Association	 believes	 that	 school	
them	 understand	the	unique	needs	of	all	          and	 education	 employees	 must	 receive	
deaf/hard	of	hearing	people	and	will	help	         information	that	indicates—
hearing	 students,	 staff,	 and	 administra-          a.	 Educational	 plans,	 goals,	 special-
tors	communicate	with	deaf/hard	of	hear-           ized	programs,	and/or	services
ing	people.	                                          b.	 Assessment	data
    The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	           c.	 Attendance	 and	 cumulative	 re-
American	 Sign	 Language	 should	 be	 of-          cords
fered	 as	 a	 foreign/world	 language	 elec-          d.	 Immunizations	and	health	needs
tive	credit	at	both	high	school	and	college	          e.	 Legal	stipulations/restrictions
levels.	                                              f.	 History	of	disciplinary	incidents	and	
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	     violence-related	behavior.	(1980,	2004)
educational	 sign	 language	 interpreters/
transliterators	must	be	qualified	profession-      B-74. Classroom Use of Animals
als	who	are	licensed,	state	credentialed,	or	          The	 National	 Education	 Association	
nationally	certified.	(1974,	2004)                 believes	that	educators	at	all	levels	should	
                                                   implement	guidelines	concerning	the	hu-
B-72. Credit-Hour Evaluation                       mane	use	of	animals	in	the	classroom.	
    The	 National	 Education	 Associa-                 The	 Association	 urges	 that	 teachers	
tion	 believes	 that	 the	 different	 methods	     encourage	compassion	and	respect	for	all	
of	 assigning	 credit	 hours	 as	 used	 by	 the	   living	things.	(1989)


244
                                                                                    Resolutions

B-75. Home Schooling                             direct	and	confidential	access	to	compre-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	       hensive	health	care.	
believes	 that	 home	 schooling	 programs	          The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
based	 on	 parental	 choice	 cannot	 provide	    such	 health	 care	 should	 be	 provided	 by	
the	student	with	a	comprehensive	educa-          properly	licensed	physicians	and	by	other	
tion	 experience.	 When	 home	 schooling	        properly	licensed	health	professionals.	
occurs,	 students	 enrolled	 must	 meet	 all	       The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
state	 curricular	 requirements,	 including	     legislation	 should	 be	 adopted	 to	 provide	
the	 taking	 and	 passing	 of	 assessments	      comprehensive	health	care	to	all	children.	
to	 ensure	 adequate	 academic	 progress.	       (1990,	1997)
Home	schooling	should	be	limited	to	the	
children	 of	 the	 immediate	 family,	 with	     C-2. Nutrition
all	expenses	being	borne	by	the	parents/             The	 National	 Education	 Association	
guardians.	 Instruction	 should	 be	 by	 per-    believes	that	proper	nutrition	is	essential	
sons	who	are	licensed	by	the	appropriate	        to	child	development	and	student	success.	
state	 education	 licensure	 agency,	 and	 a	    The	Association	also	believes	that	proper	
curriculum	approved	by	the	state	depart-         nutrition	 must	 be	 a	 part	 of	 prenatal	 care	
ment	of	education	should	be	used.	               and	must	continue	throughout	life.	
    The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	          The	 Association	 supports	 programs	
home-schooled	 students	 should	 not	 par-       within	the	education	framework	that	pro-
ticipate	in	any	extracurricular	activities	in	   mote	 understanding	 of	 proper	 nutrition.	
the	public	schools.	                             In	 addition,	 the	 Association	 advocates	
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	   efforts	 to	 develop	 uniform	 symbols	 that	
local	 public	 school	 systems	 should	 have	    make	 clear	 to	 consumers	 which	 food	
the	 authority	 to	 determine	 grade	 place-     choices	promote	good	nutrition.	
ment	and/or	credits	earned	toward	gradu-             The	 Association	 further	 believes	
ation	for	students	entering	or	re-entering	      school	food	service	programs	must	be	nu-
the	 public	 school	 setting	 from	 a	 home	     tritionally	 sound,	 appealing,	 and	 afford-
school	setting.	(1988,	2006)                     able.	 A	 choice	 of	 nutritious	 plant-based	
                                                 foods	 should	 be	 available.	 The	 Associa-
C. PROMOTE THE HEALTH AND                        tion	also	supports	nutrition	programs	that	
WELFARE OF CHILDREN AND/OR                       are	regulated	by	uniform	standards,	read-
STUDENTS                                         ily	accessible,	and	are	supported	by	pub-
                                                 lic	funds.	
HEALTH, WELFARE, SAFETY                              The	Association	believes	that	changes	
                                                 in	the	way	public	funds	are	allocated	for	
C-1. Health Care for All Children                school	food	service	programs	must	main-
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	        tain	quality	and	appropriate	levels	of	ser-
                                          	
believes	 that	 every	 child	 should	 have	      vice	as	well	as	support	additional	funding,	



                                                                                             245
Resolutions

given	 projected	 increases	 in	 population	       federal	legislation	to	establish	a	uniform	
and	need.	(1990,	2006)                             legal	drinking	age	of	21.	
                                                      The	Association	further	supports	strict	
C-3. Substance Abuse                               enforcement	of	laws	governing	the	sale	of	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	          tobacco	products	and	believes	that	federal	
opposes	 inhalant	 abuse	 and	 drug	 abuse,	       legislation	should	be	established	to	create	
including	 alcohol	 and	 tobacco	 depen-           a	uniform	age	of	18	for	purchase,	posses-
dency.	                                            sion,	 or	 use	 of	 tobacco	 products.	 (1972,	
   The	Association	supports—	                      2003)
   a.	 Standardization	 of	 drug	 laws,	 in-
cluding	the	sale	and	distribution	of	drugs	        C-4. Tobacco Products
   b.	 Prohibition	of	the	production,	sale,	           The	 National	 Education	 Association	
and	distribution	of	drug	paraphernalia	            believes	that	education	employees	should	
   c.	 Improvement	 of	 drug	 prevention	          play	 a	 key	 role	 in	 nationwide	 efforts	 to	
and	rehabilitation	programs	                       educate	 young	 people	 about	 the	 dangers	
   d.	 Mandated	 drug	 rehabilitation	 pro-        of	tobacco	use	and	secondhand	smoke.	
grams	 for	 any	 violation	 or	 conviction,	           The	Association	also	believes	that	all	
whether	civil	or	criminal,	resulting	from	         governmental	promotion	of,	subsidies	for,	
the	possession	or	use	of	a	controlled	sub-         and	involvement	in	production	and	distri-
stance	                                            bution	of	tobacco	products	should	cease.	
   e.	 Research	on	the	genetic	and	neuro-              The	 Association	 further	 believes	
logical	damage	done	to	children	through	           that	 all	 places	 of	 public	 accommodation	
parental	 substance	 abuse	 and	 the	 impact	      should	 be	 smoke-free	 and	 that	 taxes	 on	
on	student	learning	and	behavior	                  tobacco	 products	 should	 be	 increased.	
   f.	 Appropriate	 educational	 experi-           (1994,	2002)
ences	to	educate	students	about	the	seri-
ous	consequences	of	participating	in	any	          C-5. Family Stability for Children
aspect	of	the	illegal	drug	trade                       The	 National	 Education	 Association	
   g.	 Testing	 and	 regulation	 of	 perfor-       believes	 that	 it	 is	 in	 the	 best	 interest	 of	
mance-enhancing	 dietary	 herbal	 supple-          all	children	to	live	in	a	secure	and	stable	
ments.	                                            family	 environment.	 Every	 effort	 should	
   The	 Association	 also	 opposes	 the	 il-       be	made	to	provide	a	family	with	the	sup-
legal	 use	 of	 drugs	 and	 substances	 and	       portive	services	it	needs	to	allow	it	to	stay	
believes	 that	 severe	 penalties	 for	 illegal	   together	and	care	for	the	child	in	a	safe,	
production,	 distribution,	 and	 sale	 should	     nonabusive	and	nurturing	environment.	
be	strictly	enforced.	                                 In	the	case	of	custodial	and	noncusto-
   The	 Association	 also	 supports	 strict	       dial	 parents,	 the	 Association	 recognizes	
enforcement	 of	 the	 legal	 drinking	 age	    	   the	vital	role	both	parents	can	play	in	the	
and	 the	 laws	 governing	 the	 sale	 of	 alco-    development	 of	 their	 children.	 The	 As-
holic	beverages	in	each	state	and	supports	        sociation	 encourages	 the	 judicial	 system	


246
                                                                                        Resolutions

to	recognize	the	crucial	role	both	parents	          be	 available	 for	 military	 dependents	 and	
can	play	in	that	development	when	legally	           their	 guardians	 before,	 during,	 and	 after	
appropriate.	                                        the	military	personnel’s	deployment	over-
    In	 consideration	 of	 these	 roles,	 the	       seas.	(1991,	2005)	
placement	 of	 children	 should	 be	 deter-
mined	 by	 a	 number	 of	 qualitative	 and	          C-7. Child Care
quantitative	standards	that	are	both	mea-                The	 National	 Education	 Association	
surable	and	without	regard	to	either	par-            believes	that	all	child	care	centers	should	
ent’s	gender.                                        have	 adequate	 facilities,	 proper	 supervi-
    If	 a	 child’s	 immediate	 family	 and/or	       sion,	 appropriate	 education	 programs,	
extended	family	is	unable	to	care	for	him	           and	qualified,	screened,	and	trained	per-
or	her,	the	Association	also	believes	that	          sonnel.	 Child	 care	 centers	 should	 be	 ex-
the	child	may	need	temporary	foster	care	            amined	 and	 monitored	 on	 a	 continuous	
while,	at	the	same	time,	efforts	are	made	           basis,	and	additional	legislation	should	be	
to	work	with	the	family	toward	reunifica-            sought	as	necessary	to	maintain	the	high-
tion	with	the	child.	                                est	quality	child	care.	
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	           The	 Association	 encourages	 school	
parents	who	place	children	in	foster	care	           districts	and	educational	institutions	to	es-
must	 be	 accountable	 for	 their	 efforts	 to	      tablish	on-site	child	care	for	preschoolers,	
rehabilitate	 themselves	 and	 indicate,	            students,	the	children	of	students,	and	the	
through	their	actions,	that	they	are	work-           children	of	staff	members.	(1984,	1995)
ing	 toward	 the	 return	 of	 the	 child	 to	 the	
home.	                                               C-8. Community Violence
    The	Association	believes	that,	if	it	be-            The	 National	 Education	 Association	
comes	 clear	 that	 a	 family	 is	 not	 able	 to	    believes	that	children	who	are	exposed	to	
make	a	home	for	a	child	and	is	unable	to	            community	violence	are	also	its	victims.	
resume	parenting,	efforts	should	be	made	            Witnessing	 violence	 profoundly	 affects	
for	the	legal	release	of	the	child	for	adop-         children’s	 abilities	 to	 function	 at	 school,	
tion.	(1984,	2004)                                   develop	and	maintain	emotional	stability,	
                                                     and	establish	healthy	relationships.	
C-6. Dependent Children of Military                     The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
Personnel                                            children	 who	 are	 bystanders	 to	 violence	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	           must	 receive	 the	 appropriate	 counseling	
believes	that	parents	serving	in	the	military	       and	support	from	school	and	community	
should	have	adequate	services	provided	to	           resources.	(2001)
ensure	 that	 their	 dependent	 children	 are	
cared	for	and	an	uninterrupted	education	            C-9. Family/Domestic Violence
is	provided	in	the	event	of	mobilization	of	            The	 National	 Education	 Association	
the	 parent(s)/guardian(s).	 The	 Associa-           condemns	 any	 form	 of	 family/domestic	
tion	 also	 believes	 that	 counseling	 should	      violence	 and	 the	 tolerance	 thereof	 and	


                                                                                                 247
Resolutions

believes	 the	 cycle	 of	 violence	 has	 a	 det-   committing	 physical	 and/or	 psychologi-
rimental	 effect	 on	 students’	 well-being.	      cal	violence.	(1992,	1999)
School	districts	and	communities	should	
provide	 preventive	 training	 and	 educa-         C-11. Child Abuse, Neglect, and
tional	programs	for	education	employees,	          Exploitation
students,	and	parents/guardians.	The	As-               The	 National	 Education	 Association	
sociation	 supports	 adequate	 funding	 and	       believes	 that	 all	 children	 should	 be	 pro-
staffing	 of	 existing	 family	 services	 and	     tected	from	the	psychological	and	physi-
the	creation	of	additional	support	systems	        cal	 aspects	 of	 child	 abuse,	 neglect,	 and	
and	shelters.	                                     exploitation.	
   The	 Association	 believes	 social	 ser-            The	 Association	 urges	 its	 affiliates	
vices	 and	 the	 criminal	 justice	 system	        to—	
should	 continue	 to	 intervene	 actively	 in	         a.	 Seek	clear	legal	definitions	of	what	
the	 cycle	 of	 family/domestic	 violence.	        constitutes	 child	 abuse,	 neglect,	 and	 ex-
(1978,	2000)                                       ploitation	
                                                       b.	 Encourage	the	development	of	pro-
C-10. Standards for Family/                        grams	that	stress	the	identification	of,	re-
Domestic Crisis Care                               porting	procedures	for,	legal	responsibili-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	         ties	 for,	 and	 techniques	 for	 dealing	 with	
supports	 a	 full	 range	 of	 assistance	 from	    abused,	neglected,	and	exploited	children	
interventions	 to	 shelters	 for	 families	 ex-        c.	 Cooperate	with	community	organi-
periencing	domestic	violence.	                     zations	to	increase	public	awareness	and	
    The	Association	advocates—	                    understanding	 of	 the	 prevalence	 as	 well	
    a.	 Services	 that	 include	 protection,	      as	 the	 causes,	 prevention,	 and	 treatment	
counseling,	and	therapy	for	these	children	        of	child	abuse,	including	neglect,	exploi-
and	families	                                      tation,	incest,	and	physical	abuse	
    b.	 Adequate	financial	support	                    d.	 Encourage	the	development	and	use	
    c.	 Screening	and	training	of	potential	       of	materials	to	increase	student	awareness	
foster	families	and	shelter	personnel	             of	child	abuse,	neglect,	and	exploitation	
    d.	 Immediate	 temporary	 foster	 care	            e.	 Require	education	employees	to	re-
for	 children	 who	 are	 being	 abused,	 ne-       port	 to	 appropriate	 authorities	 instances	
glected,	or	exploited	                             of	suspected	child	abuse,	neglect,	and	ex-
    e.	 Continued	 training,	 supervision,	        ploitation	while	providing	those	employ-
and	evaluation	of	foster	families	and	shel-        ees	with	immunity	from	legal	action	
ter	personnel	                                         f.	 Encourage	 development	 of	 legisla-
    f.	 Appropriate	 ongoing	 communica-           tively	funded	provisions	for	dealing	with	
tions	 of	 pertinent	 information	 between	        the	 abusive	 child,	 adult,	 or	 institution	 as	
social	 service	 agencies	 and	 education	     	   well	as	processes,	protective	options,	and	
employees	                                         coping	provisions	for	the	abused,	neglect-
    g.	 Mandated	 counseling	 for	 persons	        ed,	and	exploited	child	


248
                                                                                      Resolutions

   g.	 Encourage	enactment	of	legislation	          standards	of	practice,	cannot	be	withheld	
for	 protection	 of	 children	 from	 parents/       without	 adversely	 affecting	 the	 patient’s	
guardians	 who	 demonstrate	 neglect	 by	           condition	or	the	quality	of	the	care.		These	
leaving	them	unattended/unsupervised                treatments	and	services	should	be	accom-
   h.	 Encourage	positive	action	from	the	          panied	 by	 the	 appropriate	 rehabilitation	
marketing	and	media	professions	in	elim-            and	life	learning	skills.	(1985,	2004)
inating	 exploitation,	 commercialization,	
and	glamorization	of	physical,	emotional,	          C-14. Child Support Payments
and	sexual	child	abuse.	(1974,	2000)                   The	 National	 Education	 Association	
                                                    supports	 efforts	 of	 parents	 and	 local,	
C-12. Out-of-Home Placement of                      state,	 and	 federal	 agencies	 to	 establish	
Juveniles                                           and	enforce	adequate	child	support	guide-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	          lines	and	to	improve	the	effectiveness	of	
believes	that	when	juveniles	are	removed	           collecting	court-designated	child	support.	
from	the	home	by	the	juvenile	justice	sys-          (1983,	1993)
tem	either	for	their	own	protection	or	for	
the	 commission	 of	 a	 status	 offense	 and	       C-15. Extremist Groups
are	placed	in	the	custody	of	group	foster	              The	 National	 Education	 Association	
homes	 or	 other	 custodial	 facilities,	 the	      condemns	 the	 philosophy	 and	 practices	
rights	 of	 both	 the	 juvenile	 and	 the	 com-     of	 extremist	 groups	 and	 their	 efforts	 to	
munity	must	be	protected.	These	facilities	         recruit	young	people	and	urges	active	op-
must	be	licensed,	be	operated	by	trained	           position	 to	 all	 such	 movements	 that	 are	
and	 licensed	 personnel,	 meet	 appropri-          inimical	to	the	ideals	of	the	Association.	
ate	 health	 and	 safety	 codes,	 and	 provide	     (1980,	1993)
counseling	and	ancillary	services	for	the	
juvenile,	and	be	nonprofit.	                        C-16. Telephone and the Internet
    The	 impact	 of	 facilities	 on	 the	 public	      The	 National	 Education	 Association	
schools	 should	 be	 taken	 into	 account	 by	      believes	that	children	should	be	protected	
licensing	agencies	and	zoning	authorities.	         from	 exploitation	 via	 telephone	 and	 the	
(1992,	2007)                                        Internet.	(1989,	2006)

C-13. Protection of Infants with                    C-17. School Facilities: Design,
Disabilities                                        Construction, and Function
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	               The	 National	 Education	 Association	
believes	 that	 infants	 born	 with	 mentally	      believes	that	school	facilities	must	be	con-
and/or	physically	disabling	conditions	are	         ducive	to	teaching	and	learning.	The	phys-
entitled	 to	 receive	 medically	 necessary	        ical	environment	must	allow	for	a	variety	
treatments	and	services	that	are	appropri-          of	 needs,	 including	 the	 number	 of	 stu-
ate	and	consistent	with	the	patient’s	needs	        dents,	physical	characteristics	of	students,	
and	 that,	 in	 accordance	 with	 accepted	         changes	in	teaching	methods,	presentation	


                                                                                              249
Resolutions

of	 instruction,	 and	 an	 increased	 use	 of	        The	 Association	 also	 believes	 in	 the	
school	facilities.	The	Association	also	be-       establishment	 and	 enforcement	 of	 stan-
lieves	that	all	school	facilities	must	be	well	   dards	 of	 the	 Occupational	 Safety	 and	
constructed,	 safe,	 energy-efficient,	 aes-      Health	Administration	(OSHA)	to	ensure	
thetically	pleasing,	accessible,	functional,	     health	and	safety.	The	Association	further	
and	adaptable	to	persons	with	disabilities.	      believes	that	pesticide	use	should	be	min-
The	Association	supports	facility	designs	        imized	and,	if	used,	advance	notice	given	
that	 promote	 healthy	 indoor	 air	 quality	     of	location	and	date	of	application.	
through	properly	designed,	installed,	and	            The	 Association	 supports	 ongoing	
maintained	 ventilation	 systems	 and	 the	       training	and	certification	of	education	em-
use	 of	 nontoxic	 materials.	 The	 Associa-      ployees	 who	 work	 in	 potentially	 hazard-
tion	further	believes	that	the	use,	installa-     ous	situations.	This	training	must	include	
tion,	and	maintenance	of	building	materi-         proper	handling,	storage,	and	disposal	of	
als	in	school	facilities	must	be	appropriate	     hazardous	 materials	 and	 instruction	 on	
and	 comply	 with	 established	 local,	 state,	   Materials	Safety	Data	Sheets	(MSDS).	
and	federal	guidelines.	                              Additional	 health	 hazards	 should	 not	
    The	Association	believes	that	the	com-        be	 created	 when	 facilities	 are	 altered	 or	
munity,	parents/guardians,	and	education	         repaired.	
employees	must	be	involved	through	site-              The	 Association	 believes	 that	 school	
based,	shared	decision	making	in	design-          districts	 must	 post	 MSDS	 and	 OSHA	
ing	 these	 facilities.	 Construction	 designs	   standards.	Students	and/or	their	parents/
should	incorporate	original	art.	                 guardians,	education	 employees,	 and	 the	
    The	Association	also	believes	that	sta-       public	should	be	notified	of	actual	and	po-
ble	and	sufficient	funding	must	be	provid-        tential	hazards.	All	stakeholders	should	be	
ed	for	the	design,	construction,	adequate	        involved	in	developing	a	plan	for	correc-
and	ongoing	maintenance,	and	operation	           tive	action.	The	Association	also	believes	
of	the	school	facility.	(1992,	2003)              in	 the	 development	 and	 enforcement	 of	
                                                  health	 and	 safety	 standards	 specifically	
C-18. Environmentally Safe Schools                for	children.	(1989,	2004)
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	
believes	that	all	educational	facilities	must	    C-19. Programs Before and After
have	healthy	indoor	air	quality,	be	smoke-        School
free,	and	be	safe	from	environmental	and	            The	 National	 Education	 Association	
chemical	hazards.	                                believes	 that	 all	 children	 need	 adequate	
    School	 districts	 should	 conduct	 peri-     and	 appropriate	 adult	 supervision	 and	
odic	 testing	 for	 harmful	 water	 and	 air-     guidance	before	and	after	school	hours.	
borne	particles/agents	that	are	detrimen-            The	Association	also	believes	that	chil-
tal	to	the	health	of	students	and	education	      dren	who	have	limited	or	no	adult	supervi-
employees	 and	 shall	 report	 the	 results	      sion	before	or	after	school	need	local,	state,	
publicly.	                                        and/or	 national	 programs,	 developed	 and	


250
                                                                                       Resolutions

staffed	by	qualified	and	trained	personnel,	       provide	 students	 with	 transportation	 for	
which	include	opportunities	to	participate	        all	school-related	activities.
in	 study-skill	 sessions,	 counseling,	 and	          All	school	bus	personnel	who	are	uti-
guidance	in	addition	to	recreational	activi-       lized	to	transport	students	should	be	pub-
ties.	(1983,	1995)                                 licly	employed.
                                                       The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that,	 if	
C-20. Prevention of Child Abduction                necessary	 for	 the	 safety	 of	 the	 students,	
   The	 National	 Education	 Associa-              paid	 bus	 assistants	 should	 be	 provided.	
tion	 believes	 that	 all	 children	 should	 be	   Qualified	 substitute	 drivers	 and/or	 bus	
protected	 from	 abduction.	 Programs	 to	         assistants	 must	 be	 provided	 to	 transport	
prevent	 abduction	 should	 be	 provided	 to	      students	in	the	absence	of	members	of	the	
education	 employees,	 students,	 parents/         regular	 transportation	 staff.	 When	 trav-
guardians,	 and	 the	 community.	 School	          eling	 to	 all	 school	 related	 activities,	 the	
districts	 should	 have	 policies	 and	 pro-       group’s	 sponsor	 or	 chaperone	 should	 not	
cedures	 for	 the	 prevention	 of	 abduction.	     be	the	group’s	bus	driver.
(1984,	2000)                                           The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
                                                   rules,	 regulations,	 and	 procedures	 must	
C-21. Missing Children                             be	 developed,	 enforced,	 and	 continu-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	         ally	 reviewed	 and	 revised	 to	 ensure	 safe	
believes	that	all	available	means	must	be	         and	 orderly	 transportation	 of	 students.	
utilized	 to	 locate	 missing	 children.	 The	     In	 addition	 to	 an	 annual	 bus	 inspection,	
Association	 also	 believes	 that	 local	 and	     the	 proper	 agencies	 should	 also	 conduct	
state	affiliates	should	work	cooperatively	        random	bus	inspections.	Buses	that	trans-
with	local	programs	and/or	authorities	to	         port	 students,	 especially	 preschool-aged	
raise	the	public’s	consciousness	about	the	        students	and/or	students	with	disabilities,	
missing-children	crisis.	                          should	 be	 equipped	 appropriately.	 (1977,	
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	     2006)
the	 voluntary	 fingerprinting	 of	 children	
should	be	conducted	in	a	nonthreatening	           C-23. Comprehensive School
environment	 and	 that	 completed	 finger-         Health, Social, and Psychological
print	cards	should	be	given	to	the	parent/         Programs and Services
guardian.	(1981,	2000)                                The	 National	 Education	 Association	
                                                   believes	that	 every	child	should	have	 di-
C-22. School Transportation                        rect	 and	 confidential	 access	 to	 compre-
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	          hensive	health,	social,	and	psychological	
believes	that	free	transportation	should	be	       programs	 and	 services.	 Such	 programs	
provided	for	all	public	school	students	re-        and	services	must	be	interactive	and	coor-
siding	beyond	a	reasonable	and	safe	walk-          dinated	within	and	between	school,	home,	
ing	distance	from	their	assigned	schools,	         and	community	settings.	School	and	com-
                                           	
and	 that	 local	 school	 districts	 should	       munity	efforts	must	also	be	integrated	to	


                                                                                                251
Resolutions

promote	 the	 well-being	 of	 children	 and	      interventions	 and	 referrals	 that	 promote	
youth	and	to	build	support	for	school	and	        the	 physical	 and	 psychological	 health	 of	
community	health	programs.	                       students	
    The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	           b.	 Services	 that	 identify,	 diagnose,	
schools	should	provide—	                          and	resolve	learning	disabilities	
    a.	 A	 healthful	 psychological	 climate	         c.	 Health	 services	 provided	 by	 a	 li-
and	a	safe	physical	environment	                  censed	 professional	 school	 nurse	 that	
    b.	 Food	 services	 that	 provide	 nutri-     promote	 the	 health	 of	 students	 through	
tious	 meals	and	that	 help	students	 to	 se-     prevention,	 case	 finding,	 early	 interven-
lect	nutritionally	appropriate	foods.             tion,	 and	 remediation	 of	 specific	 health	
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	    problems;	that	provide	first	aid	and	triage	
programs	in	the	schools	should	provide—	          of	 illness	 and	 injuries;	 and	 that	 provide	
    a.	 A	 planned,	 sequential	 health	 edu-     health	counseling	
cation	curriculum	for	pre-K	through	adult	            d.	 A	nurse-to-student	ratio	at	each	site	
education	 that	 promotes	 sound	 nutrition	      that	is	at	least	one	school	nurse	to	every	
and	 that	 includes	 education	 concerning	       750	 students	 in	 the	 school	 population	
the	 health	 risks	 associated	 with	 obesity	    with	adjustments	to	safely	accommodate	
and	eating	disorders	                             students	 with	 special	 health	 needs	 and	
    b.	 A	 planned,	 sequential	 health	 edu-     chronic	illness	
cation	curriculum	for	pre-K	through	adult	            e.	 Comprehensive	school-based,	com-
education	 that	 integrates	 various	 health	     munity-funded	student	health	care	clinics	
topics	 (such	 as	 drug	 abuse,	 the	 dangers	    that	 provide	 basic	 health	 care	 services	
of	performance-enhancing	dietary	herbal	          (which	 may	 include	 diagnosis	 and	 treat-
supplements,	violence,	safety	issues,	uni-        ment)	to	supplement	school	nurses	
versal	 precautions,	 and	 HIV	 education);	          f.	 If	 deemed	 appropriate	 by	 local	
that	 is	 taught	 by	 teachers	 specifically	     choice,	 family-planning	 counseling	 and	
prepared	 to	 teach	 the	 subject;	 and	 that	    access	 to	 birth	 control	 methods	 with	 in-
enables	 students	 to	 develop	 the	 essential	   struction	in	their	use
knowledge	and	skills	to	maintain	person-              g.	 Coordination	 with	 community	
al,	family,	and	community	health	                 agencies	 for	 support	 and	 follow-up	        	
    c.	 A	planned,	sequential	physical	edu-       activities.	
cation	curriculum	for	pre-K	through	adult	            The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	 all	
education	students	                               health,	 social,	 and	 psychological	 services	
    d.	 Worksite	 health	 promotion	 to	 im-      must	 be	 provided	 only	 by	 appropriately	
prove	the	health	status	of	school	staff	to	set	   licensed	and	certificated	professional	per-
an	example	for	desired	student	behaviors.         sonnel.	 The	 Association	 further	 believes	
    The	Association	believes	that	services	       that	 education	 employees,	 parents/guard-
in	the	schools	should	include—	                   ians,	 students,	 and	 personnel	 from	 com-
    a.	 Counseling	 programs	 that	 provide	      munity	agencies	providing	services	to	stu-
developmental	guidance	and	broad-based	           dents	must	be	involved	in	the	development,	


252
                                                                                     Resolutions

implementation,	and	coordination	of	these	         guardians	 is	 necessary	 to	 help	 students	
services.	                                         deal	with	stress	and	anger.	(1980,	2002)
   The	Association	urges	its	affiliates	to	
support	 legislation	 to	 provide	 compre-         C-26. Safe and Orderly School
hensive	care	to	all	children	and	supports	         Climates and Communities
community,	state,	and	national	efforts	to	             The	 National	 Education	 Association	
coordinate	these	services.	(1969,	2007)            believes	 that	 a	 safe	 and	 effective	 school	
                                                   climate	 is	 necessary	 for	 promoting	 edu-
C-24. School Guidance and                          cational	 excellence	 in	 public	 schools.	
Counseling Programs                                The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	 all	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	         education	 employees,	 parents/guardians,	
believes	 that	 guidance	 and	 counseling	         students,	 school	 governing	 boards,	 and	
programs	 should	 be	 integrated	 into	 the	       community	 members	 and	 agencies	 must	
entire	 education	 system,	 pre-K	 through	        work	cooperatively	to	establish	and	main-
higher	 education.	 Such	 programs	 should	        tain	safe	and	orderly	school	communities.	
be	provided	through	a	maximum	counsel-             Students	 and	 education	 employees	 must	
or/student	ratio	of	1:250	by	appropriately	        be	safe	from	physical,	verbal,	and	psycho-
certified	 and/or	 licensed	 school	 coun-         logical	violence,	the	threat	thereof,	and	all	
selors	 who	 have	 been	 trained	 to	 support	     forms	of	harassment.	There	must	be	pro-
students	 in	 realizing	 their	 full	 potential	   cedures	to	prevent	and	eliminate	all	types	
in	 all	 areas	 of	 growth	 and	 achievement.	     of	harassment	that	might	occur.	Plans	and	
School	 counselors	 should	 spend	 at	 least	      procedures	 regarding	 discipline	 and/or	
80	 percent	 of	 their	 time	 providing	 guid-     harassment	must	include	due	process.	
ance	and	counseling	services	to	students.	             The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
(1987,	2004)                                       both	 schools	 and	 school	 districts	 must	
                                                   have	 written	 discipline	 plans	 and	 proce-
C-25. Student Stress and Anger                     dures	that	are	fair,	equitable,	and	consis-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	         tently	enforced	as	well	as	procedures	for	
believes	that	increasing	mental,	emotion-          the	 safe	 and	 orderly	 conduct	 of	 school	
al,	and	environmental	pressures	result	in	         activities	and	events.	The	Association	be-
drug	and	alcohol	abuse,	violence,	vandal-          lieves	that	school	security	personnel	must	
ism,	school	dropouts,	and	suicide	among	           be	 properly	 trained	 to	 interact	 with	 stu-
children	and	youth.	                               dents	exhibiting	violent	behavior.
    The	 Association	 also	 believes	 stress	          The	Association	also	believes	that	all	
and	anger	management	programs,	includ-             school	 buildings	 should	 have	 controlled	
ing	 follow-up	 support,	 that	 address	 the	      access	during	the	school	day.	Schools	and	
needs	of	children	within	both	school	and	          school	 districts	 should	 implement	 poli-
community	settings,	should	be	provided.	           cies	 and	 procedures	 that	 monitor	 visitor	
Professional	development	to	prepare	edu-           access,	 such	 as	 check-in	 and	 wearing	 of	
cation	employees	and	training	for	parents/         identification	badges.


