KEEP CLEAR Pavement Markings

Document Sample
KEEP CLEAR Pavement Markings Powered By Docstoc
					KEEP CLEAR Pavement Markings

                 Operational Instruction   2.23
                                                                             Transport Services Division


                                                              TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
                                                                     Operational Instructions


                     KEEP CLEAR Pavement Markings - 2.23

 AMENDMENT RECORD


 Version                 Page(s)                Date                      Amendment Description            Init
 Ed1/Rev0                                       10/98                     (Prep by C Anderson)             CA
 Ed1/Rev0                All                    05/01                     ARR update, photos included      CA
 Ver 2                   All                    21/05/08                  Format Changes                   DW
 Ver 3                   All                    08/09/10                  Updated to AS1742.2-2009         AB
 Ver 3                                          3/11/10                   Added signature                  DW




This document has been prepared by Traffic and Access Standards Section. It has been approved
and authorised for use by DTEI and its authorised agents by:




Manager, Traffic and Access Standards Section
 3 / 11 / 2010

Extracts may be reproduced providing the subject is kept in context and the source is acknowledged. Every effort has been
made to supply complete and accurate information. This document is subject to continual revision and may change.

For information regarding the interpretation of this document please contact:
          Traffic Regulation and Standards Unit
          Telephone: (08) 8343 2289 Facsimile: (08) 8343 2630

For additional copies or to confirm the current status of this document please contact:
           Traffic and Access Standards Section DTEI
           Telephone: (08) 8343 2849 Facsimile: (08) 8343 2630
           email: david.widdrington@sa.gov.au




 K-Net Doc:   1585750                                                            UNCONTROLLED COPY WHEN PRINTED
 Version No.: 3
 Issue Date: 3/11/2010
 Doc. Owner: S Clark, Unit Manager, Traffic Regs & Standards                                                 Page 2 of 9
                                                                      KEEP CLEAR Pavement Markings - 2.23


CONTENTS


         1.   Scope.................................................................................................................. 4
         2.   Background........................................................................................................ 4
         3.   Unsignalised T-Junctions................................................................................. 5
              3.1 Acceptable Delay to Side Road Traffic......................................................... 6
         4.   Driveways........................................................................................................... 6
                                                                                                                                          2.1
                                                                                                                                          #.#
                                                                                                                                          2.23
              4.1 Emergency Service Access.......................................................................... 6
         5.   Installation.......................................................................................................... 7
         6.   Approvals ........................................................................................................... 9
         7.   Legal Enforcement ............................................................................................ 9
         8.   Related Devices ................................................................................................. 9
         9.   References ......................................................................................................... 9




K-Net Doc:   1585750                                                            UNCONTROLLED COPY WHEN PRINTED
Version No.: 3
Issue Date: 3/11/2010
Doc. Owner: S Clark, Unit Manager, Traffic Regs & Standards                                                             Page 3 of 9
                                                         KEEP CLEAR Pavement Markings - 2.23


1.    Scope
      This Instruction provides for the appropriate use of KEEP CLEAR markings on
      Department for Transport, Energy & Infrastructure (DTEI) roads with a speed limit less
      than 80 km/h. (KEEP CLEAR pavement markings are not to be installed on roads where
      the speed limit is 80 km/h or greater).


2.    Background                                                                                         2.1
                                                                                                         #.#
                                                                                                         2.23
      Vehicles queuing across intersections (including T-junctions) and in some cases
      driveways can frustrate traffic and create hazardous situations. Rule 128 of the
      Australian Road Rules (ARR) prohibits a driver from entering blocked intersections (an
      intersection is defined in the ARR Dictionary), as did the former Road Traffic Act.

      This general rule is sometimes difficult for drivers to comply with in heavy traffic and
      there are locations where blocking by stationary vehicles can frustrate entering or
      leaving traffic and lead to hazardous situations. This has led to the use of KEEP CLEAR
      pavement markings at some locations. However, the use of these markings raises a
      number of issues and concerns:
             a) Using KEEP CLEAR markings at some locations and not at others may confuse
                some drivers into believing that it is only illegal to block a junction where KEEP
                CLEAR is marked, particularly if its use is too widespread.

             b) There is a danger that KEEP CLEAR markings may promote a false sense of
                security, or be interpreted as a “right of way” by drivers using the side road
                when it comes to crossing the opposing traffic flow on the main road, for
                example:
                  Right turners from the main road may cross in front of approaching traffic,
                    expecting traffic to slow down and stop because of a KEEP CLEAR
                    message. This is a concern particularly on multi-lane roads, where one
                    lane of traffic stops clear of the markings, and the driver turning has the
                    expectation that the other lane will also stop.
                  Similarly, right turners from a side road may cross in front of a stopped
                    vehicle on the main road, also expecting approaching traffic in the other
                    lanes to slow down and stop because of the KEEP CLEAR message.
                  Right turners from the main road may use the KEEP CLEAR message as a
                    right of way turning path and fail to notice cyclists or pedestrians
                    approaching on the inside.
                  In each of the above cases, large vehicles queued on the main road
                    exacerbate difficulties by creating significant obstructions to visibility. It is
                    also imperative that the KEEP CLEAR markings be kept in pristine condition.
             c) The installation of unnecessary pavement messages on the road introduces
                an additional hazard to motorcyclists as road markings can become slippery.
                Therefore their use should be carefully controlled.




