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Early Experiences Last a Lifetime

VIEWS: 20 PAGES: 54

									                      Ohio’s
                      Infant & Toddler
                      Guidelines




Early Experiences Last a Lifetime
 The six developmental domains at the heart of school and life success.

  Physical Health                                        Motor Development
  Physical health is optimal when safe health            Motor development is the increasing ability to use
  practices and nutrition are combined with              one's body to interact with the environment.
  nurturing and responsive caregiving. Protecting
  children from illness and injury, and providing
  them with individually appropriate nutrition and
  a sanitary environment that reduces the risk of
  infectious disease, is important for all caregivers.



  Emotional Development                                  Language & Communication
  Emotional development is the child's emerging          Development
  ability to become secure, express feelings,
                                                         Language and communication development is the
  develop self-awareness and self-regulate.
                                                         increasing ability to communicate successfully with
                                                         others to build relationships, share meaning and
                                                         express needs in multiple ways.




  Social Development                                     Cognitive Development
  Social development is the child's emerging             Cognitive development is the building of
  development of an understanding of self and            thinking skills.
  others, and the ability to relate to other people
  and the environment.




Early Experiences Last a Lifetime
Purpose Statement: Why are these guidelines important?

Because early experiences last a lifetime and infancy is the morning of life…
The guidelines are seen as the critical first step to ensuring that all Ohio children, birth to three, have responsive, reciprocal and
respectful care. And as a result of that care, children will be ready for both school and life. There are 1,892 days from the time
babies are born until they enter school. This 1,892 day journey is remarkable, complex and far reaching. Approximately 150,000
babies are born every year in Ohio. Who they spend time with and how they are cared for affects who they will become. Ohio’s
Infant and Toddler Guidelines are meant for three diverse yet profoundly important groups of people in the lives of infants and
toddlers: parents, providers and policy makers.

Parents                                                                     Policy makers
You are your child’s first and best teacher. The guidelines are             To have prepared children and productive adults, Ohio must have
meant to assist you in your understanding of infant and toddler             state policies that strengthen the developmental trajectories of its
development. Within the guidelines document, posters for each               youngest citizens, babies and toddlers. It has been estimated
age range (birth-8 months, 6-18 months and 16-36 months)                    that every three-year-old that becomes a productive adult will         1
provide a snapshot of potential milestones for each of the                  contribute approximately $600,000 in taxes over the course of
developmental domains (physical health, emotional, social, motor,           a lifetime in taxes. There are more than 48,000 three-year-olds
language & communication and cognitive). If you want to learn               currently in child care programs across the state. When you
more about where your child is developmentally in relationship to           calculate the revenue potential, it is more than $28 billion.
a particular domain, you can tab to that domain. Each domain                Ultimately though, we want it said that Ohio takes care of its
has guidelines with indicators and examples of behaviors that               infants and toddlers because it is the right thing to do.
you might see your child demonstrate across the three stages
of infancy.
                                                                            What a responsibility! In our hands and under our influence,
Providers                                                                   there is the ability to shape experiences that last a lifetime.
In Ohio, approximately 90,000 infants and toddlers are cared for
                                                                            Ohio believes that babies truly are the nicest way to start
outside of their homes. The only requirement to care for children
is a high school diploma. These two facts make it imperative that           people. Babies are ready for us, are we ready for them?
those caring for our most valuable and vulnerable resource have
the knowledge necessary to do this work well. When used
effectively, the guidelines can assist programs and care teachers
in focusing on early development and learning in order to
support and strengthen the developmental outcomes of the
children they serve.
Ohio’s Guiding Principles
The following were absolutely essential to the writing team members —

The guideline must be evidence-based.                                  The guideline must link to best practices
To ensure that each guideline was evidence-based, a thorough           that support children’s optimal development.
review of research was conducted. In addition, widely used             To ensure that each guideline linked to best practices, each
assessment tools were reviewed to determine the alignment              guideline was reviewed for its developmental appropriateness.
of relevant developmental milestones with each guideline.
                                                                       The guideline must be useful to parents,
The guideline must take into account differences                       providers and policy makers.
in temperament, development and culture.                               To ensure that each guideline was useful to parents, providers and
To ensure that each guideline was inclusive of individual              policy makers, information was presented in an easy-to-use format
differences in temperament, development and culture, each              with examples from the child’s point of view.
guideline was examined from these perspectives.
                                                                       The guideline may be assessed or measured                            2
The guideline must be sensitive to both                                throughout the birth to three-year period.
cultural and linguistic differences.                                   To ensure that each guideline can be assessed or measured from
To ensure that each guideline was sensitive to both cultural and       birth to three years, each guideline was written to allow for
linguistic differences, each guideline was thoroughly reviewed to      observation and documentation.
see if the way a behavior might be expressed would be different
depending on a child’s cultural and/or linguistic background.

The guideline must be inclusive of children
with special needs.
To ensure that each guideline was inclusive of children with special
needs, universal design was utilized. Universal design means that
each guideline was written to be as inclusive as possible.
Ohio’s Path to Creating Infant & Toddler Guidelines
In 1965, Bruce Tuckman published his Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing Team Development Model. In the 1970’s,
he added a fifth stage, adjourning. In 2006, this model aptly describes the process of how Ohio’s Infant & Toddler
Guidelines were born.

Forming
Forming — Team members need guidance and direction, as roles             The team’s second decision was to create guidelines that would
and responsibilities are unclear.                                        reflect the best thinking of every profession that works with infants,
                                                                         toddlers and their families in Ohio. With this purpose in mind,
Build Ohio, an organization aimed at supporting early care and           the leadership team identified the developmental domains that
education systems building, identified the need to create infant and     would be included in the guidelines and then widely distributed
toddler guidelines. A leadership team from Build Ohio, composed          applications to find the best people to create the guidelines.
of representation from the Ohio Department of Education (ODE),           “Best” with regard to this work was defined as having content
the Ohio Department of Health (ODH), the Ohio Department of              expertise, experience and a demonstrated passion to work on
Job and Family Services (ODJFS) and the Ohio Child Care Resource         behalf of infants and toddlers. The team members listed on               3
and Referral Association (OCCRRA), collaboratively mapped out a          the next page represent the organizational, educational and
planning process and timeline.                                           experiential diversity that the leadership team envisioned.
                                                                         Ohio is very fortunate to have been able to assemble
The leadership team’s first decision was to enlist the expertise         a team such as this one.
of WestEd’s Center for Child and Family Studies. The Center is
nationally and internationally known for its work in creating the
Program for Infant/Toddler Care (PITC), the training approach that
is being implemented in Ohio as part of First Steps: Ohio’s Infant
and Toddler Initiative, as well as in other states across the country.
Ohio’s Infant & Toddler Guidelines: The Writing Team
Physical Health                                                                     Motor Development
Connie Bacon               Child Focus                                              Jane Case-Smith        Ohio State School of Allied Medical Professions
Shannon Cole               Ohio Department of Health                                Sherri Guthrie         Corporation for Ohio Appalachian Development
Tami Jaynes                Coshocton County Board of MRDD                           Sophie Hubbell
Bethany Moore**            Ohio Department of Health                                Adrienne Nagy          Ohio University
Michelle Moore             Child Care Choices                                       Linda Pax-Lowes*       Columbus Children's Hospital
Marie Vunda Pashi          Cincinnati-Hamilton County CAA                           Debra Riley            Stark County Board of MRDD
Julie Piazza               Berea Children's Home & Family Services                  Holly Rine             Coshocton County Board of MRDD
Linda Primrose-Barker      Council on Rural Service Programs                        Chris Stoneburner**    Build Ohio
Ellen Steward*             Columbus Children's Hospital                             Millette Tucker        Center for Families and Children
Cindy Wright               Coshocton County Board of MRDD                           Christine Wisniewski   Medical College of Ohio Early Learning

Emotional Development
Jeanine Bensman            Council on Rural Service Programs                        Language & Communication Development
Heather Childers Ellison   The Children's Home                                      Kristi Hannan          Lucas County Help Me Grow
Judee Gorezynski           Portage Children Center                                  Julie Hartwick         Help Me Grow of Cuyahoga County
Jamie Gottesman**          Ohio Department of Job & Family Services                 Jane Haun              Eastgate Early Childhood
David Hunter               Athens County Help Me Grow                               Carla Kossordji        YMCA-North Educare
                                                                                    Sara Kuhlwein          Hancock County Help Me Grow Program                 4
John Kinsel*               Samaritan Behavioral Health Inc.
Jane Pernicone             Starting Point                                           Alicia Leatherman**    Ohio Child Care Resource and Referral Association
June Sciarra                                                                        Debra Loyd             Community Action Wayne/Medina Early Head Start
Sherry Shamblin            Tri-County Mental Health and Counseling Services, Inc.   Ginger O'Conner*       Ewing School
Cindy Sherding             Ohio Department of Job & Family Services                 Amy Rudawsky           The Compass School
Jane Sites                 Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center            Holly Scheibe          Action for Children
                                                                                    Sonya Williams         Akron Summit Community Action Agency
Social Development
Ann Bowdish                Positive Education Program                               Cognitive Development
Michelle Figlar            Invest In Children                                       Becky Evemy            Creative World of Child Care
Diane Frazee               The Family Information Network of Ohio                   Kimberly German        NC State/OSU Mansfield
Sandy Grolle               WSOS Community Action Commission                         Sheila Jenkins         Cincinnati-Hamilton County CAA
Marla Himmeger             Ohio Department of Mental Health                         Avalene Neininger      Coshocton County Board of MRDD
Laurie Kennard             Coshocton County Board of MRDD                           Angela Parker*         Cognitive Early Childhood Resource Center
Michelle Koppleman         Apple Tree Nursery School                                Beth Popich            Clermont County Board of MRDD
Dannette Lund              Early Childhood Resource Center                          Willa Ann Smith        Akron Summit Community Action Agency
Marla Michelsen            Medical College of Ohio Early Learning                   Michelle Wright        Community Action Wayne/Medina Early Head Start
Kelly Smith**              Ohio Department of Job and Family Services               Yu-Ling Yeh            Akron Summit Community Action Agency
Kathy Vavro                Lake County Crossroads                                   Barbara Weinberg**     Ohio Department of Education
Kim Whaley*                COSI
                                                                                    State Level Leadership Team
                                                                                    Jamie Gottesman        Ohio Department of Job & Family Services
* Team Leader
                                                                                    Terrie Hare            Ohio Department of Job & Family Services
** Facilitator                                                                      Alicia Leatherman      Ohio Child Care Resource and Referral Association
                                                                                    Bethany Moore          Ohio Department of Health
                                                                                    Chris Stoneburner      Build Ohio
                                                                                    Barbara Weinberg       Ohio Department of Education
                                                                                    Debbie Wright          Ohio Department of Health
Ohio’s Path to Creating Infant & Toddler Guidelines

Storming
Storming — Team members have increased clarity but                      The second day with writing team members was spent
uncertainties still persist; decisions don’t come easily.               discussing overarching goals of the leadership team including —

The launch of Ohio’s Infant and Toddler Guidelines project in           • linking the infant and toddler guidelines to Ohio’s Early Learning
February 2005 began with a two-day meeting facilitated by Drs.            Content Standards in order to have a seamless pathway from
Ron Lally and Peter Mangione, co-directors of WestEd’s Center for         birth to school entry
Child and Family Studies. On the first day, key stakeholders from
the fields of early childhood education, infant mental health, health   • creating a design that attracts interest as well as content that
and early intervention, as well as higher education faculty, child        is easily understood and relevant to three distinct audiences:
care resource and referral staff, parent educators, funders and           parents, providers and policymakers
policymakers participated in a series of discussions. These
centered on —                                                           • defining guiding principles that would lay the foundation
                                                                          for guidelines
• the three distinct ages of infancy: birth-8 months, 6-18 months
                                                                                                                                               5
  and 16-36 months (the overlap reflects the impact of individual       • implementing a writing team process that would be fluid,
  differences on the rate of development)                                 flexible and adaptable to incorporate the latest and best
                                                                          thinking from research and practice
• the developmental drivers (security, exploration and identity)
  associated with the various ages of infancy

• the significance to infant and toddler development of the six
  developmental domains for which guidelines would be written:
  physical health, emotional development, social development,
  motor development, language & communication development
  and cognitive development

• the need to organize the work around six domains in order to
  write guidelines, while recognizing that research demonstrates
  that all of the domains of development are of equal importance
  and work synergistically
Ohio’s Path to Creating Infant & Toddler Guidelines

Norming                                                                 Performing
Norming — Team members’ roles/responsibilities become clear;            Performing — Team members have a shared vision, make
big decisions are made by group agreement, and consensus forms.         decisions based on agreed-upon criteria and work autonomously.