                                                                                              253
Resolutions

    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	     that	 schools,	 school	 districts,	 and	 school	
students	 must	 be	 taught	 strategies	 and	       transportation	 systems	 must	 have	 writ-
skills,	 including	 conflict	 resolution,	 that	   ten	 plans	 that	 delineate	 procedures	 that	
develop	respect,	self-discipline,	and	self-        include,	but	are	not	limited	to,	emergen-
control.	Students	must	learn	to	distinguish	       cies,	lockdowns,	evacuations,	and	weath-
between	their	own	rights	and	responsibili-         er-related	 conditions.	 Emergency	 plans	
ties	and	the	rights	and	responsibilities	of	       for	 each	 school	 site	 must	 be	 developed	
others.	There	must	be	appropriate	services	        by	 school	 personnel	 and	 parents/guard-
and	 placement	 within	 regular	 education	        ians	 in	 partnership	 with	 the	 community.	
and	 alternative	 education	 programs	 and/        The	Association	further	believes	that	for	
or	 with	 state	 and/or	 community	 agen-          these	 plans	 to	 be	 effective	 they	 must	 be	
cies	for	students	who	disrupt	the	learning	    	   practiced	 and	 updated	 on	 a	 regular	 and	
environment	 or	 who	 are	 dangerous	 to	          consistent	basis.	Plans	must	include	stress	
other	students,	education	employees,	and	          management/counseling	strategies	as	fol-
themselves.	                                       low-up	 care	 for	 students	 and	 staff	 when	
    The	 Association	 believes	 that	 appro-       appropriate.	(2007)
priate	 school	 behavior	 begins	 and	 is	 re-
inforced	 in	 the	 home.	 Parents/guardians	       C-28. Student Sexual Orientation
of	children	who	are	disruptive	often	need	         and Gender Identification
support	and	training	in	order	to	reduce	in-            The	 National	 Education	 Association	
appropriate	behavior	and	increase	student	         believes	 that	 all	 persons,	 regardless	 of	
learning.	Programs	that	provide	assistance	        sexual	 orientation	 or	 gender	 identifica-
and	training	in	child	development,	effec-          tion,	 should	 be	 afforded	 equal	 opportu-
tive	 parenting	 skills,	 and	 strategies	 for	    nity	and	 guaranteed	 a	 safe	 and	 inclusive	
dealing	with	disruptive	students	must	be	          environment	 within	the	public	 education	
available	 for	 parents/guardians.	 Schools	       system.	 The	 Association	 also	 believes	
can	 be	 instrumental	 in	 identifying	 and	       that,	for	students	who	are	struggling	with	
recommending	 strategies	 that	 can	 assist	       their	 sexual	 orientation	 or	 gender	 identi-
parents/guardians.	 The	 Association	 also	        fication,	every	school	district	and	educa-
believes	 that	 a	 safe	 and	 effective	 school	   tional	institution	should	provide	counsel-
has	 a	 positive	 environment	 in	 which	          ing	services	and	programs	that	deal	with	
education	 employees,	 students,	 parents/         high	 suicide	 and	 dropout	 rates	 and	 the	
guardians,	 and	 the	 community	 care	 for,	       high	incidence	of	teen	prostitution.	These	
communicate	 with,	 respect,	 understand,	         services	and	programs	shall	be	staffed	by	
and	trust	each	other.	(1994,	2007)                 trained	personnel.	(1988,	2002)

C-27. School Emergency Plans                       C-29. Suicide Prevention Programs
   The	 National	 Education	 Associa-                 The	 National	 Education	 Association	
tion	believes	in	the	safety	of	all	students	       believes	that	suicide	prevention	programs	
and	 staff.	 The	 Association	 also	 believes	     including	 prevention,	 intervention,	 and	


254
                                                                                      Resolutions

postvention	 must	 be	 developed	 and	 im-         these	 rights.	 Students	 share	 with	 the	 ad-
plemented.	 The	 Association	 urges	 its	 af-      ministration	 and	 faculty	 a	 responsibility	
filiates	to	ensure	that	these	programs	are	        to	develop	a	climate	within	the	school	that	
an	 integral	 part	 of	 the	 school	 program.	     is	 conducive	 to	 wholesome	 learning	 and	
(1989,	1992)                                       living.	 No	 student	 has	 the	 right	 to	 inter-
                                                   fere	with	the	education	of	other	students.	
C-30. Youth Camp Safety                            It	is	the	responsibility	of	each	student	to	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	          respect	the	rights	of	each	person	involved	
believes	 that	 all	 youth	 camps	 must	 pro-      in	the	educational	process.	
vide	proper	supervision	and	instruction	as	            The	Association	further	believes	in	the	
well	as	secure	facilities	that	meet	current	       confidentiality	of	student	information	and	
safety	and	health	standards.	                      opposes	 its	 dissemination	 to	 any	 organi-
   The	 Association	 urges	 its	 members	          zation	 or	 institution	 without	 the	 consent	
to	support	legislation	establishing	guide-         of	the	student	and/or	parent/guardian.	
lines	that	require	that	all	camp	personnel	            The	 Association	 believes	 that	 student	
be	qualified	and	trained	for	their	areas	of	       rights	must	be	safeguarded	when	students	
responsibility.	(1976,	1987)                       are	 involved	 in	 commercial	 premium	
                                                   campaigns	 and	 fundraising	 activities.	
STUDENT RIGHTS/CONCERNS                            (1969,	2006)

C-31. Student Rights and                           C-32. Drug and Alcohol Testing of
Responsibilities                                   Students
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	             The	 National	 Education	 Association	
believes	 that	 basic	 student	 rights	 include	   believes	that	mandatory	drug	and	alcohol	
the	 right	 to	 free	 inquiry	 and	 expression;	   testing	of	students	without	probable	cause	
due	process;	gender	equity;	freedom	of	as-         is	 an	 unwarranted	 and	 unconstitutional	
sociation;	 freedom	 of	 peaceful	 assembly	       invasion	 of	 privacy	 and	 opposes	 such	  	
and	 petition;	 participation	 in	 the	 gover-     testing.	
nance	of	the	school,	college,	and	universi-            The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
ty;	freedom	from	discrimination;	freedom	          schools	must	immediately	notify	parents/
from	 commercial	 exploitation,	 including	        guardians	of	students	suspected	of	abus-
the	payment	of	subminimum	wages;	and	              ing	 drugs,	 alcohol,	 and/or	 performance-
equal	educational	opportunity.	                    enhancing	 dietary	 herbal	 supplements	
    The	Association	also	believes	that	each	       and	must	provide	information	about	sup-
of	these	rights	carries	with	it	a	compara-         port	services.	(1987,	2003)
ble	responsibility.	Student	responsibilities	
include	 regular	 school	 attendance,	 con-        C-33. HIV/AIDS Testing of Students
scientious	 effort	 in	 classroom	 work	 and	         The	 National	 Education	 Associa-
assessments,	 and	 conformance	 to	 school	        tion	 opposes	 mandatory/involuntary	 hu-
rules	and	regulations	that	do	not	abrogate	        man	 immunodeficiency	 virus/acquired	   	


                                                                                               255
Resolutions

immunodeficiency	 syndrome	 (HIV/                 of	 children.	 The	 Association	 encourages	
AIDS)	testing	of	students.	(1987,	1993)           the	 producers	 of	 mass	 media	 to	 select	
                                                  and	use	age-appropriate	subject	matter	in	
C-34. Optimizing Students’ Time To                their	 products	 targeted	 at	 children.	 The	
Learn                                             Association	also	encourages	all	radio	and	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	        television	programming	executives,	when	
believes	 that	 time	 to	 learn	 is	 essential	   determining	 the	 appropriateness	 of	 pro-
in	 promoting	 optimum	 success	 in	 the	         gram	subject	matter	and	the	development	
schools.	                                         of	 broadcasting	 schedules,	 to	 consider	
    The	Association	also	believes	that—	          children’s	ages.		The	Association	further	
    a.	 Student	absences	from	school	have	        encourages	advertisers	and	media	profes-
adverse	effects	on	program	continuity,	ac-        sionals	to	use	standard	grammar	and	cor-
ademic	success,	learning,	and	mastery	by	         rect	 spelling	 and	 to	 refrain	 from	 the	 use	
the	student.	The	Association	urges	its	af-        of	 stereotypical	 and/or	 discriminatory	
filiates	to	work	with	school	districts,	par-      terminology	and	profanity.	
ent	groups,	other	appropriate	community	              The	 Association	 encourages	 the	 pro-
groups,	 and	 public	 agencies	 to	 develop	      ducers	of	games	and	toys	to	make	explicit	
programs	to	reduce	student	absences.	             to	 consumers,	 prior	 to	 purchase,	 the	 na-
    b.	 Excessive	 or	 unusual	 working	          ture	of	a	product’s	content	through	specif-
hours	are	detrimental	to	a	student’s	atten-       ic	labeling.		The	Association	also	believes	
tion	 span,	 academic	 success,	 and	 learn-      that	regulations	restricting	the	purchase	of	
ing.	 The	 child	 labor	 laws,	 as	 structured	   games	and	toys	based	on	age	appropriate-
by	the	Fair	Labor	Standards	Act,	must	be	         ness	 should	 be	 developed	 and	 enforced.	
monitored,	enforced,	and	strengthened	by	         The	 Association	 deplores	 exposing	 chil-
local,	 state,	 and	 national	 governing	 bod-    dren	 as	 consumer-test	 groups	 to	 violent	
ies.	(1979,	2007)                                 interactive	 games	 and	 products	 in	 order	
                                                  for	manufacturers	to	determine	how	to	in-
C-35. Media, Games, Products, and                 crease	or	refine	the	violent	content	for	the	
Children                                          express	purpose	of	increasing	sales.	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	             The	Association	further	believes	that,	
believes	 that	 children	 are	 an	 especially	    through	media	literacy	education,	educa-
vulnerable	 and	 easily	 exploited	 audience	     tion	 employees,	 parents/guardians,	 and	
who	 must	 be	 protected	 from	 exposure	 to	     children	 must	 become	 critical	 users	 of	
violence,	prejudice,	sexual	content,	and	ste-     mass	media,	the	Internet,	and	other	prod-
reotyping	by	mass	media,	the	Internet,	and	       ucts	accessible	to	children.	The	Associa-
products	that	are	accessible	to	children.	        tion	also	encourages	its	affiliates	to	estab-
   The	Association	is	committed	to	work-          lish	 media	 study	 committees	 to	 monitor	
ing	 cooperatively	 with	 media	 producers,	      media	activities	and	promote	positive	ed-
advertisers,	 and	 manufacturers	 in	 devel-      ucational	programming.	The	Association	
oping	 products	 that	 protect	 the	 interests	   further	encourages	its	affiliates	to	provide	


256
                                                                                    Resolutions

means	 for	 education	 employees	 to	 assist	     agencies;	 and	 higher	 education	 to	 create	
parents/guardians	 in	 the	 selection	 of	 ap-    opportunities	to	enhance	student	success.	
propriate	media,	games,	and	products	for	             The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
their	children.	(1969,	2003)                      society	 has	 the	 responsibility	 to	 lessen	
                                                  the	 effect	 of	 homelessness	 by	 assisting	
C-36. Effect of Poverty on Children               children	 and	 youth	 to	 develop	 necessary	
and Youth                                         life	 skills,	to	learn	new	concepts,	and	to	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	        function	 successfully	 in	 diverse	 settings.	
believes	that	poverty	affects	a	child’s	abil-     (2007)
ity	to	develop	necessary	academic	and	life	
skills.	Society	must	provide	high	quality	        EQUAL ACCESS
educational	opportunities	for	all	children.	
The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	 local,	   C-38. Placement of Students with
state,	and	federal	governments	must	pro-          HIV/AIDS
vide	adequate	and	equitable	resources	and	            The	 National	 Education	 Association	
funding	to	support	educational	programs	          supports	establishing	local	policy	that	en-
for	students	affected	by	poverty.                 sures	a	free,	appropriate	public	education	
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	    in	 a	 least-restrictive	 environment	 for	 all	
all	education	professionals	play	a	crucial	       students	infected	with	the	human	immu-
role	in	providing	high	quality	educational	       nodeficiency	virus	(HIV)	or	with	acquired	
experiences.	For	educators	to	experience	         immunodeficiency	syndrome	(AIDS).	
optimal	 results,	 social	 programs	 that	 al-        The	 Association	 believes	 that	 the	
leviate	poverty	in	our	communities	must	          placement	of	such	students	in	school	is	a	
accompany	educational	programs.	(1988,	           medical	decision	that	should	be	made	on	
2007)                                             a	 case-by-case	 basis	 by	 qualified	 health	
                                                  care	professionals.	
C-37. Effect of Homelessness on                       The	Association	also	believes	that	stu-
Children and Youth                                dents	should	not	be	refused	admittance	to	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	         school	 or	 subjected	 to	 any	 other	 adverse	
believes	 that	 homelessness	 creates	 edu-       action	 solely	 because	 they	 have	 tested	
cational	challenges	that	interfere	with	the	      positive	for	HIV	or	have	been	diagnosed	
ability	 of	 children	 and	 youth	 to	 access	    as	having	AIDS.	(1987,	1993)
education	 and	 to	 progress	 academically.	
Homelessness	can	limit	the	knowledge	of,	         C-39. Extracurricular Participation
and	access	to,	services	such	as	education,	          The	 National	 Education	 Association	
housing,	jobs,	health	care;	and	other	hu-         believes	that	the	successful	completion	of	
man	service	agencies.                             an	academic	program	is	the	first	priority	
   The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	        for	all	students.	
schools	need	to	work	collaboratively	with	           The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	 all	
the	 community;	 local,	 state,	 and	 federal	    schools,	colleges,	universities,	and	parents/


                                                                                             257
Resolutions

guardians	 must	 accept	 their	 educational	            The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
responsibilities	to	student	athletes	and	par-       the	 business	 community	 has	 an	 impor-
ticipants	in	other	extracurricular	activities.	     tant	 role	 in	 reducing	 illegal	 activities	 by	
These	students	should	not	be	exploited	for	         gangs.	 The	 Association	 further	 supports	
economic	and/or	personal	gain.	                     programs	that	lead	to	meaningful	job	op-
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	      portunities	for	youths.	
there	should	be	fair	and	equitable	eligibil-            The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
ity	requirements	for	student	participation	         law	enforcement	agencies	should	be	active	
and	student	progress	should	be	monitored	           participants	in	education	and	employment	
frequently.	(1984,	2000)                            programs	to	reduce	gang-related	crimes.	
                                                        The	 Association	 believes	 that	 federal,	
C-40. Gender Equity in Athletic                     state,	 and	 local	 governments	 should	 de-
Programs                                            velop	and	implement	education	and	youth	
    The	National	Education	Association	be-          employment	programs	in	helping	to	reduce	
lieves	that	at	all	educational	levels	female	       illegal	activities	by	gangs.	(1988,	1994)
and	male	students	must	have	equal	oppor-
tunity	to	participate	in	athletic	programs.	        C-42. Juvenile Offenders
    The	 Association	 urges	 that	 athletic	           The	 National	 Education	 Association	
funds	for	facilities,	equipment,	and	remu-          believes	 that	 juvenile	 offenders	 who	 are	
neration	of	staff	be	allocated	equally	be-          convicted	of	serious	crimes	and	who	are	
tween	female	and	male	programs.	(1974,	             contained	 in	 detention	 centers	 should	 be	
1993)                                               provided	 a	 healthy	 environment	 condu-
                                                    cive	to	positive	social	change.	
C-41. Reduction of Gang-Related                        The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
Crime                                               these	 juveniles,	 while	 in	 this	 environ-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	          ment,	should	be	provided	with	education	
believes	 that	 families,	 schools,	 commu-         programs	and	other	support	services	that	
nities,	 businesses,	 and	 law	 enforcement	        will	enable	them	to	become	contributing	
agencies	 have	 critical	 roles	 in	 reducing	      members	 of	 society.	 Teachers	 of	 these	
gang-related	crime.	The	Association	sup-            youths	 must	 be	 prepared	 to	 provide	 in-
ports	collaboration	among	these	groups	in	          struction	in	life	skills	and	learning	skills.	
an	effort	to	reduce	such	crime.	                       Juvenile	offenders	who	pose	a	threat	to	
    The	 Association	 also	 supports	 edu-          the	 health	 and	 safety	 of	 others	 and	 who	
cational	 programs	 that	 promote	 positive	        are	not	placed	in	these	centers	should	be	
self-image	 and	 academic	 success—such	            provided	 educational	 services	 in	 an	 ap-
as	 dropout	 prevention/intervention,	 be-          propriate	 alternative	 setting	 rather	 than	
fore-	and	after-school	programs,	and	job	           the	regular	public	school	setting.	
training—	particularly	for	at-risk	students	           The	 Association	 supports	 the	 place-
in	 areas	 where	 there	 is	 a	 high	 degree	 of	   ment	 of	 juveniles	 who	 are	 not	 charged	
gang	activity.	                                     with	 any	 offense	 or	 those	 who	 are	 status	


258
                                                                                       Resolutions

offenders	in	separate	facilities	from	those	         and	governed	by	the	members	of	the	pro-
persons	 who	 are	 charged	 with	 criminal	          fession	 and	 must	 apply	 to	 recruitment,	
offenses.	                                           teacher	preparation,	induction,	profession-
    The	 Association	 also	 supports	 ad-            al	 development,	 evaluation,	 practice,	 and	
equate	funding	for	programs	that	provide	            accountability.	 Members	 of	 the	 teaching	
alternatives	 to	 incarceration,	 discour-           profession	 must	 assume	 expanded	 lead-
age	 recidivism,	 and	 engage	 juveniles	 in	        ership	 roles	 and	 must	 have	 the	 time,	 re-
positive	 behavior	 management	 activities	          sources,	and	decision-making	authority	to	
and	 community-based	 rehabilitation	 that	          provide	the	highest	quality	of	learning	for	
include	 counseling	 and	 community	 ser-            each	student.	This	goal	can	be	achieved	by	
vices.	(1988,	2004)                                  the	 profession	 in	 partnership	 with	 other	
                                                     education	 employees,	 parents/guardians,	
C-43. Advertising of Alcoholic                       the	community,	the	district,	and	the	state.	
Beverages and/or Tobacco                             (1998,	2000)
Products
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	            D-2. Teacher Preparation Programs:
believes	that	all	forms	of	advertising	of	al-        Recruitment
coholic	beverages	and/or	tobacco	products	               The	 National	 Education	 Association	
should	 be	 eliminated.	 The	 Association	           believes	 that	 strong	 programs	 of	 teacher	
also	 believes	 that	 individual	 performers	        recruitment	 are	 necessary	 to	 maintain	
and	 organizers	 of	 concerts	 and	 sporting	        and	 enhance	 the	 teaching	 profession.	
events	 should	 refrain	 from	 advertising	          Such	programs	should	emphasize	the	re-
and/or	 endorsing	 alcoholic	 beverages	             cruitment	of	underrepresented	candidates	
and/or	tobacco	products.	(1990,	2002)                and	should	include	a	policy	of	affirmative	
                                                     recruitment.	 Preteaching	 programs	 and	
D. PROMOTE PROFESSIONAL                              recruitment	efforts	should	be	developed	at	
EXCELLENCE AMONG EDUCATORS                           high	 schools	 and	 community/junior	 col-
                                                     leges	 in	 conjunction	 with	 institutions	 of	
PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION                             higher	education	with	teacher	preparation	
                                                     programs.	 These	 efforts	 should	 include	
D-1. The Teaching Profession                         the	active	participation	of	practicing	pre-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	           K	through	adult	education	teachers.	
believes	that	the	teaching	profession	is	a	              The	Association	also	believes	that	in-
cornerstone	of	society.	                             dividuals	 interested	 in	 teaching	 as	 a	 ca-
    The	 goal	 of	 the	 profession	 must	 be	 to	    reer	should	attend	institutions	accredited	
provide	 the	 highest	 quality	 of	 education	       by	the	National	Council	for	Accreditation	
to	 all	 students.	 To	 achieve	 this	 goal,	 the	   of	Teacher	Education	(NCATE).	Counsel-
profession	must	be	composed	of	individu-             ors	 and	 advisers	 should	 inform	 students	
als	who	meet	the	highest	standards.	These	           of	 the	 advantages	 of	 attending	 NCATE-
standards	must	be	established,	maintained,	          accredited	institutions.	


                                                                                               259
Resolutions

   Federally	financed	loan	and	grant	pro-         practice.	The	requirements	and	the	selec-
grams	should	be	established	to	encourage	         tion	process	must	be	nondiscriminatory.	
students	 to	 become	 professional	 educa-            The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
tors.	 Progressive	 forgiveness	 of	 the	 loan	   admission	 to	 teacher	 preparation	 pro-
should	be	based	upon	the	number	of	years	         grams	 should	 be	 based	 on	 multiple	 con-
of	professional	service.	                         siderations,	 such	 as	 recommendations	
   Grants	 should	 be	 secured	 from	 both	       of	 faculty,	 grade-point	 average,	 personal	
public	 and	 private	 sources	 to	 assist	 stu-   interviews,	portfolio	reviews,	and	recom-
dents	planning	to	pursue	a	career	in	edu-         mendations	 of	 persons	 in	 related	 fields.	
cation.	(1990,	2000)                              Standardized	 achievement	 test	 scores	
                                                  must	not	be	the	sole	basis	for	admission.	
D-3. Teacher Preparation for                          The	 Association	 urges	 appropriate	
Education Support Professionals                   state	agencies	to	monitor	projected	needs	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	        by	certification	areas	and	to	inform	teach-
believes	 that	 education	 support	 profes-       er	preparation	institutions	of	those	needs	
sionals	are	an	integral	part	of	the	student’s	    on	a	continuing	basis.	Teacher	preparation	
learning	 process	 and,	 therefore,	 would	       institutions	 should	 counsel	 and	 prepare	
make	 excellent	 candidates	 for	 teacher	        prospective	 teachers	 in	 numbers	 consis-
preparation	programs.	                            tent	with	projected	needs.	(1970,	2000)
    The	Association	also	believes	that	af-
filiates	should	support	the	development	of	       D-5. Teacher Preparation Programs:
programs,	 resources,	 and	 funding	 to	 as-      Affiliate Participation
sist	those	education	support	professionals	          The	 National	 Education	 Association	
who	wish	to	obtain	a	college	degree	and	          believes	 that	 its	 affiliates	 and	 members	
fulfill	 the	 requirements	 necessary	 to	 be-    should	 be	 involved	 in	 teacher	 educa-
come	licensed	classroom	teachers.	                tion	 preparation	 and	 accreditation	 at	 the	
    The	 Association	 encourages	 licensed	       national,	 state,	 and	 local	 levels.	 The	 As-
colleagues	to	act	as	a	support	system	for	        sociation	 also	 believes	 that	 its	 affiliates	
such	programs.	(1999)                             and	 licensed	 educators	 with	 teaching	
                                                  experience	 should	 participate	 at	 the	 col-
D-4. Teacher Preparation Programs:                lege/university	level	in	the	design,	imple-
Admissions                                        mentation,	 and	 improvement	 of	 teacher	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	        education	programs.	(1970,	2001)
believes	 that	 requirements	 for	 admis-
sion	 into	 teacher	 preparation	 programs	       D-6. Teacher Preparation Programs:
must	be	based	upon	standards	established	         Content and Evaluation
and	maintained	by	the	profession.	These	             The	 National	 Education	 Association	
requirements	 must	 be	 rigorous	 yet	 flex-      believes	 that	 teacher	 preparation	 pro-
ible	enough	to	allow	admittance	to	those	   	     grams	must—	
who	 demonstrate	 potential	 for	 effective	         a.	 Involve	 practicing,	 licensed	 pre-K	


260
                                                                                      Resolutions

through	 adult	 education	 teachers	 in	 the	      readiness	 and	 ability	 to	 learn	 and	 func-
design,	 implementation,	 evaluation,	 and	        tion	 in	 a	 school	 setting	 and	 that	 provide	
systematic	change	of	the	program	                  specific	techniques	for	teachers	who	teach	
    b.	 Involve	students	preparing	to	teach	       children	of	poverty
in	the	evaluation	and	improvement	of	the	              j.	 Involve	students	preparing	to	teach	
program	                                           in	 recognizing	 biases	 and	 acquiring	 the	
    c.	 Involve	 teacher	 educators	 who	 are	     necessary	 skills	 and	 knowledge	 to	 assist	
licensed	 and	 practicing	 in	 their	 field	 of	   them	in	creating	a	bias-free	environment	
expertise	and	who	also	demonstrate	prac-               k.	 Include	 instructional	 content	 and	
tical	knowledge	of	schools	and	classroom	          experience	 in	 research	 and	 information	
teaching	                                          skills,	 group	 processes,	 shared	 decision	
    d.	 Include	 a	 policy	 of	 affirmative	 re-   making,	 strategic	 planning,	 the	 dynam-
cruitment	                                         ics	of	intergroup	communications,	peace	
    e.	 Include	tests,	reports,	student	teach-     and	 conflict	 resolution,	 human	 growth	
ing,	portfolio	reviews,	and	other	measures	        and	development,	the	changing	role	of	the	
of	 performance	 designed	 to	 assess	 prog-       family,	exceptional	behaviors,	and	human	
ress	in	acquiring	the	knowledge	and	skills	        relations	
necessary	for	effective	teaching	                      l.	 Include	a	variety	of	field	experienc-
    f.	 Require	courses	in	the	liberal	arts,	      es	 throughout	 the	 preparation	 program	
subject	 or	 grade-level	 specialty,	 reading,	    culminating	in	clinical	practice	
methodologies	 for	 the	 instruction	 of	 stu-         m.	Include	 accurate	 instructional	 con-
dents	with	limited	English	proficiency,	and	       tent	on	the	evolution	of	professional	teach-
professional	studies	that	include	learning	        er	 organizations	 and	 the	 advances	 in	 the	
theories,	 curriculum	 design,	 classroom	         areas	 of	 job	 contracts,	 salary	 schedules,	
management,	 behavior	 management,	 dis-           benefit	programs,	and	working	conditions	
cipline,	 student	 assessment,	 school	 ac-            n.	 Include	 instruction	 and	 practical	
countability,	 school	 law,	 and	 teaching	        experiences	 in	 the	 processes,	 strategies,	
techniques	                                        realities,	 responsibilities,	 and	 challenges	
    g.	 Include	instruction	and	field	experi-      of	shared	decision	making,	problem-solv-
ence	in	the	uses	of	appropriate	technology	        ing,	and	strategic	planning	
for	managing	and	advancing	instruction	                o.	 Include	 instructional	 content	 in	
    h.	 Include	 instructional	 content	 and	      awareness	 and	 educational	 programs	 of	
experience	that	address	our	multicultural,	        all	special	education	areas	recognized	by	
multi-ethnic	diversity,	recognize	the	con-         federal	law	
tributions	of	ethnic	and	other	minorities,	            p.	 Provide	access	to	professional	and	
and	 provide	techniques	 for	 teaching	cul-        preprofessional	 organizations	 related	
turally	diverse	students	                          to	 the	 education	 profession	 and	 areas	 of	 	
    i.	 Include	 instructional	 content	 and	      certification
experiences	 that	 address	 how	 economic	             q.	 Promote	 involvement	 in	 an	 NEA	
and/or	 housing	 status	 affect	 a	 child’s	       Student	 Program	 local	 chapter	 that	         	


                                                                                               261
Resolutions

provides	 opportunities	 for	 community	              c.	 The	ability	to	provide	learning	op-
outreach,	 professional	 development,	 and	       portunities	 that	 support	 the	 intellectual,	
political	action	                                 social,	 physical,	 and	 personal	 develop-
   r.	 Be	evaluated	and	accredited	by	the	        ment	of	individual	students
National	 Council	 for	 Accreditation	 of	            d.	 A	variety	of	instructional	strategies	
Teacher	Education	(NCATE)                         that	 encourage	 students	 to	 develop	 criti-
   s.	 Be	 funded	 at	 a	 level	 that	 ensures	   cal	thinking	skills,	problem-solving	tech-
that	NCATE	accreditation	is	achieved	and	         niques,	positive	social	interaction,	and	ac-
maintained.	(1970,	2007)                          tive	engagement	in	learning
                                                      e.	 The	 ability	 to	 plan	 instructional	
D-7. Teacher Preparation Programs:                strategies	 based	 upon	 knowledge	 of	 the	
Clinical Practice                                 subject	matter,	the	students,	the	commu-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	        nity,	and	the	curriculum	goals
believes	that	clinical	practice	is	essential	         f.	 The	effective	use	of	formal	and	in-
to	 provide	 prospective	 teachers	 with	 the	    formal	 assessment	 strategies	 to	 evaluate	
experiences	necessary	to	enter	the	profes-        and	 ensure	 the	 continuous	 intellectual,	
sion	 and	 be	 prepared	 to	 teach.	 Clinical	    social,	 physical,	 and	 personal	 develop-
practice	 contributes	 to	 enhanced	 student	     ment	of	individual	students
learning	by	fostering	the	development	of	             g.	 The	use	of	active	inquiry	and	collab-
a	reflective	practitioner.	                       oration	between	and	among	colleagues.	
    The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	           The	Association	believes	that	clinical	
clinical	 practice	 should	 include	 a	 super-    practice	 experiences	 provide	 opportuni-
vised	student	teaching	experience/intern-         ties	 to	 establish	 essential	 relationships	
ship	 and	 a	 post-hiring	 residency	 of	 one	    with	other	education	employees,	parents/
year	for	a	prospective	teacher	to	achieve	        guardians,	and	agencies	in	the	community	
full	 licensure.	 Clinical	 practice	 provides	   to	support	students’	learning	and	well-be-
formal	support,	instruction,	and	guidance	        ing.	(1998,	2002)
by	 a	 faculty	 member	 in	 a	 teacher	 prepa-
ration	 program	 and	 by	 an	 experienced,	       D-8. Hiring Policies and Practices
licensed	 pre-K	 through	 adult	 education	       for Teaching Positions
teacher	in	the	same	field	of	practice.	               The	 National	 Education	 Association	
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	    believes	that,	to	provide	the	highest	qual-
prospective	 teachers	 completing	 clinical	      ity	 of	 education	 to	 all	 students,	 hiring	
practice	should	demonstrate—	                     practices	 must	 ensure	 that	 all	 teaching	
    a.	 A	comprehensive	understanding	of	         positions	be	filled	by	highly	qualified	pro-
the	central	concepts	and	structure	of	the	        fessionals.	The	Association	also	believes	
disciplines	that	they	teach	                      that	hiring	policies	and	practices	must	be	
    b.	 A	knowledge	of	how	children	learn,	       nondiscriminatory	and	include	provisions	
including	how	their	approaches	to	learn-          for	the	recruitment	of	a	diverse	teaching	
ing	differ	                                       staff.	