K-Net Doc:   1585750                                          UNCONTROLLED COPY WHEN PRINTED
Version No.: 3
Issue Date: 3/11/2010
Doc. Owner: S Clark, Unit Manager, Traffic Regs & Standards                                Page 4 of 9
                                                         KEEP CLEAR Pavement Markings - 2.23

      In view of the above, KEEP CLEAR markings on DTEI roads should be limited to
      situations where traffic blocking unsignalised T-junctions (Section 3) or driveways
      (Section 4) has the potential to cause a hazardous situation, or unreasonable delays,
      to other road users.

      KEEP CLEAR markings shall not be installed at 4-way intersections where the markings
      may encourage people to drive straight across a main road. Encouraging such
      hazardous manoeuvres would be considered inappropriate. Prevention of crossing
      movements must be considered at such locations.
                                                                                                               2.1
                                                                                                               #.#
                                                                                                               2.23
3.    Unsignalised T-Junctions
      KEEP CLEAR markings should only be installed for reasons of assisting general traffic in
      leaving rather than entering the main road. This is due to concerns centred around
      right-of-way issues, main road traffic frustration, and safety concerns, as raised above.
      (Emergency service access is one exception described later).

      Therefore, the installation of KEEP CLEAR markings may be considered (as shown in
      Figure 3.1) where:

            A T-junction is located near to a major traffic control point, such as an
             intersection controlled by traffic signals or a roundabout, a busy pedestrian
             crossing or a railway crossing, and
            Queued vehicles regularly block right turn traffic into the side road, resulting in
                real safety concerns on the main road (ie high potential for rear-end accidents
                and/or traffic queuing back into a major conflict point or across a pedestrian
                crossing)


                                                                  Major Traffic Control Point
                                                                  (eg Signalised Intersection)




                     KEEP CLEAR may be
              appropriate at this location.


             Figure 3.1: Situations where a KEEP CLEAR message may be used

      The use of a KEEP CLEAR marking would not be warranted if these situations only occur
      occasionally during peak traffic conditions. The use of the pavement marking should
      be reserved for locations where the above situations occur on a frequent basis (i.e.
      occurring numerous times during peak conditions) and have the potential to create a
      serious road safety hazard.




K-Net Doc:   1585750                                          UNCONTROLLED COPY WHEN PRINTED
Version No.: 3
Issue Date: 3/11/2010
Doc. Owner: S Clark, Unit Manager, Traffic Regs & Standards                                      Page 5 of 9
                                                         KEEP CLEAR Pavement Markings - 2.23

      3.1    Acceptable Delay to Side Road Traffic

             Improved access from side roads onto a main road is one of the principal
             reasons for KEEP CLEAR markings being requested, with apparent delays to side
             road traffic as the motivating factor. While it would be ideal for local traffic to
             have near immediate access to a main road, this is in practice an unrealistic
             expectation. At most side roads near signalised intersections or crossings it
             should be known that some drivers will inadvertently block the side road access
             and frustrate movements. Licensed drivers should be aware that this is illegal
             and is enforceable.                                                                      2.1
                                                                                                      #.#
                                                                                                      2.23
             Observation of driver behaviour suggests that generally the queued traffic on a
             main road will allow left turners from side roads to enter the stream at regular
             intervals. Right turners or cross traffic may experience longer delays however,
             driver recognition of their legal obligations and common courtesy will generally
             result in a gap being left to allow the side road driver access to the main road.
             Drivers from side roads use these gaps at their own risk, bearing in mind that
             under the Australian Road Rules (and previously), they too must be able to
             successfully clear the junction prior to entering it. In these circumstances, the
             presence of a KEEP CLEAR marking introduces a problem with side road drivers
             mistakenly believing they have a right to move in front of the stopped main road
             traffic, using the clear space as a holding area. As a result they can in turn block
             the flow of traffic on the main road if they are unable to complete the right turn.
             This is a very vulnerable and frustrating practice, which is embarrassing and
             pressurising to the culprit vehicle driver and is best not to be encouraged.

             For these reasons, along with the safety concerns discussed elsewhere in the
             document, KEEP CLEAR markings are not an appropriate treatment for improving
             side road access to main roads.