The writing teams met once a month beginning in March 2005.             During the spring of 2005, domain drafts began to take shape.
Each meeting started with the leadership team providing updates         As the writing teams completed their preliminary work in the
and clarifications for all the teams in a large group. The group then   summer of 2005, WestEd thoroughly reviewed the content
broke into the respective teams for the remainder of the day.           and provided each team with key questions to consider. By August
WestEd staff were present at the monthly meetings to provide            2005, each writing team incorporated WestEd’s feedback into a first
content expertise as well as to lead writing team members through       complete draft and submitted it to the leadership team. WestEd
a reflective inquiry process. Between each of the monthly meetings,     then focused on editing the guidelines to make them consistent
the leadership team met with WestEd about the unfolding process.        across domains. WestEd worked with the leadership team to
The decision points along the way included —                            ensure that the multi-disciplinary perspectives of the writing team
                                                                        members and the content were preserved as the presentation of
• the leadership team’s putting in place a plan to create companion     the different guidelines were standardized and organized into a          6
  documents that clarified the role of the caregiver, the importance    coherent document. A revised draft of the guidelines was submitted
  of the environment and the accessibility to resources for parents     to the writing teams in December 2005 for their review and
  and providers                                                         feedback. In January 2006, the leadership team and WestEd
                                                                        considered every question, comment and suggestion from the
• the emotional and social development writing teams’ agreeing to       writing team members. The following feedback was incorporated
  present their two domains separately                                  into the guidelines —

• the defining of a guiding principle that identifies the important     • Definition of terms — in this document, ”the person I’m
  influences of infant temperament and cultural experiences on            attached to” is identified as people to whom a child is emotionally
  individual differences in development                                   attached. “Caregivers” may be parents, grandparents, other
                                                                          relatives, a family child care provider, a caregiver in a child care
                                                                          center or anyone else who consistently cares for the child.

                                                                        • Gender — use of he/she is meant to be inclusive of both genders.
                                                                          In some instances, one gender was used to refer to children or
                                                                          adults of both genders for readability purposes only.
Ohio’s Path to Creating Infant & Toddler Guidelines

• Jargon — an attempt was made to use everyday language in the          • Children with special needs — although the principle of universal
  definitions of guidelines, descriptions of indicators and examples.     design was utilized in creating the guidelines, it should be noted
  A technical term or jargon was used when the meaning of a               that children develop in different ways and at different rates.
  concept being presented would have been compromised if an               The content of the guidelines may not apply to every infant or
  everyday term were used. Special effort was made to present             toddler. If there is concern about a child’s development, the best
  simple, straightforward examples from a baby’s point of view.           course of action is to talk to a professional. In Ohio, families may
                                                                          share concerns with their pediatrician, nurse practitioner or other
• Order of domains — physical health was placed first in this             medical professionals. Families may also call Help Me Grow, a
  document because it plays a prominent role in a child’s overall         statewide program that helps identify child development issues
  functioning. Emotional development follows because emotion              and coordinates supports and services to eligible children and
  is the root of all action. Motor development works hand-in-hand         families, at 1-800-755-GROW.
  with the child’s emerging language and cognitive abilities.
  Unfortunately, one of the six domains had to be last but that         Finally, the guidelines were put out to the field for feedback in
  placement in no way is meant to diminish its importance.              early February 2006. In an effort to be responsive to this feedback,
  The age posters were added to the overall presentation of the         the leadership team and WestEd finalized the guidelines. The
                                                                                                                                                 7
  guidelines to illustrate the synergistic nature of the domains.       leadership team then supervised the copy editing and formatting
                                                                        of the document for release to the field in March 2006.
• Teasing apart emotional and social development — the writing
  teams decided to treat the emotional and social development           Adjourning
  domains separately to draw attention to the importance and            Adjourning — Team members have fulfilled their purpose
  uniqueness of each. The emotional development domain focuses          successfully and are moving on to new things.
  on the child’s understanding of self. In contrast, the social
  development domain refers to the child’s understanding of the         The hope of the leadership team is that the guidelines will be
  connection between self and others, and the ability to relate         widely distributed and seen as a valuable support for parents,
  to other people and the environment. Because attachment               providers and policymakers. We especially want to thank the
  relationships are at the center of the emotional as well the social   writing team members for working to make the world a better
  development domains, attachment is a guideline under both of          place for Ohio’s babies.
  these domains. As a result, the definition of attachment, along
  with the indicator and examples under this guideline, is the
  same for both.
Ohio’s Path to Creating Infant & Toddler Guidelines

Special Acknowledgements
There was an overwhelming interest from around the state to be      • Joan Lombardi, whose demand for quality infant and toddler care
part of this process. For people who could not serve on a writing     sparked what would become First Steps: Ohio’s Infant Toddler
team, thank you for your comments, guidance and enthusiasm            Initiative.
about the completion of this work. Our appreciation extends to
all who participated and especially to the following —              • Thelma Harms and Debby Cryer (Honorary Ohio residents),
                                                                      thank you for your pure, honest and supportive feedback on
• Ron Lally and Peter Mangione, whose day-to-day work with the        all of the work we do in Ohio.
  Program for Infant Toddler Care (PITC) inspires us all to honor
  infants and toddlers and all those that care for them.            • Susan Rohrbough and Lori Connors-Tadros, from the National
                                                                      Child Care Information Center (NCCIC), who are always willing
• Cathy Tsao and Amy Wagner, from WestEd, thank you both for          to provide guidance and support for all of our work here in Ohio.
  being such “geeks” about infant and toddler development. Your
  unwavering support throughout the process and the incredible      • Paul Noski, from the Federal Child Care Bureau, who has
  patience you exhibited was inspirational, even with all of the      supported this work from the beginning.                              8
  surprises along the way.
                                                                    • Zero To Three, for the example it sets every day for all
• Wendy Lapuh and Kathleen Murphy of MurphyEpson, thank you           of us who care for and about infants and toddlers.
  both for making our dreams for babies come to life on paper.
                                                                    • Jeanne Lance, from the Ohio Department of Education, whose
• The family child care providers, infant/toddler teachers and        former life as a college English professor was resurrected to edit
  infant/toddler specialist in Franklin County who came out on        the final document.
  short notice to provide invaluable feedback.
Birth to Eight Months

During the early days and months of my life, I am primarily focused           I often don’t have to cry. She knows what I need by watching me
on security. In essence, I am learning about what I can expect                and by listening to me. She puts me in places where I can move
from life.                                                                    around. That’s exciting! I keep learning how to move my body —        9
                                                                              my head, my arms, my legs, my whole body. I can count on her to
When I feel discomfort, I cry. Someone comes to help me. She                  help me when I need help and to play with me when I’m ready to
helps me — when I’m hungry — when I’m tired — when I’m out                    play. I feel great knowing she is with me when I need her.
of sorts. When she helps, I feel everything is going to be all right,
and I can relax. I like to look at her face. I like to listen to her voice.   All of this is very important! I have to feel emotionally secure in
I feel her warmth. I feel the care she gives me — time after time.            order to have the confidence to learn new things. My level of
I feel content. I coo. As I get older, I smile when I see her face and        confidence will influence how I approach the opportunities coming
hear her voice. I try to make the sounds she makes. I try to move             my way. I know it seems like a long way off, but my ability to take
my arms the way she does. I learn so much from her. Her responses             chances and adapt to change will allow me to be successful in both
make me feel so good. I’ve learned to expect her to come when                 school and in life.
I call.
Six to 18 Months

During this middle period of my development, I am now primarily          When I say, “Mama,” she smiles. I love when someone looks at me
focused on exploration. Get ready, because I am ready to move            that way. When I point at something, my caregiver says what it is.
out. In essence, I am learning how things in the world work,             I point and point and point. That’s one of the ways I learn. I do this     11
including myself.                                                        with books too. I look at things with my caregiver. I like to listen to
                                                                         her. I like when she listens to me. Most of all, I like to be in a place
When I know where my caregiver is, I feel safe. I feel I can move        where I can move to my heart’s delight, where I can play with
away from her to explore things. Not too far — I stay close enough       anything I can reach and where I can easily see my caregiver’s
so I can get back to her quickly. That’s what I do if something scary    smiling eyes.
happens, or if I feel sad or if I feel like cuddling. That feels good.
But after a while, I want to explore some more. I roll my body. I        All of this is very important! My drive to explore the world and
also creep and crawl. Eventually I figure out how to sit up, pull to     figure things out helps me build knowledge and get ready for the
standing, take a step — and walk! I like to fiddle with things, over     world of ideas. I know it seems like a long way off, but my being
and over again. It’s fun to see how things work. I keep making           intellectually curious and motivated to learn will help me be
sounds my caregiver makes. I discover that each sound has a              successful in both school and in life.
different meaning. When I say, “Dada,” he smiles.
Sixteen to 36 Months

During this final stage of infancy, it is all about ME. I have a sense    When I try to solve a problem, sometimes an idea just pops in my
of who I am and how I am connected to others. In essence, I am            head. I pretend to be different people — and animals, too. I pretend
learning to make choices, and it can be difficult sometimes for me        with other children. We play with dress-up clothes, kitchen utensils,   13
and for you.                                                              puppets — just about anything. Playing with other children is
                                                                          great! I often think about one or two or three special people.
I feel powerful. I can run. I can do so many things. I know what’s        It may be my mom, my dad, my grandma or grandpa, or my
mine and make sure other people do, too. I like to be in charge           caregiver in child care. When I think about someone I feel close
and do things by myself. If someone tells me what to do, I often          to, I feel good. Even if they are not with me, I know that person
say, “No.” But sometimes I don’t feel so big. I can get out of sorts      will take care of me. I feel that person loves me. That’s the best
and be quite loud. I may need help. I may need comfort. I may             feeling of all!
need to know what I’m allowed to do — and what I’m not allowed
to do. Then I feel big again and am excited about everything I can        All of this is very important! I have to know myself before I can
do. I know where I belong, who I am and who my family is. I use           learn how to get along with others and to appropriately express
more and more words to express myself. As I get older, I ask a            myself when I’m frustrated. I know it seems like a long way off,
lot of questions. I look at books and listen to stories. I talk with my   but my ability to communicate and interact positively with peers
caregiver about books. Singing and rhyming games are a lot of             and adults who will one day be colleagues and supervisors, along
fun. I think about ideas all the time.                                    with my ability to negotiate conflict, will help me be successful in
                                                                          both school and life.
Physical Health
Babies need good health and nutrition right from the start. This is    Frequent well-child visits allow health professionals to monitor the
essential in laying the foundation for a baby’s optimal growth and     child’s physical health, behavioral functioning and overall development.
development. Infants and toddlers depend on their caregivers to        These visits create opportunities for giving age-appropriate guidance
make healthful choices for them. They also need adults to help         to parents. In addition, health professionals should screen young
them learn how to make good choices for themselves.                    children for common concerns, including lead poisoning, hearing
                                                                       and vision problems, behavior concerns, communication disorders
Physical health affects functioning in all the other domains.          and general development (language, cognitive, social, emotional
This point becomes clear when a child’s health or well-being is        and motor domains). Screening is important because the sooner
compromised. For example, a child who is chronically ill may not       a child’s need for early intervention can be identified, the more
be able to learn through active exploration and movement. Or a         effective that intervention is likely to be. Well-child care benefits
child who is poorly nourished may not attend to learning. Frequent     all children, including those with disabilities or other special needs.
ear infections may hinder a child’s ability to communicate and learn
language. A child exposed to violence may not know how to form
positive social relationships. Each of these negative conditions can
have lifelong consequences.

Each day, adults caring for babies can positively influence a                                                                                     15
child’s health and well-being. All infants and toddlers need
regular health and physical exams, preventive care, screening,
immunizations and sick care. They all should have a primary
health and dental care provider, regardless of their families’
economic status. A primary provider facilitates timely and
appropriate preventive and sick care.




Physical health is optimal when safe health practices and nutrition are combined with nurturing and responsive
caregiving. Protecting children from illness and injury, and providing them with individually appropriate
nutrition and a sanitary environment that reduces the risk of infectious disease, is important for all caregivers.
          Physical Health

Guideline: Health Practices
The child will display signs of optimal health consistent with appropriate primary health care and caregiver health practices.

                                     Birth - 8 months                          6 - 18 months                          16 - 36 months
• Health care:                  I need to receive regular check-ups    I need to receive regular check-ups       I need to receive regular check-ups
  The child will have           that include appropriate screenings,   that include appropriate screenings,      that include appropriate screenings,
  access to care from a         immunizations and guidance             immunizations and guidance                immunizations and guidance
  primary health provider,      about my development.                  about my development.                     about my development.
  regardless of economic
  status and geographic         …check-ups at birth and at one,        …check-ups at nine, 12, 15 and 18         …check-ups at 24 and 36 months
  location.                      two and four months of age.            months of age.                            of age.
                                …an evaluation within 48 - 72
                                 hours following discharge from
                                 the hospital, if I am a breast-fed
                                 baby, to check my weight gain,
                                 to evaluate breastfeeding and to
                                 provide caregiver encouragement                                                                                        16
                                 and instruction.