262
                                                                                         Resolutions

    The	 Association	 further	 believes	             analysis	 and	 cognitive	 and	 reflective	 ac-
that	 individuals	 under	 consideration	 for	        tivities	 that	 support	 the	 development	 of	
teaching	 positions	 must	 have	 completed	          exemplary	 teaching	 practices	 and	 en-
a	 teacher	 education	 program	 meeting	             hances	 professional	 development.	 The	
NCATE	 standards	 and	 be	 licensed	 in	             induction	 process	 for	 new	 teachers	 must	
the	 field	 of	 the	 specific	 teaching	 assign-     be	mandatory,	be	at	least	one	year	in	du-
ment.	 Selection	 criteria	 for	 all	 teaching	      ration,	and	include	a	mentoring	program.	
positions	 must	 be	 based	 on	 the	 needs	 of	      The	 induction	 process	 for	 veteran	 teach-
the	students	and	faculty,	the	goals	of	the	          ers	 must	 be	 flexible	 and	 provide	 support	
school	district,	and	the	philosophy	of	the	          based	 upon	 changes	 in	 their	 professional	
school.	                                             assignments.	
    The	 Association	 believes	 that	 class-             The	Association	 encourages	its	affili-
room	 teachers	 must	 have	 an	 active	 role	        ates	to	be	involved	in	the	development	of	
in	 the	 hiring	 process,	 including	 the	 de-       standards	for	teacher	induction	and	in	the	
velopment	 of	 selection	 criteria,	 job	 de-        design	and	implementation	of	the	process.	
scriptions,	 and	 interview	 instruments,	           (1999,	2000)
and	must	participate	in	the	interview	and	
selection	process.	(1999)                            D-10. Mentor Programs
                                                         The	 National	 Education	 Associa-
D-9. Teacher Induction                               tion	believes	that	mentor	programs	are	a	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	            means	 of	 enhancing	 the	 professional	 ex-
believes	that	teacher	induction	is	an	inte-          pertise	of	employees	and	retaining	quality	
gral	part	of	an	ongoing	systemic	approach	           educators.	 The	 Association	 also	 believes	
to	examining	teaching	in	relation	to	stu-            that	 the	 planning,	 implementation,	 and	
dent	 learning.	 It	 facilitates	 the	 transition	   evaluation	of	such	programs	must	be	ne-
of	new	teachers	into	the	profession,	pro-            gotiated	 or	 cooperatively	 developed	 and	
motes	 the	 retention	 of	 successful	 teach-        maintained	by	the	school	district	and	the	
ers,	and	provides	a	system	of	support	for	           local	affiliate.	
veteran	teachers	experiencing	a	change	in	               The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
grade	level,	type	of	assignments,	job	site,	         the	duties	and	responsibilities	 of	all	 par-
or	cultural	environment.	The	Association	            ties	must	be	clearly	defined	and	uniformly	
also	 believes	 that	 an	 effective	 induction	      administered.	 Mentors	 must	 be	 selected	
process	is	based	upon	exemplary	teaching	            through	a	defined	process	with	articulated	
practices,	 an	 understanding	 of	 adult	 and	       criteria,	be	properly	trained	and	compen-
student	 learning,	 and	 a	 professional	 en-        sated,	and	be	provided	with	adequate	time	
vironment	 that	 encourages	 collaboration	          to	 fulfill	 their	 responsibilities.	 The	 state	
and	inquiry	through	formal	and	informal	             or	 local	 authority	 has	 the	 obligation	 to	
systems	of	collegial	support.	                       provide	hold-harmless	protection.	
   The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	            The	Association	believes	that	any	doc-
the	 induction	 process	 includes	 critical	         umentation	that	results	from	the	mentoring	


                                                                                                  263
Resolutions

process	must	be	confidential	and	the	sole	           seek	nonrenewal	or	termination,	but	that	
property	of	the	person	mentored	and	must	            recommendations	forwarded	by	the	joint	
not	be	included	in	the	participant’s	person-         governing	 body	 are	 routinely	 accepted	
nel	file.	The	Association	also	believes	that	        and	acted	upon	by	the	district
any	 verbal	 conversations	 that	 result	 from	          d.	 Ensure	 that	 only	 teachers	 who	 are	
the	 mentoring	 process	 must	 also	 remain	         deemed	by	their	peers	to	be	highly	skilled	
confidential.	(1988,	2004)                           practitioners	 are	 selected	 for	 the	 role	 of	
                                                     consulting	 teacher,	 that	 the	 consulting	
D-11. Peer Assistance Programs                       teacher’s	area	of	expertise	is	the	same	as	or	
and Peer Assistance and Review                       closely	related	to	that	of	the	participating	
Programs                                             teacher,	and	that	the	consulting	teacher	is	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	           chosen	by	the	program	governing	bodies	
believes	 that	 high	 standards	 within	 the	            e.	 Seek	 consulting	 teachers	 who	 re-
teaching	 profession	 and	 continuous	 im-           flect	the	diverse	population	of	the	teaching	
provement	 in	 professional	 practice	 are	          staff	
cornerstones	 of	 the	 profession.	 Some	 lo-            f.	 Provide	that	consulting	teachers	are	
cal	 affiliates	 may	 conclude	 that,	 under	        properly	compensated	and	provided	ade-
certain	 circumstances,	 a	 peer	 assistance	        quate	time	to	fulfill	their	responsibilities	
or	a	peer	assistance	and	review	program	                 g.	 Provide	 that	 consulting	 teachers	
is	 an	 appropriate	 mechanism	 for	 achiev-         receive	extensive	and	ongoing	training	in	
ing	these	objectives.	                               mentoring/coaching	skills,	district	initia-
    The	primary	purpose	of	any	such	pro-             tives	and	resources,	and	current	education	
gram	should	be	to	provide	“assistance”—              instructional	methods	
to	 improve	 professional	 practice,	 retain	            h.	 Establish	guidelines	for	the	referral	
promising	teachers,	and	build	profession-            of	 teachers	as	well	as	safeguards	 to	 pre-
al	knowledge	to	improve	student	success.	            vent	 unwarranted	 referrals	 and	 to	 allow	
A	 local	 affiliate	 may,	 at	 its	 option,	 also	   participating	teachers	the	selection	and/or	
decide	 to	 include	 a	 “review”	 component	         approval	of	their	assignment	to	a	consult-
in	the	program—involving	the	evaluation	             ing	teacher	
of	 performance.	 If	 a	 local	 affiliate	 takes	        i.	 Establish	and	convey	to	all	consult-
either	position,	the	program	should—	                ing	and	participating	teachers	clear	rules	
     a.	 Be	 developed	 through	 collective	         on	 allowable	 uses	 of	 documents,	 prod-
bargaining	or	through	a	joint	association/           ucts,	 and	 communications	 arising	 from	
school	 district	 agreement	 in	 nonbargain-         the	program	
ing	states	                                              j.	 Require	 extensive	 documentation	
    b.	 Be	governed	by	a	board	composed	             based	 on	 ongoing	 assessments	 of	 each	
of	an	equal	number	or	a	majority	of	repre-           participant	
sentatives	appointed	by	the	local	affiliate	             k.	 Require	that	rigorous	and	extensive	
    c.	 Acknowledge	 that	 the	 school	 dis-         assistance	 be	 provided	 over	 an	 appropri-
trict	makes	the	final	decision	to	retain	or	         ate	period	of	time	to	help	the	participating	


264
                                                                                    Resolutions

teacher	attain	the	requisite	standard	of	pro-     experience.	Education	institutions	should	
ficiency	before	any	effort	is	made	to	coun-       adopt	policies,	standards,	and	guidelines	
sel	the	participating	teacher	into	alternative	   for	 staffing	 extracurricular	 activities	 and	
career	choices	either	within	or	outside	the	      for	 hiring	 personnel	 who	 have	 the	 nec-
education	profession	or	a	recommendation	         essary	 skills	 and	 knowledge	 to	 perform	
to	initiate	nonrenewal	or	termination	pro-        those	duties,	and	for	providing	staff	mem-
ceedings	is	issued	                               bers	 with	 appropriate	 ongoing	 training.	
    l.	 Ensure	due	process	protection	and	        Qualified	 education	 employees	 must	 be	
duty	of	fair	representation	procedures	           given	the	opportunity	of	first	acceptance	
    m.	Guarantee	that	participating	teach-        of	paid	positions.	(1994,	1996)
ers,	consulting	teachers,	and	teachers	who	
sit	on	governing	bodies	do	not	lose	their	        PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Association	 membership	 or	 bargaining	
unit	status	by	virtue	of	their	participation	     D-14. Professional Development for
in	the	program.	(1997,	1999)                      Education Professionals
                                                     The	 National	 Education	 Association	
D-12. Administrator Preparation                   believes	that	continuous	professional	de-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	        velopment	is	required	 for	education	pro-
believes	 that	 administrators	 and	 staff	       fessionals	 to	 achieve	 and	 maintain	 the	
are	partners	in	the	total	school	program.	        highest	standards	of	student	learning	and	
Administrators	 must	 maintain	 valid	 ad-        professional	 practice.	 The	 Association	
ministrator	 licensure	 and	 have	 periodic	      also	 believes	 that	 professional	 develop-
teaching	 experience.	 Areas	 of	 instruc-        ment	should—	
tional	 content	 and	 experience	 should	            a.	 Be	 based	 upon	 clearly	 articulated	
include	 participatory	 decision	 making,	        goals	reached	by	consensus	of	the	school	
interpersonal	 skills,	 personnel	 selection,	    community
staff	evaluation,	curriculum,	school	man-            b.	 Be	 designed,	 directed	 by,	 and	 dif-
agement	 techniques,	 and	 cultural	 diver-       ferentiated	to	meet	the	needs	of	affected	
sity	 training.	 Prior	 to	 credentialing,	 an	   professionals	at	each	site
administrator	 shall	 have	 served	 at	 least	       c.	 Support	 teachers	 in	 meeting	 the	
five	years	in	a	full-time	teaching	position.	     needs	of	students
(1985,	1994)                                         d.	 Be	 incorporated	 into	 and	 aligned	
                                                  with	 (not	 added	 to)	 professional	 work	   	
APPROPRIATE STAFFING                              expectations
                                                     e.	 Be	standards-referenced	and	incor-
D-13. Supervision of Extracurricular              porate	 effective	 practice,	 relevant	 data,	
Activities                                        and	current	research
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	            f.	 Be	supported	by	adequate	resources
believes	 that	 extracurricular	 activities	         g.	 Be	 career-long,	 rigorous,	 and	      	
are	an	important	part	of	the	public	school	       sustained


                                                                                             265
Resolutions

    h.	 Stimulate	intellectual	development	            D-15. Professional Development for
and	leadership	capacity                                Education Support Professionals
    i.	 Balance	 individual	 priorities	 with	             The	 National	 Education	 Association	
the	needs	of	the	school	and	the	district               believes	 that	 professional	 development	
    j.	 Include	 an	 ongoing	 assessment	          	   should	be	required	throughout	the	career	
and	 evaluation	 component	 to	 determine	             of	 education	 support	 professionals.	 Pro-
effectiveness                                          fessional	 development	 programs	 should	
    k.	 Respond	 to,	 refine,	 improve,	 and	          provide	equal	opportunities	for	these	em-
adjust	 the	 professional	 development	 ac-            ployees	 to	 gain	 and	 improve	 the	 knowl-
cording	 to	 the	 feedback	 provided	 by	 the	         edge	 and	 skills	 important	 to	 their	 posi-
participants                                           tion	 and	 job	 performance.	 Professional	
    l.	 Provide:                                       development	programs	should	ensure	that	
        •	 training	and	ongoing	support	for	           appropriate	 education	 employees	 have	 a	
the	implementation	of	new	and	expanded	                decisive	voice	at	every	stage	of	planning,	
programs/skills                                        implementation,	and	evaluation.	The	As-
        •	 training	and	ongoing	support	in	            sociation	 also	 believes	 that	 professional	
the	development	of	new	and	revised	cur-                development	 and	 continuing	 education	
ricula	and	instructional	strategies                    serve	 as	 catalysts	 to	 recruit,	 retain,	 and	
        •	 time	 during	 the	 regular	 work	           promote	qualified	education	support	pro-
day	 and	 work	 year	 for	 inquiry,	 research,	        fessionals.	(1998,	2006)
reflection,	and	collaboration
        •	 opportunities	 for	 mentoring/              D-16. Professional Development
peer	coaching	with	colleagues	on	an	on-                Resource Centers
going	basis                                                The	 National	 Education	 Association	
        •	 a	depth	of	subject	matter	knowl-            believes	 that	 state/regional	 professional	
edge	 and	 a	 greater	 understanding	 of	 the	         development	resource	centers	provide	an	
impact	 of	 culture,	 gender,	 and	 learning	          opportunity	 for	 education	 employees	 to	
styles                                                 share	 resources,	 experiences,	 and	 ideas	
        •	 opportunities	 to	 assume	 new	             for	professional	growth.	The	Association	
roles,	including	leadership	positions                  also	believes	that	these	centers	should	be	
        •	 flexibility	 for	 the	 use	 of	 a	 vari-    established,	funded,	and	accessible	to	all	
ety	of	resources	such	as	university-school	            education	 employees.	 The	 Association	
partnerships,	 professional	 development	              further	believes	that	members	from	local	
schools,	exchange	programs,	professional	              affiliates	served	by	a	center	should	com-
development	resource	centers,	and	cultur-              prise	a	majority	of	the	membership	of	the	
al	and	business	resources.	(1976,	2007)                professional	development	resource	center	
                                                       policy	board.	(1982,	1999)




266
                                                                                     Resolutions

COMPETENCY                                         D-20. Education Employee
                                                   Evaluation
D-17. Professional Development in                      The	 National	 Education	 Association	
Behavior Management, Discipline,                   believes	 that	 formal	 performance-based	
Order, and Safety                                  evaluations	 must	 be	 augmented	 by	 for-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	         mative	evaluation	components	in	order	to	
believes	 that	 behavior	 management,	 dis-        assure	 the	 continuing	 competency	 of	 all	
cipline,	 order,	 and	 safety	 in	 schools	 and	   education	 employees	 in	 their	 respective	
school	 districts	 are	 essential	 to	 ensure	     fields.	
student	success.	The	Association	also	be-              Effective	 evaluation	 procedures	 sup-
lieves	 that	 all	 education	 employees	 must	     ported	 by	 professional	 development	 pro-
be	 provided	 professional	 development	 in	       grams	 will	 enable	 all	 education	 employ-
behavior	management,	discipline,	conflict	         ees	 to	 keep	 abreast	 of	 developments	 in	
resolution,	 safety	 plans	 and	 emergency	        their	areas	of	specialization.	Such	proce-
procedures,	 emergency	 lifesaving	 tech-          dures,	with	sufficient	resources,	can	help	
niques,	 and	 crisis	 management.	 (1994,	         ensure	job	competency,	identify	deficien-
2000)                                              cies	in	performance,	and	provide	options	
                                                   such	 as	 counseling,	 training	 programs,	
D-18. Neurological Disorder                        a	 remediation	 plan,	 and	 opportunities	 to	
Awareness                                          observe	peers.	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	              If	 following	 such	 an	 evaluation	 and	
believes	in	the	establishment	of	programs	         after	 being	 given	 sufficient	 time,	 train-
that	 will	 increase	 education	 employee	         ing,	 and	 opportunity	 for	 improvement,	 a	
awareness	 of	 neurological	 disorders	 and	       person	 is	 then	 formally	 reevaluated	 and	
symptoms	 that	 affect	 student	 learning.	        incompetence	 can	 be	 documented,	 dis-
Qualified	 health	 professionals	 should	 be	      missal	 proceedings	 with	 guaranteed	 due	
cooperatively	involved	in	these	programs.	         process	may	be	instituted.	Such	proceed-
(1987,	1999)                                       ings	must	be	implemented	by	administra-
                                                   tors/evaluators	 who	 are	 properly	 trained	
D-19. Teacher Exchange Programs                    and	held	accountable	for	appropriate	and	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	         fair	evaluation	systems.
believes	that	teachers	and	students	benefit	           The	Association	also	believes	that	the	
when	 teachers	 participate	 in	 teacher	 ex-      use	of	student	achievement	measures	such	
change	 programs.	 Voluntary	 teacher	 ex-         as	 standardized	 test	 scores	 or	 grades	 to	
change	programs	should	be	cooperatively	           determine	the	competency,	quality,	or	ef-
established	 with	 governing	 boards	 to	 of-      fectiveness	of	any	professional	educator	is	
fer	such	programs	within	and	among	the	            inappropriate	and	is	not	a	valid	measure.
states,	schools	of	federal	agencies	within	            The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
and	outside	the	United	States,	and	agen-           classroom	 teachers,	 without	 fear	 of	 dis-
cies	abroad.	(1974,	1997)                          cipline	 or	 negative	 evaluation,	 must	 be	


                                                                                             267
Resolutions

given	 the	 discretion	 to	 modify	 the	 pace	      D-21. Competency Testing of
of	predetermined	progress	rates,	dictated	          Licensed Teachers
pacing	guides,	and	mandated	scripted	les-               The	 National	 Education	 Association	
son	pacing	charts.	                                 believes	that	competency	testing	must	not	
    The	 evaluation	 procedure	 should	 be	         be	 used	 as	 a	 condition	 of	 employment,	
cooperatively	 developed	 and	 maintained	          license	 retention,	 evaluation,	 placement,	
in	 conjunction	 with	 representatives	 se-         ranking,	or	promotion	of	licensed	teach-
lected	 by	 the	 local	 affiliate	 and	 should	     ers.	(1969,	2000)
include—	
    a.	 Clear	 performance	 expectations	           D-22. Evaluation and Promotion in
that	are	specific	to	the	job	description	           Higher Education
    b.	 Regular	 observation	 of	 job	 perfor-          The	 National	 Education	 Association	
mance	 with	 advance	 notice	 and	 discus-          affirms	the	importance	of	teaching	in	in-
sion	of	evaluation	visits	and	a	timely	con-         stitutions	of	higher	education	and	believes	
sultation	after	each	visit	                         that	 research	 and	 publication	 should	 not	
    c.	 A	 written	 evaluation	 report	 to	 be	     be	the	only	criteria	on	which	higher	edu-
provided	to	the	person	being	evaluated	             cation	 faculty	 are	 evaluated	 and/or	 pro-
    d.	 Opportunity	for	a	written	response	         moted.	
prior	to	the	placement	of	the	evaluation	in	            The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	 its	
the	personnel	file	                                 higher	 education	 members	 must	 be	 al-
    e.	 An	 employee	 improvement	 plan	            lowed	to	determine	through	the	collective	
that	will	not	interfere	with	any	earned	pay	        bargaining	process	the	methods	by	which	
increase	or	longevity	credit	                       they	are	evaluated	and	promoted.
    f.	 A	provision	for	an	alternative	eval-            The	 Association	 further	 believes	
uator	and/or	an	opportunity	for	an	alter-           that	 in	 order	 to	 maintain	 high	 standards	
native	 evaluation	 report	 to	 ensure	 a	 fair	    throughout	higher	education,	administra-
and	unbiased	evaluation	of	the	education	           tors	 must	 undergo	 individual,	 periodic,	
employee	                                           and	 regular	 evaluation.	 The	 evaluation	
    g.		An	 unbiased	 appeals	 process	 with	       process	must	include	input	from	a	broad	
an	evidentiary	hearing	under	oath.	                 spectrum	 of	 the	 college/university	 com-
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	      munity	 in	 order	 to	 provide	 a	 balance	 of	
procedures	 for	 evaluation	 of	 administra-        perspective	 and	 evaluation	 effectiveness.	
tors	should	include	evaluations	by	educa-           (1986,	2006)
tion	 employees	 who	 are	 directly	 super-
vised	by	them.	                                     D-23. Promote the Retention
    By	participating	in	an	evaluation	pro-          of Experienced Education
cess,	 an	 education	 employee	 shall	 not	         Professionals
waive	 his	 or	 her	 right	 to	 due	 process	 in	      The	 National	 Education	 Association	
any	 subsequent	 contractual	 or	 legal	 pro-       believes	 that	 experienced	 education	 pro-
ceeding.	(1969,	2007)                               fessionals	 are	 valuable	 resources	 in	 the	


268
                                                                                      Resolutions

promotion	 of	 educational	 excellence.	          education.	 The	 Association	 believes	 that	
The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	 expe-     no	single	program	can	meet	the	needs	of	
rienced	 education	 professionals	 should	        every	student.	Mandated	programs,	such	
be	encouraged	to	remain	in,	or	return	to,	        as	scripted	learning	programs	and	pacing	
the	education	profession.	This	encourage-         charts,	 restrict	 the	 ability	 of	 teachers	 to	
ment	 should	 be	 accomplished	 through	          make	decisions	for	appropriate,	meaning-
strategies	 consistent	 with	 NEA	 policy,	       ful	 instruction	 in	 their	 classrooms.	 The	
including,	 but	 not	 limited	 to,	 enhanced	     Association	 recommends	 that	 education	
salaries	and	benefits,	a	supportive	and	re-       employees	 collaborate	 in	 the	 research,	
spectful	work	environment,	a	reasonable	          development,	and	field	testing	of	new	in-
workload,	a	secure	pension	accompanied	           structional	methods	and	materials.	(1969,	
by	retiree	health	care	benefits,	and	retire-      2005)
ment	enhancements	that	reward	extended	
years	of	service.	These	strategies	can	be	        E-2. Time To Teach
achieved	through	bargaining,	legislation,	            The	 National	 Education	 Association	
or	other	means.	(2001,	2007)                      believes	 that	 “time	 to	 teach’’	 refers	 not	
                                                  only	to	those	hours	during	which	an	educa-
E. GAIN RECOGNITION OF THE                        tor	is	actually	teaching	but	also	applies	to	
BASIC IMPORTANCE OF THE                           those	conditions	that	contribute	to	the	stu-
TEACHER IN THE LEARNING                           dent-teacher	relationship.	These	include	a	
PROCESS AND OTHER EMPLOYEES                       reasonable,	carefully	defined	work	load,	a	
IN THE EDUCATIONAL EFFORT                         duty-free	lunch	period,	an	office	in	which	
                                                  to	 work,	 access	 to	 telephones,	 adequate	
ACADEMIC FREEDOM                                  and	 appropriate	 office	 equipment,	 access	
                                                  to	technology,	freedom	from	interruptions	
E-1. Instructional Excellence                     during	instructional	time,	sufficient	unen-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	        cumbered	planning	time,	time	to	evaluate	
believes	that	to	achieve	and	maintain	in-         student	progress,	time	for	implementation	
structional	excellence	there	must	be	con-         of	 federal	 and	 state	 legislative	 require-
tinual	improvement	in	the	education	pro-          ments,	and	elimination	of	the	noninstruc-
cess.	 The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	    tional	tasks	required	of	a	teacher.	
teachers	 have	 the	 primary	 responsibil-            The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that,	
ity	 for	 instructional	 excellence	 and	 must	   at	 all	 levels	 and	 in	 all	 disciplines,	 addi-
have	the	primary	authority	to	recommend	          tional	 common	 planning	 time	 should	 be	
improvements	 in	 instruction	 through	 a	        provided	 during	 the	 student	 day	 for	 em-
democratic	decision-making	process.	The	          ployees	to	meet	for	such	purposes	as,	but	
Association	further	believes	all	education	       not	limited	to,	planning	interdisciplinary	
employees	should	support	high	standards	          activities/units,	 team	 planning	 time,	 and	
for	 instructional	 excellence	 and	 con-         coordinating	 with	 special	 education	 and	
tribute	 to	 the	 continual	 improvement	 of	     with	support	professionals.	


                                                                                               269
Resolutions

    The	 Association	 recognizes	 that	 ac-         adopted	by	professional	associations	and	
countability	 requires	 reporting	 on	 the	         school	governing	boards.
uses	 of	 funding	 derived	 from	 federal,	            Materials	 in	 all	 subject	 areas	
state,	and	local	education	programs.	The	           should—
Association	 further	 believes,	 however,	             a.	 Include	 strategies	 that	 encourage	
that	 in	 order	 for	 the	 classroom	 educator	     student	interaction
to	 spend	 adequate	 time	 on	 instructional	          b.	 Be	developmentally	appropriate
duties,	the	paperwork	burden	on	the	prac-              c.	 Include	 appropriate	 accommoda-
titioner	 must	 be	 reduced	 and	 held	 to	 an	     tions	and	modifications	for	students	with	
absolute	minimum.	                                  special	needs
    The	 Association	 believes	 that	 educa-           d.	 Be	free	from	stereotypes
tors	 need	 the	 freedom	 and	 flexibility	 to	        e.	 Address	divergent	points	of	view
schedule	 time	 and	 design	 programs	 to	             f.	 Contain	sufficient	activities	to	teach	
meet	the	needs	of	students.	(1969,	2007)            the	concepts
                                                       g.	 Provide	for	the	evaluation	of	higher	
E-3. Selection and Challenges of                    level	thinking.
Materials and Teaching Techniques                      Instructional	 materials	 and	 equipment	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	          must	be	provided	in	sufficient	variety	and	
believes	 that	 democratic	 values	 can	 best	      quantity	to	serve	all	students.	(1969,	2006)
be	transmitted	in	an	atmosphere	that	does	
not	 restrain	 free	 inquiry	 and	 learning.	       E-4. Development of Curriculum
The	Association	also	believes	that	quality	             The	 National	 Education	 Association	
teaching	depends	on	the	freedom	to	select	          believes	that	to	provide	the	highest	qual-
materials	 and	 techniques.	 Teachers	 and	         ity	of	education	to	all	students,	educators	
school	library	media	specialists	must	have	         must	be	the	primary	voice	in	the	planning,	
the	 right	 to	 select	 and	 use	 materials	 and	   development,	 implementation,	 monitor-
techniques	without	censorship	or	legisla-           ing,	and	refinement	of	curricula.	
tive	 interference.	 States,	 school	 districts,	       The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
and	educational	institutions	must	include	          careful	consideration	must	be	given	to	the	
teachers	and	faculty	as	full	voting	mem-            curriculum	in	regards	to—
bers	 on	 textbook	 and	 curriculum	 review	            a.	 Student	academic	standards	
and	 adoption	 committees.	 Participation	              b.	 Alignment	 of	 curriculum	 with	    	
must	be	voluntary	and	compensated.	                 standards	
    The	 Association	 deplores	 prepublish-             c.	 Unwarranted	duplication	of	content	
ing	 censorship,	 book-burning	 crusades,	              d.	 Prevention	of	content	gaps	
and	attempts	to	ban	books	from	school	li-               e.	 Content	overload	
brary	media	centers	and	school	curricula.	              f.	 Developmentally	appropriate	content
Challenges	to	the	choice	of	instructional	              g.	 Appropriate	 accommodations	 and	
materials	and	techniques	must	be	orderly	           modifications	 for	 students	 with	 special	
and	objective,	under	procedures	mutually	           needs.	


270
                                                                                    Resolutions

   The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	     E-6. Cultural Diversity in
educators	 must	 have	 an	 active	 role	 in	      Instructional Materials and
the	 establishment	 of	 procedures	 for	 the	     Activities
planning,	 development,	 implementation,	             The	 National	 Education	 Associa-
monitoring,	 and	 refinement	 of	 curricula.	     tion	 believes	 that	 educational	 materials	
To	that	end,	professional	time	and	train-         and	 activities	 should	 accurately	 portray	
ing	must	be	provided.	(2003,	2004)                cultural	 diversity	 and	 contributions	 of	
                                                  ethnic-minority	 groups.	 Ethnic-minor-
E-5. Development of Materials                     ity	teachers	must	be	involved	in	selecting	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	        educational	 materials	 and	 in	 preparing	
believes	 that	 public	 school	 teachers	 and	    teachers	in	their	use.	
postsecondary	faculty	should	be	involved	             The	 Association	 recognizes	 that	 ad-
in	the	development	and	field	testing	of	all	      ditional	 instructional	 materials	 chosen	
educational	 materials	 offered	 for	 adop-       for	 classrooms	 and	 libraries	 may	 right-
tion	or	purchase	by	public	school	districts	      fully	contain	a	number	of	points	of	view	
and	educational	institutions.	Materials	in	       to	allow	students	to	become	familiar	with	
all	subject	areas	should	include	strategies	      the	 attitudes	 and	 recommendations	 from	
that	encourage	student	interaction,	be	de-        various	segments	of	the	literary	world.	
velopmentally	appropriate,	include	appro-             The	 Association	 acknowledges	 that	
priate	accommodations	and	modifications	          many	 contemporary	 texts	 related	 to	 eth-
for	students	with	special	needs,	be	free	of	      nic-minority	 groups	 do	 not	 portray	 re-
stereotypes,	 address	 divergent	 points	 of	     alistically	 their	 lifestyles	 but	 convey	 a	
view,	contain	sufficient	activities	to	teach	     negative	 self-concept	 to	 ethnic-minority	
the	concepts,	and	provide	for	the	evalua-         students.	 The	 Association	 also	 believes	
tion	of	higher	level	thinking	skills.             that	 educators	 and	 governing	 boards	
    The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	 re-   should	adopt	and	use	textbooks	and	other	
quiring	 the	 use	 of	 electronic	 curriculum	    educational	materials	in	all	subject	areas	
mapping	and	lesson	planning	software	via	         that	 accurately	 portray	 the	 contributions	
district	 networks	 and	 the	 Internet	 should	   of	 ethnic	 and	 other	 minorities.	 (1969,	
not	 impose	 additional	 time	 burdens	 on	       1995)
teachers,	and	must	be	accompanied	by	ad-
equate	training	and	compensation.	Adop-           E-7. Women in Instructional
tion	of	such	practices	should	be	a	collabora-     Materials
tive	effort	among	teachers,	administrators,	          The	 National	 Education	 Association	
and	local	boards	of	education.                    believes	that	educational	materials	should	
    Where	school	districts	and	educational	       accurately	portray	the	influence,	contribu-
institutions	involve	teachers	and	faculty	in	     tions,	 and	 historical	 lifestyles	 of	 women	
the	 development	 of	 any	 educational	 ma-       in	 our	 nation	 and	 throughout	 the	 world.	
terials,	participation	should	be	voluntary	       (1996,	1998)
and	compensated.	(1984,	2006)


                                                                                            271
Resolutions

E-8. Religious Heritage in                        her	 position	 for	 refusing	 to	 suppress	 the	
Instructional Materials                           free	expression	rights	of	students.	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	            The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
believes	that	educational	materials	should	       professional	 freedom	 is	 essential	 to	 the	
accurately	 portray	 the	 influence	 of	 re-      teaching	profession.	Professional	freedom	
ligion	 in	 our	 nation	 and	 throughout	 the	    includes	 the	 teachers’	 right	 to	 evaluate,	
world.	(1988)                                     criticize,	 and/or	 advocate	 their	 personal	
                                                  point	of	view	concerning	the	policies	and	
E-9. Impact of Federal and State                  programs	 of	 the	 schools.	 Furthermore,	
Legislative Mandates                              teachers	must	be	free	to	depart	from	man-
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	         dated	 scripted	 learning	 programs	 and	
believes	that	federal	and	state	mandates	re-      pacing	 charts	 without	 prejudice	 or	 pun-
garding	school	programs	should	be	broad,	         ishment.	 Teachers	 also	 have	 the	 right	 to	
general	 guidelines,	 must	 be	 fully	 funded,	   assist	colleagues	when	their	academic	or	
and	must	not	be	based	on	student	achieve-         professional	freedoms	are	violated.	
ment.	 Mandated	 programs	 and	 require-              The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
ments	should	be	established	or	eliminated	        legislation	and	regulations	that	mandate	or	
only	 in	 conjunction	 with	 the	 Association	    permit	the	teaching	of	religious	doctrines	
and	its	state	and	local	affiliates.	Mandates	     and/or	groups	that	promote	antipublic	ed-
should	be	assessed	at	the	local,	state,	and	      ucation	agendas	violate	both	student	and	
national	 levels	 by	 stakeholders,	 including	   teacher	 rights.	 The	 Association	 urges	 its	
the	Association	and	its	state	and	local	affili-   affiliates	to	seek	repeal	of	these	mandates	
ates,	with	particular	attention	to	the	impact	    where	they	exist.	(2002,	2005)
on	 students,	 education	 employees,	 school	
programs,	and	finances.	(1979,	2007)              E-11. Professional Discretion in the
                                                  Classroom
E-10. Academic and Professional                      The	 National	 Education	 Association	
Freedom                                           believes	that	daily	contact	with	students	as	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	        well	 as	 professional	 accountability	 place	
believes	that	academic	freedom	is	essen-          classroom	teachers	in	the	best	position	to	
tial	to	the	teaching	profession.	Academic	        address	the	educational	needs	of	students.	
freedom	 includes	 the	 rights	 of	 teachers	     The	Association	also	believes	that	teach-
and	 learners	 to	 explore	 and	 discuss	 di-     ers	are	best	suited	to	develop	and	deliver	
vergent	 points	 of	 view.	 Controversial	 is-    appropriate	 instructional	 programs	 that	
sues	should	be	a	part	of	the	instructional	       are	consistent	with	state	curriculum	stan-
program	 when,	 in	 the	 judgment	 of	 the	       dards.	 The	 Association	 further	 believes	
professional	staff,	the	issues	are	appropri-      that	 direct	 observation	 of	 students	 and	
ate	to	the	curriculum	and	to	the	maturity	        analysis	of	data	by	the	classroom	teacher	
level	of	the	student.	A	teacher	shall	not	be	     must	 guide	 instructional	 decisions	 with-
fired,	transferred,	or	removed	from	his	or	       out	fear	of	reprisal.


272
                                                                                         Resolutions

    The	 Association	 believes	 that,	 while	        role	 models	 that	 enhance	 the	 education	
programs	 focusing	 on	 scripted	 learning	          process.	
and	 pacing	 charts	 can	 serve	 as	 frames	             The	Association	also	believes	that	the	
of	 reference,	 it	 is	 still	 incumbent	 on	 the	   retention	 of	 education	 support	 profes-
classroom	teacher	to	evaluate	the	efficacy	          sionals	 must	 be	 encouraged	 and	 is	 vital	
of	all	instructional	programs	and	to	mod-            to	 keeping	 strong	 and	 effective	 public	
ify	 them	 when	 necessary	 in	 order	to	 ad-        schools.	(1990,	2007)
dress	the	needs	and	facilitate	the	success	
of	each	student.	(2006)                              F. PROTECT THE RIGHTS OF
                                                     EDUCATION EMPLOYEES AND
E-12. Intellectual Property and                      ADVANCE THEIR INTERESTS AND
Access to Copyrighted Materials                      WELFARE
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	
believes	that	education	employees	should	            PAY EQUITY/COMPARABLE WORTH
own	the	copyright	to	materials	they	create	
in	the	course	of	their	employment.	Own-              F-1. Nondiscriminatory Personnel
ership	rights	of	education	employees	who	            Policies/Affirmative Action†
create	copyrightable	materials	should	not	               The	 National	 Education	 Association	
prevent	 education	 employees	 from	 mak-            believes	 that,	 except	 as	 otherwise	 pro-
ing	 appropriate	 use	 of	 such	 materials	 in	      vided	below,	personnel	policies	and	prac-
providing	 educational	 services	 to	 their	         tices	 must	 guarantee	 that	 no	 person	 be	
students.	 Employees	 should	 have	 the	             employed,	retained,	paid,	dismissed,	sus-
right	 to	 display,	 reproduce,	 and	 distrib-       pended,	demoted,	transferred,	retired,	or	
ute	copyrighted	materials	for	educational	           harassed	 because	 of	race,	 color,	national	
purposes.                                            origin,	cultural	diversity,	accent,	religious	
    The	Association	also	believes	that	stu-          beliefs,	residence,	physical	disability,	po-
dents	should	own	the	copyright	to	materi-            litical	 activities,	 professional	 association	
als	they	create	in	the	course	of	their	stud-         activity,	 age,	 size,	 marital	 status,	 family	
ies	and,	in	the	case	of	graduate	students,	          relationship,	 gender,	 sexual	 orientation,	
to	 materials	 they	 create	 while	 working	         or	gender	identification.	
as	teaching	or	research	assistants.	(1969,	              Affirmative	 action	 plans	 and	 proce-
2006)                                                dures	 that	 encourage	 active	 recruitment	
                                                     and	 employment	 of	 ethnic	 minorities,	
E-13. Support Professionals in the                   women,	 and	 persons	 with	 disabilities	
Education Process                                    should	 be	 developed	 and	 implemented	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	            in	 accordance	 with	 Association	 policy.	
believes	that	all	education	employees	are	           Affirmative	 action	 plans	 and	 procedures	
essential	to	the	learning	environment.	The	
Association	 recognizes	 that	 education	            †
                                                      	See	the	Policy	Statement	on	Affirmative	Action	
support	 professionals	 promote	 positive	           adopted	by	the	1997	Representative	Assembly.



