Terms Sino-Japanese War – War between China and Japan occurring in 1894 over increasing tension due to Japanese view of Korea as a Line of National interest. The war was won very quickly and seen by the Chinese as an embarrassing short war. It was an example of a more aggressive imperialistic Japanese foreign policy Greater (East) Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere – an idea of uniting asian countries into a united group of nations against western aggression, but it was just a prettier name for japan's imperialism of neighboring asian countries, making them colonies for Japan's economic benefit. important to FP b/c it describes Japan's international relations policy towards its neighbors in Asia, and also as propoganda to help polarize others' opinion against the western nations. Used to bring other asians onto the same side as Japan Treaty of Shimonoseki – Treaty concluded in 1895 in regards to the Sino-Japanese War. It forced China to identify Korea as an “independent” state, as well as cede the Liaotung Peninsula and Taiwan to Japan, open 4 treaty ports to Japan, and give Japan most favored nation status. Was an enormous boost to Japan’s international prestige, as well as a first step towards an imperial Japan. Shows Japan becoming more similar to the west. Okinawa – Currently hosts the U.S. bases, despite okinawan citizen protests and questions raised about american influence and effect on japanese sovereignty. Important to FP because its one of the problem points between US japan relations, because since the end of the cold war, the major reasons for their existence have disappeared, and thus america must provide legitimate reasons to stay, perhaps due to regional stability concerns and N Korea Anglo-Japanese Alliance – Created in 1902 between the UK and Japan. It was a mutual treaty that either group would come to the aid of the other if they were to be attacked. Britain recognizes Japan’s naval power in the region, through a series of treaties, and agreements. Significant that Japan was finally accepted as a large military power and given a strong military ally. Manchukuo – A puppet state established in 1932, in Manchuria by Japan. It was mainly developed as a war base for military campaigns against China, and was marketed to Japanese as a "land of opportunity". This of course strained already sour relations with China. It was seen as an aggressive act even as Japan has already been condemned for aggressive behaviour by the League of Nations. Japan is seen as encroaching upon China and trying to further spread it's imperialistic rule. Japan withdraws from the League of Nations due to it's condemnation, and Japan ends up ostracized from the international community. The Reverse Course – the term is a misnomer: should not signify an unraveling of democratization. Occurs during the occupation. Japan appeared weak and seemed to be heading right for Communism. The US decided that Japan needed to be built up economically, and in the process be turned into America’s #1 ally in the region. It led to labor activism, the 1950 Red Purge, and a halt to the Zaibatsu busting process eventually loosening the Anti-Monopoly Law. Significant that it led to the US being Japan’s number one ally. The Dodge Line – a monetary policy that raised taxes, cut expenditures, and tightened the money supply. It was brought into Japan after MacArthur’s busting of anti-monopoly laws had ruined the Japanese economy. It worsened living conditions in the short term, but with the help of the Korean War, Japan’s economy began to pick up. The Dodge Line effectively curbed the inflation rate making it easier to export to other countries, especially the US. Ministry of International Trade and Industry created in 1949. 1960 Security Treaty Crisis – signed in Washington in 1960 and renamed the “US-Japan Mutual Defense Treaty.” After the revision, the US forces no longer had the right to intervene at request of Japanese govt. in domestic disturbances, and Japan no longer needed US consent to grant military rights to a 3rd party. It also put more emphasis on mutual consultation. It became a hotly debated topic in Japan and was able to pass only because PM Kishi called a midnight snap vote when leftist parties were absent.-The protests that followed forced Kishi to resign and Eisenhower to cancel his visit. By signing the treaty, Japan isolated itself from its two large communist neighbors. Because of the treaty, the Soviets refuse to return 2 islands it had promised to and vetoed Japan from joining UN. 1% Defense Ceiling – 1% defense ceiling was that japan only spend 1% of GDP on defense spending, which allowed it more money to spend on its economy. The extra money helped to put more into Japan's post-war economy. It is important to international relations in that with such a low defence budget, it supports article 9 and reflects a non-aggressive posture towards other nations, in particular, the 2 koreas and China. Militarization would affect regional stability, and by having a low defense budget, its neighbors are not inclined to increase theirs in response. Kuril(e) Islands – the chain of islands disputed by Japan and the Soviets. Under the San Francisco Peace Treaty, Japan unilaterally abandons the Kuril chains, but since the Soviets were not present at the Conference, the Japanese still claim it as their own “Northern Territory.” This dispute has stalled relations between the two countries and will likely continue with Putin in power. Russo-Japanese War – 1904-05~occurs when Japan confronts Russia presence in Korea and Manchuria. Since diplomacy does not work, Japan declares war and quickly wins. Japan