• Handwashing:                  I will receive handwashing at          With assistance from a caregiver, I       With assistance from a caregiver, I
  The child will be exposed     appropriate times. (If I am unable     will wash my hands once I am able         will wash my hands once I am able
  to and assisted with          to stand or too heavy to hold          to stand safely at the sink.              to stand safely at the sink.
  frequent and proper           safely, my hands can be washed
  handwashing.                  with a damp paper towel                …upon arrival at my child care setting.   …upon arrival at my child
                                moistened with a drop of liquid        …before and after eating.                  care setting.
                                soap, and then wiped clean with        …after diapering.                         …before and after eating.
                                a clean, wet, paper towel.)            …before water play.                       …after diapering.
                                                                       …after playing on the playground.         …before water play.
                                …after diapering.                      …after handling pets.                     …after playing on the playground.
                                …before and after eating or having     …whenever my hands are visibly            …after handling pets.
                                 a bottle.                              dirty.                                   …whenever my hands are
                                                                                                                  visibly dirty.
           Physical Health

Guideline: Health Practices
The child will display signs of optimal health consistent with appropriate primary health care and caregiver health practices.

                                     Birth - 8 months                      6 - 18 months                       16 - 36 months
• Diapering and toileting:      I will be appropriately diapered.   I will be appropriately diapered.     I will be appropriately diapered
  The child will be                                                                                       and, toward the end of this
  appropriately diapered        …changed when I give signs of       …changed when I give signs of         period, I may show signs that
  or assisted with toileting     needing to be changed, or           needing to be changed, or            I am ready to learn to use
  to prevent the spread          checked at least every two          checked at least every two           the toilet.
  of illness.                    hours when awake, for signs         hours when awake, for signs
                                 of wetness or feces, and            of wetness or feces, and             …changed when I give signs of
                                 immediately after waking.           immediately after waking.             needing to be changed, or
                                …changed near a water source for    …changed near a water source for       checked at least every two
                                 quick handwashing to prevent        quick handwashing to prevent          hours when awake, for signs
                                 the spread of infection.            the spread of infection.              of wetness or feces, and
                                …remain secure on a raised chang-   …remain secure on a raised changing    immediately after waking.
                                 ing surface with my caregiver's     surface with my caregiver's hand     …changed near a water source for       17
                                 hand placed on me at all times.     placed on me at all times.            quick handwashing to prevent
                                                                                                           the spread of infection.
                                                                                                          …remain secure on a raised changing
                                                                                                           surface with my caregiver's hand
                                                                                                           placed on me at all times.
                                                                                                          …show through gestures, expressions,
                                                                                                           body language or words that I
                                                                                                           am about to urinate or have a
                                                                                                           bowel movement.
                                                                                                          …help with undressing myself.
                                                                                                          …ask to use the toilet or potty
                                                                                                           chair.
           Physical Health

Guideline: Oral Health
The child will display growth and behaviors associated with good oral health.

                                    Birth - 8 months                      6 - 18 months                         16 - 36 months
• Tooth eruption:              I will display appropriate tooth   I will display appropriate tooth         I will display appropriate tooth
  The child will display       eruption.                          eruption.                                eruption.
  appropriate tooth
                               …drooling, irritability and sore   …drooling, irritability and sore gums    …drooling, irritability and sore
  eruption.
                                gums caused by tooth eruption.     caused by tooth eruption.                gums caused by tooth eruption.
                               …eruption of the lower and upper   …eruption of the lower and upper         …eruption of the lower and upper
                                incisors.                          central and lateral incisors, canines    lateral incisors, canines and first
                                                                   and first molars.                        and second molars.

• Oral health:                 I will display good oral health.   I will display good oral health.         I will display good oral health.
  The child will display
                               …pink, firm gums.                  …pink, firm gums.                        …pink, firm gums.
  good oral health.
                               …smooth, white teeth.              …smooth, white teeth.                    …smooth, white teeth.
                                                                                                                                                  18
• Dental care:                 I need to have my first oral       I need to have my first oral             I need to have my second oral
  The child needs to           examination from a dentist         examination from a dentist               examination, as recommended
  receive appropriate          within six months of the first     within six months of the first           by my dentist, based on my
  dental check-ups from a      tooth eruption and by 12           tooth eruption and by 12                 individual needs or risk of disease.
  dentist and appropriate      months of age.                     months of age.
  dental treatment.
          Physical Health

Guideline: Positive Nutritional Status
The child will display growth and behaviors associated with a positive nutritional status.

                                     Birth - 8 months                         6 - 18 months                        16 - 36 months
• Physical growth:              I will display appropriate increases   I will display appropriate increases   I will display appropriate increases
  The child will display        in length, weight and head             in length, weight and head             in length, weight and head
  appropriate increases         circumference.                         circumference.                         circumference.
  in length, weight and
  head circumference.           …lose about six percent of my          …triple my birthweight by 12 to 18     …quadruple my birthweight by
                                 body weight immediately after          months of age.                         24 to 36 months of age.
                                 birth because of fluid loss and       …increase in length at the rate of     …gain approximately 4.5 to 6.5
                                 some breakdown of tissue, but          approximately one-half inch per        pounds per year.
                                 then regain my birthweight             month between six and 12              …increase in height at the rate of
                                 within 10 to 14 days                   months of age.                         approximately 2.5 to 3.5 inches
                                 following birth.                      …grow without major deviations          per year.
                                …double my birthweight by four          in growth chart percentages.          …grow without major deviations
                                 to six months of age.                                                         in growth chart percentages.          19
                                …increase in length at the rate
                                 of approximately one inch per
                                 month during the first six
                                 months of life.
                                …grow without major deviations
                                 in growth chart percentages.
Emotional Development
Babies experience emotions right from the start. From their first cry      The infant’s emotions are nurtured in relationships with parents,
of hunger to their first giggle of delight, their emotional experience     grandparents and child care providers. Studies of attachment show
grows. Young children learn many ways to express emotions such             that children who are in emotionally secure relationships early in
as happiness, sadness and anger. As they interact with their caregivers,   life are more likely to be self-confident and socially competent.
they come to understand and appreciate the uniqueness of their             Sensitive caregivers who read the child’s cues and meet emotional,
emotional experience. Eventually they gain some control over their         physical and dependency needs help the child become securely
sometimes strong emotions. Positive early experiences help a child         attached to them. Caregivers who gently stimulate a baby’s senses
become emotionally secure.                                                 and share emotional states provide the baby’s brain the experiences
                                                                           it needs to grow. Because sensitive, responsive care leads to
The child’s evolving sense of security and well-being has a profound       attachment security, its impact is profound. Secure attachment
effect on all areas of the child’s development, including cognitive        relationships have a positive effect on every aspect of early
and language development. For example, an emotionally secure               development, from emotional self-regulation to healthy
infant will more readily explore and learn than an insecurely              brain development.
attached infant. In a secure relationship, the child engages in rich
back-and-forth interaction. The “dance” between the caregiver
and child fosters increasingly advanced communication and
language development.                                                                                                                            21

New research shows how emotions are key in organizing the
experience and behavior of young children. Emotions drive early
learning. For instance, the pleasure an infant experiences when
making a discovery or mastering a motor skill inspires the child to
continue to learn and to develop skills. Emotional experiences affect
the child’s personal health, well-being and school readiness.




Emotional development is the child's emerging ability to become secure, express feelings,
develop self-awareness and self-regulate.
             Emotional Development

Guideline: Attachment
The child will develop an attachment relationship with a caregiver(s) who consistently meets the child's needs.
*Special Note: Because attachment has developmental relevance to both the emotional and social domains, it is shown identically in both places.

                                               Birth - 8 months                             6 - 18 months                             16 - 36 months
• Attachment:                            In the beginning of this period,           In the beginning of this period, I          In the beginning of this period, I
  The child will form                    I respond automatically to both            signal to caregivers to stay close.         spend more time playing farther
  relationships with                     caregivers and unfamiliar adults.          Later, I develop an attachment              away from the person I'm attached
  consistent caregivers.                 By the end of this period, I signal        relationship with one or a few of           to than I did in the earlier age
                                         to caregivers in order to stay             these caregivers, whom I use as a           period, and I use gestures, glances
                                         close, and I may have formed an            secure base from which to move              or words to stay connected. By
                                         attachment relationship with one           out and explore my environment,             the end of this period, I am beginning
                                         (or a few) of these caregivers.            checking back from time to time.            to understand that the person I'm
                                                                                    By the end of this period, I spend          attached to may have a point of
                                         For example, I may…                        more time playing farther away              view (including thoughts, plans
                                         …turn toward the sight, smell or           from my attachment figure(s),               and feelings) that is different
                                           sound of my mama over that of            and am more likely to use gestures,         from my own.
                                           an unfamiliar adult.                     glances or words to stay connected,                                                  22
                                         …stop crying upon seeing a face            though I still need to be physically        For example, I may…
                                           or hearing a voice.                      close when I'm distressed.                  …call, "Papa!" from across the room
                                         …grasp my caregiver's sweater                                                            while I'm playing with blocks to
                                           when she holds me.                       For example, I may…                           make sure that my Papa is paying
                                                                                    …cry out or follow my mom when                attention to me.
                                         …lift my arms to be picked up by
                                                                                                                                …feel comfortable playing on the
                                           my papa.                                   she leaves the room.
                                                                                                                                  other side of the yard from the
                                         …be more likely to smile when              …seek comfort from my favorite                person I'm attached to, but cry to
                                           approached by a caregiver than             blanket or toy, especially when the         be picked up when I fall down
                                           by an unfamiliar adult.                    person I'm attached to is absent.           and hurt myself.
                                         …babble back and forth with a              …turn excitedly and raise my arms           …say, "I go to school, mama goes
                                           caregiver.                                 toward the person I'm attached to           to work," after my mom drops
                                         …seek comfort from the person                at pick-up time.                            me off in the morning.
                                           I'm attached to when I am crying.        …display anxiety when an unfamiliar         …gesture for one more hug as my
                                         …cry out or follow after my mom              adult gets too close to me.                 daddy is leaving for work.
                                           when she leaves the room.                …reconnect with the person I'm              …say, "you do one and I do one,"
                                                                                      attached to by making eye                   when asked to put books away
                                                                                                                                  before separating from my mom
                                                                                      contact with him or her from
                                                                                                                                  in the morning, in order to get
                                                                                      time to time.
                                                                                                                                  her to stay a bit longer.
                                                                                    …play confidently when my attach-           …bring my grandma's favorite book
                                                                                      ment figure is in the room, but             to her to see if she will read it to
                                                                                      crawl or run to her when I'm                me one more time after grandma
                                                                                      frightened.                                 says, "We're all done reading.
                                                                                                                                  Now it's time for nap."
           Emotional Development

Guideline: Expression of Emotion
The child will experience and express a variety of feelings.

                                      Birth - 8 months                         6 - 18 months                         16 - 36 months
• Expression of emotion:         In the beginning of this period,       In the beginning of this period,        In the beginning of this period,
  The child will express         I express contentment and              I express a variety of primary          I begin to express complex (self-
  feelings through facial        distress. By the end of this period,   emotions (contentment, distress,        conscious) emotions such as pride,
  expressions, gestures          I express a variety of primary         joy, sadness, interest, surprise,       embarrassment, shame and guilt.
  and sounds.                    emotions (contentment, distress,       disgust, anger and fear). Later         By the end of this period, I can
                                 joy, sadness, interest, surprise,      in this period, my emotional            use words to describe how I am
                                 disgust, anger and fear).              expressions become clearer and          feeling, although sometimes my
                                                                        more intentional. By the end of         feelings are so strong that I have
                                 For example, I may…                    this period, I begin to express         trouble expressing them in words.
                                 …smile at my caregiver when he         complex (self-conscious) emotions
                                   rocks me and sings to me.            such as pride, embarrassment,           For example, I may…
                                 …show distress by crying, kicking      shame and guilt.                        …hide my face in my hands when
                                   my legs and stiffening my body.                                                feeling embarrassed.                  23
                                 …coo when I'm feeling comfortable.     For example, I may…                     …express guilt after taking a toy
                                 …cry intensely.                        …be more likely to react with anger       out of another child's cubby
                                 …express joy (by waving my arms          than just distress when someone         without permission.
                                   and kicking my legs) when my           accidentally hurts me.                …express frustration through
                                   dad comes to pick me up.             …show affection for my caregiver by       tantrums.
                                 …express sadness (by crying)             hugging her.                          …express pride by saying, "I did it!"
                                   when my caregiver puts me            …express fear of unfamiliar people      …use words to express how I am
                                   down in my crib.                       by moving near my caregiver.            feeling, such as, "I’m sad."
                                 …spit out things that taste "icky"     …knock a shape sorting toy away         …say, "I miss grandma," after I get
                                   and make a face of disgust.            when it gets to be too frustrating.     off the phone with her.
                                 …laugh aloud when playing              …show my anger by grabbing a toy
                                   “peek-a-boo” with my caregiver.        that was taken from me out of the
                                 …get angry when I am frustrated.         other child's hands.
                                 …be surprised when something           …express fear when I hear a dog bark.
                                   unexpected happens.                  …express sadness when I lose a
                                 …exhibit wariness, cry or turn           favorite toy and cannot find it.
                                   away when approached by an           …smile with affection as my sibling
                                   unfamiliar adult.                      approaches.
                                 …be more likely to react with          …cling to my dad as he says,
                                   anger than just distress when          "good-bye," and express sadness
                                   someone accidentally hurts me.         as he leaves.
                                                                        …express fear by crying when I see
                                                                          someone dressed up in a costume.
           Emotional Development

Guideline: Self-Awareness
The child will develop an understanding of and an appreciation for his/her uniqueness in the world.