                                                                                                  273
Resolutions

that	 encourage	 active	 recruitment	 and	           F-4. Tax Deductions for
employment	 of	 men	 in	 underrepresented	           Professional Expenses
education	categories	should	also	be	devel-              The	 National	 Education	 Association	
oped	and	implemented.	It	may	be	neces-               believes	 that	 education	 employees	 must	
sary	therefore	to	give	preference	to	men	in	         continue	 to	 perform	 and	 develop	 profes-
recruitment,	hiring,	retention,	and	promo-           sionally	and	that	expenses	incurred	to	do	
tion	policies	to	overcome	past	discrimina-           so	are	professional	and	therefore	must	be	
tion.	(1969,	2002)                                   considered	as	necessary	and	ordinary	and	
                                                     must	 be	 uniformly	 deductible,	 as	 an	 ad-
F-2. Pay Equity/Comparable Worth                     justment,	from	gross	income	in	the	com-
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	            putation	 of	 federal,	 state,	 and	 local	 in-
believes	 that	 all	 workers	 should	 be	 paid	      come	 taxes.	 Deductible	 expenses	 should	
on	 the	 basis	 of	 the	 requirements,	 skills,	     include,	 but	 not	 be	 limited	 to,	 expenses	
and	 worth	 of	 their	 jobs,	 and	 that	 factors	    incurred	 relating	 to	 sabbatical	 leaves;	
such	as	the	gender	or	race	of	the	individu-          educational	 travel	 for	 maintenance	 and	
al	performing	the	job	should	never	play	a	           improvement	of	skills;	an	in-home	office;	
role	in	determining	salary.	                         education-related	auto	use;	and,	purchas-
   The	Association	supports	all	efforts	to	          ing	 of	 teaching	 supplements	 and	 profes-
attain	accurate	and	unbiased	forms	of	job	           sional	supplies,	materials,	and	equipment.	
evaluation	 and	 to	 raise	 the	 pay	 of	 those	     (1969,	1993)
jobs	 that	 are	 presently	 undervalued.	 The	
“market	value’’	means	of	establishing	pay	           COLLECTIVE BARGAINING
cannot	 be	 the	 final	 determinant	 of	 pay	        PROCESS
scales	 since	 it	 too	 frequently	 reflects	 the	
race	and	sex	bias	in	our	society.	                   F-5. Collective Bargaining Rights
   The	 Association	 encourages	 efforts	                The	 National	 Education	 Association	
by	education	employees	and	others	of	the	            believes	that	the	attainment	and	exercise	
work	force	to	gain	salary	levels	appropri-           of	collective	bargaining	rights	are	essen-
ate	to	the	skill,	value,	responsibility,	and	        tial	 to	 the	 promotion	 of	 education	 em-
requirements	of	their	jobs.	(1982,	1993)             ployee	and	student	needs	in	society.	The	
                                                     Association	demands	that	these	rights	be	
F-3. Uniform Compensation                            advocated	 where	 they	 are	 now	 abridged	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	           or	 denied	 and	 strengthened	 where	 they	
opposes	 any	 attempt	 to	 establish	 tiered	        are	now	secured.	(1980,	1993)
compensation	 systems	 that	 place	 entry-
level	 employees	 on	 a	 salary	 and/or	 ben-        F-6. Collective Bargaining and
efits	schedule	that	differs	from	that	of	ca-         Grievance Procedures
reer	employees.	(1986)                                  The	 National	 Education	 Association	
                                                     believes	 in	 the	necessity	of	a	 public	 em-
                                                     ployees’	federal	collective	bargaining	law	


274
                                                                                      Resolutions

that	will	not	weaken	any	state	or	local	bar-        should	seek	statutory	penalties	for	govern-
gaining	 laws.	 The	 Association	 demands	          ing	bodies	that	seek	to	rescind	negotiated	
that	 federal,	 state,	 and	 local	 governing	      agreements	by	declarations	of	bankruptcy	
bodies	bargain	collectively	with	all	public	        or	by	any	other	means.	(1969,	1998)
employees.	The	Association	supports	leg-
islation	 that	 would	 prohibit	 the	 negotiat-     F-7. Strikes
ing	away	of	any	public	employee	statutory	              The	 National	 Education	 Association	
benefit,	right,	or	protection.	                     denounces	the	practice	of	keeping	schools	
    The	Association	also	believes	that	lo-          open	during	a	strike.	
cal	 affiliates	 and	 governing	 boards	 must	          The	 Association	 believes	 that	 when	 a	
negotiate,	 in	 good	 faith,	 written	 master	      picket	line	is	established	by	the	authorized	
contracts.	 These	 contracts	 must	 include	        bargaining	unit,	crossing	it,	whether	phys-
terms	and	conditions	of	employment	and	             ically	 or	 electronically,	 is	 strikebreaking	
other	 matters	 of	 concern	 and	 include	 a	       and	 jeopardizes	 the	 welfare	 of	 education	
provision	for	agency	fee.	                          employees	and	the	educational	process.	
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	          The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
local	affiliates	should	determine	the	bar-          the	chances	of	reaching	voluntary	agree-
gaining	 approach	 most	 appropriate	 for	          ment	in	good	faith	are	reduced	when	one	
them.	 The	 Association	 also	 supports	 a	         party	to	the	negotiation	process	possesses	
local’s	 decision	 to	 use	 an	 interest-based	     the	 power	 to	 use	 the	 courts	 unilaterally	
process	as	an	option	from	a	wide	range	of	          against	the	other	party.	
models	 for	 collective	 bargaining	 and/or	            The	 Association	 recommends	 that	
dispute	resolution.	                                several	 procedures	 be	 used	 in	 resolution	
    Grievance	procedures	shall	be	provided	         of	impasse—such	as	mediation,	fact	find-
in	the	master	contract	with	definite	steps	         ing,	 binding	 arbitration,	 political	 action,	
to	appeal	the	application	or	interpretation	        and	strike—if	conditions	make	it	impos-
of	 the	 contract.	 Binding	 arbitration	 shall	    sible	to	provide	quality	education.	In	the	
be	a	part	of	the	grievance	procedure.	              event	of	a	strike	by	education	employees,	
    The	Association	believes	that	binding	          extracurricular	and	cocurricular	activities	
arbitration	and	the	right	to	strike	must	be	        must	cease.	
an	integral	part	of	any	collective	bargain-             Appropriate	teacher	preparation	insti-
ing	process.	                                       tutions	should	be	notified	that	a	strike	is	
    Coordinated	 bargaining	 by	 Associa-           being	conducted	and	urged	not	to	cooper-
tion	 affiliates	 on	 a	 regional	 or	 statewide	   ate	 in	 emergency	 licensing	 or	 placement	
basis	 is	 an	 important	 component	 of	 col-       practices	 that	 constitute	 strikebreaking.	
lective	bargaining.	                                The	 Association	 condemns	 denial	 of	
    The	Association	also	believes	that	state	       credits	to	students	working	in	the	school	
affiliates	 should	 seek	 statutory	 penalties	     for	credit	as	part	of	a	teacher	preparation	
for	governing	boards	that	do	not	bargain	           or	credential	program	who	have	honored	
in	 good	 faith.	 Further,	 state	 affiliates	      a	work	stoppage.	


                                                                                               275
Resolutions

    The	 Association	 also	 condemns	 the	              a.	 A	 grievance	 procedure	 that	 termi-
use	of	ex	parte	injunction,	jailing,	setting	       nates	with	final	and	binding	arbitration	
of	excessive	bail,	fines,	firing	of	members,	           b.	 Just	 cause	 for	 any	 disciplinary	 ac-
community	service	in	lieu	of	other	penal-           tion	with	guaranteed	due	process	through	
ties,	decertification	of	an	organization	as	        final	and	binding	arbitration	and	continu-
the	 bargaining	 agent,	 loss	 of	 association	     ation	of	all	employee	rights,	including	full	
rights,	 and	 revocation	 or	 suspension	 of	       compensation	and	job	security	
tenure,	licensure,	and	retirement	benefits	             c.	 A	seniority	list	that	is	updated,	pub-
in	school	work	stoppages.	                          lished,	and	distributed	annually	
    The	Association	urges	enactment	and	                d.	 Layoff	 and	 recall	 based	 only	 on	
enforcement	of	statutes	guaranteeing	the	           seniority	 as	 bargaining	 unit	 members,	
rights	 of	 education	 employees	 when	 a	          licensure/certification,	 and,	 to	 the	 extent	
work	stoppage	occurs,	including	the	right	          legally	permissible,	affirmative	action†
to	present	their	case	to	the	state	or	courts,	          e.	 Employer-paid	 benefits,	 including	
before	back-to-work	orders	are	issued.	             but	not	limited	to	comprehensive	health,	
    The	 Association	 also	 urges	 its	 affili-     life,	 dental,	 vision,	 and	 income	 protec-
ates	to	establish	practices	and	procedures	         tion	 insurance	 and	 employee	 assistance	
to	supply	financial	and	emotional	support	          programs,	that	fully	cover	bargaining	unit	
as	well	as	external	and	internal	publicity	         members,	 domestic	 partners,	 and	 their	
for	 any	 local	 engaged	 in	 a	 strike.	 (1969,	   families	
1999)                                                   f.	 Membership	 in	 the	 association	 or	
                                                    the	payment	of	a	fair-share	fee	as	a	condi-
BARGAINING ISSUES                                   tion	of	employment	
                                                        g.	 Required	 posting	 of	 all	 vacant	 or	
F-8. Basic Contract Standards                       newly	 created	 positions	 along	 with	 the	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	          right	of	bargaining	unit	members	to	apply	
believes	that	collective	bargaining	agree-          for	these	positions	
ments	 between	 education	 employees,	                  h.	 Unassigned	 preparation,	 planning,	
including	 part-time	 and	 temporary,	 and	         and	travel	time	as	applicable	for	all	mem-
their	 employers	 should	 contain	 certain	         bers	of	the	bargaining	unit	
standard	contractual	concepts.	The	Asso-                i.	 Specified	class	size,	teaching	load,	
ciation	also	believes	that,	in	nonbargain-          and	job	description	
ing	 jurisdictions,	 these	 concepts	 should	           j.	 A	duty-free	lunch	period	of	not	less	
be	incorporated	into	legislation,	employer	         than	 30	 minutes	 for	 all	 members	 of	 the	
policy,	 and/or	 other	 sources	 that	 estab-       bargaining	unit	
lish	the	terms	and	conditions	of	employ-                k.	 Nondiscriminatory,	fair,	and	equita-
ment	 for	 education	 employees,	 including	        ble	treatment	of	bargaining	unit	members	
part-time	and	temporary.	These	concepts	
include—	                                           †
                                                     	See	the	Policy	Statement	on	Affirmative	Action	
                                                    adopted	by	the	1997	Representative	Assembly.	



276
                                                                                    Resolutions

    l.	 Contractually	 defined	 procedures	        working	 environment,	 including	 a	 se-
for	evaluation	and	promotion	                      cured/lockable	storage	space	for	personal	
    m.	Released	time	for	association	busi-         belongings
ness	with	full	pay	and	benefits	                       x.	 The	school	calendar	
    n.	 Parental/child	 rearing	 leave	 for	           y.	 Protection	from	unilateral	changes	
employees	 to	 provide	 care	 for	 natural	 or	    in	terms	or	conditions	of	employment	
adopted	children	                                      z.	 Provisions	to	define	class	loads,	stu-
    o.	 Contractually	 defined	 procedures	        dent	contact	hours,	and	contract	hours	for	
for	ensuring	education	employee	decision	          instructors	 who	 are	 involved	 in	 distance	
making	in	curriculum	design	and	related	           education,	 and	 to	 guarantee	 that	 tech-
instructional	 management	 and	 reporting	         nology	 and	 distance	 education	 are	 used	
systems	                                           to	 supplement,	 not	 supplant,	 employees.	
    p.	 Time	 during	 the	 regular	 work	 day	     (1989,	2007)
and	work	year	for	education	employees	to	
plan,	 to	 engage	 in	 professional	 develop-      F-9. Salaries and Other
ment,	to	work	on	curriculum	and	assess-            Compensation
ment,	to	mentor	and	be	mentored,	and	to	               The	 National	 Education	 Association	
provide	professional	leadership	                   believes	that	salary	and	other	compensa-
    q.	 Salary	schedules	that	are	equitable,	      tion	 structures	 for	 education	 employees	
regardless	of	the	age	level	of	the	students	       are	 matters	 for	 collective	 bargaining.	
being	 taught,	 and	 are	 based	 upon	 prepa-      The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	 any	
ration,	 professional	 growth,	 and	 length	       proposed	 or	 legislated	 salary	 and	 other	
of	 service,	 and	 that	 exclude	 any	 form	 of	   compensation	structure	should	not	bypass	
merit	pay	except	in	institutions	of	higher	        or	 undermine	 the	 bargaining	 process	 or	
education	where	it	has	been	bargained	             negotiated	 agreements.	 The	 Association	
    r.	 Placement	and	advancement	on	the	          further	 believes	 that,	 in	 nonbargaining	
salary	 schedule	 based	 on	 qualifications	       jurisdictions,	 salary	 schedules	 should	 be	
and	number	of	years	of	experience	in	the	          incorporated	 into	 legislation,	 employer	
profession	                                        policy,	and/or	other	sources	that	establish	
    s.	 Extracurricular	 and	 extra-duty	 as-      the	 terms	 and	 conditions	 of	 employment	
signments	filled	on	a	voluntary	basis	and	         for	education	employees.	
compensated	at	no	less	than	the	employ-                The	 Association	 believes	 that	 salary	
ee’s	regular	rate	of	pay	                          schedules	should—	
    t.	 Protection	 from	 being	 required	 to	         a.	 Provide	for	entry-level	salaries	and	
participate	in	community	service	                  career	 earnings	 comparable	 to	 those	 of	
    u.	 Retirement	benefits	based	on	all	in-       other	 professions	 and	 occupations	 with	
come	derived	from	school	employment                similar	 preparation	 and	 responsibilities	
    v.	 Clearly	 defined	 bargaining	 unit	        and	 be	 structured	 to	 provide	 compen-
membership	                                        sation	 levels	 that	 encourage	 classroom	
    w.	 A	 guaranteed	 safe	 and	 healthy	         teachers	 to	 remain	 in	 the	 classroom	 and	


                                                                                            277
Resolutions

support	 professionals	 in	 the	 educational	          The	Association	also	believes	that	lo-
setting	                                           cal	 affiliates	 can	 best	 promote	 the	 eco-
    b.	 Be	based	on	preparation,	academic	         nomic	 welfare	 of	 all	 education	 employ-
degrees,	experience,	professional	growth,	         ees,	 regardless	 of	 source	 of	 funding,	 by	
responsibilities,	and	full	length	of	service	      following	the	salary	standards	developed	
    c.	 Assure	 that	 initial	 placement	 and	     at	the	state	and	national	levels.	
advancement	 on	 the	 salary	 schedule	 are	           The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
nondiscriminatory	                                 performance	pay	schedules,	such	as	merit	
    d.	 Provide	 additional	 compensation	         pay	or	any	other	system	of	compensation	
for	certification	from	the	National	Board	         based	 on	 an	 evaluation	 of	 an	 education	
for	Professional	Teaching	Standards                employee’s	 performance,	 are	 inappropri-
    e.	 Provide	and	maintain	structural	in-        ate.	
tegrity	through	the	use	of	an	index	or	per-            The	Association	believes	that	its	affili-
centage	 guide	 for	 experience	 increments	       ates	 should	 seek	 the	 repeal	 of	 laws	 lim-
and	levels	of	academic	preparation                 iting	 maximum	 salaries	 and	 benefits	 for	
    f.	 Assure	 that	 salary	 paid	 for	 sum-      education	employees.	
mer	 employment,	 continuing	 education	               The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
programs,	extended	contracts,	conducting	          there	should	be	no	limit	to	the	number	of	
employee	training	or	workshops,	and	ex-            years	of	experience	an	education	employ-
tra	duty	is	not	less	than	the	rate	for	regular	    ee	can	transfer.	
pay	                                                   The	Association	further	believes	that,	
    g.	 Assure	 that	 salaries	 paid	 in	 early	   if	school	districts	consolidate	or	separate,	
childhood,	 nontraditional,	 adult,	 and	 al-      education	employees	should	not	lose	their	
ternative	 programs	 are	 on	 par	 with	 sala-     tenure	or	have	their	salary,	benefits,	or	se-
ries	paid	in	traditional	programs	and	that	        niority	reduced.	(1969,	2002)
any	 personnel	 serving	 lower	 socioeco-
nomic	groups	not	be	paid	less	than	equiv-          F-10. Minimum Criteria for
alent	educational	professionals	providing	         Additional Compensation Beyond
similar	 service	 to	 higher	 socioeconomic	       the Single Salary Schedule
groups	                                                The	National	Education	Association	is	
    h.	 Define	 “salary	 increase’’	 to	 mean	     opposed	 to	 the	 use	 of	 merit	 pay	 or	 per-
the	 exact	 monetary	 differential	 between	       formance	pay	compensation	systems.	The	
the	 existing	 salary	 schedule	 and	 the	         Association	believes	that	any	system	that	
proposed	 salary	 schedule—exclusive	 of	          provides	additional	compensation	to	edu-
incremental	 adjustments—and	 all	 basic	          cation	employees	beyond	that	provided	by	
benefits.	                                         the	single	salary	schedule	should	meet	the	
    The	 Association	 opposes	 providing	          following	minimum	criteria:	
additional	compensation	to	attract	and/or	             a.	 The	 design	 of	 the	 system	 must	
retain	education	employees	in	hard-to-re-          be	 accomplished	 through	 the	 collective	
cruit	positions.	                                  bargaining	 process	 or	 in	 nonbargaining	


278
                                                                                     Resolutions

jurisdictions	 it	 should	 be	 incorporated	       fied	for	the	positions	that	they	hold.	(2001,	
into	 legislation,	 employer	 policy,	 and/or	     2007)
other	sources	that	establish	the	terms	and	
conditions	 of	 employment	 for	 education	    	   F-11. Benefits
employees.	                                           The	 National	 Education	 Association	
    b.	 Any	 additional	 compensation	 be-         believes	 that	 benefit	 structures	 should	
yond	a	single	salary	schedule	must	not	be	         be	subject	to	collective	bargaining	or,	in	
based	on	education	employee	evaluation,	           nonbargaining	jurisdictions,	incorporated	
student	performance,	or	attendance.                into	 legislation,	 employer	 policy,	 and/or	
    c.	 The	 criteria	 that	 are	 used	 to	 de-    other	sources	that	establish	the	terms	and	
termine	 whether	 education	 employees	            conditions	 of	 employment.	 The	 Associa-
receive	 the	 additional	 compensation	            tion	 also	 believes	 that	 all	 education	 em-
should	 be	 clearly	 stated	 and	 subject	 to	     ployees	should	be	eligible	for	benefits	that	
objective	 measurement.	 The	 system	 also	        include	but	are	not	limited	to—	
should	make	clear	how	those	criteria	re-              a.	 Comprehensive	insurance	programs	
late	 to	 the	 school	 district’s	 educational	            1.	 Health	
objectives.                                                2.	 Dental	
    d.	 The	 system	 should	 not	 directly	 or	            3.	 Vision	
indirectly	 limit	 the	 number	 of	 education	             4.	 Hearing	
employees	 who	 are	 eligible	 for	 the	 addi-             5.	 Life	
tional	 compensation.	 All	 education	 em-                 6.	 Legal	
ployees	 should	 be	 afforded	 a	 fair	 oppor-             7.	 Workers’	compensation	
tunity	to	meet	the	requisite	standards	and	                8.	 Long-term	 physical	 and	 mental	
should	 receive	 the	 additional	 compensa-        disability
tion	if	they	do.	The	compensation	system	                  9.	 Prescription	drug	
may	recognize	and	reward	the	additional	              b.	 Paid	leaves	
knowledge	and	skills	 that	education	 em-                  1.	 Sick	leave	with	unlimited	accu-
ployees	 have	 acquired	 or	 may	 acquire	         mulation	
over	their	careers.                                        2.	 Personal	 leave	 with	 unlimited	
    e.	 Full	 funding	 should	 be	 available	      accumulation	
to	 sustain	 the	 system.	 The	 allocation	 of	            3.	 Bereavement	leave	
funds	 to	 provide	 the	 additional	 compen-               4.	 Parental	leave,	including	adoption	
sation	should	not	prevent	increases	in	the	                5.	 Dependent	care	leave	
basic	compensation	for	all	education	em-                   6.	 Sabbatical	leave	
ployees.	                                                  7.	 Professional	leave	
    f.	 The	system	should	not	diminish	the	                8.	 Association	leave	
professional	status	of	those	education	em-                 9.	 Religious	leave	
ployees	who	do	not	receive	the	additional	            c.	 Additional	remuneration	
compensation	or	in	any	way	suggest	that	                   1.	 Severance	pay	
such	 education	 employees	 are	 not	 quali-               2.	 Tuition	reimbursement	


                                                                                             279
Resolutions

        3.	 Retirement	compensation	              F-12. Education Professionals
        4.	 Unemployment	compensation	            Outside the Traditional K–12
        5.	 Benefit	 extension	 for	 laid-off	    Schools
employees	                                           The	 National	 Education	 Association	
    d.	 Personal	assistance	                      recognizes	the	contributions	of	educators	
        1.	 Personal	assault	protection,	and	     who	work	with	students	in	school	settings	
in	the	event	of	assault,	counseling	services	     other	 than	 the	 traditional	 K–12	 schools.	
and	leave	that	is	not	subject	to	sick	or	per-     The	 Association	 believes	 that	 these	 edu-
sonal	leave	                                      cation	 professionals	 have	 the	 right	 to	
        2.	 Employee	assistance	program	          collective	 bargaining	 processes	 that	 are	
        3.	 Reimbursement	 for	 damages	 to	      comparable	 to	 their	 K–12	 counterparts.	
or	loss	of	personal	property	at	work	site	        The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	 these	
        4.	 Child	 care	 and	 pre-school	     	   employees	 are	 entitled	 to	 equitable	 con-
education                                         tract	language	that	offers	the	same	rights	
        5.	 An	opportunity	to	participate	in	     and	 protections	 as	 education	 employees	
a	 cafeteria-type	 plan	 or	 plan	 authorized	    within	 traditional	 K–12	 school	 settings.	
by	 Section	 125	 of	 the	 U.S.	 Federal	 Tax	    (2007)
Code.	
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	    F-13. Faculty Reward Structures in
education	 employees	 and	 their	 spouses,	       Higher Education
domestic	 partners,	 and/or	 dependents	              The	 National	 Education	 Association	
should	 have	 equal	 access	 to	 all	 benefits	   believes	 that	 the	 reward	 structure	 for	 an	
applicable	to	them.	                              institution	 of	 higher	 education	 should	
    The	 Association	 believes	 that	 com-        reflect	 the	 mission	 of	 the	 institution.	 An	
prehensive	insurance	programs	should	be	          institution	whose	mission	is	teaching	un-
provided	 for	 education	 employees	 on	 of-      dergraduate	students	should	reward	good	
ficial	leave	of	absence	or	parental	leave.	       teaching.	 An	 institution	 whose	 mission	
    The	Association	also	believes	that	pro-       is	 community	 outreach	 should	 reward	
visions	should	be	made	for	retirees,	their	       service.	 An	 institution	 whose	 mission	 is	
spouses,	 domestic	 partners,	 and/or	 de-        basic	 or	 applied	 research	 should	 reward	
pendents	at	their	option	to	continue	in	the	      good	 research.	 The	 proper	 balance	 be-
comprehensive	 health,	 dental,	 prescrip-        tween	 teaching,	 service,	 and	 research	 is	
tion	drug,	hearing,	and	vision	programs.	         contingent	 upon	 faculty	 and	 administra-
    The	Association	further	believes	that,	       tion	 agreement	 on	 the	 institutional	 mis-
if	school	districts	consolidate	or	separate,	     sion	of	the	particular	campus.	(1995)
education	employees	should	not	lose	their	
tenure	or	have	their	salary,	benefits,	or	se-     F-14. Economic Welfare
niority	reduced.	(1969,	2007)                         The	 National	 Education	 Association	
                                                  is	 opposed	 to	 imposition	 of	 any	 controls	
                                                  that	place	public	employees	in	an	inferior	


280
                                                                                       Resolutions

economic	position,	the	elimination	of	pro-         local	 education	 employees	 and	 that	 fed-
grams	that	guarantee	social	and	economic	          eral	 laws	 must	 provide	 similar	 protec-
justice	for	the	American	people,	and	any	          tion	 for	 education	 employees	 in	 federal	
program	 that	 increases	 unemployment.	           schools.	(1969,	2006)
(1979,	1986)
                                                   F-17. Reduction in Force
F-15. Constitutional and Civil                         The	 National	 Education	 Association	
Rights—Employment Protection                       believes	that	one	of	its	basic	responsibili-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association,	        ties	is	job	security	and	urges	its	affiliates	
recognizing	the	continuing	erosion	of	civ-         to	support	legislation	and/or	to	negotiate	
il	rights,	reaffirms	its	commitment	to	pro-        in	master	contracts	criteria	to	be	utilized	
tect	the	rights	of	all	education	employees.	       should	 reduction	 in	 force	 (RIF)	 occur.	
The	Association	believes	that	the	consti-          Criteria	should	include	seniority,	objectiv-
tutional	 rights	 guaranteed	 to	 all	 citizens	   ity,	nondiscrimination,	uniformity	of	ap-
shall	not	be	abridged	for	public	education	        plication,	and	affirmative	action.†	Should	
employees.	The	Association	also	believes	          RIF	become	necessary,	the	number	of	ad-
that	all	levels	of	government	should	moni-         ministrators,	 supervisors,	 and	 managers	
tor	and	enforce	fair	employment	practice	          should	be	reduced	at	least	in	proportion	to	
laws.	 The	 Association	 and	 its	 affiliates,	    the	number	of	other	education	employees	
working	with	federal,	state,	and	local	offi-       being	reduced.	Contracts	should	establish	
cials	and	agencies,	shall	work	to	promote	         recall	 procedures	 in	 which	 staff	 would	
enactment	 of	 and	 compliance	 with	 such	        be	recalled	in	the	reverse	order	in	which	
laws	 and	 seek	 to	 include	 these	 rights	 in	   they	 were	 laid	 off.	 Neighboring	 districts	
contractual	agreements.	(1991,	2006)               are	 encouraged	 to	 establish	 jointly	 such	
                                                   procedures	that	on	a	regional	basis	would	
F-16. Continuing Employment and                    provide	priority	hiring	of	laid-off	educa-
Fair Dismissal Practices                           tion	employees.	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	              The	Association	also	believes	that	lo-
believes	 that	 security	 of	 position	 must	      cal	affiliates	should—	
be	 provided	 for	 all	 education	 employees	          a.	 Negotiate	 reduction	 in	 force	 poli-
through	 appropriate	 employment	 poli-            cies	that	exclude	performance	evaluation	
cies,	including	fair	dismissal	procedures.	        from	consideration	in	the	RIF	process	
The	laws	and	master	contracts	governing	               b.	 Work	cooperatively	with	governing	
said	procedures	must	afford	all	education	         boards	and	community	leaders	to	assist	in	
employees,	 including	 probationary	 and	          rehiring,	relocating,	and/or	providing	al-
substitute	employees,	procedural	and	sub-          ternative	career	training	for	laid-off	edu-
stantive	due	process.	                             cation	employees	
   The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
state	laws	must	provide	for	the	continuing	        †
                                                    	See	the	Policy	Statement	on	Affirmative	Action	
employment	and/or	tenure	of	state	and/or	   	      adopted	by	the	1997	Representative	Assembly.