4.    Driveways
      In general, KEEP CLEAR markings shall not be installed at driveways to private
      residences.

      The markings shall not be installed for businesses (car parks) unless there is a need to
      ensure the driveway remains clear to resolve a serious road safety issue for road users
      on the main road. They shall not be used as a device to minimise delays to drivers
      entering or leaving private or business properties particularly where adequate queuing
      space is available on the main road or within the property.

      4.1    Emergency Service Access

             Adjacent to an Emergency Service Facility, where there is potential for vehicles
             to queue across the driveway to the facility, KEEP CLEAR markings may be
             installed as a minimum treatment for providing emergency access to the road in
             both directions. In this case KEEP CLEAR pavement messages should only be
             installed on the carriageway adjacent to the driveway (see Figure 5.1).




K-Net Doc:   1585750                                          UNCONTROLLED COPY WHEN PRINTED
Version No.: 3
Issue Date: 3/11/2010
Doc. Owner: S Clark, Unit Manager, Traffic Regs & Standards                             Page 6 of 9
                                                         KEEP CLEAR Pavement Markings - 2.23


5.    Installation
      Pavement markings shall be in accordance with AS 1742.2 and the DTEI Pavement
      Marking Manual (www.dtei.sa.gov.au/standards/tass). The KEEP CLEAR pavement
      markings shall consist of the words “KEEP CLEAR” and are subject to the following
      conditions:
      a) be positioned wholly within a single lane where possible (see Figure 5.1).
      b) have 2.5m letter height with 2.5m spacing between words.
                                                                                                    2.1
                                                                                                    #.#
                                                                                                    2.23
      c) have a letter style as shown in AS1742.2.
      d) where two or more lanes are to be marked with KEEP CLEAR, the message may be
         staggered at wide driveways or side roads (see Figure 5.2).
      e) be installed using white retro-reflective non-skid material.
      f) where necessary, mark white 150mm wide transverse lines to denote the
         boundaries of the road length to be kept clear.
      g) a single KEEP CLEAR message covering two lanes may be adequate (see Figure
         5.3). Where used, the spacing between the letters may be widened to suit.




                      Figure 5.1 – KEEP CLEAR contained within the lanes




K-Net Doc:   1585750                                          UNCONTROLLED COPY WHEN PRINTED
Version No.: 3
Issue Date: 3/11/2010
Doc. Owner: S Clark, Unit Manager, Traffic Regs & Standards                           Page 7 of 9
                                                         KEEP CLEAR Pavement Markings - 2.23




                                                                                                  #.#
                                                                                                  2.1
                                                                                                  2.23




                  Figure 5.2 – KEEP CLEAR staggered across wide side road




   Figure 5.3 - KEEP CLEAR marked at a transition from single lane to two lanes at this
                                        location




K-Net Doc:   1585750                                          UNCONTROLLED COPY WHEN PRINTED
Version No.: 3
Issue Date: 3/11/2010
Doc. Owner: S Clark, Unit Manager, Traffic Regs & Standards                         Page 8 of 9
                                                         KEEP CLEAR Pavement Markings - 2.23
6.    Approvals
      As with all regulatory signs and other traffic control devices, the signs and markings
      identified in this Instruction shall be shown on the appropriate traffic control drawings
      and shall be approved in the prescribed manner for traffic control devices.


7.    Legal Enforcement
      KEEP CLEAR markings at junctions can be considered to be reinforcing the legal
      requirement of drivers not to block these junctions. Further, Rule 96 of the ARR                2.1
                                                                                                      #.#
                                                                                                      2.23
      contains provisions for KEEP CLEAR markings stating that drivers are not permitted to
      stop on a length of road where the words “KEEP CLEAR”, with or without continuous lines
      marked across all or part of the road, are marked.


8.    Related Devices
      The yellow boxed diagonal markings used interstate and at some railway level
      crossings in South Australia are not to be used in place of KEEP CLEAR pavement
      markings at junctions or intersections. These are reserved for special application at
      certain rail level crossings (refer AS1742.7).

      Signs with the legend “DO NOT QUEUE ACROSS INTERSECTION” or similar should only be
      used at signalised intersections or junctions. These signs should be reserved for areas
      where there is a serious road safety hazard associated with vehicles queuing across
      signalised intersections.

      Consultation with DTEI, Traffic & Access Standards Section should be undertaken to
      determine the appropriateness of the use of this sign prior to any installation.


9.    References
      Road Traffic Act, South Australia
      Australian Road Rules, December 1999
      AS1742.2-2009
      AS1742.7-2007




K-Net Doc:   1585750                                          UNCONTROLLED COPY WHEN PRINTED
Version No.: 3
Issue Date: 3/11/2010
Doc. Owner: S Clark, Unit Manager, Traffic Regs & Standards                             Page 9 of 9

				
DOCUMENT INFO