                                    Birth - 8 months                        6 - 18 months                      16 - 36 months
• Self-awareness:              In the beginning of this period,      In the beginning of this period, I   In the beginning of this period,
  The child will recognize     I am not aware that you are a         begin to understand that I am my     I recognize myself in the mirror
  herself or himself as a      separate person from me. By the       own separate person. By the end      and in photos. Later in this period,
  person with an identity,     end of this period, I begin           of this period, I recognize myself   I use pronouns like "I," "me" and
  wants, needs, interests,     to understand that I am my            in the mirror and in photos.         "mine" when referring to myself.
  likes and dislikes.          own separate person.                                                       By the end of this period, I can
                                                                     For example, I may…                  describe who I am by using
                               For example, I may…                   …recognize that I am a separate      categories such as girl or boy,
                               …not experience distress when my        person from my caregiver.          big or little.
                                 mommy leaves the room.              …recognize my own body.
                               …experiment with moving my            …begin to identify parts of          For example, I may…
                                 own body.                             the body.                          …point to myself in a family
                               …watch my own hands with              …understand that the reflection        photograph.                          24
                                 fascination.                          in the mirror is actually my       …point to different body parts
                               …use my hands to explore                own image.                           when you name them, and name
                                 different parts of my body.                                                a few body parts by myself.
                               …be able to tell the difference                                            …say, "big girl," when referring to
                                 between when someone touches                                               myself.
                                 my face and when I touch my                                              …begin to make comparisons
                                 own face.                                                                  between myself and others.
                               …smile at my mirror image, even                                            …claim everything I want as
                                 though I don't recognize it as an                                          "mine."
                                 image of myself.                                                         …refer to myself by name, or with
                               …react to hearing my own name.                                               the pronouns "me" and "I."
                               …cry when my caregiver leaves                                              …say, "No!" to express that I am an
                                 the room.                                                                  individual with my own thoughts
                                                                                                            and feelings.
                                                                                                          …point to and name members of
                                                                                                            my family in a photograph.
                                                                                                          …say, "I'm the big sister," when
                                                                                                            my caregiver meets my new
                                                                                                            baby brother.
           Emotional Development

Guideline: Self-Awareness
The child will develop an understanding of and an appreciation for his/her uniqueness in the world.

                                    Birth - 8 months                           6 - 18 months                        16 - 36 months
• Awareness of emotions:       In the beginning of this period, I       In the beginning of this period,       In the beginning of this period,
  The child will recognize     respond reflexively or automatically     I express a variety of primary         my emotional expressions become
  his or her own feelings.     with emotions of distress or             emotions (contentment, distress,       clearer and more intentional.
                               contentment. By the end of this          joy, sadness, interest, surprise,      Later, I express complex (self-
                               period, I express a variety of           disgust, anger and fear). By the       conscious) emotions such as
                               primary emotions (contentment,           end of this period, my emotional       pride, embarrassment, shame
                               distress, joy, sadness, interest,        expressions become clearer and         and guilt. By the end of this period,
                               surprise, disgust, anger and fear).      more intentional.                      I use words to describe my feelings
                                                                                                               and I show an understanding
                               For example, I may…                      For example, I may…                    of why I have these feelings.
                               …show satisfaction or dissatisfaction.   …be more likely to react with anger    Sometimes, however, my feelings
                               …cry to indicate that I'm distressed.      than just distress when someone      are so strong I have trouble
                               …show pleasure and joy when                accidentally hurts me.               expressing them in words.               25
                                 interacting with a caregiver.          …show affection for my caregiver by
                               …show displeasure or sadness               hugging her.                         For example, I may…
                                 when my caregiver suddenly             …express fear of unfamiliar people     …express jealousy when my
                                 stops playing with me because            by moving near my caregiver.           caregiver holds another child
                                 another child needs him.               …knock a shape sorting toy away          by trying to squish onto the
                               …become anxious when my family             when it gets to be too frustrating     caregiver's lap too.
                                                                          for me.                              …show delight by clapping to
                                 child care provider leaves the
                                                                        …show my anger by grabbing a toy
                                 room.                                                                           myself after stacking some blocks
                                                                          that was taken from me out of the
                               …smile joyfully in response to my                                                 into a tower.
                                                                          other child's hands.
                                 caregiver's interesting facial                                                …use one or a few words to tell my
                                                                        …express sadness when I lose a
                                 expressions.                                                                    caregiver how I am feeling.
                                                                          favorite toy and cannot find it.
                                                                        …smile with affection as my sibling    …act out different emotions during
                                                                          approaches.                            pretend play by pretending to
                                                                        …cling to my dad as he says,             cry when I'm a sad baby and
                                                                          "good-bye," and express sadness        pretending to coo when I'm a
                                                                          as he leaves.                          happy baby.
                                                                        …express fear by crying when I see     …say, "I'm sad," and then respond,
                                                                          someone dressed up in a costume.       "I miss Mommy," when my
                                                                        …exhibit a play smile while playing      caregiver asks why I'm sad.
                                                                          chase.                               …say, "I'm mad," after another child
                                                                        …express jealousy when my caregiver      takes my toy, and then say to the
                                                                          holds another child by trying to       other child, "That's mine," as I
                                                                          squish onto her lap too.               take the toy out of his hands.
           Emotional Development

Guideline: Self-Awareness
The child will develop an understanding of and an appreciation for his/her uniqueness in the world.

                                    Birth - 8 months                      6 - 18 months                        16 - 36 months
• Sense of competence:         In the beginning of this period,    In the beginning of this period, I     In the beginning of this period, I
  The child will recognize     I respond automatically and         understand that I can make things      experiment with different ways of
  his or her ability to do     explore my own abilities. By the    happen. By the end of this period, I   making things happen and take
  things.                      end of this period, I understand    experiment with different ways of      pride in what I can do. By the
                               that I can make things happen.      making things happen, and I take       end of this period, I have an
                                                                   pride in what I can do.                understanding of what I can do
                               For example, I may…                                                        and what I'm not able to do yet
                               …explore my own abilities through   For example, I may…                    by myself. I can also describe
                                 movements.                        …understand that I can get my          myself in terms of what I can do.
                               …shake a rattle over and over         caregiver to play “peek-a-boo”
                                 again to hear the sound.            with me if I look at her and then    For example, I may…
                               …touch a toy to make the music        cover my face with my hands.         …say, "Did it!" or "I can't."
                                 come on again after the music     …smile at my mom and giggle in a       …insist, "Me do it!" when my         26
                                 has stopped.                        playful way as I crawl by her, to      caregiver tries to help me with
                               …look at my caregiver when I cry      entice her to chase me in a game       something I already know how
                                 so she can meet my need.            of "I'm gonna get you."                to do.
                               …try to roll over and over again,   …point at a toy that I want and        …say, "I climb high" when telling
                                 even though I may not roll          smile with satisfaction after my       a caregiver about what I did
                                 completely over.                    caregiver gets it down for me.         outside during play time.
                                                                   …roll a toy car back and forth on      …say, "Look what I made you" and
                                                                     the ground and then push it            hold up a picture I painted for
                                                                     really hard and let go, to see         my mommy with a big smile
                                                                     what happens.                          on my face.
                                                                   …clap to myself after I climb up the   …describe myself to my caregiver
                                                                     stairs on the inside climber.          by saying, "I'm a helping boy"
                                                                                                            because I know I am a good
                                                                                                            helper.
           Emotional Development

Guideline: Emotional Self-Regulation
The child will develop strategies to control emotions and behavior.

                                     Birth - 8 months                         6 - 18 months                         16 - 36 months
• Self-comforting:              In the beginning of this period,      In the beginning of this period,         In the beginning of this period, I
  The child will manage         I depend on my caregiver to           I use simple strategies to               use more complex strategies for
  his or her internal states    comfort me. By the end of this        comfort myself, and I am able            making myself feel better. By the
  and feelings, as well as      period, I use simple strategies to    to communicate my needs more             end of this period, I anticipate
  stimulation from the          comfort myself, and I am able to      clearly to my caregiver. By the end      the need for comfort and try to
  outside world.                communicate my needs more             of this period, I use more complex       plan ahead.
                                clearly to my caregiver.              strategies for making myself feel
                                                                      better.                                  For example, I may…
                                For example, I may…                                                            …continue to rely on adults for
                                …cry when I'm hungry, tired or wet.   For example, I may…                        reassurance and help in controlling
                                …settle down and be soothed           …move away from something that             my feelings and behavior.
                                  when my caregiver picks me up         is bothering me and move toward        …reenact emotional events in my
                                  and cuddles me, feeds me or           a caregiver who comforts me.             play in order to gain mastery.        27
                                  meets my other needs.               …shift attention away from a             …ask for food when I'm hungry,
                                …kick my legs and wave my arms          distressing event onto an object as      but get my blankie and lie
                                  when in distress.                     a way of managing my emotions.           down in the quiet corner
                                …turn away from interactions that     …try to control my distress by             when I'm sleepy.
                                  I find to be too intense, then        biting my lip or hugging myself.       …say, "Can you rub my back?"
                                  turn back to continue interacting   …use gestures or simple words to           when I'm having trouble settling
                                  when I'm ready.                       express distress and seek specific       down for a nap.
                                …calm myself when I'm upset by          kinds of assistance from caregivers    …put my blanket on my cot before
                                  sucking on my fingers or hand.        in order to calm myself.                 sitting down for lunch, because I
                                …turn my head away or yawn            …use comfort objects, such as a            know I'll want it during naptime.
                                  when I'm feeling overstimulated.      special blanket or a stuffed animal,   …ask, "Who will hold me when
                                …focus on a nearby toy that I find      to help myself calm down.                I'm sad?" as I talk with my mom
                                  interesting when something else     …play with a toy as a way to               about going to a new classroom.
                                  is making me feel overwhelmed.        distract myself from my own
                                …have different kinds of cries to       discomfort.
                                  tell my caregiver what I need to
                                  make me feel better.
                                …move away from something that
                                  is bothering me and move toward
                                  a caregiver who comforts me.
          Emotional Development

Guideline: Emotional Self-Regulation
The child will develop strategies to control emotions and behavior.

                                     Birth - 8 months                        6 - 18 months                          16 - 36 months
• Impulse control:              In the beginning of this period, I   In the beginning of this period, I       In the beginning of this period, I
  The child will manage         depend on my caregivers to           show very early signs of controlling     am aware of my caregiver's wishes
  his or her behavior.          meet my needs and comfort me.        some impulses when my caregiver          and expectations, and sometimes
                                By the end of this period, I show    guides and supports me. By the           choose to comply with them. I
                                very early signs of controlling      end of this period, I am aware           also have some simple strategies
                                some impulses when my caregiver      of my caregiver's wishes and             to help myself wait. By the end of
                                guides and supports me.              expectations, and sometimes              this period, I have internalized
                                                                     choose to comply with them.              some of my caregiver's rules so I
                                For example, I may…                  I also have some simple                  don't always need as much support
                                …cry when hungry, until my           strategies to help myself wait.          when trying to control my behavior.
                                  caregiver feeds me.
                                …sleep when I'm sleepy.              For example, I may…                      For example, I may…
                                …explore how someone's hair feels    …refrain from exploring the way          …use self-talk to control my               28
                                  by pulling it.                       another baby's hair feels when           behavior; e.g., say "no, no" while
                                …crawl too close to a younger          you remind me to be gentle and           considering taking a cupcake
                                  infant who is lying on the           show me how.                             from the plate before it's time
                                  same blanket.                      …respond to limits that you set            for the birthday party.
                                …reach for a snack out of the bowl     with your voice or gestures.           …begin to use words and dramatic
                                  before it's snacktime and then     …recover quickly and be able to            play to describe, understand and
                                  pull my hand back when you           play soon after a tantrum.               control my impulses and feelings.
                                  ask me to wait.                    …use self-talk to control my behavior;   …begin to turn tantrum behavior
                                …refrain from exploring the way        e.g., say "no, no" while considering     on and off with less adult assistance.
                                  another baby's hair feels when       taking a cupcake from the plate        …throw a tantrum when I'm really
                                  you remind me to be gentle.          before it's time for the                 frustrated.
                                                                       birthday party.                        …push or hit another child who
                                                                                                                takes my toy.
                                                                                                              …begin to remember to follow
                                                                                                                simple rules as a means of
                                                                                                                controlling behavior.
                                                                                                              …understand or carry out simple
                                                                                                                commands or rules.
                                                                                                              …yell, "mine, mine!" when another
                                                                                                                child picks up a doll.
                                                                                                              …begin to share.
Social Development
Babies are social right from the start. Attachment relationships are     In order to fully understand social development, the role of culture
at the heart of social development. In secure relationships, the baby    must be recognized and respected in definitions of “appropriate”
eventually learns to follow social rules and be respectful toward        social interactions, social skills and social abilities. Different cultural
others. As infants grow, they also gain the necessary social skills      communities may have different definitions of social competence.
(turn taking when communicating, negotiation, etc.) to get along         For example, one culture may look upon a child’s behavior as shy
with others. Infants begin to show concern and empathy toward            and inhibited, while another culture may regard the same behavior
others. They also start to see themselves as belonging to social         as respectful.
groups, in particular their families.
                                                                         Support and guidance from caregivers are essential for infants’
The ability to relate with adults and other children and to learn        positive social development. Caregivers support social development
from others influences the infant’s development in all of the other      in three major ways: providing an appropriate environment,
domains. As the child’s interaction skills grow, the child learns from   creating opportunities for responsive social interactions and
others through imitation and communication. Language learning,           building stable relationships. The environment should make it easy
problem solving, fantasy play and social games all depend on social      for caregivers to be available to the children and responsive to their
development. Through social guidance and imitation, the child            needs. Above all, the program should foster relationships between
learns safety rules and basic health procedures, such as hand            caregivers and infants, and between infants. Continuity of care,
washing before meals. With proper support, the infant eventually         ample time for caregivers and children to be together, guidance               29
develops the ability to participate in a social group. Successful        from caregivers and consistent, predictable social experiences
social development during the first three years prepares the child       all contribute to stable, strong relationships and positive
for both preschool and school.                                           social development.