                                                                                                281
Resolutions

    c.	 Condemn	the	improper	use	of	RIF	           be	 immediately	 informed	 of	 the	 nature,	
to	eliminate	complete	areas	from	compre-           extent,	 and	 duration	 of	 the	 student’s	 re-
hensive	 educational	 and	 pupil	 personnel	       cord	of	violent	acts/disruptive	behaviors.	
programs.	                                         Before	 student	 placement,	 these	 employ-
    It	must	be	recognized	that	reduction	of	       ees	should	also	be	provided	with	teaching	
supportive	staff	and	special	staff	and	non-        strategies	 that	 may	 impact	 the	 student’s	
replacement	of	retiring	and	other	resign-          learning	 style	 and	 a	 plan	 for	 behavior	
ing	teachers	are	both	forms	of	reduction	          management	and	modification.	
in	force.	(1975,	1997)                                 The	 Association	 believes	 that	 when	
                                                   education	 employees	 are	 the	 victims	 of	
F-18. Mandated Training/Retraining                 physical	 attack,	 verbal	 abuse,	 theft,	 van-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	         dalism,	or	harassment	due	to	gender,	sex-
believes	 that	 when	 a	 federal,	 state,	 or	     ual	orientation	and	gender	identification,	
district	 mandate	 requires	 an	 education	        or	 other	 causes,	 they	 should	 receive	 the	
employee	 to	 meet	 new	 standards	 of	 em-        full	support	of	their	employer	in	pursuing	
ployability	and/or	to	be	retrained,	it	is	the	     legal	 and	 other	 remedies,	 as	 well	 as	 re-
responsibility	 of	 the	 mandating	 agency	        ceiving	reimbursement	for	their	personal	
to	 provide	 released	 time	 for	 training,	 to	   and	property	loss.	Time	lost	due	to	inju-
compensate	the	employee	at	the	employ-             ries	from	attacks	should	not	be	deducted	
ee’s	hourly	rate	of	pay,	and	to	provide	for	       from	accumulated	sick	leave.	
the	cost	of	tuition,	textbooks,	and	travel.	           The	Association	also	believes	that	ed-
(1988,	2005)                                       ucation	 employees	 and	 the	 local	 affiliate	
                                                   must	have	the	right	to	reflect	professional	
F-19. Protection of Education                      concerns	at	a	student	suspension	or	expul-
Employees                                          sion	hearing.	(1970,	2002)
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	
believes	 that	 education	 employees	 must	        F-20. Personnel Policies and
be	 safe	 in	 schools	 and	 that	 federal	 and	    Procedures
state	 legislation	 protecting	 all	 education	       The	 National	 Education	 Association	
employees	should	be	enacted.	The	Asso-             believes	 that	 personnel	 policies	 and	 pro-
ciation	also	believes	that	affiliates,	school	     cedures	should	be	written	and	developed	
districts	 and	 governing	 boards,	 law	 en-       cooperatively	by	local	affiliates	and	their	
forcement	 agencies,	 and	 courts	 should	         local	 boards	 of	 education	 or	 appropriate	
work	 cooperatively	 to	 ensure	 the	 strict	      governing	 bodies.	 The	 Association	 also	
enforcement	 of	 all	 laws	 within	 public	        believes	 in	 a	 cooperative	 review	 for	 im-
schools	and	educational	institutions.	             provement	 of	 the	 personnel	 policies	 and	
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	     procedures.	 Where	 it	 exists,	 improve-
all	 education	 employees	 working	 with	 a	       ments	will	be	made	through	the	negotia-
student	having	a	record	of	violent	behav-          tion	process.	(1969,	1999)
ior	 or	 severe	 behavior	 problems	 should	


282
                                                                                    Resolutions

F-21. Site-Based Decision-making                   reviewing	institutional	budgets;	and	mak-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	         ing	recommendations	on	financial	issues	
supports	 site-based	 decision-making	             that	impact	academic	programs.	
processes	 that	 are	 based	 on	 contractual/          Where	 appropriate,	 faculty	 and	 staff	
formal	agreements	between	districts	and	           should	participate	in	the	selection	and	eval-
local	 affiliates.	 The	 Association	 believes	    uation	process	and	determine	the	status	of	
that	the	scope	of	local	site-based	decision	       colleagues	 and	 administrators,	 especially	
making	 should	 be	 limited	 only	 by	 the	        appointments,	reappointments,	and	tenure.	
contractual/formal	agreement.	The	Asso-                The	 Association	 also	 believes	 it	 is	
ciation	also	believes	that	such	agreements	        the	primary	responsibility	of	faculty	and	
must	include	the	following	elements:	              staff,	where	appropriate,	to	establish	pro-
    a.	 Voluntary	 participation	 by	 local	       cedures	 relative	 to	 promotions,	 sabbati-
sites	                                             cals,	and	research	support.	
    b.	 A	 district-association	 structure	 for	       The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
processing	conflict	resolution	                    collective	 bargaining	 provides	 an	 ad-
    c.	 An	agreement	on	the	scope	of	deci-         ditional	 method	 of	 institutional	 gover-
sion-making	authority	available	to	sites	          nance.	Faculty	and	staff	should	determine	
    d.	 Decision-making	bodies	composed	           policies	 and	 procedures	 to	 govern	 sal-
of	 a	 majority	 of	 nonmanagement	 educa-         ary	structure,	pay	increases,	benefit	pro-
tion	employees	with	all	members	selected	          grams,	calendar,	and	working	conditions.	
by	the	constituency	represented	                   (1994,	2006)
    e.	 Compensated	 planning	 and	 train-
ing	time	for	staff	and	governance	bodies	          F-23. Job Sharing
as	well	as	additional	resources	necessary	            The	 National	 Education	 Association	
for	successful	implementation                      supports	 the	 concept	 of	 voluntary	 job	
    f.	 Compensation	and/or	released	time	         sharing	as	a	means	of	providing	a	flexible	
for	 participating	 staff	 members.	 (1990,	       employment	opportunity	to	help	meet	the	
1999)                                              varying	needs	of	education	employees.	The	
                                                   Association	believes	that	there	must	be	fair	
F-22. Faculty-Staff Governance in                  and	equitable	distribution	of	work	between	
Higher Education                                   both	job	sharers	in	terms	of	the	total	num-
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	          ber	of	hours	of	work	and	the	work	load.	
believes	 that	 faculty	 and	 staff	 in	 higher	      The	Association	asserts	that	job	shar-
education	 should	 participate	 in	 the	 gov-      ing	 conditions	 of	 work	 must	 be	 subject	
ernance	 of	 their	 educational	 institutions.	    to	collective	bargaining	and	that	they	re-
Higher	 education	 faculty	 should	 have	          quire	the	following	minimum	conditions	
primary	 responsibility	 for	 determining	         for	successful	implementation:	
curricula,	 methods	 of	 instruction,	 and	           a.	 Prorated	 application	 of	 the	 salary	
subject	matter;	establishing	requirements	         schedule	with	full	recognition	of	years	of	
for	 earning	 degrees	 and	 certificates;	     	   experience	


                                                                                            283
Resolutions

    b.	 An	equitable	share	of	all	benefits	         teacher,	and	should	have	a	written	job	de-
    c.	 An	agency	shop	provision	                   scription	defining	their	duties.	
    d.	 The	right	to	revert	to	full-time	status	       The	Association	opposes	the	use	of	ed-
    e.	 No	 loss	 of	 rights	 gained	 through	      ucation	support	professionals	to	increase	
tenure/seniority	                                   class	size.	(1969,1998)
    f.	 Equitable	 credit	 toward	 seniority/
retirement.	(1981,	2006)                            F-27. Summer School, Alternative
                                                    Calendars, Extended School Day/
F-24. Intern Programs                               Year, and Year-Round Schools
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	              The	 National	 Education	 Association	
believes	 that	 intern	 programs	 should	 be	       believes	that	local	affiliates	must	partici-
utilized	solely	for	the	development	of	pro-         pate	fully	in	the	design,	authorization,	im-
fessional	expertise	and	not	as	a	means	of	          plementation,	evaluation,	and	continuation	
reducing	budgets	and/or	supplanting	or	re-          of	 summer	 school,	 alternative	 calendars,	
ducing	the	number	of	education	employee	            extended	school	day/year,	and	year-round	
positions.	 The	 Association	 also	 believes	       school	programs.	Policies	governing	these	
that	interns	who	are	employed	by	school	            programs	must	take	into	consideration	the	
districts	 should	 be	 included	 in	 local	 bar-    impact	on	the	community	and	be	in	accor-
gaining	units.	(1977,	1999)                         dance	with	the	Association’s	principles	for	
                                                    professional	 salaries	 and	 class	 size.	 Em-
F-25. Student Workers in                            ployment	in	these	programs	must	be	on	a	
Educational Institutions                            voluntary	basis.	(1975,	1998)
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	
recognizes	 the	 importance	 of	 providing	         PROTECTION OF EDUCATION
employment	opportunities	for	students	in	           EMPLOYEES
educational	institutions.	The	Association	
deplores,	however,	the	practice	of	employ-          F-28. Education Employees Injured
ing	 students	 that	 results	 in	 the	 reduction	   on the Job
of	 the	 number	 of	 permanent	 education	              The	 National	 Education	 Association	
employees	or	positions.	(1992,	1998)                believes	that	the	legal	rights	of	education	
                                                    employees	injured	on	the	job	must	be	pro-
F-26. Education Support                             tected.	
Professionals in the Classroom                          The	 Association	 encourages	 its	 state	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	          affiliates	to	assist	members	injured	on	the	
believes	 that	 classroom	 teachers	 should	        job	so	that	those	members	have	access	to	
be	 provided	 with	 support	 staff	 to	 assist	     information	 regarding	 employment-re-
in	 the	 educational	 process.	 The	 educa-         lated	 injuries	 and	 so	 that	 state	 affiliates	
tion	 support	 professionals	 should	 assist	       may	protect	the	rights	of	those	members.	
the	 classroom	 teacher,	 not	 displace	 the	       (2000,	2007)



284
                                                                                    Resolutions

F-29. Unemployment/Disability                     provide	 continuing	evaluation	 and	 super-
Compensation                                      vision	 of	 these	 employees.	 The	 Associa-
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	         tion	insists	that	such	criminal	background	
supports	 the	 inclusion	 of	 education	 em-      checks	must	provide	that—	
ployees	 in	 unemployment	 and	 disability	          a.	 Information	 collected	 will	 not	 be	
compensation	legislation	at	the	state	and	        released	to	boards	of	education	in	a	form	
federal	levels.	(1972,	1986)                      other	than	a	statement	of	qualification	but	
                                                  be	 kept	 by	 the	 investigating	 state	 or	 na-
F-30. Subcontracting/Contracting Out              tional	agency	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	           b.	 Every	 employee	 or	 potential	 em-
believes	that	public	school	services	should	      ployee	has	a	right	to	due	process	and	ac-
be	performed	by	public	education	employ-          cess	to	records	
ees.	 The	 Association	 opposes,	 in	 public	        c.	 Clear,	specific,	observable,	and	ob-
school	 districts	 and	 educational	 institu-     jective	evidence	of	rehabilitation	for	past	
tions,	 subcontracting/contracting	 out	 ar-      offenses	is	included	
rangements	that—	                                    d.	 Any	 fee	 for	 background	 checks	
    a.	 Transfer	or	displace	education	em-        shall	not	be	borne	by	the	employee	or	po-
ployees	                                          tential	employee.	(1977,	2006)
    b.	 Replace	 full-time	 positions	 with	
temporary,	part-time	or	volunteer	workers	        F-31. Confidentiality of Employee
    c.	 Replace	services	that	are,	or	could	      Records
feasibly	be,	provided	by	public	education	            The	 National	 Education	 Association	
employees	                                        believes	 that	 all	 employee	 records	 are	
    d.	 Abrogate	 previously	 contracted	         privileged	 information	 and	 must	 remain	
benefits,	reduce	compensation,	deny	ben-          confidential.	 In	 order	 to	 maintain	 confi-
efits,	and/or	reduce	or	eliminate	accumu-         dentiality,	the	rights	of	education	employ-
lated	retirement	experience	and	benefits	         ees	must	include—	
    e.	 Have	not	been	agreed	to	by	the	af-            a.	 A	guarantee	that	only	one	person-
fected	affiliate.	                                nel	file	exists	
    Where	 subcontracting	 exists,	 the	 As-          b.	 Access	 to	 materials	 in	 personnel	
sociation	 believes	 that	 all	 personnel	 who	   files,	including	a	list	of	all	electronic	and	
are	employed	through	the	subcontractor	to	        hard	copy	records	maintained	by	an	edu-
work	in	the	school	district	or	educational	       cational	institution	
institution	 must	 meet	 the	 highest	 stan-          c.	 The	 authority	 to	 inspect,	 review,	
dards	of	accountability.	The	subcontractor	       and	 obtain	 copies	 of	 such	 records,	 ex-
must	conduct	background	checks	prior	to	          planations	and	interpretations	of	such	re-
allowing	employees	to	work	in	the	school	         cords,	and	a	record	of	past	access	
district	or	educational	institution	and	sub-          d.	 Written	 notification	 within	 10	
mit	validation	of	its	findings	to	the	school	     working	days	of	any	placement	of	materi-
district	or	educational	institution	and	must	     als	in	the	employee’s	personnel	file


                                                                                             285
Resolutions

     e.	 An	 opportunity	 to	 respond	 to	 and	     fingerprinting	 is	 acceptable	 only	 for	 the	
challenge	 any	 materials	 and	 purge	 those	       purpose	 of	 a	 pre-employment	 or	 pre-li-
that	 are	 inaccurate,	 misleading,	 and	       	   censure	 check	 for	 criminal	 records	 that	
distorted                                           are	 pertinent	 to	 education	 employment.	
     f.	 A	 provision	 to	 consent	 to	 or	 deny	   The	 Association	 opposes	 fingerprinting	
release	of	such	records,	including	the	right	       as	 a	 condition	 of	 continued	 employment	
to	receive	copies	of	released	materials.	           or	licensure.	The	Association	further	be-
     The	Association	also	believes	that	any	        lieves	that	all	costs	of	fingerprinting	must	
ancillary	 records,	 such	 as	 medical	 and	        be	 borne	 by	 the	 employer	 or	 licensing	
legal	records,	with	which	the	educational	          agency.	(1999,	2006)
institution	 may	 come	 in	 contact,	 are	 to	
be	 treated	 as	 privileged	 information	 and	      F-33. Privileged Communications
must	also	remain	confidential.	                        The	 National	 Education	 Association	
     The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	     believes	that	communications	between	all	
it	is	the	duty	of	the	educational	institution	      education	employees	and	students	must	be	
to	inform	employees	of	these	rights	and	to	         legally	 privileged.	 The	 Association	 also	
enforce	these	rights.	(1975,	2007)                  believes	 that	 communication	 between	
                                                    administrators	 and	 other	 education	 em-
F-32. Right to Privacy for Education                ployees	must	be	kept	private	without	the	
Employees                                           consent	of	the	affected	employee.	The	As-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	          sociation	urges	its	affiliates	to	aid	in	seek-
believes	 that	 education	 employees	 must	         ing	legislation	that	provides	this	privilege	
be	guaranteed	the	rights	of	privacy.	These	         and	 protects	 both	 education	 employees	
rights	must	include—	                               and	students.	(1974,	1996)
    a.	 Freedom	 from	 audio	 or	 video	 sur-
veillance	 without	 the	 prior	 written	 per-       F-34. Protection of Education
mission	of	the	individual	                          Employee Advocates
    b.	 Freedom	from	harassment	by	indi-               The	 National	 Education	 Association	
viduals,	organizations,	or	businesses	due	          believes	 that	 education	 employees	 have	
to	unauthorized	release	or	sale	of	employ-          the	right	to	organize	and	to	serve	as	advo-
ee	records                                          cates	 for	 education	 employees,	 students,	
    c.	 Protection	 from	 exploitation	 via	        and	 parents/guardians.	 The	 Association	
telephone	and	the	Internet                          also	 believes	 that	 every	 member	 has	 the	
    d.	 Security	 of	 computer	 files,	 pass-       right	 and	 obligation	 to	 participate	 in	 the	
words,	and	user	codes	from	inappropriate	           Association	without	fear,	intimidation,	or	
or	unauthorized	access	                             retribution.	
    e.	 Authority	to	refuse	a	polygraph,	lie	          The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
detector,	or	other	invasive	method	of	evi-          governing	 boards,	 administrators,	 and	
dence	collection.	                                  public	 officials	 must	 respect	 education	
    The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	         employees	 and	 their	 right	 to	 exercise	


286
                                                                                     Resolutions

constitutional	 guarantees	 and	 condemns	        protects	 the	 rights	 of	 all	 parties.	 (1989,	
those	who	attempt	to	fire,	demote,	trans-         1997)
fer,	 or	 give	 punitive	 assignments	 to	 edu-
cation	 employees	 for	 their	 leadership	 in	    F-36. Protection of Education
education	 employee	 organizations	 or	 for	      Employees from Harassment
questioning	 apparent	 violations	 of	 their	     Because of a Disability
terms	of	employment.	                                	        The	 National	 Education	 Asso-
    The	 Association	 believes	 that	 school	     ciation	believes	that	education	employees	
board	 policies	 should	 allow	 the	 provi-       should	be	protected	from	harassment	be-
sion	of	released	time	without	loss	of	pay	        cause	of	a	visible/invisible	disability.		The	
for	those	who	are	fulfilling	leadership	re-       Association	 encourages	 its	 affiliates	 to	
sponsibilities,	attending	meetings,	appear-       work	with	school	districts	and	institutions	
ing	in	court	in	their	roles	as	advocates,	or	     of	higher	learning	to—
participating	 in	 other	 Association	 activi-       a.	 Establish	 strong	 policies	 that	 en-
ties.	 The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that,	   sure	 compliance	 with	 all	 provisions	 of	
for	 conducting	 association	 business,	 its	     the	 Americans	 with	 Disabilities	 Act	 and	
affiliates	should	be	allowed	to	use	school	       provide	 all	 necessary	 accommodation	      	
property	without	censorship,	restraint,	or	       for	 full	 participation	 in	 all	 employment	
other	interference.	(1976,	2000)                  responsibilities
                                                     b.	 Develop	 educational	 programs	 to	
F-35. Protection of Education                     help	 individuals	 recognize,	 understand,	
Employees from Age Harassment                     prevent,	and	combat	harassment	because	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	        of	a	disability
believes	that	education	employees	should	            c.	 Develop	 and	 publicize	 a	 grievance	
be	protected	from	harassment	because	of	          procedure	that	encourages	the	reporting	of	
age.	 The	 Association	 encourages	 its	 af-      incidents	of	harassment	because	of	a	dis-
filiates	to	work	with	local	school	districts	     ability,	resolves	complaints	promptly,	and	
and	institutions	of	higher	education	to—	         protects	the	rights	of	all	parties.	(2005)
    a.	 Establish	strong	policies	that	grant	
those	 at	 or	 approaching	 retirement	 age	      F-37. Employee Rights Pending
freedom	in	their	options	to	continue	edu-         Court Action
cation	employment	or	to	retire	                       The	 National	 Education	 Association	
    b.	 Develop	 educational	 programs	 to	       believes	 that	 when	 criminal	 charges	 or	
help	 individuals	 recognize,	 understand,	       civil	 lawsuits	 are	 filed	 against	 an	 educa-
prevent,	and	combat	harassment	because	           tion	 employee,	 the	 right	 of	 due	 process	
of	age	                                           must	be	guaranteed.	If	an	employee	is	re-
    c.	 Develop	and	publicize	a	grievance	        moved	from	student	contact	or	suspended	
procedure	 that	 encourages	 the	 reporting	      from	a	position	due	to	pending	court	ac-
of	 incidents	 of	 harassment	 because	 of	       tion,	all	employment	rights	of	the	employ-
age,	 resolves	 complaints	 promptly,	 and	       ee	 shall	 remain	 in	 force,	 including	 full	


                                                                                              287
Resolutions

compensation	 and	 job	 security.	 Contract	         for	 the	 purpose	 of	 harassment	 of	 educa-
provisions	 should	 provide	 procedures	 to	         tion	employees.	
be	 followed	 until	 final	 disposition	 of	 the	        Physical	 and	 mental	 examinations	 of	
case.	(1984,	1999)                                   education	 employees	 should	 be	 required	
                                                     only	when	there	is	probable	cause.	Results	
F-38. Allegations Against Education                  of	 such	 examinations	 shall	 be	 subject	 to	
Employees                                            medical	confidentiality,	and	the	education	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	           employee	shall	be	informed	of	all	results.	
believes	 education	 employees	 should	 be	              The	 Association	 believes	 that	 health-
protected	from	allegations	of	child	abuse	           related	information	must	not	be	released	
made	in	bad	faith.	                                  without	 the	 written	 consent	 of	 the	 em-
    Any	 such	 allegation	 should	 be	 inves-        ployee.	The	employee	must	have	the	right	
tigated	 and	 resolved	 immediately.	 The	           to	examine	and,	if	needed,	correct	his/her	
name	of	the	employee	should	not	be	pub-              medical	records.	
licly	 revealed	 until	 and	 unless	 there	 is	 a	       The	Association	also	believes	that	the	
finding	of	guilt.	                                   cost	of	any	required	physical	or	mental	di-
    Counseling	from	an	outside	community	            agnostic	procedure	should	be	incurred	by	
agency	should	be	provided	for	any	educa-             the	 agency	 that	 requires	 such	 procedure	
tion	employee	accused	of	child	abuse,	with	          and	 that	 education	 employees	 should	 be	
emphasis	 upon	 the	 fact	 that	 such	 referral	     guaranteed	 the	 right	 to	 select	 their	 own	
does	not	presume	guilt.	Additional	coun-             physician.	(1977,	1995)
seling	should	be	available	for	the	innocent	
employee	after	the	case	is	decided.	                 F-40. Drug and Alcohol Testing
    The	Association	also	believes	in	proce-              The	 National	 Education	 Association	
dural	and	substantive	due	process	for	edu-           believes	in	a	drug-	and	alcohol-free	work-
cation	 employees	 accused	 of	 child	 abuse	        place.	However,	the	Association	believes	
including	 a	 mechanism	 whereby	 false	 or	         that	 mandatory	 and/or	 random	 drug	 and	
unfounded	 accusations	 can	 be	 expunged	           alcohol	testing	of	employees	and	job	ap-
from	all	records,	and	supports	restoration	          plicants	is	an	unwarranted	and	unconsti-
of	job	status	and	all	rights	and	benefits	to	        tutional	 invasion	 of	 privacy	 and	opposes	
education	employees	who	are	acquitted	of	            such	testing.	(1987,	1994)
child	abuse	charges.	The	Association	fur-
ther	believes	all	members	should	be	knowl-           F-41. HIV/AIDS Testing of Education
edgeable	 of	 current	 practices	 in	 dealing	       Employees
with	such	allegations.	(1989,	1996)                     The	 National	 Education	 Association	
                                                     opposes	 mandatory/involuntary	 human	
F-39. Health Examinations                            immunodeficiency	virus/acquired	immu-
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	            nodeficiency	syndrome	(HIV/AIDS)	test-
opposes	 the	 imposition	 of	 physical	 and	         ing	 of	 education	 employees	 or	 education	
mental	examinations	by	governing	boards	             employment	applicants.	(1987,	1993)


288
                                                                                     Resolutions

F-42. Employees with HIV/AIDS                      items	 of	 information	 such	 as	 number-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	         ing	 or	 labeling	 the	 names	 of	 each	 color.	
believes	 that	 education	 employees	 shall	       (2004,	2005)
not	be	fired,	nonrenewed,	suspended	(with	
or	without	pay),	transferred,	or	subjected	        F-46. Stress Management and
to	 any	 other	 adverse	 employment	 action	       Wellness Programs
solely	 because	 they	 have	 tested	 positive	         The	 National	 Education	 Association	
for	 the	 human	 immunodeficiency	 virus/          believes	 that	 adverse	 and	 stressful	 class-
acquired	 immunodeficiency	 syndrome	              room	 and	 school	 conditions	 have	 led	 to	
(HIV/AIDS)	antibody	or	have	been	diag-             increased	 emotional	 and	 physical	 dis-
nosed	as	having	HIV/AIDS.	(1987,	1993)             abilities	among	education	employees.	The	
                                                   Association	 supports	 stress	 management	
F-43. Hepatitis Vaccinations                       and	wellness	programs	that	facilitate	the	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	          recognition,	prevention,	and	treatment	of	
believes	 that	 governing	 boards	 should	         stress-related	 problems.	 Such	 programs	
provide	 free	 hepatitis	 vaccinations	 to	 all	   should	 ensure	 confidentiality	 and	 treat-
employees	 choosing	 to	 be	 or	 required	 to	     ment	without	personal	jeopardy.	
be	vaccinated.	(1995,	2002)                            The	Association	urges	that	the	harmful	
                                                   effects	 of	 stress	 on	 education	 employees	
F-44. Health Care Issues                           be	 recognized	 and	 demands	 procedures	
Awareness                                          that	will	ensure	confidentiality	and	treat-
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	          ment	without	personal	jeopardy.	
supports	 health	 care	 issues	 awareness	             The	Association	also	supports	employ-
programs	 designed	 to	 help	 those	 coping	       ee	assistance	programs	(EAPs)	as	a	volun-
with	 catastrophic	 illnesses.	 The	 Asso-         tary	resource	that	would	assist	education	
ciation	 also	 supports	 efforts	 to	 educate	     employees	 who	 are	 experiencing	 signifi-
students,	 education	 employees,	 and	 the	        cant	professional	or	personal	problems	by	
general	 public	 about	 such	 programs	 and	       providing	confidential,	professional	coun-
about	the	benefits	of	blood,	organ,	and	tis-       seling	leading	to	improved	health	and	job	
sue	donation.	(1995,	2002)                         effectiveness.	(1979,	1997)

F-45. Color Vision Deficient                       F-47. Medication and Medical
Employees                                          Services in Schools
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	            The	 National	 Education	 Association	
believes	that	the	needs	of	all	employees,	         believes	 that	 procedures	 should	 be	 es-
including	 color	 vision	 deficient	 employ-       tablished	for	students	who	must	use	pre-
ees,	must	be	met.		All	educational	materi-         scribed	 medication	 or	 who	 need	 other	
als	 that	 use	 color	 coding	 for	 referencing	   medical	 services	 during	 school	 hours.	
information	 should	 be	 accompanied	 by	          The	Association	also	believes	established	
an	 alternate	 method	 of	 identifying	 these	     procedures	should	provide	that—	


                                                                                              289
Resolutions

    a.	 Only	licensed	medical	personnel	be	          that	provides	licensure/certification,	inclu-
required	to	administer	such	medication	or	           sion	 in	 collective	 bargaining	 agreements,	
perform	such	medical	services                        and	achievement	of	an	appropriate	school	
    b.	 A	physician’s	written	verification	of	       nurse-to-student	ratio.	Each	site	must	have	
the	 student’s	 need	 for	 medication	 or	 ser-      at	least	one	school	nurse	to	every	750	stu-
vices	be	required	                                   dents,	 with	 appropriate	 adjustments	 to	
    c.	 Written	 permission	 of	 the	 parent/        safely	accommodate	students	with	special	
guardian	be	required	                                health	needs	and	chronic	illnesses.	
    d.	 The	 initial	 dosage	 of	 medication	            The	 Association	 believes	 that	 profes-
not	be	given	in	the	school	except	in	life-           sional	 development	 programs	 should	 be	
threatening	 situations.	 Initial	 dosage	 is	       available	 to	 all	 licensed/certified	 school	
the	 first	 dosage	 administered	 from	 the	         nurses	to	augment	their	skills	in	delivering	
prescription	                                        health	 care	 services	 and	 in	 dealing	 with	
    e.	 Each	medication	given	be	recorded	           students	with	disabilities.	(1980,	2006)
on	 a	 medication	 log	 that	 includes	 date,	
time,	 and	 signature	 of	 the	 person	 giving	      F-49. Save Harmless/Education
the	medication	                                      Employee Liability
    f.	 Medication	be	delivered	in	and	dis-              The	 National	 Education	 Association	
pensed	from	a	container	properly	labeled	            believes	 that	 educational	 institutions	
with	the	name	and	strength	of	medication,	           should—	
name	of	patient,	name	of	physician,	date	                a.	 Provide	 legal	 liability	 protection	
of	 the	 original	 prescription,	 and	 direc-        for	education	employees	when	their	duties	
tions	for	use	                                       include	physical	assistance	to	students	
    g.	 Proper	 storage	 for	 the	 medication	           b.	 Pay	all	costs—including	attorneys’	
be	available.	                                       fees,	 expenses,	 and	 damages—incurred	
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	       by	employees	and	other	agents	in	defend-
education	employees	who	are	not	licensed	            ing	any	civil	action	arising	out	of	acts	or	
medical	 personnel	 should	 be	 protected	           omissions	 occurring	 during	 the	 perfor-
from	 all	 liability	 if	 they	 are	 required	 to	   mance	of	their	duties	
administer	 medication	 or	 perform	 medi-               c.	 Reimburse	 employees	 and	 other	
cal	services.	The	Association	believes	that	         agents	for	all	costs	incurred	in	defending	
such	education	employees	should	have	the	            any	criminal	action	arising	out	of	acts	or	
right	 to	 refuse	 to	 administer	 medication	       omissions	 occurring	 during	 the	 perfor-
or	perform	medical	services	without	fear	            mance	of	their	duties,	provided	that	said	
of	repercussion.	(1977,	2002)                        action	terminates	in	favor	of	the	accused.	
                                                         The	 Association	 recommends	 that	
F-48. School Nurses                                  educational	 institutions	 attempt	 to	 se-
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	            cure	appropriate	insurance	to	provide	the	
urges	its	affiliates	to	enroll	school	nurses	in	     aforesaid	 payment	 and	 reimbursement.	
active	membership	and	to	seek	legislation	           (1976,	2001)


290
                                                                                       Resolutions

F-50. Protection of Individuals in                  F-51. Transportation Liability
Clinical Practice Programs                          Insurance
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	              The	 National	 Education	 Association	
believes	 that	 individuals	 participating	 in	     urges	 its	 affiliates	 to	 seek	 the	 enactment	
clinical	practice	programs	should	be	pro-           of	 state	 and	 local	 legislation	 that	 would	
vided	 with	 legal	 status	 and	 liability	 pro-    require	 school	 systems	 and	 educational	
tection	by	the	appropriate	teacher	prepa-           institutions	 to	 provide	 and	 to	 incur	 the	
ration	institution.	                                expense	 of	 transportation	 liability	 insur-
    The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	         ance	for	education	employees	who	are	re-
higher	education	institutions	and	cooper-           quested	or	required	to	transport	students	
ating	 school	 districts	 should	 supply	 any	      by	 private	 vehicle	 for	 any	 school-related	
and	 all	 instructional	 materials	 that	 stu-      function.	(1978,	1995)
dent	 teachers	 would	 require	 during	 their	
student	teaching	terms.	Students	who	are	           F-52. Part-Time or Temporary
implicitly	 or	 explicitly	 discouraged	 from	      Education Employees
outside	employment	during	their	clinical	               The	National	Education	Association	be-
practice	 experiences	 should	 be	 provided	        lieves	that	the	increased	use	and/or	abuse	
financial	 assistance	 or	 tuition	 waivers	    	   of	part-time	education	employees	threatens	
by	 the	 appropriate	 teacher	 preparation	     	   the	academic	integrity	of	the	institution.	
institution.	                                           The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
    The	Association	 encourages	 its	affili-        part-time	 education	 employees	 should	
ates	to	work	with	school	districts	and	other	       be	 employed	 only	 when	 an	 educational	
appropriate	bodies	to	formulate	standards	          program	 requires	 specialized	 training	 or	
for	 clinical	 practice	 programs.	 Supervis-       expertise	 not	 available	 among	 full-time	
ing	 or	 cooperating	 teachers	 in	 a	 clinical	    education	 employees	 and	 when	 the	 need	
practice	 program	 should	 have	 reduced	           for	 such	 training	 and	 expertise	 warrants	
teaching	 loads	 and	 be	 given	 a	 minimum	        less	than	full-time	employment.	
established	compensation.	Acceptance	of	                The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
student	 teachers,	 interns,	 or	 residents	 by	    part-time	 education	 employees	 should	
pre-K	through	adult	education	classroom	            receive	 the	 same	 salary	 and	 benefits	 as	
practitioners	should	be	voluntary.	                 full-time	 education	 employees	 at	 least	
    The	recommendation	of	the	supervis-             prorated	 according	 to	 workload.	 Part-
ing	 or	 cooperating	 classroom	 teachers	          time	 education	 employees	 should	 have	
in	 such	 a	 program	 shall	 weigh	 heavily	        the	 same	 opportunities	 to	 participate	 in	
in	 the	 final	 decision	 regarding	 readiness	     collective	bargaining,	training,	service	on	
to	enter	the	teaching	profession.	Teacher	          committees,	and	setting	the	academic	di-
preparation	 programs	 should	 offer	 alter-        rection	of	the	educational	institution.	
native	placements	for	individuals	in	those	             The	 Association	 deplores	 the	 prac-
programs	in	the	event	of	a	strike	or	other	         tice	of	employing	part-time	or	temporary	    	
work	stoppage.	(1970,	1999)                         employees	 for	 the	 purpose	 of	 reducing	


                                                                                                291
Resolutions

institutional	 budgets,	 reducing	 the	 num-       critical	 role	 of	 substitute	 teachers.	 The	
ber	 of	 full-time	 education	 employee	 po-       Association	 also	 believes	 that	 substitute	
sitions,	 or	 avoiding	 the	 maintenance	 of	      teachers	 perform	 a	 vital	 function	 in	 the	
an	increase	in	the	number	of	tenure	track	         maintenance	and	continuity	of	daily	edu-
positions.	(1976,	1999)                            cation.	
                                                       In	 order	 to	 achieve	 and	 maintain	 the	
F-53. Volunteers in Public Schools                 highest	standards	of	student	learning	and	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	         professional	practice,	and	to	ensure	qual-
believes	that	parents/guardians	and	other	         ity	 instruction	 in	 every	 classroom	 every	
community	 volunteers	 have	 a	 valuable	          day,	the	Association	further	believes	that	
role	to	play	within	the	public	schools.	The	       substitute	teachers	must—	
proper	 use	 of	 volunteers	 is	 essential	 for	       a.	 Meet	 the	 same	 standards	 as	 other	
the	 preservation	 of	 quality	 educational	       licensed	teachers	within	the	state	
programs	for	children.	Volunteers	should	              b.	 Receive	professional	compensation	
be	 appropriately	 screened	 and	 trained,	        and	benefits	
as	 determined	 by	 the	 needs	 of	 the	 local	        c.	 Receive	 continuous	 professional	
school	 system	 and	 by	 state	 statutes.	 The	    development	
screening	should	be	for	the	sole	purpose	              d.	 Be	provided	with	materials	and	in-
of	 eliminating	 volunteers	 who	 are	 con-        formation	 appropriate	 to	 the	 position	 in	
victed	 felons,	 child	 abusers,	 or	 sex	 of-     which	they	are	substituting,	including	any	
fenders.	Training	should	include,	but	not	         special	needs	of	the	students.
be	limited	to,	the	development	of	age-ap-              e.	 Be	entitled	to	representation	and/or	
propriate	 activities	 and	 sensitivity	 to	 di-   support	by	state	and	national	affiliates	in	
versity	issues.	                                   collective	bargaining.	
    The	Association	deplores	the	practice	             The	Association	condemns	the	practice	
of	 using	 volunteer	 workers	 for	 the	 pur-      of	assigning	substitute	teachers	to	regular	
poses	of	reducing	instructional	budgets	or	        positions	for	an	extended	duration	of	time.	
the	number	of	full-	or	part-time	education	        Positions	 created	 by	 extended	 absence	
employee	positions	within	a	local	school	          should	 be	 filled	 by	 available	 licensed	
system.	                                           teachers	who	are	eligible	to	be	placed	on	
    The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	        contractual	status	by	the	school	district.	
education	 employees	 should	 be	 involved	            The	 Association	 opposes	 the	 practice	
in	the	decision-making	process	regarding	          of	replacing	absent	teachers	by	dispersing	
the	 utilization	 of	 volunteers	 within	 local	   students	 to	 other	 classrooms.	 The	 Asso-
school	systems.	(1998,	2000)                       ciation	also	opposes	the	use	of	individuals	
                                                   such	 as	 education	 support	 professionals,	
F-54. Substitute Teachers                          part-time	employees,	or	employees	hired	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	          through	private	agencies	to	cover	classes.	
believes	 in	 the	 importance	 of	 employ-         The	 Association	 further	 opposes	 requir-
ing	 professional	 educators	 to	 fulfill	 the	    ing	 teachers	 to	 substitute	 during	 their	


292
                                                                                     Resolutions

preparation	time,	or	in	place	of	their	regu-       the	service	person’s	compensation	so	his/
lar	teaching	assignment.	                          her	 family	 does	 not	 experience	 a	 loss	 of	
    The	 Association	 believes	 that	 school	      revenue	or	benefits.	(1975,	2005)
districts	 must	 provide	 full	 compensation	
for	 licensed	 teachers	 who	 substitute	 for	     F-57. Employment in Federal
personnel	on	extended	leave.	(1975,	2007)          Schools
                                                       The	 National	 Education	 Association	
F-55. Substitute Education Support                 believes	 that	 the	 federal	 schools	 should	
Professionals                                      adopt	 employment	 practices	 consistent	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	         with	federal	legislation	and	with	the	As-
recognizes	 the	 importance	 of	 substitute	       sociation’s	established	policies.	
education	 support	 professionals	 in	 the	            The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
maintenance	 and	 continuity	 of	 daily	 op-       equal	 rights,	 benefits,	 and	 entitlements	
erations.	The	Association	believes	that	an	        should	 be	 accorded	 to	 all	 education	 em-
education	 support	 substitute	 must	 meet	        ployees	 who	 are	 employed	 in	 federal	
the	 same	 standards	 as	 the	 employee	 for	      schools.	
whom	he/she	substitutes.	                              The	Association	urges	governing	bod-
    The	Association	supports	the	right	of	         ies	 of	 federal	 schools	 to	 develop	 poli-
substitute	employees	to	organize	for	col-          cies	 that	 ensure	 a	 minimum	 of	 120	 days	
lective	 bargaining	 purposes.	 The	 Asso-         notification	 of	 military	 installation	 and	
ciation	also	supports	the	practice	of	pro-         federal	 school	 closures.	 The	 Associa-
viding	schedule	pay	plus	basic	and	fringe	         tion	also	urges	that	personnel	affected	by	
benefits	for	education	support	profession-         these	closures	be	provided	support	by	the	
als	 substituting	 for	 permanent	 education	      employer	 during	 this	 transition	 period.	
support	 professionals	 on	 extended	 leave.	      (1971,	1999)
(1992)
                                                   F-58. Education in Correctional and
F-56. Education Employees and                      Rehabilitation Agencies
Active Duty Service                                   The	 National	 Education	 Association	
   The	 National	 Education	 Associa-              believes	 that	 legislative	 and	 professional	
tion	believes	that	an	education	employee	          support	should	be	given	to	members	who	
whose	 career	 is	 interrupted	 by	 a	 call	 to	   teach	 in	 federal,	 state,	 and	 local	 correc-
active	duty	service	by	the	National	Guard	         tional	and	rehabilitation	institutions,	hos-
or	the	reserves	 should	be	guaranteed	re-          pitals,	 and	 other	 custodial	 agencies.	 The	
employment	 and	 all	 benefits	 that	 would	       Association	supports	improving	the	stan-
accrue	if	the	employee	had	continued	in	a	         dards	of	instruction	in	these	institutions,	
position	with	the	school	system.                   which	 includes	 providing	 appropriately	
   The	Association	also	believes	that	the	         certified	education	professionals	to	carry	
federal	government,	upon	calling	an	edu-           out	plans	for	students	with	individualized	
cator	 to	 active	 duty,	 should	 supplement	      education	programs	(IEPs)	or	504	plans.	