gains southern half of Sakhalin, Russia's rights in Manchuria and Port Arthur, railway concessions in N. China, and Russia recognition of Japan's position on China. This war further stresses Japan relations with Korean, Chinese, and Russia, and alerts the West of Japanese true imperialistic intentions. Other Asian nations further develop a distrust of Japan, and Western powers begin to fear loss of Western supremacy in Asia. Treaty of Portsmouth – signed in Portsmouth, New Hampshire in 1905 that formally ended the Russo-Japanese War. From the treaty, Japan gains the southern half of Sakhalin and Russia’s holdings in Manchuria and gets back the Liaotung Peninsula. - After the treaty, there was no power strong enough in the Western Pacific to challenge Japan, which skyrocketed Japanese nationalism and led to the annexation of Korea. Tripartite Intervention – Over the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki; concluded in 1895. France, Russia, Germany believed that Japanese imperialism had advanced too far. They advised Japan to return the Liaotung Peninsula to China or risk war. Japan reluctantly agrees, and Russia quickly moves in to seize the peninsula, and other European nations take advantage of the situation in China and seize more ports to expand spheres of influence. Japan is PISSED. This leads to the policy of Gashin Shoutai or "preserving through hardship" for the sake of revenge. Japan strengthens key industries (iron and steal, military equipment, shipbuilding) at the expense of individual wants and needs. This was a direct cause of the Russo-Japanese War. SCAP – Following defeat in WWII, Japan was occupied by the allied powers. SCAP stands for Supreme Commander of Allied Powers and refers directly to MacArthur and the occupation in general. Due to wide ranging liberalizing and democratic reforms of MacArthur and the occupation, as well as an improvement in conditions for the Japanese people, SCAP was extremely popular and somewhat revered as a replacement for the Emperor. SCAP’s effects on Japanese FP is far reaching as the constitution it created solidified democracy in Japan but also contained Article IX, an anti-war article that severely restricts Japan’s freedom of movement in the defense area and is a cause of great controversy domestically and in the region. Furthermore, SCAP’s “reverse course” (forced on MacArthur by the Presidency and the Cold War) contributed to the strong conservative (LDP) control of Japan, in which the US-Japan relationship is viewed as the most important aspect of FP throughout most of the conservative spectrum. Article IX – When the Japanese constitution was adopted in 1947, serving the goals of democratization and demilitarization, Article IX was the most radical change to Japanese politics. Article IX renounces war as a sovereign right and the threat of force to solve disputes as well. Furthermore, it seemingly prevents Japan from possessing land, sea and air forces. However, due to interpretations dealing with the purpose and use of the forces, the Japanese have actually maintained the best equipped military in the region. Even so, the restrictions made certain that Japan would rely on America for defense and contributed to the strength of the US-Japan relationship. Furthermore, politicians like Yoshida could point to the article when told by the US that they were not spending enough on the military, so that Japan could focus more on economic issues. As Japan has been becoming more nationalistic, several politicians have seen the article as an unnecessary restriction, and this has created a huge debate domestically, and has caused several problems in the region, as Korea (North and South) and China are opposed to Japanese militarization. Yoshida Shigeru – Escaping harsh punishment from the occupation as he was jailed by the military government of Japan, Yoshida emerged as a powerful conservative politician who led Japan on the road to economic recovery and a “low posture” foreign policy. Yoshida’s doctrine emphasized economic growth above all else. Significant to foreign policy, Yoshida believed in low military spending and relying on the US for defense, and also avoiding international disputes and being concerned with the US-Japan relationship almost exclusively. Several future PMs would follow this line, shaping Japan’s FP for most of the postwar period. Washington Conference System – Laid the foundations for a post-WW1 system of international peace and stability. Based on 2 principles: Multinational consultation and cooperation; Gradualism and reformism. The system did not eliminate imperialism in East Asia. Rather, a recognition of the imperialist status quo. Mainlined stability in China, which was key to imperialism in East Asia. Nine power treaty most important of the Washington Conference treaties. Important to Japanese Foreign policy in that it was a Anglo-American objective to keep Japanese expansion in check, raises Japan's status to world power, but with treaties limiting Japanese military expansion and growth. Demilitarization – Demilitarization along with democratization was a primary objective of the occupation. Not only did the occupation target and disarm the military, stripping Japan of its territorial overseas possessions, and holding war crimes trials, but it also targeted public servants in the purge of 1946, rooting out over 200,000 people that it believed contributed to Japanese militaristic thought and policy. This purge was essential to clear out opponents of democratic reform and paved the way for full democratization. Importantly, Article IX of the constitution prevents Japan from military aggression