Just as healthy attachment relationships support emotional
self-regulation, so do these relationships contribute to the
development of the child’s social understanding and skills.
In an attachment relationship, the infant looks to the adult for
guidance. Because attachment relationships are critically important
for emotional as well as social development, the same attachment
guideline appears in both of these domains.




Social development is the child's emerging development of an understanding of self and others, and the ability
to relate to other people and the environment.
             Social Development

Guideline: Attachment
The child will develop an attachment relationship with a caregiver(s) who consistently meets the child's needs.
*Special Note: Because attachment has developmental relevance to both the emotional and social domains, it is shown identically in both places.

                                               Birth - 8 months                             6 - 18 months                             16 - 36 months
• Attachment:                            In the beginning of this period,           In the beginning of this period, I          In the beginning of this period, I
  The child will form                    I respond automatically to both            signal to caregivers to stay close.         spend more time playing farther
  relationships with                     caregivers and unfamiliar adults.          Later, I develop an attachment              away from the person I'm attached
  consistent caregivers.                 By the end of this period, I signal        relationship with one or a few of           to than I did in the earlier age
                                         to caregivers in order to stay             these caregivers, whom I use as a           period, and I use gestures, glances
                                         close. I may have formed an                secure base from which to move              or words to stay connected. By
                                         attachment relationship to one             out and explore my environment,             the end of this period, I am
                                         (or a few) of these caregivers.            checking back from time to time.            beginning to understand that
                                                                                    By the end of this period, I spend          the person I'm attached to may
                                         For example, I may…                        more time playing farther away              have a point of view (including
                                         …turn toward the sight, smell or           from my attachment figure(s), and           thoughts, plans and feelings)
                                           sound of my mom over that of             am more likely to use gestures,             that is different from my own.
                                           an unfamiliar adult.                     glances or words to stay connected,                                                  30
                                         …stop crying upon seeing a face            though I still need to be physically        For example, I may…
                                           or hearing a voice.                      close when I'm distressed.                  …call "Papa!" from across the room
                                         …grasp my caregiver's sweater                                                            while I'm playing with blocks to
                                           when she holds me.                       For example, I may…                           make sure that my Papa is paying
                                         …lift my arms to be picked up by           …cry out or follow my mom when                attention to me.
                                           my dad.                                    she leaves the room.                      …feel comfortable playing on the
                                                                                                                                  other side of the yard from the
                                         …be more likely to smile when              …seek comfort from my favorite
                                                                                                                                  person I'm attached to, but cry to
                                           approached by a caregiver than             blanket or toy, especially when the         be picked up when I fall down
                                           by an unfamiliar adult.                    person I'm attached to is absent.           and hurt myself.
                                         …babble back and forth with                …turn excitedly and raise my arms           …say, "I go to school, mama goes
                                           a caregiver.                               toward the person I'm attached to           to work," after my mom drops
                                         …seek comfort from an attachment             at pick-up time.                            me off in the morning.
                                           figure when I am crying.                 …display anxiety when an unfamiliar         …gesture for one more hug as my
                                         …cry out or follow after my mom              adult gets too close to me.                 daddy is leaving for work.
                                           when she leaves the room.                …look for cues from the person I'm          …say, "You do one and I do one"
                                                                                      attached to when I'm unsure if              when asked to put books away
                                                                                      something is safe.                          before separating from my mom
                                                                                    …play confidently when the person             in the morning, in order to get
                                                                                      I'm attached to is in the room,             her to stay a bit longer.
                                                                                      but crawl or run to her when              …bring my grandma's favorite book
                                                                                                                                  to her to see if she will read it to
                                                                                      I'm frightened.
                                                                                                                                  me one more time after grandma
                                                                                                                                  says, "We're all done reading.”
                                                                                                                                  “Now it's time for nap."
           Social Development

Guideline: Expression of Social Behavior
The child will demonstrate the ability to get along with others.

                                     Birth - 8 months                      6 - 18 months                        16 - 36 months
• Interactions with adults:     In the beginning of this period,    In the beginning of this period,       In the beginning of this period, I
  The child will engage in      I respond automatically to my       I give cues to initiate interaction    engage in a series of actions with
  give-and-take exchanges       caregiver's attempts to interact.   with my caregiver. By the end of       my caregiver. By the end of this
  with an adult.                By the end of this period, I give   this period, I engage in a series of   period, I can work with a caregiver
                                cues to initiate interaction with   actions with my caregiver.             to solve problems or communicate
                                my caregiver.                                                              about ideas or experiences.
                                                                    For example, I may…
                                For example, I may…                 …follow my caregiver's gaze to         For example, I may…
                                …match the facial expressions of      look at a toy.                       …initiate an interaction with my
                                  an adult.                         …become wary or anxious of               caregiver by pointing to an
                                …give a social smile or engage in     unfamiliar adults.                     unfamiliar object as if to ask,
                                  mutual gazing.                    …take my caregiver's hands and           "What's that?"
                                …coo or babble in response to my      rock forward and backward,           …bring my shoes from my               31
                                  caregiver's vocalizations.          saying "Row, row," as a way of         bedroom when my grandma
                                …follow my caregiver's gaze to        asking her to sing "Row, Row,          asks me to.
                                  look at a toy.                      Row Your Boat" to me.                …practice being a grown-up in my
                                                                    …cooperate during a diaper change        pretend play by dressing up or
                                                                      by lifting my bottom.                  using a play stove.
                                                                    …pick up a toy phone and say           …participate in storytelling with
                                                                      "Hello?" while I walk around the       my family child care provider.
                                                                      room, as I've seen my daddy do.
                                                                    …show a toy to my caregiver, and
                                                                      later give a toy to my caregiver
                                                                      when she asks.
                                                                    …initiate an interaction with my
                                                                      caregiver by pointing to an
                                                                      unfamiliar object as if to ask,
                                                                      "What's that?"
           Social Development

Guideline: Expression of Social Behavior
The child will demonstrate the ability to get along with others.

                                     Birth - 8 months                        6 - 18 months                       16 - 36 months
• Interactions with peers:      In the beginning of this period, I    In the beginning of this period, I    In the beginning of this period, I
  The child will engage         respond automatically and prefer      am interested in other children       engage in play with peers for an
  with other children.          the human face and sound. By          and explore their faces and           extended time. By the end of this
                                the end of this period, I am          bodies. By the end of this period,    period, I show a greater likelihood
                                interested in other children and      I engage in play with peers for       to engage in mutual social play.
                                explore their faces and bodies.       an extended time.
                                                                                                            For example, I may…
                                For example, I may…                   For example, I may…                   …pretend to cook dinner or bathe
                                …turn toward the sight, smell or      …prefer familiar peers, and play in     the baby using props such as
                                  sound of a familiar caregiver         more complex play with them           pots, pans, baby dolls and
                                  over that of an unfamiliar adult.     than with unfamiliar peers.           wash cloths.
                                …initiate a social smile.             …play pat-a-cake with a caregiver     …have one or two favorite peers
                                …look at a peer for a short time.       or peer.                              within my class.                     32
                                …touch or mouth the hair of           …sit beside a peer, filling my sand   …pretend to order pizza, using a
                                  another child.                        bucket, while she fills hers.         banana as a phone.
                                                                      …roll a ball with a peer.             …stand at the play dough table,
                                                                      …pretend to cook dinner or bathe        rolling balls of dough, while my
                                                                        the baby using props such as          peers play beside me.
                                                                        pots, pans, baby dolls and          …push, hit or bite when another
                                                                        wash cloths.                          child takes my toy.
                                                                                                            …say, "Let's chase!" to a peer or
                                                                                                              engage in other complementary
                                                                                                              interactions, such as feeding a
                                                                                                              stuffed bear that another child is
                                                                                                              holding.
                                                                                                            …tell you the names of my friends.
           Social Development

Guideline: Expression of Social Behavior
The child will demonstrate the ability to get along with others.

                                     Birth - 8 months                      6 - 18 months                         16 - 36 months
• Empathy:                      In the beginning of this period,    In the beginning of this period,        In the beginning of this period,
  The child will understand     I respond automatically to the      I demonstrate an awareness of           I respond to a peer's distress by
  and respond to the            emotions of others. By the end      others' feelings. By the end of         doing something for him that
  emotions of others.           of this period, I demonstrate an    this period, I respond to a peer's      would make me feel better. By
                                awareness of others' feelings.      distress by doing something for         the end of this period, I respond
                                                                    him that would make me                  to a peer's distress in a way that
                                For example, I may…                 feel better.                            shows that I understand what
                                …look at my mama's face.                                                    would make him feel better. I
                                …match the facial expressions of    For example, I may…                     also understand that others have
                                  my papa.                          …interpret facial cues as emotional     feelings independent from mine.
                                …smile responsively.                  expressions.
                                …cry or grimace at the discomfort   …exhibit "social referencing" by        For example, I may…
                                  of others.                          looking at my caregiver for cues      …comfort a crying peer by offering   33
                                                                      when I'm in an uncertain situation.     my own blanket or getting my
                                                                    …gently pat a crying peer on his          own mother to help.
                                                                      back.                                 …say, "Hug?" in an attempt to help
                                                                    …comfort a crying peer by offering        a crying peer.
                                                                      my own blanket or getting my          …bring a peer her favorite blanket
                                                                      own mother to help.                     in an attempt to comfort her.
                                                                    …say, "Hug?" in an attempt to help      …put a bowl on my head in an
                                                                      a crying peer.                          effort to make a crying
                                                                                                              peer smile.
                                                                                                            …say, "Daddy happy." when I see
                                                                                                              my daddy laugh.
                                                                                                            …say, "Curious George is scared"
                                                                                                              and point at his picture in
                                                                                                              a book.
                                                                                                            …say, "Alexandra's crying because
                                                                                                              she misses her mommy."
          Social Development

Guideline: Awareness of Social Behavior
The child will develop a sense of belonging to a larger community through social interactions and relationships.

                                    Birth - 8 months                        6 - 18 months                      16 - 36 months
• Social identity:             In the beginning of this period,      In the beginning of this period, I   In the beginning of this period, I
  The child will have an       I am not aware that you are a         understand that I am a separate      demonstrate an understanding of
  awareness of his or her      separate person from me. By the       person who is connected to others    the practices or characteristics of
  relationship to others       end of this period, I begin to        in the world. By the end of this     my group. By the end of this period,
  in a group.                  understand that I am a separate       period, I demonstrate an under-      I identify myself and others as
                               person who is connected to            standing of the practices or         belonging to one or more groups,
                               others in the world.                  characteristics of my group.         according to characteristics
                                                                                                          I notice.
                               For example, I may…                   For example, I may…
                               …not experience distress when         …show anxiety when my dad            For example, I may…
                                 you leave the room.                   leaves.                            …talk on the phone and walk
                               …use my hands to explore              …express anxious behavior around       around like I've seen my mommy
                                 different parts of my body and        unfamiliar adults.                   do at home.                          34
                                 explore my mom's facial features.   …demonstrate a sense of "we" when    …clap and say "yeah" after singing
                               …be able to tell the difference         playing games like "peek-a-boo"      a song at home, because that's
                                 between familiar and unfamiliar       or "I'm gonna get you."              what we do at my family
                                 people.                             …talk on the phone and walk            child care.
                               …smile and light up when my big         around like I've seen my mommy     …use pronouns like "you," "me"
                                 brother comes to talk to me.          do at home.                          and "I."
                               …show anxiety when my                 …clap and say "yeah" after singing   …say, "Adrian is a boy, and I'm a
                                 dad leaves.                           a song at home, because that's       boy."
                               …cry and expect a caregiver to          what we do at my family            …say, "I'm not a baby. I'm a big
                                 meet my needs.                        child care.                          girl."
                                                                                                          …name some family members or
                                                                                                            friends.
Motor Development
Babies use their bodies to interact with their physical and social   Caregivers can nurture and support babies’ motor development
environment, right from the start. Through movement, babies          in many ways. Caregivers need to create a safe space for free
make discoveries about themselves and the environment and gain       exploration of movement with appropriate levels of challenge.
a sense of mastery. As infants develop emotional security, they      Supervision of young children is always necessary. Caregivers
become increasingly confident about using their emerging motor       should place young infants on their backs to sleep. Babies also
abilities to explore the environment, try out new skills and learn   need time on their stomachs while awake to develop their
about the world of people and things. The control of small           movement skills (www.cdc.gov/actearly). Baby equipment
and large muscles allows toddlers to participate increasingly in     such as exercise saucers, play pens and swings restrict motor
their daily care such as feeding, dressing and toileting.            development and should be used sparingly. Infant walkers and
                                                                     jumpers can cause serious injuries and should not be used.
Motor development affects infants’ development in all of the other
domains. For example, control of their limbs and hands enables       Because all children learn through moving, adaptation of the
babies to communicate by gesturing and pointing. Fine motor          environment may be necessary to support the movement of a
development is necessary to participate in finger plays and          child, particularly those with a disability or other special need.
eventually handle and look at a book, grasp a marker and scribble    All infants and toddlers benefit from adult encouragement. It helps
and make marks. These early developments lead to emergent            them to take on new challenges and to strengthen their developing
literacy and writing, and contribute to children’s eventual school   sense of security and self-confidence.                                35
readiness. In the area of cognitive development, fine and large
muscle development allows very young children to explore the
environment and manipulate materials. Of course, a child’s ability
to move plays a big role in his or her social interactions with
other children.