                                                                                              293
Resolutions

    The	Association	also	believes	that	the	      employee	contribution.
rights	 of	 individuals	 who	 are	 protected	        d.	 Credit	 for	 all	 wages	 and	 salary	
under	 the	 provisions	 of	 the	 Individu-       must	be	included	in	all	retirement	benefit	
als	 with	 Disabilities	 Education	 Act	 and	    calculations.
Americans	with	Disabilities	Act	must	be	             The	 Association	 further	 believes	 re-
preserved.	(1973,	2007)                          tirement	 benefits	 should,	 at	 a	 minimum,	
                                                 include:
RETIREMENT/SOCIAL SECURITY                           a.	 Full	vesting	in	no	more	than	5	years
                                                     b.	 An	initial	benefit	constituting	a	re-
F-59. Retirement                                 placement	income	of	50	percent	of	the	sin-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	       gle	highest	year’s	salary	from	all	sources	
believes	that	the	retirement	security	of	all	    after	 20	 years	 of	 creditable	 service	 and	 	
pre-K	through	12	members	of	retirement	          75	 percent	 after	 30	 years	 of	 creditable	
systems	can	be	assured	only	by	participa-        service;	 this	 benefit	 calculation	 equates	
tion	in	a	state	or	local	retirement	system	      to	 a	 basic	 benefit	 formula	 multiplier	 of	 	
with	 a	 guaranteed	 and	 adequate	 defined	     2.5	 percent	 for	 all	 creditable	 years	 of	  	
benefit	 retirement	 plan.	 Such	 plans	 must	   service
be	 funded	 in	 a	 manner	 that	 assures	 the	       c.	 Benefits	based	upon	unisex	mortal-
long-term	stability	of	the	plan.	For	pre-K	      ity	tables
through	 12	 members	 of	 retirement	 sys-           d.	 Automatic	 pre-funded	 full	cost-of-
tems,	defined	contribution	provisions	are	       living	 pension	 increases	 for	 retirees	 and	
appropriate	 only	 where	 they	 supplement	      beneficiaries
adequate	defined	benefit	provisions.                 e.	 Normal	 retirement	 eligibility	 with	
    The	Association	also	believes	that	pen-      25	creditable	years	of	service	or	at	age	55	
sion	funding	should	include	the	following	       if	fully	vested
principles:                                          f.	 No	 provisions	 in	 core	 plans	 to	 re-
    a.	 When	 actuarial	 liabilities	 exceed	    duce	benefits	because	of	the	existence	of	
actuarial	assets,	the	state	and/or	employer	     any	 annuity	 or	 retirement	 benefit	 source	
must	make	the	necessary	additional	con-          including	 Social	 Security;	 supplemental	
tributions	 to	 amortize	 the	 unfunded	 li-     retirement	 plans	 designed	 to	 provide	 a	
ability	in	no	more	than	30	years.                leveling	 benefit	 must	 assure	 a	 level	 life-
    b.	 When	actuarial	assets	exceed	actu-       time	 replacement	 income	 that	 signifi-
arial	liabilities,	the	state	and/or	employer	    cantly	 augments	 existing	 benefits	 of	 all	
should	not	reduce	the	rate	of	contributions	     members	over	time
below	the	normal	cost	of	the	plan.                   g.	 Benefits	 that	 comply	 with	 nondis-
    c.	 Employee	 contributions,	 if	 any,	      criminatory	 Internal	 Revenue	 Service	
should	be	made	on	a	pre-tax	basis	and	be	        rules	and	regulations
a	percentage	of	total	salary	not	to	exceed	          h.	 Joint	 survivor	 benefits	 should	 be	
the	 amount	 contributed	 by	 employers.	        equally	available	for	spouses	and	domes-
The	employer	may	pay	part	or	all	of	the	         tic	partners;	joint	survivor	benefits	for	any	


294
                                                                                       Resolutions

other	 person	 should	 be	 available	 based	             o.	 Disability	 retirement	 for	 a	 ser-
upon	IRS	guidelines                                  vice-connected	 disability	 available	 to	
    i.	 Disability	 or	 death	 benefits	 that	       education	 employees	 from	 the	 first	 day	
should	 be	 equally	 available	 for	 spouses,	       of	 employment;	 nonservice	 connected	
dependants,	and	domestic	partners                    disability	 retirement	 shall	 be	 available	
    j.	 Provisions	that	define	a	full	year	of	       for	fully	vested	members;	the	benefit	for-
creditable	service	based	upon	working	80	            mula	for	disability	retirement	should	yield	
percent	or	more	of	the	contract	year	or	80	          benefits	comparable	to	normal	retirement	
percent	or	more	of	the	hours	constituting	           benefits
a	 full	 year;	 partial	 year	 credit	 should	 be	       p.	 Provisions	for	any	tax-sheltered	an-
earned	 on	 a	 pro-rated	 basis	 for	 any	 ser-      nuity	 and	 deferred	 compensation	 plans	
vice	 less	 than	 the	 minimum	 required	 to	        that	have	actuarial	tables	that	do	not	dis-
obtain	a	full	year	of	creditable	service	            criminate	on	the	basis	of	race,	gender,	or	
    k.	 Provisions	for	the	option	of	allowing	       national	origin
unused	sick	leave	and	other	end	of	service	              q.	 Provisions	 for	 health	 benefits	 for	
payments	to	be	used	for	retirement	credit            retirees,	their	spouses,	domestic	partners,	
    l.	 Provisions	permitting	the	purchase	          and/or	 dependents	 that	 include	 a	 fully	
of	service	credit	earned	while	a	member	             paid	comprehensive	health	insurance	plan	
of	 another	 retirement	 system	 including	          regardless	 of	 Medicare	 eligibility;	 these	
any	 other	 public	 school	 district,	 Depart-       benefits	should	be	at	least	equal	to	those	
ment	 of	 Defense	 Education	 Activity	              offered	to	full-time	employees;	those	eli-
(DoDEA)	 schools	 or	 while	 in	 the	 Peace	         gible	for	Medicare	should	be	covered	by	a	
Corps,	Volunteers	in	Service	to	America	             fully	 paid	 comprehensive	 Medicare	 sup-
(VISTA),	or	military	service                         plement	insurance	benefit	that	along	with	
    m.	Provisions	permitting	the	purchase	           Medicare	equals	the	benefits	provided	to	
of	service	credit	for	sabbatical	leaves,	ma-         full-time	employees.	
ternity/paternity/adoption	 leaves	 where	               The	 Association	 believes	 boards	 of	
credit	 is	 not	 automatically	 given,	 and	         trustees	should:	
any	 other	 approved	 leaves	 of	 absence;	              a.	 Consist	of	active	members	who	are	
members	 affected	 by	 any	 forced	 leave	           all	elected	by	and	from	their	plan’s	active	
provisions	or	separation	of	service	provi-           membership	 and	 retired	 members	 who	
sions	that	are	unlawful	under	current	law	           are	 all	 elected	 by	 and	 from	 their	 plan’s	
should	 be	 permitted	 to	 purchase	 service	        retired	 membership;	 the	 total	 number	 of	
credit	for	those	periods	of	leave	or	separa-         active	and	retired	member	trustees	should	
tions	at	any	time	prior	to	retirement	at	the	        constitute	a	majority	of	the	board
lowest	plan	rate                                         b.	 Administer	the	plan	for	the	exclusive	
    n.	 Provisions	 for,	 upon	 termination	         benefit	of	the	beneficiaries	of	the	system
of	 employment,	 the	 portability	 to	 other	            c.	 Have	the	duty	and	authority	to	over-
qualified	 pension	 plans	 of	 the	 full	 actu-      see	the	administration	of	both	benefits	and	
arial	value	of	retirement	credits	earned	            investments


                                                                                                295
Resolutions

    d.	 Subject	to	their	fiduciary	responsi-          d.	 Benefits	 paid	 should	 not	 be	 offset	
bilities,	have	all	the	powers	necessary	to	        due	 to	 eligibility	 in	 multiple	 retirement	
ensure	their	independence	from	the	plan	           programs.	(1969,	2007)
sponsor,	 including	 the	 power	 to	 obtain	
by	 employment	 or	 contract	 the	 services	       F-60. Investment of Retirement
necessary	to	exercise	the	trustees’	powers	        System Assets and Protection of
and	 perform	 the	 trustees’	 duties,	 includ-     Earned Benefits
ing	 actuarial,	 auditing,	 custodial,	 invest-       The	 National	 Education	 Association	
ment,	and	legal	services                           believes	that	retirement	system	assets	can	
    e.	 Undertake	 periodic	 independent	          be	invested	in	any	type	of	investment	that	
actuarial	reviews	and	audits                       plays	an	appropriate	role	in	achieving	risk	
    f.	 Distribute	an	annual	financial	state-      and	return	objectives	reasonably	suited	to	
ment	to	all	members                                the	retirement	program.	In	the	investment	
    g.	 Use	actuarial	and	investment	poli-         and	 management	 of	 retirement	 systems	
cies	with	the	highest	level	of	fiscal	integ-       assets,	 and	 in	 a	 manner	 consistent	 with	
rity                                               their	fiduciary	responsibilities	and	all	ap-
    h.	 Ensure	 that	 counseling,	 education,	     plicable	federal,	state,	and	local	statutes,	
and	services	are	available	to	all	active	and	      trustees	 should,	 among	 other	 circum-
retired	members                                    stances,	consider—	
    i.	 Recognize	that,	in	their	role	as	fidu-        a.	 General	economic	conditions	
ciaries,	 they	 can	 identify	 and	 participate	      b.	 The	 possible	 effect	 of	 inflation	 or	
in	appropriate	educational	programs	and	           deflation	
initiatives	 in	 order	 to	 acquire/maintain	         c.	 The	 role	 that	 each	 investment	 or	
skills	 and	 expertise;	 these	 educational	       course	 of	 action	 plays	 within	 the	 overall	
programs	 should	 be	 internally	 funded	          portfolio	of	the	retirement	program
and	managed	exclusively	by	the	board	of	              d.	 The	expected	total	return	from	in-
trustees                                           come	and	appreciation	of	capital	
    j.	 Protect	the	systems’	stability	by	op-         e.	 Needs	 for	 liquidity,	 regularity	 of	
posing	any	actions	that	impair	or	jeopar-          income,	and	preservation	or	appreciation	
dize	the	guaranteed	rights	of	plan	partici-        of	capital	
pants’	benefits.                                      f.	 The	 adequacy	 of	 funding	 for	 de-
    The	Association	also	believes:                 fined	 benefit	 plans	 based	 on	 reasonable	
    a.	 Contributions	 made	 by	 employees	        actuarial	factors	
to	the	pension	plan	should	be	federal	tax	            g.	 Protection	 of	 the	 long-term	 em-
deferred	and	not	subject	to	FICA	taxes             ployment	 interests	 and	 opportunities	 of	
    b.	 Contributions	 made	 by	 employers	        participants	in	the	plan	
to	the	pension	plan	should	not	be	subject	            h.	 Opposition	 to	 investments	 in	 cor-
to	FICA	taxes                                      porations	whose	policies	or	expenditures	
    c.	 Benefits	paid	should	not	be	subject	       of	funds	undermine	child	welfare	and/or	
to	any	state’s	income	tax                          public	education,	when	other	investments	


296
                                                                                       Resolutions

provide	 equivalent	 benefits	 to	 retirement	      beneficiaries	 of	 those	 systems.	 Expendi-
system	members.	                                    tures	from	a	system	trust	fund	should	only	
    Boards	 of	 trustees	 charged	 with	 the	       be	made	for	the	benefit	of	trust	beneficia-
authority	to	invest	and	manage	the	assets	          ries	 and	 for	 the	 reasonable	 expenses	 of	
of	 public	 employee	 retirement	 systems	          administering	the	system.	All	retirement	
should	 adopt	 a	 statement	 of	 investment	        benefits	 earned	 by	 education	 employees	
objectives	 and	 policies	 for	 each	 retire-       should,	under	the	law,	be	payable	to	such	
ment	program	that	include—	                         employees.	 Existing	 retirement	 benefits	
    a.	 The	desired	rate	of	return	on	assets	       should	 be	 maintained	 or	 improved.	 No	
overall	                                            person	 participating	 in	 a	 retirement	 sys-
    b.	 The	 desired	 rate	 of	 return	 and	 ac-    tem	should	be	required	to	accept	any	re-
ceptable	levels	of	risk	for	each	asset	class	       duction	in	benefits	below	those	in	force	at	
    c.	 Asset	allocation	goals	                     any	 time	 during	 the	 period	 of	 member-
    d.	 Guidelines	for	the	delegation	of	au-        ship.	The	retirement	benefits	are	earned,	
thority	                                            and	therefore,	inviolate.	
    e.	 Information	on	the	types	of	reports	            The	Association	is	aware	of	incursions	
to	be	used	to	evaluate	performance.	                on	 retirement	 system	 assets	 by	 state	 and	
    The	Association	also	believes	that	the	         municipal	 governments.	 Such	 incursions	
boards	of	trustees	of	education	employee	           involve	 either	 a	 misuse	 of	 assets	 or	 the	
retirement	 systems	 should	 make	 every	           failure	 to	 appropriate	 required	 funds	 to	
effort,	consistent	with	their	fiduciary	ob-         the	 system.	 Both	 practices	 result	 in	 in-
ligations,	 to	 participate	 in	 the	 decision-     creasing	accrued	liabilities,	which	reduc-
making	process	of	corporations	in	which	            es	 the	 financial	 soundness	 of	 the	 system	
the	 systems	 hold	 stock	 by	 casting	 stock-      and	jeopardizes	the	security	of	education	
holder	 votes	 that	 benefit	 the	 interests	 of	   employee	retirement	benefits.	Retirement	
the	 participants	 and	 beneficiaries	 of	 the	     systems	can	best	be	protected	by	the	pas-
retirement	systems	and	those	of	the	unit-           sage	 of	 state	 constitutional	 protections	
ed	education	profession	and	by	electing	to	         against	any	diminution	of	plan	assets	that	
corporate	 boards	 members	 and/or	 repre-          is	not	in	the	sole	interest	of	plan	partici-
sentatives	 who	 support	 public	 education.	       pants	 and	 beneficiaries	 or,	 absent	 such	
The	Association	further	believes	that	the	          constitutional	 safeguards,	 by	 at	 least	 the	
boards	of	trustees	of	public	employee	re-           passage	of	federal	and/or	state	legislation	
tirement	systems	should	coordinate	their	           that	 provides	 for	 protections	 against	 any	
voting	in	companies	in	which	they	have	a	           diminution	 of	 plan	 assets	 that	 is	 not	 in	
mutual	interest.	                                                                                   	
                                                    the	 sole	 interest	 of	 plan	 participants	 and	
    The	 Association	 believes	 that	 the	 as-      beneficiaries.	
sets	of	retirement	systems	in	which	public	             The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
education	 employees	 participate	 should	          a	 retirement	 system	 should	 be	 exempt	
be	managed	and	invested	for	the	sole	and	           from	federal	regulations	when	its	plan	is	
exclusive	 benefit	 of	 the	 participants	 and	     in	 compliance	 with	 minimal	 standards	       	


                                                                                                297
Resolutions

prescribed	 by	 federal,	 state,	 and	 local	     F-62. Medicare
statutes.	(1976,	2002)                                The	 National	 Education	 Association	
                                                  believes	 that	 Medicare	 is	 a	 contract	 be-
F-61. Social Security                             tween	the	United	States	government	and	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	        its	citizens	and	that	this	commitment	must	
believes	 that	 Social	 Security	 should	 be	     not	be	breached.
available	to	eligible	education	employees	            The	Association	also	believes	that	ini-
where	desired,	but	should	not	be	mandat-          tiatives	 should	 be	 undertaken	 to	 ensure	
ed.	Contracts	with	Social	Security	should	        the	 long-term	 solvency	 of	 the	 Medicare	
provide	 for	 supplementary	 plans	 rather	       system	and	to	guarantee	a	level	of	health	
than	integrated	or	coordinated	plans.	            benefits	 that	 provides	 and	 ensures	 high	
    The	 Association	 also	 believes	 Social	     quality,	 affordable,	 and	 comprehensive	
Security	 benefits	 should	 be	 guaranteed	       health	care	for	all	Medicare-eligible	indi-
at	no	less	than	the	current	level.	The	ben-       viduals.	(1999,	2007)
efits	 should	 continue	 to	 guarantee	 infla-
tion	adjusted	retirement	income	as	well	as	       G. SECURE PROFESSIONAL
continue	 to	 provide	 guaranteed	 inflation	     AUTONOMY
adjusted	survivor	benefits	for	the	families	
of	deceased	workers	and	disabled	workers	         PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS,
and	their	families.	                              CERTIFICATION, LICENSURE
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
Social	 Security	 retirement	 and	 survivor	      G-1. State Professional Standards
benefits	should	be	based	upon	the	Social	         Boards
Security	 program	 and	 Social	 Security	             The	 National	 Education	 Association	
taxes.	The	Association	supports	the	goal	         believes	 that	 the	 profession	 must	 govern	
of	 comprehensive	 health	 insurance	 for	    	   itself.	 The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
retirees.	                                        each	state	should	have	a	professional	stan-
    The	Association	also	supports	the	re-         dards	 board,	 composed	 of	 a	 majority	 of	
form	of	Social	Security	laws	to	eliminate	        practicing	public	school	teachers.	
discriminatory	offset	provisions	and	dis-             Professional	 standards	 boards	 should	
crimination	based	on	sex,	marital	status,	        have	 exclusive	 authority	 to	 license	 and	
or	 time	 of	 retirement	 and	 to	 reduce	 the	   to	 determine	 criteria	 for	 how	 a	 national	
retirement	 age.	 The	 Association	 further	      certificate	will	be	recognized	for	profes-
supports	reforms	to	improve	the	financial	        sional	 educators.	 Further,	 these	 boards	
security	and	stability	of	the	Social	Securi-      should	have	the	exclusive	authority	to	es-
ty	system	without	the	privatization	of	the	       tablish	the	standards	regarding	licensure,	
system.	 No	 benefit	 promised	 or	 no	 ben-      including	 procedures	 for	 suspension	 and	
efit	 for	 which	 money	 has	 been	 collected	    revocation.	The	Association	opposes	leg-
should	 be	 withdrawn	 without	 adequate	         islation	 that	 compromises	 the	 authority	
replacement.	(1977,	2005)                         of	 state	 standards	 boards	 and	 urges	 the	


298
                                                                                       Resolutions

elimination	 of	 state	 statutes	 that	 conflict	   established	 by	 professional	 standards	
with	 this	 authority.	 The	 Association	 fur-      boards,	these	standards	must	include	each	
ther	 believes	 that	 these	 boards	 must	 ap-      of	the	following:
ply	National	Council	for	Accreditation	of	              •	 high	academic	performance	
Teacher	 Education	 (NCATE)	 standards	                 •	 extensive	 clinical	 practice	 experi-
as	 a	 minimum	 for	 granting,	 denying,	 or	       ence
withdrawing	the	approval	of	teacher	prep-               •	 demonstrated	knowledge	of	subject	
aration	programs.	(1969,	2000)                      matter,	pedagogy,	and	child	development.	
                                                        Every	 candidate,	 including	 those	 en-
G-2. National Certification                         tering	via	alternative	routes,	should	meet	
     The	 National	 Education	 Association	         every	 standard	 prior	 to	 being	 granted	 a	
supports	 voluntary	 national	 certification	       teaching	license.
by	 which	 the	 profession	 grants	 recogni-            Assessments	 used	 to	 measure	 teacher	
tion	to	an	individual	who	has	met	quali-            skill,	 knowledge,	 and	 instructional	 com-
fications	specified	by	the	profession.	The	         petency	 must	 be	 valid	 and	 unbiased	 and	
Association	recognizes	that	this	function	          should	 be	 included	 as	 one	 element	 of	
is	 filled	 by	 the	 National	 Board	 for	 Pro-     comprehensive	assessment	for	completion	
fessional	 Teaching	 Standards	 (NBPTS),	           of	a	teacher	preparation	program	as	well	
which	is	composed	of	a	majority	of	prac-            as	for	licensure	into	the	profession.
ticing	public	school	teachers.	                         The	Association	opposes	licensure	pro-
     The	 NBPTS	 establishes	 appropriate	          cesses	 that	 lower	 or	 eliminate	 any	 of	 the	
assessment	 procedures	 by	 which	 indi-            standards	outlined	above,	including	“test-
viduals	 demonstrate	 exemplary	 practice	          ing-only”	approaches	to	teacher	licensure.
in	 pedagogy	 and	 in	 subject	 matter	 ar-             The	Association	asserts	that	a	teaching	
eas,	 issues	 certificates	 to	 all	 individuals	   license	 should	 signify	 that	 an	 individual	
who	meet	NBPTS-established	standards,	              entering	 the	 teaching	 profession	 is	 com-
maintains	a	roster	of	those	who	have	been	          petent	 to	 teach.	 A	 teaching	 license	 must	
certificated,	 and	 encourages	 reciprocity	        be	 recognized	 as	 the	 primary	 require-
with	state	professional	standards	boards.	          ment	 for	 employment	 in	 every	 primary,	
     The	 Association	 also	 supports	 the	         secondary,	and	adult	education	public	and	
periodic	 evaluation	 of	 such	 certification	      private	 school.	 The	 Association	 believes	
procedures	to	ascertain	whether	cultural,	          that	 all	 states	 should	 offer	 appropriate	
economic,	 gender,	 racial,	 or	 age	 bias	 is	     pre-K	licensure.		No	license	should	be	is-
perpetuated	 by	 the	 requirements	 for	 cer-       sued	 unless	 an	 individual	 possesses	 the	
tification.	(1987,	1998)                            entry-level	knowledge	and	skills	required	
                                                    for	 teaching.	 No	 emergency	 licenses	
G-3. Licensure                                      should	be	issued.	No	assignments	should	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	           be	permitted	outside	the	teacher’s	area	of	
advocates	 rigorous	 state	 standards	 for		        licensure	 without	 appropriate	 concurrent	
entry	 into	 the	 teaching	 profession.	 As	        retraining	supported	by	the	local	district.


                                                                                                299
Resolutions

    The	Association	urges	the	elimination	          G-5. Accreditation of Teacher
of	 state	 statutes/regulations	 that	 require	     Preparation Institutions
teachers	 to	 renew	 their	 licenses.	 Where	           The	 National	 Education	 Association	
such	 renewal	 continues	 to	 be	 required,	        believes	 that	 teacher	 preparation	 pro-
standardized	 literacy	 and	 basic	 skills	         grams	must	be	approved	at	two	levels:	at	
tests	to	determine	competency	should	not	           the	state	level	through	an	agency	such	as	
be	used.	                                           a	professional	standards	board	and	at	the	
    The	 Association	 supports	 regulations	        national	level	through	the	National	Coun-
that	would	put	professional	educators,	the	         cil	for	Accreditation	of	Teacher	Education	
majority	of	whom	are	licensed	and	prac-             (NCATE).	
ticing	 public	 school	 teachers,	 in	 state	 li-       The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
censing	agencies.	                                  NCATE	 and	 its	 governing	 boards	 must	
    The	Association	also	supports	the	pe-           include	representatives	of	all	levels	of	the	
riodic	evaluation	of	licensure	procedures	          teaching	 profession	 as	 well	 as	 students	
to	ensure	that	cultural,	economic,	gender,	         preparing	to	teach.	(1969,	2000)
racial,	and	age	biases	are	not	perpetuated	
by	the	requirements	for	licensure.	(1985,	          H. UNITE EDUCATION EMPLOYEES
2007)                                               FOR EFFECTIVE CITIZENSHIP

ACCREDITATION                                       CITIZENSHIP RIGHTS

G-4. Accreditation in Higher                        H-1. The Education Employee as a
Education                                           Citizen
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	              The	 National	 Education	 Association	
supports	 strong	 regional,	 state,	 national,	     believes	 that	 every	 education	 employee	
and	 discipline-based	 accrediting	 bod-            has	 the	 right	 and	 obligation	 to	 be	 an	 in-
ies	 that	 promote	 and	 encourage	 faculty	        formed	and	politically	active	citizen.	The	
participation	 in	 the	 accrediting	 process.	      Association	also	believes	that,	as	private	
The	 Association	 believes	 that	 programs,	        citizens,	 education	 employees	 have	 the	
faculties,	 administrations,	 and	 facilities	      right	to	express	their	personal	viewpoints	
should	 be	 reviewed	 to	 determine	 their	         in	 public	 without	 fear	 of	 censorship	 or	
ability	to	enhance	learning	opportunities	          intimidation.	 The	 Association	 supports	
for	 students.	 The	 Association	 also	 be-         voter	 education	 to	 alert	 voters	 to	 voting	
lieves	that	accrediting	agencies	should	not	        laws	and	procedures	and	key	political	is-
impose	 standardized	 curricula,	 assess-           sues.	The	Association	also	supports	writ-
ment	models,	or	pedagogical	methods	on	             ten	governing	board	policies	to	guarantee	
institutions	of	higher	education	but	rather	        education	employees	their	political	rights.	
should	base	accreditation	on	standards	as	          The	Association	further	believes	that	lo-
applied	to	the	institutional	mission	state-         cal	government	units	should	be	prevented	
ment.	(1995,	1998)                                  from	 restricting	 the	 right	 of	 education	


300
                                                                                      Resolutions

employees	 to	 run	 for	 any	 elective	 office.	    verifiable	for	all	elections	and	further	sup-
Provisions	should	be	made	to	enable	edu-            ports	 election	 administrations	 that	 pro-
cation	employees	to	serve	in	public	office	         vide	 for	 open,	 fair,	 secure,	 and	 publicly	
without	curtailment	of	annual	increments,	          verifiable	ballot	counting.
tenure,	 retirement,	 or	 seniority	 rights,	 or	       The	 Association	 opposes	 all	 actions	
to	 carry	 out	 jury	 duty	 without	 personal	      that	 encourage	 or	 result	 in	 voter	 disen-
financial	loss.	                                    franchisement.	The	Association	supports	
    The	Association	believes	that	it	is	the	        voter	 education	 programs	 and	 uniform	
duty	 and	 responsibility	 of	 education	 em-       registration	requirements	without	restric-
ployees	to	involve	themselves	in	the	selec-         tive	 residency	 provisions	 or	 restrictive	
tion,	election,	and	reelection	of	qualified,	       identification	requirements.	(1971,	2006)
committed	candidates	who	support	goals	
that	will	provide	quality	education.	There-         H-4. U.S. Constitutional Convention
fore,	the	Association	urges	its	members	to	             The	 National	 Education	 Association	
become	politically	involved	and	to	support	         believes	 that	 the	 U.S.	 Constitution	 safe-
the	political	action	committees	of	the	As-          guards	freedoms	fundamental	to	our	so-
sociation	and	its	affiliates.	(1969,	1997)          ciety.	 The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
                                                    all	 proposed	 changes	 to	 the	 Constitution	
H-2. The Right To Know                              should	be	directed	through	the	traditional	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	           congressional	 proposal	 and	 state	 ratifi-
believes	 that	 open	 meeting	 and	 public	         cation	 process	 rather	 than	 through	 the	
disclosure	 laws	 are	 essential	 to	 permit	       convening	of	a	constitutional	convention,	
the	 monitoring	 of	 governmental	 actions.	        which	opens	the	Constitution	to	the	pos-
(1972,	1997)                                        sibility	of	total	revision.	(1982,	1997)

H-3. The Right To Vote                              H-5. Member Involvement in
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	          Community Organizations
believes	 that	 the	 principle	 of	 one-per-           The	 National	 Education	 Associa-
son—one-vote	must	apply	at	all	levels	of	           tion	 encourages	 its	 members	 to	 become	
government,	including	the	election	of	the	          involved	 in	 citizen-based	 community	
President	of	the	United	States.	                    organizations	 and	 to	 influence	 those	 or-
    The	 Association	 recognizes	 the	 right	       ganizations	to	address	issues	of	common	
to	 vote	 as	 a	 constitutional	 right	 guaran-     concern	to	their	local,	state,	and	national	
teed	to	all	eligible	citizens.	The	Associa-         education	associations.	(1992)
tion	supports	the	continued	maintenance	
of	the	provisions	of	the	Voting	Rights	Act	         H-6. Participation in Professional
of	1965.	                                           Associations
    The	 Association	 also	 supports	 voting	          The	 National	 Education	 Association	
and	 absentee	 provisions	 that	 are	 acces-        believes	that	every	educational	employee	
sible,	 simplified,	 accurate,	 reliable,	 and	     has	the	right	and	obligation	to	participate	


                                                                                               301
Resolutions

fully	 in	 professional	 associations.	 Poli-        should	 reflect	 the	 efficient	 use	 of	 energy	
cies	adopted	by	governing	boards	should	             from	all	sources,	provide	research	to	de-
provide	released	time	without	loss	of	pay	           velop	new	sources	of	energy,	stress	rapid	
to	 education	 employee	 fulfilling	 leader-         development	of	renewable	energy	sources,	
ship	 responsibilities	 or	 attending	 profes-       and	promote	conservation.	
sional	meetings.	Released	time	should	be	                The	 Association	 supports	 ensuring	
equitably	 provided	 to	 all	 education	 em-         the	 energy-efficient	 operation	 of	 public	
ployees,	without	harassment	and	without	             schools	 and	 encourages	 the	 use	 of	 new	
preference	 given	 to	 educational	 position.	       energy	 sources	 and	 energy-efficient	 de-
(1986,	1997)                                         sign	 in	 school	 renovation	 and	 construc-
                                                     tion.	 The	 Association	 also	 supports	 ef-
H-7. National Health Care Policy                     forts	 that	 develop	 energy	 conservation	
     The	 National	 Education	 Association	          awareness	 and	 school	 building	 energy	
believes	 that	 affordable,	 comprehensive	          audit	 programs.	 The	 Association	 further	
health	 care,	 including	 prescription	 drug	        supports	programs	that	investigate	energy	
coverage,	is	the	right	of	every	resident.	           efficiency	 recommendations,	 research,	
     The	Association	supports	the	adoption	          and	 public	 health	 and	 safety	 programs	
of	 a	 single-payer	 health	 care	 plan	 for	 all	   for	 all	 educational	 levels	 in	 the	 schools.	
residents	of	the	United	States,	its	territo-         (1977,	1997)
ries,	 and	 the	 Commonwealth	 of	 Puerto	
Rico.	                                               H-9. Environmental Responsibility
     The	 Association	 will	 support	 health	            The	 National	 Education	 Association	
care	 reform	 measures	 that	 move	 the	             believes	 that	 businesses	 and	 governmen-
United	States	closer	to	this	goal	and	that	          tal	 agencies	 should	 be	 responsible	 for	
achieve	 universal	 and	 comprehensive	              designing,	producing,	and	using	products	
health	care	coverage,	control	costs	while	           that	 are	 reusable,	 recyclable,	 biodegrad-
assuring	quality,	emphasize	prevention	of	           able,	or	disposable	without	contaminating	
health	care	problems,	and	are	financed	by	           the	environment.	
means	 that	 assure	 greater	 equity	 in	 the	           The	Association	 encourages	 its	affili-
funding	of	that	health	care.	                        ates	and	members	to	include	these	crite-
     The	Association	also	believes	that	un-          ria	in	selection	of	products	for	use	and	to	
til	 a	 single-payer	 health	 care	 plan	 is	 ad-    work	with	school	systems	and	educational	
opted,	 Congress	 should	 make	 no	 cuts	 in	        institutions	in	developing	purchasing	pol-
Medicare/Medicaid	 benefit	 levels	 or	 in	          icies	using	these	criteria.	
federal	funding	of	the	Medicare/	Medic-                  The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
aid	program.	(1978,	2003)                            business	 and	 governmental	 agencies	
                                                     should	dispose	of	waste	in	a	manner	that	
H-8. Energy Programs                                 will	have	the	least	possible	impact	on	the	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	            environment.	(1990,	1995)
believes	 that	 a	 national	 energy	 policy	