Motor development is the increasing ability to use one's body to interact with the environment.
           Motor Development

Guideline: Large Muscle
The child will develop large-muscle strength and control to move within the environment.

                                    Birth - 8 months                      6 - 18 months                        16 - 36 months
• Movement, balance,           In the beginning of this period,    In the beginning of this period, I     In the beginning of this period,
  and coordination:            I move my body automatically.       coordinate the movements of my         I can move my body from one
  The child will coordinate    Later, I gain strength and more     body parts to move my whole            place to another without support
  the movements of his         voluntary control of my head,       body. Later, I develop the strength,   while upright on two feet. By
  or her body in order to      arms and legs. By the end of this   balance and coordination to            the end of this period, I can
  move and to interact         period, I use this strength and     change the position of my body         coordinate my whole body to
  with the environment.        control to coordinate the move-     from lying to sitting, and later to    make complex movements.
                               ments of my body parts and to       standing. By the end of this peri-
                               move my whole body.                 od, I can move my body from one        For example, I may…
                                                                   place to another without support       …hold onto a string to pull a
                               For example, I may…                 while upright on two feet.               wooden duck with wheels behind
                               …try to hold my head steady                                                  me while walking.
                                 when mommy holds me against       For example, I may…                    …back up and sit down in the chair      36
                                 her chest and shoulder.           …get into and out of a sitting           that's just my size at my child
                               …turn my head to both sides while     position independently.                care center.
                                 lying on my back.                 …reach for toys that are lying on      …walk up and down steps while
                               …roll from front to back or back      the floor around me while I            holding my caregiver's hand or
                                 to front.                           am sitting.                            holding onto the railing.
                               …hold myself up, first on two       …get up on my hands and knees.         …bend over to pick up objects off
                                 hands and then on one, while      …crawl on my hands and knees             the floor and then stand up
                                 on my tummy.                        toward my mommy.                       straight again.
                               …scoot backward on my belly.        …creep up and down stairs on my        …carry a large stuffed bear as I
                               …crawl forward on my hands            belly, one step at a time.             walk to my cubby.
                                 and knees.                        …use the couch to pull myself up       …run.
                                                                     into a standing position.            …kick a ball.
                                                                   …cruise around the coffee table        …jump.
                                                                     while holding onto it.               …walk up and down stairs
                                                                   …stand up by myself.                     independently, stopping with
                                                                   …take two or three steps.                both feet on each step.
                                                                   …walk across the room, stopping        …walk up and down stairs, alternating
                                                                     and changing direction when            my feet, one on each step.
                                                                     something is in my way.              …use a riding toy with or without
                                                                   …stand and rock side to side or          pedals.
                                                                     bounce up and down to "dance"        …climb on outdoor play equipment.
                                                                     to music.
           Motor Development

Guideline: Small Muscle
The child will develop small-muscle strength and control for detailed exploration and manipulation of objects.

                                    Birth - 8 months                       6 - 18 months                         16 - 36 months
                               In the beginning of this period,     In the beginning of this period,        In the beginning of this period,
• Touch, grasp, reach          I use my hands, arms and eyes        I look at my hands or an object         I use both of my hands together
  and manipulate:              automatically. Later, I can follow   while manipulating that object. By      to accomplish a task. By the
  The child will coordinate    a moving object or person with       the end of this period, I use both      end of this period, I am able to
  the use of his or her        my eyes, and I can bring my          of my hands together to accom-          coordinate the use of my arms,
  hands, fingers and           hands and objects to my mouth.       plish a task.                           hands and fingers to accomplish
                               By the end of this period, I look                                            more challenging fine motor tasks.
  sight in order to
                               at my hands or an object while       For example, I may…
  manipulate objects
                               manipulating that object.            …transfer a toy from one hand to        For example, I may…
  in the environment.
                                                                      the other.                            …scribble with a fat crayon on a large
                               For example, I may…                  …hold an object in each hand.             piece of paper while holding the
                               …blink when the sun shines in        …release my grasp on a toy so I can       crayon with a full-hand grasp.
                                 my eyes.                             watch it fall to the floor.           …hold a toy with one hand while          37
                               …grasp my mother's finger when       …bang objects together.                   looking at it and pushing different
                                 she places it in my tiny palm.     …turn the pages of a board book.          parts of it with the index finger of
                               …follow a moving person with         …take a block out of the plastic bin.     my other hand.
                                 my eyes.                           …use my index finger and thumb to       …put pegs into the holes of a foam
                               …move my arms when I see a toy.        pick up a piece of cereal and bring     peg board.
                               …clasp my hands together.              it to my mouth.                       …use a spoon to scoop up food
                               …bring my hand to my mouth.          …put a block back in the plastic bin.     and bring it to my mouth, even
                               …reach for and grasp an object.      …look up and point at the object I        though I may get some food on
                               …use a full-hand grasp to pick up      want that is out of reach.              my face.
                                                                                                            …wash my hands.
                                 an object.                         …scribble with a fat crayon on
                                                                                                            …string a large wooden bead onto
                               …transfer a toy from one hand          a large piece of paper while
                                                                                                              a shoelace.
                                 to another.                          holding onto the crayon with
                                                                                                            …make snips in a piece of paper
                                                                      a full-hand grasp.
                                                                                                              with child-sized scissors.
                                                                    …hold a toy with one hand while         …hold a piece of chalk using my
                                                                      looking at it and pushing at            fingers and thumb.
                                                                      different parts with the index        …unbutton a large button on my
                                                                      finger of my other hand.                sweater.
                                                                                                            …consistently favor the use of one
                                                                                                              of my hands over the other.
                                                                                                            …build a tall tower with a number
                                                                                                              of blocks.
                                                                                                            …complete a puzzle with three to
                                                                                                              four interlocking pieces.
           Motor Development

Guideline: Oral-Motor
The child will develop skill in biting, chewing and swallowing during eating and drinking.

                                     Birth - 8 months                      6 - 18 months                        16 - 36 months
• Oral-motor:                   In the beginning of this period,    In the beginning of this period, I     In the beginning of this period, I
  The child will develop        I automatically root and suck.      gain more control over my ability      take bites of food and drink from
  the skill to coordinate       Later, I use my mouth and           to suck, swallow and chew. By the      a cup, if these choices are offered
  the use of his or her         tongue to explore objects.          end of this period, I can take bites   to me. By the end of this period, I
  tongue and mouth in           By the end of this period, I gain   of food and drink from a cup, if       eat a variety of table foods and
  order to suck, swallow        more control over my ability        these choices are offered to me.       can drink through a straw.
  and eventually chew.          to suck, swallow and chew.
                                                                    For example, I may…                    For example, I may…
                                For example, I may…                 …chew pieces of finger food, like      …drink from a cup without a lid,
                                …suck on my own fist.                 chunks of banana.                      even though I may spill some
                                …turn my head toward a finger or    …drink from a sippy cup.                 on myself.
                                  nipple that brushes my cheek.     …bite a biscuit or gnaw on a           …chew using rotary jaw
                                …suck on the breast or bottle.        chew toy.                              movements.                          38
                                …push my tongue against a spoon     …tolerate various textures of foods.   …drink from an open cup, usually
                                  that you put into my mouth.       …take a bite from a piece of bread.      without spilling.
                                …coordinate sucking, swallowing     …drink from a cup without a lid,       …drink through a straw.
                                  and breathing.                      even though I may spill some         …eat a variety of table foods.
                                …stick out my tongue.                 on myself.
                                …explore the texture of objects
                                  with my lips and tongue.
                                …drool while playing and
                                  teething, but drool less
                                  while eating.
                                …use my tongue to move food
                                  inside my mouth.
Language & Communication Development
Babies tune into familiar sounds and voices and express needs           Children with disorders progress through many of the same
within minutes after birth. All humans communicate to build             language development sequences as other children, though
relationships, share meaning with one another and express needs.        they may develop at different rates and with different modes
The ways humans communicate include sound, speech, body                 of communication such as sign language or picture systems.
movements, facial expressions, gestures, signs, pictures, print,
and Braille. Language competence is one of the most amazing             Many children in infant and toddler care programs live in families
developmental accomplishments during the first three years of life.     with a home language different from English. Infants and toddlers
Infants rapidly learn to understand language, express themselves        need to learn their home language, because it is an important part
verbally and use language to get their needs met.                       of their identity development, their self-concept, their relationships
                                                                        at home and their ability to develop concepts and thinking skills.
The development of language and communication skills during             When caring for an infant or toddler with a home language
the infant and toddler years supports development in all of the         different from English, adults should support children in using
other domains. It helps infants to learn about healthful routines, to   and learning their home language, as the children begin to
regulate their actions and thinking, to understand their emotional      learn English.
experiences and to get along with others socially. It also lays the
foundation for the acquisition of skills necessary to learn to read,    Most children learn language without anyone directly teaching
write, and communicate effectively with others in school. Young         them, no matter which language is spoken at home. However, the           39
children’s ability to understand and express spoken language by the     amount and kind of language infants and toddlers experience has
end of the toddler period prepares them to hear and understand          an enormous effect on the number of words they will learn and
the sounds of spoken language (phonological awareness), continue        use, their success at learning to read and write in school, and
to understand and use new words (vocabulary acquisition), and           their long-range school success. Babies and toddlers need rich
communicate through listening, viewing and speaking.                    experiences with language-related emergent reading and writing.
                                                                        For example, caregivers should read to infants and toddlers
Some infants and toddlers have conditions that affect their ability     frequently, and recite to them songs, rhymes and fingerplays.
to learn to communicate. For example, children who are born with        In addition, learning opportunities such as manipulating play
partial or full hearing loss may rely more on vision than on hearing    materials, playing with short stubby paintbrushes and using
to communicate. Children with developmental disorders such as           eating utensils provides infants and toddlers the experiences
autism or severe speech delays also may heavily rely on non-verbal      they need to become ready to play at writing during the
communication.                                                          preschool years.