302
                                                                                       Resolutions

H-10. Historic Preservation                        the	 rights	 of	 nations	 to	 exist	 within	 safe	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	          and	secure	borders,	free	from	the	threat	of	
encourages	 the	 preservation	 of	 histori-        pre-emptive	attacks.	The	Association	also	
cally	 significant	 lands	 and	 structures	 for	   believes	that	such	treaties	and	agreements	
the	 purposes	 of	 preserving	 our	 nation’s	      should	prevent	the	placement	of	weapons	
heritage	 and	 maintaining	 important	 his-        in	outer	space.	
toric	 resources	 for	 future	 generations.	           The	 Association	 supports	 the	 prin-
(1990,	1994)                                       ciples	stated	in	the	United	Nations	(UN)	
                                                   Charter	and	believes	that	the	UN	furthers	
H-11. Statehood for the District of                world	 peace	 and	 promotes	 the	 rights	 of	
Columbia                                           all	people	by	preventing	war,	racism,	and	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	         genocide.	 The	 Association	 further	 be-
affirms	 that	 all	 citizens	 of	 the	 United	     lieves	 that	 Education	 International	 con-
States	 should	 enjoy	 the	 full	 benefits	 of	    tributes	 to	 peace	 and	 international	 rela-
citizenship.	Accordingly,	the	Association	         tions	 by	 promoting	 dialogue	 among	 the	
supports	 efforts	 to	 achieve	 statehood	 for	    world’s	education	employees.	
the	District	of	Columbia.	                             The	Association	supports	the	U.S.	In-
    The	Association	believes	that	the	con-         stitute	of	Peace,	which	provides	publica-
cept	of	fiscal	autonomy	is	consistent	with	        tions,	 information,	 programs,	 training,	
this	position	and	that	the	federal	payment	        and	 research	 data	 in	 developing	 peace-
to	the	District	of	Columbia	should	be	based	       making	 and	 conflict	 resolution	 skills.	
on	an	established	formula.	(1969,	1997)            (1973,	2006)	

I. PROMOTE AND PROTECT                             I-2. International Court of Justice
HUMAN AND CIVIL RIGHTS                                The	 National	 Education	 Association	
                                                   believes	in	the	concept	of	the	rule	of	law	
INTERNATIONAL RIGHTS                               throughout	the	world	and	recognizes	that	
                                                   the	 International	 Court	 of	 Justice	 is	 one	
I-1. Peace and International                       instrument	 to	 resolve	 international	 dis-
Relations                                          putes	peacefully.	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	             The	Association	urges	participation	by	
recognizes	 the	 interdependence	 of	 all	         the	 United	 States	 in	 deliberations	 before	
people.	 	 The	 Association	 believes	 in	 the	    the	court.	(1986,	1997)
ideals	of	peace,	freedom,	and	human	dig-
nity	based	upon	respect	for	the	individual	        I-3. International Criminal Court
and	 cultural	 diversity.	 The	 Association	          The	 National	 Education	 Association	
urges	 all	 nations	 to	 develop	 treaties	 and	   believes	 that	 the	 International	 Criminal	
disarmament	 agreements	 that	reduce	the	          Court	is	critically	important	as	an	instru-
possibility	of	war,	provide	for	the	peace-         ment	to	help	end	the	impunity	of	human	
ful	resolution	of	conflicts,	and	guarantee	        rights	violators,	provide	for	the	rule	of	law,	


                                                                                                303
Resolutions

and	 hold	 accountable	 those	 who	 commit	        The	proliferation	of	weapons	technology	
the	gravest	 human	 rights	 crimes,	 includ-       and	 the	 sale	 and	 distribution	 of	 conven-
ing	 genocide,	 crimes	 against	 humanity,	        tional	 and	 nuclear	 weapons	 increase	 the	
and	war	crimes.                                    possibility	of	nuclear	war.	
   The	Association	also	believes	that	the	             The	 Association	 also	 believes	 the	
United	States	should	ratify	the	Rome	Stat-         United	States	and	all	other	nations	should	
ute	 of	 the	 International	 Criminal	 Court	      adopt	 a	 verifiable	 freeze	 on	 the	 testing,	
and	 recognize	 and	 support	 its	 authority	      development,	production,	upgrading,	em-
and	jurisdiction.	(2005)                           placement,	sale,	distribution,	and	deploy-
                                                   ment	 of	 nuclear	 weapons,	 materials,	 and	
I-4. World Hunger                                  all	 systems	 designed	 to	 deliver	 nuclear	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	         weapons.	 The	 Association	 supports	 the	
believes	 that	 worldwide	 attention	 needs	       development	 of	 treaties	 for	 the	 cessation	
to	be	focused	on	hunger	and	malnutrition.	         of	all	nuclear	weapons	testing,	providing	
The	Association	supports	continued	relief	         they	 contain	 adequate	 verification	 and	
to	those	in	need	as	well	as	the	education	         enforcement	provisions.	The	Association	
of	children,	youth,	and	adults	concerning	         also	supports	the	development	of	treaties	
world	hunger	and	its	effects	 so	that	they	        to	eliminate	the	world’s	nuclear	weapons	
may	 develop	 the	 capacity	 and	 the	 com-        arsenals.	(1982,	2000)
mitment	to	resolve	these	problems.	(1975,	
1989)                                              I-7. Nuclear Facilities, Radioactive/
                                                   Chemical Pollutants, and Waste
I-5. Covert Operations and                         Incineration
Counterintelligence Activities                         The	 National	 Education	 Association	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	         believes	that	strict	monitoring	of	nuclear	
believes	 that	 U.S.	 covert	 operations	 and	     facilities	 and	 radioactive/chemical	 pol-
counterintelligence	 activities	 should	 be	       lutants	 and	 waste	 incineration	 should	 be	
compatible	 with	 the	 basic	 principles	 of	      required.	 The	 Association	 urges	 the	 de-
our	democratic	society.	                           velopment	 and	 implementation	 of	 new	
    The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	 all	   technologies	 for	 the	 safe	 transport	 and	
such	activities	should	be	conducted	under	         recycling	 of	 all	 wastes.	 The	 Association	
the	jurisdiction	of	the	executive	and	legis-       also	urges	regulation	of	the	U.S.	Depart-
lative	branches	of	our	government	and	that	        ment	of	Energy	by	an	independent	agency	
individuals	must	be	held	accountable	when	         to	reduce	the	further	radioactive	pollution	
they	work	outside	of	the	specific	directives	      of	our	environment.	
issued	for	a	given	operation.	(1989)                   The	 Association	 supports	 programs	
                                                   that	would	educate	the	public	to	the	dan-
I-6. Nuclear Freeze/Cessation                      gers	 and	 benefits	 of	 nuclear	 power,	 re-
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	          cycling	 of	 nuclear	 wastes,	 problems	 of	
believes	that	nuclear	war	is	not	survivable.	      nuclear	 waste	 disposal,	 and	 health	 risks	


304
                                                                                    Resolutions

associated	with	waste	incineration.	              restoration	 of	 the	 environment	 and	 its	
    The	Association	also	believes	that	the	       ecological	 systems.	 In	 addition,	 the	 As-
people	of	a	state	should	make	the	final	de-       sociation	 supports	 international	 efforts	
termination	as	to	whether	or	not	toxic	and/       to	 reduce	 the	 levels	 of	 toxic	 metals	 and	
or	 nuclear	 waste	 processing	 sites	 or	 the	   chemicals	in	the	food	chain.	(1990,	2005)
transportation	 of	 nuclear	 waste	 shall	 be	
within	their	state	boundaries.	Contiguous	        I-10. International Consumer
states	 directly	 affected	 environmentally	      Protection
by	processing	sites	should	be	included	in	            The	 National	 Education	 Association	
the	final	 determination.	 Strict	 guidelines	    believes	that	products	sold	and/or	adver-
concerning	the	construction	and	operation	        tised	 abroad	 by	 U.S.-based	 companies	
of	waste	incinerators	should	be	required.	        must	 at	 least	 meet	 the	 consumer,	 health,	
The	Association	further	believes	that	such	       and	safety	standards	that	are	required	for	
facilities	should	not	be	constructed	within	      trade	within	the	United	States.	
a	10-mile	radius	of	any	school	facility.	             Furthermore,	 the	 Association	 oppos-
    The	 Association	 believes	 that	 educa-      es	 coercing	 other	 nations	 to	 accept	 U.S.	
tion	 employees	 must	 be	 involved	 in	 the	     products	 that	 do	 not	 meet	 those	 nations’	
development	 and	 dissemination	 of	 emer-        consumer,	health,	and	safety	standards	or	
gency	plans	in	the	case	of	accidents	that	        practices.	(1990)
potentially	could	result	in	environmental	
or	health	hazards.	(1989,	1997)                   HUMAN AND CIVIL RIGHTS

I-8. Global Warming                               I-11. Human Rights
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	            The	 National	 Education	 Association	
believes	that	global	warming	causes	sig-          believes	 that	 the	 governments	 of	 all	 na-
nificant	 measurable	 damage	 to	 the	 earth	     tions	 must	 respect	 and	 protect	 the	 basic	
and	its	inhabitants.                              human	and	civil	rights	of	every	individu-
    The	Association	also	believes	that	hu-        al,	including	equal	access	to	education	as	
mans	must	take	steps	to	change	activities	        embodied	in	the	United	Nations	Universal	
that	contribute	to	global	warming.                Declaration	of	Human	Rights.		The	Asso-
    The	 Association	 supports	 environ-          ciation	condemns	any	action	that	limits	or	
mentally	sound	practices	that	abate	global	       prohibits	the	free	and	responsible	exercise	
warming	and	its	effects.	(2007)                   of	 these	 rights	 and	 believes	that	all	 edu-
                                                  cation	 employees	 must	 lead	 in	 the	 effort	
I-9. Global Environmental                         to	prevent	any	encroachment	on	basic	hu-
Restoration                                       man	and	civil	rights.
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	             The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
believes	 that	 when	 pollution	 occurs	 the	     the	U.S.	government	should	withhold	all	
responsible	 entities	 must	 be	 accountable	     forms	of	military	aid	to	governments	that	
for	an	expeditious,	complete	cleanup	and	         violate	these	rights.	


                                                                                             305
Resolutions

    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	            The	 Association	 also	 expresses	 con-
violence	 is	 abhorrent.	 The	 Association	           cern	 that	 the	 practice	 of	 capital	 punish-
also	 condemns	 violence,	 as	 well	 as	 the	         ment	 in	 the	 United	 States	 impacts	 indi-
tolerance	of	violence,	and	believes	that	all	         viduals	disproportionately	on	the	basis	of	
nations	 must	 pass	 and	 enforce	 measures	          social	 class,	 race,	 ethnicity,	 and	 gender.	
to	 curtail	 and	 prevent	 actions	 and	 prac-        The	Association	supports	ongoing	efforts	
tices	 that	 inflict	 pain,	 suffering,	 mutila-      to	 review	 the	 practice	 of	 capital	 punish-
tion,	or	death,	and	offer	asylum	to	those	            ment	 for	 inequities	 based	 on	 these	 and	
threatened	by	such	actions.	                          other	factors.	
    The	 Association	 expresses	 concern	                 The	Association	opposes	any	federal,	
that	 the	 utilization	 of	 trade	 sanctions	 on	     state,	or	local	law;	executive	order	or	pres-
food	and	medical	supplies	by	any	nation	              idential	signing	statement;	and/or	amend-
of	the	world	to	achieve	political	objectives	         ment	to	the	U.S.	Constitution	that	curtails	
fails	 to	 adequately	 consider	 the	 possible	       or	infringes	on	basic	human	rights.	(1977,	
humanitarian	impact	of	those	policies	on	             2007)
the	 civilian	 populations	 of	 the	 affected	
nations,	particularly	the	young,	the	elder-           I-12. Civil Rights
ly,	and	the	poor.	                                        The	National	Education	Association	is	
    The	 Association	 deplores	 the	 holding	         committed	to	the	achievement	of	a	totally	
of	hostages,	all	forms	of	torture,	and	the	           integrated	 society.	 The	 Association	 calls	
taking	of	human	life	in	the	name	of	mak-              upon	 Americans	 to	 eliminate—by	 stat-
ing	a	political	statement.	The	Association	           ute	 and	 practice—barriers	 of	 race,	 color,	
believes	that	it	is	the	responsibility	of	all	        national	 origin,	 religion,	 philosophical	
governments	 to	 discourage	 such	 actions	           beliefs,	 political	 beliefs,	 gender,	 sexual	
by	 individuals	 or	 groups	 of	 individuals.	        orientation,	gender	identification,	age,	dis-
The	Association	supports	an	international	            ability,	size,	marital	status,	and	economic	
judicial	 system	that	would	hold	account-             status	that	prevent	some	individuals,	adult	
able	those	who	violate	human	rights.                  or	juvenile,	from	exercising	rights	enjoyed	
    The	 Association	 calls	 upon	 all	 na-           by	 others,	 including	 liberties	 decreed	 in	
tions	 to	 release	 all	 education	 employees	        common	 law,	 the	 Constitution,	 and	 stat-
and	 students	 who	 are	 being	 held	 with-           utes	of	the	United	States.	Civil	order	and	
out	charge	and	to	refrain	from	the	use	of	        	   obedience	 to	 the	 law	 must	 be	 ensured	
coercion	 and	 arbitrary	 detention	 to	 pun-         without	 abridgment	 of	 human	 and	 civil	
ish	 the	 people	 of	 a	 specific	 area	 of	 their	   rights.	 All	 individuals	 must	 be	 assured	
territories.	                                         a	 speedy	 and	 fair	 judicial	 process	 with	
    The	 Association	 further	 condemns	              free	 legal	 counsel	 for	 those	 in	 need.	 To	
the	practice	of	capital	punishment	in	na-             be	effective	citizens,	individuals	must	be	
tions	without	judicial	safeguards	such	as	            trained	and	aided	in	developing	strategies	
the	presumption	of	innocence	and/or	the	              and	expertise	that	will	enable	them	to	op-
right	to	counsel.	                                    erate	effectively	in	a	democratic	society.	


306
                                                                                     Resolutions

   The	Association	opposes	any	federal,	           must	 be	 provided	 educational	 programs	
state,	or	local	law;	executive	order	or	pres-      that	include	any	special	education	servic-
idential	signing	statement;	and/or	amend-          es	per	a	student’s	individualized	education	
ment	to	the	U.S.	or	state	constitutions	that	      program	(IEP)	or	a	student’s	504	plan	to	
curtail	basic	civil	rights.	(1969,	2007)           enable	a	student	to	become	a	contributing	
                                                   member	of	society.	Teachers	in	such	cen-
I-13. Human and Civil Rights of                    ters	must	be	prepared	to	provide	instruc-
Children and Youth                                 tion	in	life	skills	and	learning	skills.	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	             The	Association	also	opposes	the	im-
believes	 that	 the	 human	 and	 civil	 rights	    position	 of	 the	 death	 penalty	 or	 life	 im-
of	 children	 and	 youth	 must	 be	 protected	     prisonment	without	parole	on	individuals	
and	 opposes	 the	 exploitation	 of	 children	     whose	 offenses	 were	 committed	 prior	 to	
and	youth	under	any	circumstances.	The	            age	18.	The	Association	further	condemns	
Association	also	believes	that	all	children	       the	practice	of	placing	children	and	youth	
possess	 a	 fundamental	 civil	 right	 of	 ac-     in	 trouble	 in	 abusive	 environments.	 The	
cess	 to	 a	 system	 of	 high	 quality	 public	    Association	 further	 opposes	 the	 place-
education	 grounded	 in	 the	 principles	 of	      ment	 of	 children	 and	 youth	 who	 are	 not	
adequacy	and	equity.                               charged	with	any	offense	in	facilities	with	
    The	Association	condemns	the	use	of	           persons	 who	 are	 charged	 with	 criminal	
children	and	youth	by	organizations,	gov-          offenses.	 The	 Association	 believes	 that	
ernments,	 and	 political/military	 move-          there	 must	 be	 separate	 facilities	 for	 the	
ments	 to	 advance	 their	 political	 objec-       detention	 and	 for	 the	 incarceration	 of	
tives.	 The	 Association	 also	 condemns	          children	 and	 youth	 and	 supports	 the	 de-
governments	 that	 subject	 young	 people	         velopment	 of	 alternatives	 to	 supplement	
to	physical	or	mental	abuse,	violence,	and	        the	use	of	such	facilities.	(1988,	2007)
unwarranted	 detention	 or	 incarceration.	
The	 Association	 supports	 the	 rights	 of	       I-14. Self Determination of
youth	to	safely	access	education	and	other	        Indigenous Peoples
human	services	during	conditions	of	war,	             The	 National	 Education	 Association	
occupation,	and	civil	strife.	The	Associa-         recognizes	 that	 American	 Indians	 and	
tion	 opposes	 the	 impressment	 or	 accep-        Alaska	 Natives	 are	 sovereign	 nations	
tance	 of	 minors	 into	 the	 service	 of	 the	    with	the	rights	of	self-determination	and	
armed	 forces	 of	 any	 government	 or	 into	      supports	 Native	 Hawaiians	 in	 reclaim-
the	service	of	revolutionary	forces	under	         ing	their	rights	of	self-determination	and	   	
any	circumstances.	The	Association	also	           sovereignty.
supports	 programs	 and	 other	 efforts	 to	          The	 Association	 also	 recognizes	 that	
prevent	 and	 alleviate	 the	 effects	 of	 such	   sovereignty	 includes	 the	 right	 to	 provide	
trauma	upon	children	and	youth.	                   for	 culturally	 appropriate	 education	 of	
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	     American	 Indians,	 Alaska	 Natives,	 and	
children	 and	 youth	 in	 detention	 centers	      Native	Hawaiians.	(2007)


                                                                                              307
Resolutions

I-15. Family Planning                                support	programs.	These	entities	shall	as-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	           sist	their	employees	with	placement	in	jobs	
supports	 family	 planning,	 including	 the	         having	 comparable	 pay	 and	 benefits	 and	
right	to	reproductive	freedom.	                      shall	maintain	existing	union	contracts.	
    The	Association	urges	the	government	                The	 Association	 opposes	 the	 use	 of	
to	give	high	priority	to	making	available	           public	funds	to	encourage	the	movement	
all	methods	of	family	planning	to	women	             of	 U.S.	 companies	 to	 other	 countries	 at	
and	men	unable	to	take	advantage	of	pri-             the	 expense	 of	 U.S.	 union	 labor.	 (1992,	
vate	facilities.	                                    1993)
    The	Association	also	urges	the	imple-
mentation	of	community-operated,	school-             I-18. Use of Union-Made Products
based	 family	 planning	 clinics	 that	 will	        and Services
provide	 intensive	 counseling	 by	 trained	            The	 National	 Education	 Association	
personnel.	(1985,	1986)                              recognizes	 the	 historical	 role	 of	 orga-
                                                     nized	 labor	 in	 its	 struggle	 for	 economic	
I-16. The Right To Organize                          and	social	justice.	The	Association	advo-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	           cates	the	use	of	union-made	products	and	
believes	 that	 all	 people	 have	 the	 right	 to	   services.	 The	 Association	 supports	 the	
organize	in	order	to	achieve	an	improve-             use	of	appropriately	established	boycotts	
ment	 of	 their	 living	 conditions	 through	        and	picket	lines.	(1991,	1994)
their	 own	 free	 and	 independent	 unions	
and	organizations.	The	Association	urges	            I-19. Migrant Workers
that	 this	 right	 be	 advocated	 where	 it	 is	         The	 National	 Education	 Association	
now	 abused	 or	 denied	 and	 strengthened	          is	 concerned	 with	 the	 plight	 of	 migrant	
where	it	is	now	secured.	                            workers.	The	Association	supports	the	ef-
    The	 Association	 deplores	 anti-union	          forts	of	migrant	workers	to	be	represented	
activities	by	business	interests,	school	dis-        in	collective	bargaining	by	the	organiza-
tricts,	 and	 government	 agencies,	 includ-         tion	of	their	choice.	(1985)
ing	efforts	that	attempt	to	destroy	and	un-
dermine	 labor	 unions	 and	 organizations,	         I-20. Immigration
penalize	members	for	union	involvement,	                The	 National	 Education	 Association	
and	deprive	workers	of	their	right	to	orga-          supports	efforts	to	improve	the	immigra-
nize	and	bargain.	(1982,	1993)                       tion	 process,	 including	 the	 provision	 of	
                                                     due	process,	political	asylum,	and	timely	
I-17. Displaced Workers                              legalization	 without	 regard	 to	 national	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	            origin.	 The	 Association	 also	 supports	
believes	that	entities	that	close,	move,	sell,	      policies	 that	 protect	 the	 integrity	 of	 the	
downsize,	 or	 reorganize	 their	 facilities	        family	unit.	The	Association	believes	that	
have	 an	 obligation	 to	 provide	 displaced	        English	and	citizenship	classes	should	be	
employees	with	a	variety	of	retraining	and	          available	in	sufficient	numbers	to	ensure	


308
                                                                                    Resolutions

that	immigrating	individuals	can	comply	          to	 privacy.	 The	 Association	 continues	 to	
with	 all	 federal	 mandates	 for	 permanent	     be	 concerned	 about	 the	 indiscriminate	
residence	and/or	citizenship.                     surveillance	of	citizens	or	groups	by	pri-
   The	 Association	 opposes	 any	 immi-          vate	 and	 public	 agencies	 or	 individuals,	
gration	 policy	 that	 denies	 human	 and/or	     especially	the	posting	of	addresses,	phone	
civil	 rights	 or	 educational	 opportunities	    numbers,	and/or	travel	routes	of	individu-
to	immigrants	and	their	children	regard-          als	on	Internet	Web	sites.	The	Association	
less	 of	 their	 immigration	 status,	 hinders	   condemns	 the	 use	 of	 information	 gath-
workers’	abilities	to	organize,	imposes	ex-       ered	and	stored	and	the	exchange	of	such	
cessive	fees	and	fines	on	those	seeking	le-       information,	 including	 library	 patron,	
galization,	or	criminalizes	individuals	or	       medical,	e-mail,	and	credit	card	records,	
groups	who	support	or	assist	immigrants	          without	 explicit	 release	 from	 the	 person	
regardless	of	their	status.	The	Association	      or	persons	involved.	
also	opposes	any	policy	that	makes	legal-             The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
ization	or	 naturalization	 dependent	 upon	      rights	to	privacy	and	confidentiality	must	
military	service	and/or	service	in	a	com-         be	 guaranteed	 through	 federal	 and	 state	
bat	zone.	The	Association	condemns	such	          legislation.	(1970,	2004)
policies	as	inhumane	and	discriminatory.	
(1984,	2007)                                      I-24. Freedom of Creative
                                                  Expression
I-21. Housing and Health Care for All                The	 National	 Education	 Association	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	         supports	 freedom	 of	 expression	 in	 the	
believes	 that	 all	 members	 of	 our	 society	   creative	 arts	 and	 therefore	 deplores	 any	
have	 the	 right	 to	 adequate	 housing	 and	     efforts	 by	 governments	 to	 suppress,	 di-
health	care.	The	Association	supports	pro-        rectly	or	indirectly,	such	expression.	The	
grams	 to	 provide	 adequate	 housing	 and	       Association	also	supports	the	freedom	of	
health	care	for	the	homeless	and	others	in	       publicly	funded	agencies	to	exercise	judg-
need	of	assistance.	(1989,	1997)                  ment	in	the	awarding	of	grants	to	individ-
                                                  uals	and	organizations.	(1990)
I-22. Fair Housing
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	        I-25. Violence Against Women and
believes	that	all	citizens	should	be	free	to	     Girls Worldwide
reside	in	the	communities	of	their	choice.	          The	 National	 Education	 Association	
The	Association	supports	the	elimination	         condemns	 domestic	 and	 other	 violence	
of	 the	 discriminatory	 practice	 of	 redlin-    against	 women	 and	 girls,	 as	 well	 as	 the	
ing.	(1969,	1997)                                 tolerance	 of	 such	 violence,	 and	 believes	
                                                  that	 all	 nations	 should	 pass	 and	 enforce	
I-23. Invasion of Privacy                         measures	 to	 curtail	 and	 prevent	 actions,	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	         policies,	 and	 practices	 that	 inflict	 pain,	
believes	that	every	individual	has	a	right	       suffering,	or	death.	(1993,	1997)


                                                                                             309
Resolutions

I-26. Sexual Assault                                   student-related	 activities,	 particularly	
    The	 National	 Education	 Associa-                 those	 that	 are	 responsive	 to	 the	 cultural	
tion	believes	that	all	members	of	society	             diversity	 and	 historical	 backgrounds	 of	
should	 be	 protected	 from	 becoming	 vic-            our	society	
tims	 of	 sexual	 assault.	 The	 Association	              c.	 Further	development	of	continuing	
also	 believes	 that	 it	 is	 a	 violation	 of	 the	   education	programs	to	educate	school	and	
victims’	 right	 to	 privacy	 to	 release	 the	        community	personnel
names	of	the	victims	or	to	have	their	past	                d.	 Reduction	of	the	ratio	of	students	to	
sexual	history	admitted	as	evidence	in	as-             licensed	staff.	This	reduction	should	be	to	
sault	cases.	The	Association	supports	fair	            the	level	teachers	determine	to	be	essen-
and	 equitable	 treatment	 by	 health,	 hos-           tial	to	improved	learning	
pital,	 and	 law	 enforcement	 agencies	 for	              e.	 Development	 of	 ways	 to	 improve	
sexual	 assault	 victims.	 	 The	 Association	         community-police	 and	 student-police	 re-
further	 believes	 that	 access	 to	 necessary	        lations	through	the	joint	efforts	of	school,	
services/programs	 must	 be	 made	 avail-              community,	 and	 law	 enforcement	 agen-
able	to	victims	and	their	families.		These	            cies	
services	 must	 be	 funded	 by	 appropriate	               f.	 Joint	discussions	to	promote	under-
government	agencies.                                   standing	 of	 human	 and	 civil	 rights	 and	
    The	 Association	 believes	 that	 states	          responsibilities	in	all	segments	of	society	
should	 develop	 a	 systematic	 process	 for	              g.	 Development	 and	 implementation	
gathering	evidence	when	such	assaults	oc-              of	curricula	that	teach	students	about	pos-
cur	and	supports	the	use	of	DNA	testing	as	            itive	human	relations.	(1972,	1999)
a	means	to	identify	perpetrators	of	sexual	
assault.	 The	 Association	 also	 believes	 in	        I-28. Bullying
the	 importance	 of	 counseling	 and	 reha-                The	 National	 Education	 Association	
bilitation	for	the	assailant,	and	the	protec-          believes	the	school	environment	must	be	
tion	of	privacy	and	due	process	rights	for	            free	 from	 all	 forms	 of	 bullying.	 Bully-
both	the	victim	and	the	alleged	assailant.	            ing	 is	 the	 systematic	 and	 chronic	 inflic-
(1981,	2005)                                           tion	 of	 physical	 hurt	 and/or	 psychologi-
                                                       cal	 distress	 on	 one	 or	 more	 individuals.	
I-27. Human Relations in the School                    The	Association	recognizes	that	bullying	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	             in	 schools	 is	 not	 limited	 to	 students,	 but	
believes	 that	 improved	 human	 relations	            can	include	members	of	the	entire	school	
is	essential	to	the	school	environment.	To	            community.
improve	 human	 relations	 in	 all	 schools,	              The	Association	 encourages	its	affili-
the	Association	calls	for—	                            ates	to	work	with	local	school	districts	and	
    a.	 School	 recruitment	 and	 staffing	            institutions	of	higher	education	to	develop	
policies	that	will	ensure	culturally	diverse	          comprehensive	 schoolwide	 programs	 in-
education	employees	                                   cluding	all	stakeholders	to	address	bully-
    b.	 Appropriate	 classroom	 and	 other	            ing.	Such	programs	should—


310
                                                                                      Resolutions

    a.	 Establish	 strong	 policies	 prohibit-     the	 religion	 of	 others,	 and	 the	 historical	
ing	 bullying	 that	 include	 the	 definition,	    and	 cultural	 influences	 of	 various	 world	
consequences,	and	procedures	for	report-           religions.	
ing	and	appeals                                        The	 Association	 believes	 that	 lo-
    b.	 Develop	and	implement	education-           cal	 school	 boards	 should	 adopt	 policies	
al	programs	designed	to	help	students	rec-         that	govern	religious	activities	on	school	
ognize,	understand,	prevent,	oppose,	and	          property.	 Such	 policies	 must	 respect	 the	
eliminate	bullying                                 separation	 of	 church	 and	 state;	 govern	
    c.	 Provide	training	for	all	school	em-        voluntary,	student-led	meetings	with	adult	
ployees	in	bullying	prevention	and	inter-          supervision	before	or	after	normal	school	
vention                                            hours;	treat	all	religions	on	an	equal	ba-
    d.	 Provide	 professional	 development	        sis;	and	protect	the	rights	of	students	and	
materials	and	resources.                           education	employees.	
    These	 programs	 should	 be	 reviewed,	            The	Association	also	believes	that	the	
revised,	 and	 updated	 to	 reflect	 changing	     constitutional	provisions	on	the	establish-
needs.	(2004)                                      ment	of	and	the	free	exercise	of	religion	in	
                                                   the	First	Amendment	require	that	there	be	
I-29. Martin Luther King, Jr. Day                  no	sectarian	practices	in	the	public	school	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	          program.	 The	 Association	 opposes	 the	
believes	that	Martin	Luther	King,	Jr.	Day	         imposition	 of	 sectarian	 practices	 in	 the	
should	be	a	state	holiday	in	every	state	to	       public	school	program	and	urges	its	affili-
focus	 on	 the	 importance	 of	 human	 rela-       ates	to	do	the	same.	
tions.	The	Association	encourages	the	ob-              The	 Association	 also	 opposes	 any	
servance	of	this	day	to	promote	good	will	         federal	legislation	or	mandate	that	would	
among	all	people.	(1969,	2001)                     require	school	districts	to	schedule	a	mo-
                                                   ment	 of	 silence.	 The	 Association	 par-
I-30. Freedom of Religion                          ticularly	opposes	a	moment	of	silence	as	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	         a	 condition	 for	 receiving	 federal	 funds.	
believes	that	freedom	of	religion	is	a	fun-        (1995,	1999)
damental	 human	 right.	 The	 Association	
also	believes	that	choice	of	religion	is	an	       I-31. Gun-Free Schools and the
intensely	personal	decision.	Instruction	in	       Regulation of Deadly Weapons
religious	 doctrines	 and	 practices	 is	 best	        The	 National	 Education	 Association	
provided	 within	 a	 family	 setting	 and/or	      believes	 that	 all	 students	 and	 education	
by	religious	institutions.	                        employees	 must	 be	 allowed	 to	 learn	 and	
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	     work	 in	 an	 environment	 free	 of	 unau-
schools	 should	 teach	 the	 rights	 and	 re-      thorized	guns	and	other	deadly	weapons.	
sponsibilities	associated	with	the	freedom	        Severe	 penalties	 should	 be	 enacted	 and	
of	religion,	the	religious	heritage	and	di-        strenuously	enforced	for	criminal	actions	
versity	 of	 the	 United	 States,	 respect	 for	   involving	guns	and	other	deadly	weapons,	