Language and communication development is the increasing ability to communicate successfully with others
to build relationships, share meaning and express needs in multiple ways.
          Language & Communication Development

Guideline: Comprehending Language
The child will use listening and observation skills to develop an awareness of his or her world. As he or she develops, he or she
understands more sounds and words.
                                     Birth - 8 months                       6 - 18 months                         16 - 36 months
• Understanding language:       In the beginning of this period, I   In the beginning of this period,        In the beginning of this period,
  The child will comprehend     respond automatically to sounds      I recognize the names of familiar       I show understanding of
  the message of another's      in the environment. By the end       objects and people. By the end of       adults’ simple requests and
  communication.                of this period, I recognize the      this period, I show understanding       of statements referring to the
                                names of familiar people and         of adult's simple requests and of       present situation. By the end
                                favorite objects.                    statements referring to the             of this period, I understand my
                                                                     present situation.                      caregiver's more abstract and
                                For example, I may…                                                          complex statements and requests
                                …turn my head toward the direc-      For example, I may…                     that refer to positions in space,
                                  tion of a loud sound and startle   …reach for my bottle when I am          ideas, feelings and the future.
                                  when very loud sounds occur.         asked, "Do you want your bottle?"
                                …watch my grandmother's face as      …follow one-step requests when my       For example, I may…                   40
                                  she speaks to me.                    caregiver uses gestures along with    …point to my shoes or socks when
                                …turn my head in the direction of      words (e.g., "no no," "roll the         my caregiver asks, "Where are
                                  my father's voice.                   ball," "kiss the baby doll," "wave      your shoes?"
                                …look at my mommy when I am            bye-bye").                            …sit next to Marcus at the table
                                  asked, "Where's Mommy?"            …crawl toward the ball when my            when my caregiver asks me to
                                …reach for my bottle when I            caregiver asks, "Where's the ball?"     sit next to him.
                                  am asked, "Do you want               without using gestures.               …get my own book out of my
                                  your bottle?"                      …point to my shoes or socks when          cubby and my caregiver's book
                                                                       my caregiver asks, "Where are           off the shelf when my caregiver
                                                                       your shoes?"                            requests, "Please get your truck
                                                                                                               book and my truck book
                                                                                                               for naptime."
                                                                                                             …pick up one block off the floor
                                                                                                               and give it to my caregiver
                                                                                                               when he asks me to "Please
                                                                                                               get a block," and then pick up
                                                                                                               the basket of blocks when I'm
                                                                                                               asked to "Please get the blocks."
          Language & Communication Development

Guideline: Expressing Language
The child will develop the ability to use sounds, words, gestures and eventually signs or words to communicate his or her
wants, needs and feelings.
                                    Birth - 8 months                        6 - 18 months                       16 - 36 months
• Expressing language:         In the beginning of this period,      In the beginning of this period, I    In the beginning of this period,
  The child will convey        I make sounds spontaneously.          show more intention as I experiment   I begin to use single words
  a message or transfer        By the end of this period, I show     with sound and with different         and conventional gestures to
  information to another       more intention as I experiment        ways to express my wants, needs       communicate with others. By
  person.                      with sound and with different         or feelings. By the end of this       the end of this period, I combine
                               ways to express my wants, needs       period, I begin to use single words   words to express more complex
                               or feelings.                          and conventional gestures to          ideas and start to follow some
                                                                     communicate with others.              simple grammatical rules,
                               For example, I may…                                                         although not always correctly.
                               …coo using single vowel sounds        For example, I may…
                                 (e.g., "ah", "eh," "uh").           …use gestures or expressions to       For example, I may…
                               …demonstrate several different          indicate my wants, needs            …begin to say, "bottle" instead of     41
                                 cries to express different needs.     or feelings.                          "baba" when wanting a drink.
                               …babble, using consonant sounds.      …use one-word sentences.              …combine words into simple
                               …use gestures or expressions to       …say "mama" or "papa."                  sentences. "I go home."
                                 indicate my wants, needs            …say, "oh oh" when my milk spills.    …speak clearly enough for others
                                 or feelings.                        …use long strings of babbles            to usually understand what I am
                                                                       together.                             trying to say.
                                                                     …shake my head back and forth         …be able to name my extended
                                                                       and say, "no" when I don't want       family members when my
                                                                       to do something.                      caregiver points to them in a
                                                                     …point to an object to communicate      photograph.
                                                                       that I want you to get it for me.   …add "s" to words when referring
                                                                     …begin to say "bottle" instead of       to more than one, "lots of dogs
                                                                       "baba" when wanting a drink.          at the park" and "lots of deers in
                                                                                                             the woods," even though that
                                                                                                             grammatical rule doesn't
                                                                                                             always work.
                                                                                                           …use words like "mine," "yours"
                                                                                                             and "his" to indicate who owns
                                                                                                             each toy.
           Language & Communication Development


Guideline: Social Communication
The child will be an active participant in his or her social world by developing the ability to interact with others in ways
expected by his or her family, or community.

                                      Birth - 8 months                       6 - 18 months                       16 - 36 months
• Rules of language:             In the beginning of this period,     In the beginning of this period, I    In the beginning of this period, I
  The child will participate     I automatically respond to my        attempt to respond to basic forms     participate in and often initiate
  in interactions with           caregivers when they talk to         of social communication with the      the basic socially expected
  language that follow           me by turning toward them.           appropriate gesture. By the end of    communications of my family.
  the expected practices         During this period, I participate    this period, I participate in and     By the end of this period, I
  of the child's family          in back-and-forth interactions       often initiate the basic socially     understand when words are used
  and community.                 with my caregivers. By the end       expected communications of            in a silly way.
                                 of this period, I attempt to         my family.
                                 respond to basic forms of social                                           For example, I may…
                                 communication with the               For example, I may…                   …say, "please" when I'm asking for
                                 appropriate gesture.                 …wave bye-bye in response to my         something.
                                                                        papa’s waving bye-bye to me.        …take a turn in a conversation by    42
                                 For example, I may…                  …run to the window to blow kisses       answering a question when
                                 …gaze at my caregiver during           to my mommy when she drops            asked, and then asking a
                                   a feeding.                           me off at child care, even before     question in return.
                                 …vocalize when my aunt calls           my mommy has left the room.         …make a related comment in a
                                   my name.                           …play "peek-a-boo" with my aunt.        group conversation during
                                 …smile and vocalize to initiate      …say, "please" when I'm asking for      lunch time.
                                   contact with my grandpa.             something.                          …laugh when my caregiver says,
                                 …make a gurgling sound and                                                   "put your boot on your ear."
                                   pause for my caregiver to
                                   respond, then after my caregiver
                                   says something to me, coo
                                   and smile.
                                 …raise my arms in the air when
                                   Daddy says, "so big!" and raises
                                   his arms.
                                 …wave bye-bye in response to my
                                   papa’s waving bye-bye to me.
           Language & Communication Development

Guideline: Early Literacy
The child will learn the foundations for listening, speaking, reading and writing.

                                     Birth - 8 months                         6 - 18 months                          16 - 36 months
• Early reading:                In the beginning of this period,      In the beginning of this period, I        In the beginning of this period,
  The child will demonstrate    I respond automatically to my         show increased interest in books          I actively participate in book
  interest in book reading,     caregiver's talking, singing and      and pictures. By the end of this          reading, story telling and singing.
  story telling and singing     reading. By the end of this period,   period, I actively participate in         By the end of this period, I show
  and will eventually           I show increased interest in books,   book reading, story telling and           understanding of the meaning of
  understand the meaning        pictures, songs and rhymes.           singing.                                  stories and show appreciation
  of basic symbols.                                                                                             for reading books, telling stories
                                For example, I may…                   For example, I may…                       and singing by initiating these
                                …turn toward my granny and            …reach for the pages of a board           activities and by having "favorite"
                                  watch her eyes and mouth while        book when my caregiver is               books, stories and songs.
                                  she's singing me a song.              holding up a book and looking
                                …look at a page of a picture book       at it with me.                          For example, I may…
                                  that my caregiver holds up for      …follow my mom's gaze to look at          …vocalize and point to identify           43
                                  me to see.                            a picture in a book.                      familiar signs, labels, or logos in
                                …cuddle and look at my caregiver's    …look at the picture of the bus in a        the home and community (e.g.,
                                  face while I am being read to.        book when my caregiver points             a stop sign).
                                …babble while looking at a book         and says, "There's the school bus."     …see a picture of a flower in a
                                  with my big brother.                …enjoy looking at the pictures in a         book and pretend to sniff it.
                                                                        picture book.
                                …chew on the corner of a book.                                                  …participate in book reading by
                                                                      …pat a photograph of my family pet.
                                …coo when I hear my caregiver                                                     making sounds of the different
                                                                      …move my arms in a rolling motion
                                  singing.                                                                        trucks in the story that my grandpa
                                                                        to let my caregiver know I want to
                                …reach for the pages of a book                                                    is reading to me. ("Brmmm" for
                                                                        sing, "Wheels on the Bus."
                                  when my caregiver is holding up     …turn a board book right-side up            bus, "Beep-Beep-Beep" for dump
                                  a book and looking at it with me.     and turn the pages.                       truck, and siren noise for
                                …follow my mom's gaze to look at      …point to the animals in the pic-           fire truck.)
                                  a picture in a book.                  tures as my caregiver is reading        …try to do all the hand motions
                                                                        "Old MacDonald" and asks me,              to "The Itsy Bitsy Spider."
                                                                        "Where's the cow? Where's the           …listen as my caregiver reads a
                                                                        dog?"                                     short story.
                                                                      …point to a picture of a dog and          …finish the repetitive sentence, "Brown
                                                                        make a barking noise or say “doggie.”     Bear, Brown Bear, what do you
                                                                      …vocalize and point to identify             see?" when reading that book.
                                                                        familiar signs, labels or logos in      …make up a story about a picture
                                                                        the home and community (e.g.,             of an elephant and tell it to my
                                                                        a stop sign).                             teddy bear.
           Language & Communication Development

Guideline: Early Literacy
The child will learn the foundations for listening, speaking, reading and writing.

                                     Birth - 8 months                       6 - 18 months                         16 - 36 months
• Early writing:                In the beginning of this period, I   In the beginning of this period, I      In the beginning of this period,
  The child will demon-         respond automatically to objects     show increased ability in the use       I use a full-hand grasp to hold a
  strate interest in writing    in my environment. By the end        of my hands and fingers. By the         writing tool to make scribbles. By
  and will develop the fine     of this period, I show increased     end of this period, I use a full-hand   the end of this period, I use my
  motor abilities required      ability in the use of my hands       grasp to hold a writing tool to         thumb and fingers of one hand
  to hold a writing tool        and fingers, and may watch           make scribbles.                         to hold my writing tool and start
  and make marks on             adults when they are writing.                                                to use my drawings to represent
  a surface.                                                         For example, I may…                     objects and ideas.
                                For example, I may…                  …make random marks on the side
                                …wave both my arms when I see a        walk with chalk.                      For example, I may…
                                  toy that excites me.               …imitate a caregiver who is writing.    …choose to use the markers or
                                …grasp a rattle, let go of it and    …use a crayon to make marks on a          crayons during play time to make
                                  then try to grasp it again.          piece of paper.                         scribbled pictures.                  44
                                …transfer and manipulate an          …choose to use the markers or           …pretend to take orders with a
                                  object with my hands.                crayons during play time to make        pencil and paper when I'm
                                …watch an adult write.                 scribbled pictures.                     pretending to play restaurant.
                                …pick up a small toy with the tips                                           …hold my crayon with my thumb
                                  of my thumb and fingers.                                                     and fingers of one hand.
                                                                                                             …draw a circle and a straight line
                                                                                                               after watching someone else do it.
                                                                                                             …make a scribbled picture and say,
                                                                                                               "It's a dinosaur" when showing it
                                                                                                               to my uncle.
                                                                                                             …choose to use crayons, markers,
                                                                                                               paint brushes, chalk, etc. to draw
                                                                                                               and create.
Cognitive Development
Babies are motivated, curious and competent learners right from            Relationships are at the center of early cognitive development.
the start. They are natural scientists. Cognitive development is           Young infants are fascinated with their caregivers’ faces and voices.
the building of concept knowledge and thinking skills. Children            They learn through give and take interaction. As infants grow older,
come into the world eager to learn. Through relationships, active          they use attachment relationships as a secure base for exploration.
exploration and experiences, infants and toddlers make discoveries         They also become interested in showing and giving things to
about the world, figure out how things work, imitate others, try           adults. At the toddler age, children ask questions and share
out new behaviors, share meaning, learn social rules and solve             meaning with their caregivers.
problems. Like scientists, young children uncover the mysteries
of the world. Through play and self-initiated practice, they build         To promote cognitive development, caregivers should take cues
concepts and develop their thinking skills.                                from infants and be responsive to the children’s interests and
                                                                           needs. Research has documented that responsive care has a
Cognitive development grows hand in hand with the other                    positive influence on children’s long range cognitive development.
developmental domains. Healthy and emotionally secure infants              In addition, caregivers need to set up an environment that is both
can focus on exploration and learning. Infants’ growing ability            appropriate and challenging for the age and stage of each child.
to move their bodies allows them to explore environments and               For children with disabilities or other special needs, specific
manipulate materials in increasingly complex ways. As infants and          adaptations to their abilities are necessary. The environment
toddlers build concepts, language gives them a means to represent          should be well organized and predictable. Providing a rich              45
ideas and share meaning with others. Symbolic play not only                selection of age appropriate, easily accessible materials allows
enables children to experiment with concepts, it also gives them           all infants and toddlers to pursue their passion for learning
a means to explore social roles and feelings. The knowledge and            and discovery.
thinking skills that children build during the first three years of life
prepare them to continue to learn during the preschool years and
become ready for school.




Cognitive development is the building of thinking skills.
          Cognitive Development

Guideline: Discoveries of Infancy
The child will develop an understanding of his or her world through exploration and discovery while developing strategies to
solve problems.
                                    Birth - 8 months                          6 - 18 months                         16 - 36 months
• Group and categorize:        In the beginning of this period,        In the beginning of this period,        In the beginning of this period,
  The child will learn         I automatically respond in              I can tell the difference between       I can group objects into two
  to group people and          distinguishing between familiar         familiar and unfamiliar people,         distinct classes. By the end of this
  objects based on their       and unfamiliar people. By the           objects and places. By the end of       period, I can sort multiple objects
  attributes.                  end of this period, I can tell the      this period, I can group objects        by their properties and uses.
                               difference between familiar and         into two distinct groups.
                               unfamiliar people, objects                                                      For example, I may…
                               and places.                             For example, I may…                     …put toy cars in one pile and air-
                                                                       …demonstrate anxiety or fear              planes in another.
                               For example, I may…                       toward unfamiliar faces or people.    …point out all of the blue plates at
                               …turn toward the sight, smell           …indicate that birds, dogs and            the lunch table.
                                 or sound of my mom.                     horses are all animals, while cars    …label the big animals "mama" and      46
                               …look back and forth between              are not.                                the small animals "baby."
                                 people or objects, as if              …remember the steps that make up        …put all of the red pegs in one
                                 comparing them.                         my nightly bath routine: clothes        bowl, the white pegs in another
                               …be able to tell the difference           off, wash hair, wash body, dry off.     bowl and the green pegs in a
                                 between friendly and unfriendly       …put toy cars in one pile and             third bowl.
                                 voices.                                 airplanes in another.
                               …explore objects by mouthing,
                                 banging, shaking or hitting
                                 them.
                               …snuggle happily with my special
                                 blanket when I find it in a pile of
                                 fresh laundry.
                               …demonstrate anxiety or fear
                                 toward unfamiliar faces or people.
                               …bat or kick at water, then act
                                 surprised by the splash.
                               …shake a rattle repeatedly to make
                                 the sound continue.
          Cognitive Development


Guideline: Discoveries of Infancy
The child will develop an understanding of his or her world through exploration and discovery while developing strategies to
solve problems.

                                    Birth - 8 months                        6 - 18 months                        16 - 36 months
• Cause and effect:            In the beginning of this period, I    In the beginning of this period, I     In the beginning of this period,
  The child will make          respond automatically to things       use simple actions to make things      I purposefully try behaviors to
  things happen and            that happen in my environment.        happen. By the end of this period, I   make things happen. By the end
  understand the causes        By the end of this period, I use      purposefully try behaviors to make     of this period, I think of ways to
  of some events.              simple actions to make things         things happen.                         solve problems and don't have to
                               happen.                                                                      act out possible solutions. I also
                                                                     For example, I may…                    understand that events have
                               For example, I may…                   …shake a rattle repeatedly to make     a cause.
                               …explore objects by mouthing,           the sound continue.
                                 banging, shaking or hitting them.   …use a wooden spoon, pots and          For example, I may…
                               …look at my own hand.                   pans, in various combinations, to    …touch different parts of a musical
                               …grasp a toy in my hand.                make sounds over and over again.       toy to make the music start again.   47
                               …bat or kick at water, then act       …engage in trial-and-error learning.   …choose only rings with holes
                                 surprised by the splash.            …drop objects from different             when playing with a
                               …shake a rattle repeatedly to make      heights and positions.                 ring-stacking toy.
                                 the sound continue.                 …pull a string attached to a toy to    …say, "Lucile fall down" when I
                                                                       bring the toy closer.                  see a peer crying.
                                                                     …touch or bang the handle of a         …communicate about what makes
                                                                       jack-in-the-box, then hand it back     a pop-up toy go.
                                                                       to my caregiver to make it pop.
                                                                     …touch different parts of a musical
                                                                       toy to make the music start again.
           Cognitive Development

Guideline: Discoveries of Infancy
The child will develop an understanding of his or her world through exploration and discovery while developing strategies to
solve problems.
                                    Birth - 8 months                       6 - 18 months                           16 - 36 months
• Problem solving:             In the beginning of this period,    In the beginning of this period, I         In the beginning of this period,
  The child will use the       I respond automatically to my       actively use my body to find out           I use simple strategies to solve
  self, objects or others      environment. By the end of this     about my world. By the end of              problems. By the end of this
  to attain a goal.            period, I actively use my body to   this period, I use simple strategies       period, I can solve problems
                               find out about my world.            to solve problems.                         without having to try every
                                                                                                              possibility, while avoiding
                               For example, I may…                 For example, I may…                        solutions that clearly won't work.
                               …cry to get my needs met.           …touch or mouth the hair of
                               …explore objects by mouthing,         another person.                          For example, I may…
                                 banging, shaking or               …move around to the side of the            …try several ways to reach a ball
                                 hitting them.                       aquarium so I can see the fish better.     that is stuck under the couch.
                               …drop a toy and watch it fall.      …squeeze onto my mom's lap, even           …turn a puzzle piece to make it fit     48
                               …touch or mouth the hair of           when my sibling is already there.          into its space.
                                 another person.                   …twist a shape until it fits into a        …choose a yogurt container instead
                               …transfer a rattle from one hand      hole in a container.                       of a strainer to carry water across
                                 to the other.                     …use a stick to reach a toy.                 the yard.
                                                                   …try several ways to reach a ball          …use a fork or spoon.
                                                                     that is stuck under the couch.           …use a play cup from the house-
                                                                                                                keeping corner to roll out my clay.
          Cognitive Development

Guideline: Discoveries of Infancy
The child will develop an understanding of his or her world through exploration and discovery while developing strategies to
solve problems.
                                    Birth - 8 months                        6 - 18 months                         16 - 36 months
• Memory:                      In the beginning of this period,      In the beginning of this period,        In the beginning of this period, I
  The child will remember      I respond automatically to my         I notice people and things and          hold in my mind an image of my
  people, objects and          environment. By the end of this       their features. My ability to           attachment figure, which I can
  events.                      period, I notice people and           remember depends greatly on             use to comfort myself. I also
                               things and their features. My         repeated experience. Later, I           recall more information over
                               ability to remember depends           understand that people and              a longer period of time. By
                               greatly on repeated experience.       objects continue to exist even          the end of this period, I can
                                                                     when I can't see them. By the end       communicate about some
                               For example, I may…                   of this period, I hold in my mind       of the events in my life.
                               …not look for a toy that has been     an image of my attachment figure,
                                 hidden.                             which I can use to comfort myself.      For example, I may…
                               …kick my feet in anticipation of      I also recall more information over     …say, "Mama," when my caregiver       49
                                 being fed when my mother            a longer period of time.                  rocks me to sleep at naptime, as
                                 positions me on her lap.                                                      a way of reminding myself that
                               …remember how to kick to make         For example, I may…                       Mama rocks me to sleep at
                                 my mobile move when it is           …show signs of wariness or distress       home.
                                 hanging over my crib.                 toward unfamiliar people or places.   …say, "Meow," when Daddy points
                               …look longer at a new picture         …search for a partially hidden toy.       to a picture and asks, "What does
                                 than at one I have seen before.     …look over the edge of the table for      a kitty cat say?"
                               …track an object that moves out         a cloth I have dropped.               …watch you take a cloth out of the
                                 of my line of sight.                …search for my blanket after I see        drawer, wipe down the table, and
                               …search for a partially hidden toy.     you hide it.                            put the cloth in the hamper, then
                                                                     …watch you wipe down the table            try it myself a week later.
                                                                       with a cloth one day, then try it     …imagine the whereabouts of
                                                                       myself the next day.                    an object or person that is out
                                                                     …say, "Mama," when my caregiver           of my sight.
                                                                       rocks me to sleep at naptime, as      …communicate about my aunt's
                                                                       a way of reminding myself that          visit last summer.
                                                                       Mama rocks me to sleep at home.
           Cognitive Development


Guideline: Discoveries of Infancy
The child will develop an understanding of his or her world through exploration and discovery while developing strategies to
solve problems.
                                    Birth - 8 months                       6 - 18 months                        16 - 36 months
• Space:                       In the beginning of this period,     In the beginning of this period,       In the beginning of this period,
  The child will understand    I respond automatically to my        I begin to learn the properties of     I use trial and error to discover
  how things move and fit      environment. By the end of           objects. By the end of this period,    how things fit and move in space.
  in space.                    this period, I begin to learn        I use trial and error to discover      By the end of this period, I
                               the properties of objects.           how things fit and move in space.      predict and imagine how things
                                                                                                           fit and move in space, without
                               For example, I may…                  For example, I may…                    having to try all possible solutions.
                               …watch people and objects move       …crawl to the edge of the bed,
                                 through space.                       then stop.                           For example, I may…
                               …look for what is making a sound.    …experiment with how objects fit       …get myself stuck in a tight space.
                               …bring an object to my mouth to        in space: stack, sort, dump, push,   …build a tall tower with a number
                                 explore it.                          pull, twist, turn.                     of blocks.                            50
                               …reach for and grasp an object.      …fit the round puzzle piece in the     …fit a shape into the matching
                               …drop a toy and watch it fall.         round space on the puzzle board.       space in a shape sorter toy.
                               …move my body through space          …get myself stuck in a tight space     …complete a puzzle with three
                                 by rolling, rocking or crawling.     when exploring.                        to four interlocking pieces.
                                                                                                           …stack rings on a base in the
                                                                                                             correct order.
                                                                                                           …build a simple town with toys
                                                                                                             such as cars and blocks.
           Cognitive Development


Guideline: Discoveries of Infancy
The child will develop an understanding of his or her world through exploration and discovery while developing strategies to
solve problems.

                                    Birth - 8 months                       6 - 18 months                       16 - 36 months
• Imitation:                   In the beginning of this period,     In the beginning of this period, I    In the beginning of this period, I
  The child will be able       I automatically imitate facial       match the simple actions and          can imitate something I saw at an
  to mirror, repeat and        expressions. By the end of this      expressions of others. By the         earlier time, even though it is no
  practice the actions         period, I match the simple actions   end of this period, I can imitate     longer happening right in front
  modeled by another.          and expressions of others, even      something I saw at an earlier time,   of me. By the end of this period, I
                               when a short time has passed.        even though it is no longer           can imitate a complex sequence
                                                                    happening right in front of me.       of events that I observed quite a
                               For example, I may…                                                        long time ago.
                               …stick out my tongue when you        For example, I may…
                                 stick out yours.                   …imitate an adult's sounds when       For example, I may…
                               …become quiet and stop moving          babbling.                           …take a toy phone and put it in my
                                 my body to watch an adult as       …take a drink from my cup today,        play purse, copying what I saw      51
                                 she interacts with me.               set it down, and say, "Aah" after     my caregiver do last week.
                               …play pat-a-cake.                      I saw you do it yesterday.          …pretend to make a cake, wrap
                               …imitate an adult's facial           …take a toy phone and put it in my      gifts and decorate the living
                                 expressions.                         play purse, copying what I saw        room, like I saw my grandma do
                               …imitate an adult's sounds             my caregiver do last week.            for my last birthday party.
                                 when babbling.
           Cognitive Development

Guideline: Attention and Persistence
The child will develop the ability to choose to participate and persist in a growing number of activities.

                                     Birth - 8 months                         6 - 18 months                         16 - 36 months
• Attention and persistence:    In the beginning of this period,      In the beginning of this period, I       In the beginning of this period,
  The child will be able to     I automatically respond to things     respond to different things in the       I need order, ritual, routine and
  remain focused on a task      in the environment. By the            environment in different ways,           notice when changes occur.
  or object and to persist      end of this period, I respond         and I'm able to spend more time          By the end of this period, I can
  in the face of obstacles.     to different things in the            focusing on things I find interesting.   pay attention to more than one
                                environment in different ways,        By the end of this period, I need        thing at a time. I monitor my
                                and I am able to spend more           order, ritual, routine and notice        progress in trying to achieve a
                                time focusing on things I find        when changes occur.                      goal and try to correct mistakes
                                interesting.                                                                   along the way.
                                                                      For example, I may…
                                For example, I may…                   …discover that I can kick a mobile       For example, I may…
                                …cry until I'm fed or changed or        and make it move, or shake a rat-      …expect my favorite songs to be
                                  made comfortable.                     tle and make a sound.                    sung the same way each time          52
                                …gaze at faces and objects.           …fill a bucket with sand or stack          and protest if my caregiver
                                …become quiet when feeding              blocks again and again.                  changes the words.
                                  begins, even before I am            …be easily distracted.                   …engage in solitary play for a
                                  offered food.                       …attend to a short picture book by         short time.
                                …show more interest in a new toy        looking at the pictures or listening   …have frequent tantrums out of
                                  than an old one.                      to the words.                            frustration when goals are
                                …look back and forth between          …expect my favorite songs to be            difficult to reach.
                                  people or objects, as if              sung the same way each time,           …listen to a story that a caregiver
                                  comparing them.                       and protest if my caregiver              is reading to a small group of
                                …turn away from interactions that       changes the words.                       children while playing with trucks
                                  I find to be too intense, then                                                 in a nearby corner of the room.
                                  turn back to continue interacting                                            …continue to look for a hidden toy,
                                  when I'm ready.                                                                without being distracted by the
                                …discover that I can kick a mobile                                               soft blanket that covers it.
                                  and make it move, or shake a                                                 …realize during clean-up time that
                                  rattle and make a sound.                                                       I have put a car in the block bin
                                                                                                                 and return to put it in the
                                                                                                                 proper place.
                                                                                                               …look for and find a favorite book,
                                                                                                                 and ask a caregiver to read it.
References
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