                                                                                               311
Resolutions

especially	in	school	settings,	and	for	those	      to	release	the	 names	 of	the	victims.	The	
who	profit	from	the	illegal	sale,	importa-         Association	 further	believes	that	victims	
tion,	 and	 distribution	 of	 these	 weapons.	     and	their	families	must	be	made	aware	of	
The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	 indi-      and	have	free	access	to	necessary	servic-
viduals	who	bring	guns	or	deadly	weap-             es/programs.	 These	 services/programs	
ons	 to	 school	 should	 be	 excluded	 from	       must	 be	 funded	 by	 the	 appropriate	 gov-
school	and	school	grounds	until	undergo-           ernment	agencies.	(1987,	2001)
ing	mandatory	prescribed	intervention.	
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	     I-33. Military Veterans
strict	 prescriptive	 regulations	 are	 neces-         The	 National	 Education	 Association	
sary	for	the	manufacture,	importation,	dis-        believes	 that	 many	 veterans	 of	 military	
tribution,	sale	and	resale	of	handguns	and	        conflicts	 are	 suffering	 physical,	 social,	
ammunition	 magazines.	 The	 possession	           and	 psychological	 problems	 because	 of	
by	the	private	sector	of	automatic	weap-           their	 involvement	 in	 combat	 and	 related	
ons	and	military-style	semiautomatic	as-           military	 activities.	 The	 Association	 sup-
sault	weapons	should	be	illegal,	except	for	       ports	 federal	 and	 state	 increases	 in	 ben-
historical	and	collection	purposes,	which	         efits	 and	 programs,	 including	 retirement	
must	 be	 strictly	 regulated.	 A	 mandatory	      benefits,	 for	 these	 military	 veterans	 to	
background	check	and	a	mandatory	wait-             meet	their	needs.	(1981,	1997)
ing	period	should	occur	prior	to	the	sale	
of	all	firearms.	The	Association	believes	         I-34. Veterans Day
that	 minors	 shall	 not	 be	 allowed	 to	 buy,	       The	 National	 Education	 Association	
own,	or	sell	firearms.	                            believes	 that	 children	 and	 people	 of	 this	
    The	Association	also	believes	that	gun	        nation	should	honor	and	memorialize	the	
owners	 should	 participate	 in	 educational	      sacrifices	and	heroic	acts	of	the	men	and	
programs	 that	 stress	 responsible	 owner-        women	 who	 have	 served	 in	 the	 Armed	
ship,	 including	 safe	 use	 and	 storage	 of	     Forces.	 Veterans	 Day	 should	 be	 main-
guns.	(1982,	2003)                                 tained	as	a	legal	holiday.	Students	should	
                                                   be	taught	the	importance	and	magnitude	
I-32. Victims of a Crime                           of	the	sacrifices	made	by	service	men	and	
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	          women	 in	 the	 protection	 of	 the	 United	
believes	 that	 victims	 of	 a	 crime	 should	     States	 during	 war	 and	 peace.	 Affiliates	
be	 treated	 with	 dignity	 and	 compassion,	      and	 school	 systems	 should	 plan	 obser-
without	the	fear	of	intimidation.	Victims	         vances	to	promote	the	celebration	of	vet-
and	 their	 families	 should	 be	 notified	 of	    erans’	 courage,	 patriotism,	 and	 sacrifice	
and	have	the	right	to	be	present/represent-        for	every	member	of	society.	(2001)
ed	 at	 all	 hearings	 and	 legal	 proceedings	
involving	the	defendant/perpetrator.	              I-35. Traffic Safety
   The	Association	also	believes	that	it	is	          The	 National	 Education	 Association	
a	violation	of	the	victims’	right	to	privacy	      believes	 that	 traffic	 deaths	 and	 injuries	


312
                                                                                       Resolutions

must	 be	 reduced.	 The	 Association	 sup-            The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
ports—	                                            no	current	employee	should	be	displaced	
   a.	 Enactment	 and	 enforcement	 of	 ef-        nor	position	abolished	as	a	result	of	gov-
fective	 and	 equitable	 legislation	 regulat-     ernment	efforts	to	move	individuals	from	
ing	 driving	 while	 under	 the	 influence	 of	    welfare	to	work.	(1971,	1999)
alcohol,	 drugs,	 or	 other	 mind-altering	
substances	                                        RIGHTS OF SPECIFIC GROUPS
   b.	 Appropriate	 educational	 experi-
ences	for	students	regarding	the	effects	of	       I-37. Protection of Senior Citizens
driving	while	under	the	influence	                     The	 National	 Education	 Association	
   c.	 Recognized	community	and	school	            condemns	the	physical,	mental,	and	eco-
groups	in	their	efforts	to	reduce	death	and	       nomic	abuse	of	senior	citizens.	
injury	 from	 accidents	 caused	 by	 drivers	          The	Association	also	condemns	those	
under	the	influence                                policies	 and	 practices	 that	 result	 in	 poor	
   d.	 Legislation	 requiring	 mandatory	          medical	care;	physical,	mental,	and	eco-
restraint	of	all	passengers	in	motor	vehi-         nomic	 abuse;	 excessive	 pharmaceutical	
cles,	excluding	school	buses.	The	legisla-         charges;	 inadequate	 dietary	 programs;	
tion	should	require	the	use	of	seat	belts	for	     deteriorating	 living	 quarters;	 and	 un-
adults	 and	 minor	 children	 and	 approved	       trained	staff	for	patients	and	residents	of	
car	seats	for	infants	and	young	children	          nursing	and	retirement	homes.	
   e.	 Legislation	 requiring	 the	 use	 of	           The	 Association	 supports	 legislation	
helmets	for	bicycle	and	motorcycle	riders	         and	consumer	education	to	eliminate	the	
   f.	 Continued	 research	 and	 the	 de-          use	of	unethical	techniques,	scare	tactics,	
velopment	 of	 safety	 features	 and	 passive	     and	 misrepresentation	 to	 divest	 senior	
restraint	systems	for	passengers	in	school	        citizens	of	their	financial	resources.	
buses	 and	 for	 the	 inclusion	 of	 those	 fea-       The	 Association	 believes	 that	 its	 af-
tures	shown	to	be	effective.	(1982,	1999)          filiates	 should	 join	 in	 political	 action	 to	
                                                   bring	about	legislative	and	administrative	
I-36. Federal and State Support for                reform	 at	 the	 state	 and	 national	 levels.	
Public Welfare                                     (1978,	1997)
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	
believes	that	conditions	that	cause	reliance	      I-38. People Living with HIV/AIDS
on	public	welfare	must	be	alleviated.	The	            The	 National	 Education	 Association	
Association	also	believes	that	the	federal	        believes	 that	 people	 living	 with	 human	
and	state	governments	must	work	together	          immunodeficiency	 virus	 (HIV)	 or	 with	
to	provide	assistance	in	education,	hous-          acquired	 immunodeficiency	 syndrome	
ing,	 child	 care,	 health	 care,	 transporta-     (AIDS)	should	be	ensured	fair	and	equi-
tion,	and	job	training/placement.	Further-         table	 treatment	 allowing	 equal	 access	 to	
more,	assistance	must	continue	during	the	         education,	employment,	living	conditions,	
transition	from	welfare	to	work.	                  and	all	rights	guaranteed	by	law.	(1994)


                                                                                                313
Resolutions

I-39. Disabilities Awareness                            Such	 persons	 should	 have	 access,	 as	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	           needed,	 to	 primary	 hospital	 care,	 out-
believes	that	the	human	and	civil	rights	of	         patient	 services,	 necessary	 medication,	
students,	 education	 employees,	 and	 com-          social	 services,	 and	 housing	 in	 the	 least	
munity	members	with	disabilities	must	be	            restrictive	environment.	
protected.	The	Association	encourages	its	              Financial	 assistance	 for	 such	 care	
affiliates	to	educate	their	own	members	and	         should	 be	 based	 upon	 the	 ability	 of	 the	
the	public	at	large	to	bring	about	an	aware-         individual	to	pay.	(1986)
ness	of	disability	issues.	(1999,	2001)
                                                     OPPOSITION TO ALL FORMS OF
I-40. Accessibility for Persons with                 DISCRIMINATION
Disabilities
   The	 National	 Education	 Association	            I-43. Elimination of Discrimination
believes	 that	 all	 buildings	 should	 be	 in	         The	National	Education	Association	is	
compliance	 with	 the	 accessibility	 stan-          committed	to	the	elimination	of	discrimi-
dards	of	the	Americans	with	Disabilities	            nation	 based	 on	 race,	 gender,	 ethnicity,	
Act.	(1988,	1997)                                    economic	status,	religion,	disability,	sex-
                                                     ual	orientation,	gender	identification,	age,	
I-41. Protection of Persons with                     and	all	other	forms	of	discrimination.	
Mental Disabilities                                     The	 Association	 believes	 that	 honest	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	           and	 open	 conversation	 is	 a	 precursor	 to	
believes	that	the	human	and	civil	rights	of	         change.	 The	 Association	 encourages	 its	
individuals	with	mental	disabilities	must	           members	 and	 all	 other	 members	 of	 the	
be	protected.	                                       educational	community	to	engage	in	cou-
    The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	          rageous	conversations	in	order	to	examine	
individuals	 with	 mental	 disabilities	 who	        assumptions,	 prejudices,	 discriminatory	
have	committed	criminal	offenses	should	             practices,	and	their	effects.	
receive	all	diagnostic	and/or	psychologi-               The	 Association	 condemns	 any	 code	
cal	 services	 that	 meet	 their	 needs	 and	        or	system	of	discrimination	and	exploita-
guarantee	 their	 right	 not	 to	 be	 abused	        tion.	 The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	
while	 incarcerated.	 The	 Association	 fur-         sanctions	 are	 both	 justified	 and	 neces-
ther	 believes	 that	 individuals	 with	 men-        sary	against	governments,	organizations,	
tal	disabilities	should	not	be	subjected	to	         businesses,	 and/or	 groups	 that	 utilize	 or	
capital	punishment.	(1989,	1997)                     support	 discriminatory	 practices.	 (1976,	
                                                     2005)
I-42. Care of the Mentally Ill
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	           I-44. Discrimination by
believes	 that	 it	 is	 society’s	 responsibility	   Organizations
to	provide	quality	care	for	individuals	suf-             The	National	Education	Association	be-
fering	from	debilitating	mental	illness.	            lieves	 that	 organizations	 are	 strengthened	


314
                                                                                       Resolutions

by	offering	membership	on	a	nondiscrimi-             practices	 and	 to	 actively	 work	 to	 elimi-
natory	basis.	                                       nate	them.	(1998,	1999)
    The	 Association	 shall	 not	 participate	
in	programs	sponsored	by	any	organiza-               I-46. Use of Prejudicial Terms and
tion	and/or	its	auxiliary	that	deny	mem-             Symbols
bership	 to	 certain	 segments	 of	 our	 soci-           The	 National	 Education	 Association	
ety	on	a	discriminatory	basis	when	such	         	   deplores	prejudice	based	on	race,	ethnic-
denials	 are	 not	 related	 to	 the	 stated	 pur-    ity,	 religion,	 sexual	 orientation,	 gender	
poses	 of	 the	 organization,	 nor	 shall	 the	      identification,	gender,	age,	disability,	size,	
Association	 utilize	 the	 facilities	 of	 such	     marital	status,	or	economic	status	and	re-
organizations.	                                      jects	 the	 use	 of	 names,	 symbols,	 carica-
    The	Association	urges	its	affiliates	and	        tures,	 emblems,	 logos,	 and	 mascots	 that	
members	 not	 presently	 holding	 member-            promote	such	prejudice.	(1992,	2002)
ship	in	such	organizations	to	discontinue	
any	involvement	with	such	organizations	             I-47. Hate-Motivated Violence
and	urges	that	its	members	not	participate	              The	 National	 Education	 Association	
in,	provide	programs	to,	or	join	organiza-           believes	that	hate-motivated	violence,	in-
tions	utilizing	exclusionary	membership.	            cluding,	 but	 not	 limited	 to,	 physical	 and	
    The	 Association	 also	 urges	 its	 mem-         verbal	 violence	 against	 individuals	 or	
bers	now	holding	membership	in	such	or-              groups	 because	 of	 their	 race,	 color,	 na-
ganizations	to	work	actively	from	within	            tional	origin,	religion,	gender,	sexual	ori-
for	 the	 total	 elimination	 of	 such	 exclu-       entation,	 gender	 identification,	 age,	 dis-
sionary	clauses.	(1974,	1998)                        ability,	 size,	 marital	 status,	 or	 economic	
                                                     condition	 is	 deplorable.	 The	 Association	
I-45. Institutional Discrimination                   also	 believes	 that	 the	 threat	 or	 promo-
     The	 National	 Education	 Association	          tion	 of	 such	 violence	 is	 equally	 deplor-
believes	 that	 the	 fabric	 of	 our	 society	 is	   able.	 The	 Association	 further	 believes	
strengthened	when	the	contributions	of	all	          that	federal,	state,	and	local	governments	
its	 diverse	 members	 are	 encouraged	 and	         and	community	groups	must	oppose	and	
embraced.	 The	 Association	 recognizes	             eliminate	 hate-motivated	 violence	 and	
that	 institutional	 and	 public	 policies	 and	     that	current	events	and/or	economic	con-
practices	sometimes	discriminate	against	            ditions	should	not	diminish	such	opposi-
some	segments	of	the	population.	                    tion.	(1991,	2002)
     The	Association	deplores	those	social,	
institutional,	 and	 governmental	 actions	          I-48. Violence Against and
and	policies	that	engender	discriminatory	           Exploitation of Asians/Pacific
practices.	The	Association	encourages	its	           Islanders
affiliates,	in	concert	with	community	or-               The	 National	 Education	 Association	
ganizations,	to	educate	the	public	to	bring	         opposes	 the	 expression	 of	 covert	 and	
about	 an	 awareness	 of	 such	 policies	 and	       overt	sentiments,	threats,	and	incidents	of	


                                                                                                315
Resolutions

racially	motivated	physical	and/or	verbal	        museum	collections	should	be	returned	to	
violence	toward	Asians/Pacific	Islanders.	        the	tribes	of	their	origin.	(1989,	1998)
The	 Association	 believes	 that	 commu-
nity-based	 educational	 programs	 should	        I-51. Linguistic Diversity
be	 developed	 by	 local	 school	 systems	 in	        The	 National	 Education	 Association	
conjunction	 with	 Asian/Pacific	 Islander	       believes	 that,	 although	 English	 is	 the	
groups	to	eliminate	this	violence.	The	As-        language	of	political	and	economic	com-
sociation	supports	clear	and	consistent	law	      munication	in	the	United	States,	efforts	to	
enforcement	to	protect	the	civil	and	human	       legislate	English	as	the	official	language	
rights	of	the	victims	of	such	violence.	          disregard	cultural	pluralism;	deprive	those	
   The	 Association	 also	 opposes	 the	 ex-      in	need	of	education,	social	services,	and	
ploitation	of	women	as	mail-order	brides.	        employment;	and	must	be	challenged.
(1984,	1999)                                          The	Association	recognizes	the	impor-
                                                  tance	 of	 an	 individual’s	 native	 language	
I-49. Internment/Containment                      and	culture	and	the	need	to	promote	and	
Policies                                          preserve	 them	 through	 instruction,	 pub-
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	        lic	service	announcements,	and	all	other	
recognizes	that	restrictive	and/or	punitive	      forms	of	communication.	(1987,	2004)
action	based	on	race	or	national	origin	is	
a	 violation	 of	 constitutional	 guarantees	     I-52. Inclusive Medical Studies
and	 is	 repugnant	 to	 the	 American	 ideals	        The	 National	 Education	 Association	
of	life,	liberty,	and	property.	                  believes	that	women	and	members	of	ra-
    The	Association	condemns	the	practice	        cial	minority	groups	must	be	included	in	
of	internment/containment	of	racially	iden-       the	 samples	 of	 all	 medical	 studies,	 sur-
tifiable	segments	of	our	newly	immigrated	        veys,	and	research	purporting	to	yield	re-
and	current	populations.	(1982,	1998)             sults	applicable	to	all	segments	of	a	popu-
                                                  lation.	(1991)
I-50. Reparation of Native American
Remains                                           I-53. Sexual Harassment
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	           The	 National	 Education	 Association	
believes	 in	 the	 dignity	 of	 the	 dead	 and	   recognizes	 that	 sexual	 harassment	 is	 a	
encourages	laws	to	prevent	the	robbing	of	        form	of	sex	discrimination	or	abuse.	
graves.	                                             The	Association	believes	that	students	
    The	Association	also	believes	that	the	       and	 education	 employees	 should	 be	 pro-
remains	of	thousands	of	Native	Americans	         tected	 from	 sexual	 harassment.	 The	 As-
in	 storage	 throughout	 the	 United	 States	     sociation	encourages	its	affiliates	to	work	
should	 be	 returned	 for	 interment	 to	 the	    with	local	school	districts	and	institutions	
tribes	and/or	areas	from	which	they	were	         of	higher	education	to—	
taken.	 The	 Association	 further	 believes	         a.	 Establish	 strong	 policies	 defining	
that	 American	 Indian	 sacred	 items	 in	    	   and	prohibiting	sexual	harassment	


316
                                                                                       Resolutions

    b.	 Develop	 educational	 programs	              associations	 must	 eliminate	 discrimina-
designed	 to	 help	 people	 recognize,	 un-          tory	practices	against	women	in	employ-
derstand,	prevent,	combat,	and	eliminate	            ment,	promotion,	and	compensation.	Per-
sexual	harassment	                                   sonnel	policies	must	include	family	leave,	
    c.	 Develop	and	publicize	a	grievance	           maternity	leave,	paternity	leave,	leave	for	
procedure	 that	 encourages	 the	 reporting	         adoption	of	a	child,	child-care	leave,	and	
of	 incidents	 of	 sexual	 harassment,	 re-          professional	leave	that	encourages	women	
solves	complaints	promptly,	and	protects	            to	 participate	 in	 professional	 growth	 ex-
the	rights	of	all	parties	                           periences	 and	 to	 prepare	 for	 administra-
    d.	 Form	 and	 train	 support	 groups	 to	       tive	and	executive	positions.	
assist	 in	 the	 counseling	 of	 targets	 of	 al-        The	Association	believes	that	national,	
leged	sexual	harassment.	(1988,	1999)                state,	and	local	agencies	should	consider	
                                                     research	 specifically	 related	 to	 women	
I-54. Equal Opportunity for Women                    and	their	health	problems	and	concerns.	
    The	 National	 Education	 Associa-                   The	Association	also	believes	that	pro-
tion	 believes	 that	 all	 persons,	 regardless	     fessional	associations	at	all	levels	should	
of	 gender,	 must	 have	 equal	 opportunity	         adopt	 policies	 that	 ensure	 women	 equal	
for	 employment,	 promotion,	 compensa-              access	 to	 elective,	 appointive,	 and	 staff	
tion	(including	equal	pay	for	comparable	            positions.	
worth),	and	leadership	in	all	activities.	               The	 Association	 further	 believes	 in	
    The	 Association	 supports	 an	 amend-           the	 establishment	 of	 women’s	 education	
ment	 to	 the	 U.S.	 Constitution	 (such	 as	        committees	in	local	and	state	affiliates	as	
the	Equal	Rights	Amendment)	that	guar-               a	vehicle	for	implementation	of	equal	op-
antees	 that	 equality	 of	 rights	 under	 the	      portunity	for	women.	
law	 shall	 not	 be	 denied	 or	 abridged	 by	           The	 Association	 believes	 that	 sexism	
the	United	States	or	by	any	state	because	           and	 sex	 discrimination	 must	 be	 elimi-
of	 gender.	 The	 Association	 urges	 its	 af-       nated	 and	 endorses	 the	 use	 of	 nonsexist	
filiates	 to	 support	 ratification	 of	 such	 an	   language.	(1969,	2002)
amendment.	 The	 Association	 also	 sup-
ports	 the	 enactment	 and	 full	 funding	 of	       I-55. Personal Relationships in
the	Women’s	Educational	Equity	Act.	                 Higher Education
    The	Association	also	believes	that	the	             The	 National	 Education	 Association	
Equal	Employment	Opportunity	Commis-                 recognizes	 that	 in	 institutions	 of	 higher	
sion	must	have	cease-and-desist	authority	           education	 adult	 students	 and	 education	
to	act	in	all	cases	of	discrimination	based	         employees	 may	 establish	 personal	 rela-
on	race,	creed,	color,	age,	national	origin,	        tionships.	 However,	 such	 relationships	
sexual	 orientation,	 gender	 identification,	       should	 be	 voluntary	 and	 not	 be	 used	 to	
and	gender.	                                         coerce	 or	 influence	 others	 for	 personal	
    The	 Association	 further	 believes	         	   advantage.	Thus,	the	Association	believes	
that	 governing	 boards	 and	 education	         	   that	sexual	relationships	between	a	faculty	


                                                                                               317
Resolutions

member	and	a	student	currently	enrolled	              The	 Association	 urges	 its	 affiliates	
in	the	faculty	member’s	course,	or	under	         to	encourage	school	boards	to	study	and	
the	supervision	or	direction	of	any	higher	       consider	seriously	the	negative	impact	on	
education	 employee,	 are	 unprofessional.	       minority	students	when	schools	located	in	
The	 Association	 encourages	 its	 affiliates	    minority	 neighborhoods	 are	 targeted	 for	
in	institutions	of	higher	education	to	seek	      closing.	
the	 establishment	 of	 strong	 policies	 de-         The	 Association	 will	 assist	 its	 affili-
claring	such	relationships	unprofessional.	       ates	 to	 ensure	 that	 education	 employees,	
(1989,	1998)                                      parents/guardians,	 and	 students	 are	 in-
                                                  volved	 in	 the	 development	 of	 plans	 de-
I-56. Businesses Owned by                         signed	to	achieve	integration.	The	Asso-
Minorities and/or Women                           ciation	also	believes	that	state	and	federal	
   The	 National	 Education	 Associa-             agencies	should	provide	funds	necessary	
tion	 believes	 that	 businesses	 owned	 by	      to	 implement	 integration	 programs,	 in-
minorities	 and/or	 women	 should	 be	 en-        cluding	 funds	 for	 student	 transportation.	
couraged.	 The	 Association	 also	 believes	      The	 Association	 also	 urges	 participation	
that	 the	 federal	government	should	initi-       in	citizen	advisory	committees—consist-
ate	 and	 continue	 policies	 that	 encourage	    ing	 of	 members	 designated	 by	 the	 local	
businesses	 owned	 by	 minorities	 and/or	        education	 association,	 parents,	 and	 rep-
women.	(1989,	2004)                               resentatives	of	community	organizations,	
                                                  business,	clergy,	and	media—that	reflect	
INTEGRATION AND                                   the	 ethnic	 makeup	 of	 the	 community	 in	
DESEGREGATION                                     developing,	implementing,	and	evaluating	
                                                  student	desegregation	plans.	
I-57. Integration in the Public                       The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
Schools                                           integrated	schools	must	provide	students	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	        with	equal	access	to	all	curricular	and	ex-
                                              	
believes	 that	 it	 is	 imperative	 that	 full	   tracurricular	programs	and	to	technologi-
integration	 of	 the	 nation’s	 schools	 be	  	   cal	equipment	and	knowledge.	
effected.	                                            The	Association	opposes	any	attempts	
    The	 Association	 recognizes	 that	 ac-       to	 delay	 or	 impede	 implementation	 of	
ceptable	 integration	 plans	 will	 include	      desegregation	 orders	 and	 will,	 therefore,	
affirmative	action	programs	and	a	variety	        resist	all	efforts	to	resegregate	integrated	
of	 devices,	 such	 as	 geographic	 realign-      schools.	 	 The	 Association	 also	 opposes	
ment,	 pairing	 of	 schools,	 grade	 pairing,	    any	 governmental	 attempts	 to	 resegre-
and	 satellite	 and	 magnet	 schools.	 Some	      gate	 public	 schools	 through	 any	 means,	
arrangements	may	require	busing	of	stu-           including	 vouchers,	 charters,	 and	 other	
dents	in	order	to	comply	with	established	        school-choice	initiatives.	
guidelines	adhering	to	the	letter	and	spirit	         The	Association	will	continue	to	oppose	
of	the	law.	                                      vigorously	the	systematic	displacement	or	


318
                                                                                       Resolutions

demotion	 of	 minority,	 especially	 Black,	       J. OBTAIN FOR ITS MEMBERS THE
teachers	and	administrators	to	achieve	in-         BENEFITS OF AN INDEPENDENT,
tegration.	The	Association	further	opposes	        UNITED EDUCATION PROFESSION
actions	 of	 boards	 of	 education	 to	 finance	
integration	 plans	 through	 reduction	 of	        STRONG EFFECTIVE
school	 staff.	 In	 addition,	 the	 Association	   ASSOCIATIONS/AFFILIATES
will	 oppose	 the	 capricious	 reassignment	
and	displacement	of	Hispanic	teachers	and	         J-1. Strong Professional
administrators	 because	 of	 desegregation	        Associations
and	bilingual	programs.	(1969,	2004)                   The	 National	 Education	 Association	
                                                   believes	 that	 an	 independent	 and	 profes-
I-58. Ethnic-Minority Educators                    sional	organization	is	vital	to	its	members	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	         and	affiliates.	This	independence	must	be	
believes	 that	 multiracial	 teaching	 staffs	     safeguarded	in	any	alignments	with	other	
are	 essential	 to	the	 operation	of	schools.	     organizations.	
The	 Association	 deplores	 the	 current	              The	Association	also	believes	that	the	
trend	 of	 diminishing	 numbers	 of	 ethnic-       unified	effort	of	a	professional	organiza-
minority	educators.	                               tion	promotes	the	interests	of	its	members	
    The	Association	urges	local	and	state	         and	advances	a	strong,	healthy	education-
affiliates	and	appropriate	governing	bod-          al	environment.	(1974,	2004)
ies	 and	 agencies	 to	 work	 to	 achieve	 and	
maintain	ethnic	diversity	in	all	categories	       J-2. Supporting Locals in Jeopardy
of	 educational	 employment.	 The	 Asso-               The	 National	 Education	 Association	
ciation	also	urges	Department	of	Defense	          believes	 that	 assistance	 should	 be	 af-
Education	 Activity	 (DoDEA)	 schools	 to	         forded	to	those	affiliates	that	exist	within	
actively	 recruit	 and	 hire	 ethnic-minority	     concentrated	 territories	 of	 competing	
educators.                                         organizations.	 The	 Association	 encour-
    The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that,	       ages	 its	 affiliates	 to	 initiate	 and	 support	
whenever	possible	and/or	appropriate,	el-          programs	 that	 will	 strengthen	 and	 en-
ders	and/or	community	leaders	of	a	par-            hance	 the	 local	 organizational	 structure	
ticular	culture	should	be	invited	to	share	        and	 promote	 membership	 growth	 within	
their	skills	and	knowledge	as	instructors	         the	Association.	Continuous	communica-
of	 a	 culturally	 appropriate	 curriculum.	       tions	and	cooperation	of	local,	state,	and	
(1979,	2006)                                       national	bodies	are	keys	to	the	success	of	
                                                   the	 local	 affiliates	 in	 building	 solid	 pro-
                                                   fessional	organizations.	
                                                       The	Association	also	believes	that	as-
                                                   sistance	should	be	given	to	those	local	af-
                                                   filiates	that	have	been		
                                                       a.		Targeted	for	take-over	efforts	


                                                                                                319
Resolutions

   b.		Taken	over	by	competing	organiza-            in	staff	positions	consistent	with	Associa-
tions	                                              tion	affirmative	action	policies.	
   c.		The	object	of			association	busting.		           The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	    	
   Members	 of	 affiliated	 locals	 that	 are	      its	 affiliates	 should	 maintain	 a	 commit-
not	the	bargaining	agent	must	be	provided	          ment	 to	 organizational	 policies	 and	 pro-
an	 effective	 means	 of	 processing	 griev-        grams	 that	 promote	 the	 training	 and	 in-
ances.	(1976,	1999)                                 volvement	of	minorities	at	all	levels	of	the	
                                                    organization.	
MEMBERSHIP PARTICIPATION                                The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
                                                    there	 is	 a	 need	 for	 systematic	 evaluation	
J-3. Membership Participation in                    of	 minority	 participation	 at	 all	 levels.	
the Association                                     (1972,	1996)
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	
believes	that	every	member	has	the	right	           J-5. Student Member Participation
and	 obligation	 to	 participate	 fully	 in	 the	       The	 National	 Education	 Association	
Association.	 The	 opportunity	 to	 partici-        believes	that	eligible	students	should	have	
pate	in	the	Association	must	be	afforded	           the	 opportunity	 to	 join	 the	 Association.	
every	member	without	fear,	intimidation,	           The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	 stu-
or	retribution.	                                    dents	should	be	encouraged	to	participate	
    The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	         in	the	Association	at	the	local,	state,	and	
school	 policies	 should	 provide	 released	        national	levels.	Preprofessional	and	lead-
time	without	loss	of	pay	to	those	who	are	          ership	training	should	be	priorities.	
fulfilling	 leadership	 responsibilities,	 at-          The	 Association	 further	 believes	 that	
tending	meetings,	or	participating	in	other	        its	 members	 should	 promote	 member-
Association	activities.	(1969,	1994)                ship	 in	 the	 NEA	 Student	 Program	 to	 all	
                                                    eligible	students,	including	student	teach-
J-4. Minority Participation in the                  ers	in	members		classrooms,	and	provide	
Association                                         opportunities	 for	 community	 outreach,	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	          professional	 development,	 and	 political	
believes	that	at	every	phase	of	governance	         action.	The	Association	believes	that	ad-
and	 on	 all	 decision-making	 levels	 of	 the	     visors	of	NEA	Student	chapters	should	be	
Association	 there	 should	 be	 minority	           members	of	the	Association.	
participation	at	least	proportionate	to	the	            The	Association	believes	that	state	af-
identified	 ethnic-minority	 population	 of	        filiates	should	facilitate	the	establishment	
that	geographic	level.	                             of	student	chapters	in	all	higher	education	
    Ethnic	 minorities	 should	 be	 included	       institutions	that	offer	teacher	preparation	
as	 candidates	 for	 positions	 at	 all	 levels.	   programs.
The	 Association	 should	 promote	 minor-               The	Association	also	believes	that	lo-
ity	participation	in	program	development	           cal	and	state	affiliates	should	collaborate	
and	should	employ	minorities	and	women	             with	student	programs	in	order	to	facilitate	


320
                                                                                         Resolutions

the	transition	from	student	to	professional	         of	education	as	a	profession	and	as	a	vital	
membership	status	within	the	Association	            role	in	every	community.	(1980,	2006)
so	that	Student	members	become	involved	
in	the	activities	 and	leadership	pathways	          GLOBAL EDUCATION PROFESSION
of	the	professional	Association	and	its	af-
filiates.	(1991,	2006)                               J-8. Universal Education Employee
                                                     Rights
J-6. Retired Member Participation                        The	 National	 Education	 Association	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	           supports	the	efforts	of	all	associations	of	
believes	 that	 retired	 members	 should	 be	        education	 employees	 in	 the	 world	 to	 se-
active	participants	within	the	Association	          cure	 basic	rights	for	their	members.	The	
at	the	national,	state,	and	local	levels.	           Association	 commends	 those	 education	
    Retired	 members	 should	 be	 involved	          employees	and	students	around	the	world	
in	 areas	 such	 as	 political	 action,	 legisla-    who	 champion	 academic	 freedom	 and	
tive	lobbying,	member	training,	crisis	as-           campaign	 against	 illiteracy,	 especially	
sistance,	 development	 and	 maintenance	            when	 their	 activities	 must	 be	 conducted	
of	 educational	 excellence,	 welfare	 and	          under	oppressive	and	often	life-threaten-
safety	 of	 children,	 public	 relations,	 and	      ing	conditions.	
retirement	issues.	                                      The	 Association	 stands	 ready	 to	 help	
    The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	 its	     all	 associations	 of	 education	 employees	
members	should	promote	membership	in	                obtain	 their	 basic	 rights	 as	 listed	 in	 the	
the	Retired	Program	to	all	eligible	mem-             NEA	resolutions.	
bers.	(1976,	2002)                                       The	Association	condemns	all	govern-
                                                     ments	for	their	roles	in	any	acts	of	injus-
J-7. Promotion of Teaching as a                      tice	against	education	employees	and	their	
Career Choice                                        organizations	and,	thus,	the	children	and	
    The	 National	 Education	 Association	           youth	of	those	countries.	The	Association	
supports	 the	 establishment	 of	 organiza-          urges	the	U.S.	government	to	refrain	from	
tions	involving	students	interested	in	the	          supporting	any	governments	that	suppress	
field	of	education	as	a	profession.	The	As-          academic	freedom	and	literacy.	
sociation	believes	that	its	state	and	local	             The	 Association	 also	 urges	 the	 U.S.	
affiliates	 should	 promote	 the	 establish-         government	 to	 refrain	 from	 any	 plan	 for	
ment	of	such	organizations	at	all	age	lev-           overt	 or	 covert	 action	 that	 would	 desta-
els	and	encourage	its	members	to	serve	as	           bilize	 or	 overthrow	 any	 government	 or	
advisers.	                                           would	 adversely	 affect	 a	 government’s	
    The	 Association	 also	 believes	 that	          successful	campaign	to	improve	literacy,	
state	 and	 local	 affiliates	 should	 strive	 to	   equal	education	support,	health	care,	and	
build	 cooperative	 relationships	 and	 part-        living	 and	 working	 conditions.	 (1981,	
nerships	 with	 government,	 business,	 and	         1995)
community	 leaders	 to	 promote	 the	 field	


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