completely. Furthermore, the tribunal sparing Emperor Hirohito’s life would also cause controversy in the aspect of “war memory” and Japan’s relations in the region. The Yoshida Line – policy for post-war japan to rebuild, put as many resources as possible behind economic growth, low defence spending, and work to match the US on foreign policy and security stances. Important to FP in that it shaped and served as a guide for Jpn FP, but later handicapped it in post-cold war world, such as japan's lack of involvement in international issues, like the Gulf war. Also, affected policy of subsequent PM's, leading up to today. The Nanking Massacre – Also referred to as the Rape of Nanking, the Nanking massacre refers to the brutality of the Japanese troops after taking over Nanking on Dec. 13th, 1937. After the victory, Japanese troops proceeded to commit rape, murder and other atrocities. It is believed that a minimum of 155,000 Chinese were killed with Japanese researchers claiming that over 100,000 died against the Chinese claim of 300,000. Significantly, the massacre is a strong symbol of Japanese brutality during the war and a major sticking point in Sino-Japanese relations. To this day, this aspect of the “war memory” issue causes incredible friction with China which believes that the Japanese have not done enough to atone for the massacre and are not doing enough to apologize for it. U.S.-Japan Security Treaty – 1951 U.S.- Japan Security Treaty (from the US perspective) Allowed the US to give Japan independence. Solidified Japan’s position as a key American ally in the Pacific in the context of the emerging Cold War. Its important because it shapes all future interaction with Japan and the US and other countries, solidifies the Yoshida doctrine and represents the ideals of the Yoshida doctrine. It represents a change in domestic view of the Japanese and US security relationship. It is important because it shows shifting interest in Japan toward foreign policy objectives. It shows friction between the US and Japan because of the discontent with the presence of US troops and bases in Japan. Commodore Perry – Was commodore of the US Navy who was sent by President Filmore in 1853 to Japan to embark on negotiations to secure a treaty with Japan. This action was motivated by America wanting new buyers for their products, more demand, new markets, and an increased international status. The Japanese treated Perry well but this was because of the gunboat diplomacy – they had to help because America had large firepower to attack if treated poorly. He is important because he set up all negotiations and the beginning of treaties with Japan such as the 1854 Treaty of treaty ports in Shimoda and Hakodate. This began the time of unfair treaties with Japan and other foreign countries, and allowed US to enter trade with Japan. Hirohito – Was Emperor of Japan during WW2, and most famous emperor of Japan. Right before WW2, the Emperor was divine, god-like and was the head of everything. Everything the military did was one in his name. He was spared during the Occupation, to prevent chaos among Japanese people if he was tried and executed. He was stripped of much of his power and told Japanese he was no longer divine. He welcomed the Americans and cooperated with the Allied Occupation and helped rebuild Japan after WW2, helping reshape Japan into the superpower it became. He was important to Japanese foreign policy because he was seen as divine, and his actions during the War were obeyed by all Japanese with no question. Also, he is important because he served as leader of Japan and he directly influenced Japan’s actions before, during, and after WW2. 3 Non-Nuclear Principles – The three non-nuclear principles were announced in 1967 by Prime Minister Sato Eisak. Japan will not make nuclear weapons, possess them, or bring them into Japan. This is important because US has bases in Japan and uses nuclear powered ships, and this affects how Japan will trade or sell with countries that use nuclear weapons. Also, this affects Japan’s military plans because they are pacifists and will not use nuclear weapons, instead hoping to negotiate peacefully. Douglas MacArthur – Douglas MacArthur was a hero to many Japanese; harbinger of peace and democracy. SCAP: Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (refers to both MacArthur and the Occupation in general) He became a new leader to Japan, and is important to foreign policy because his actions and the occupation helped tie Japan to the US. He was the main force behind reshaping Japanese politics. He also helped rebuild Japan economically. HE helped to introduce democracy into Japan and wanted Japanese to act more like Americans. As a result, Japan became more westernized, had a new US- written constitution, and an improved government. He ultimately helped Japan grow and become number one allies with the US. Manchurian Incident – In September 1931, a section of railroad owned by Japan’s South Manchuria Railway was blown up by Japanese junior officers. Japan’s military accused China of the act, which gave an excuse for Japan to annex Manchuria. It is important because this was a turning point when Japan began an all out invasion of China. Japan was told by foreign powers to withdraw, but the army advanced and this was seen as the beginning of the second sin-Japanese war. It is also important because it led to worsening of relations between China and Japan. San Francisco Peace Conference – The San Francisco Peace Conference was held in 1951 with 2 goals in mind: To sign Peace Treaty and to finalize US Japan Security Treaty. The Peace Treaty had signatories from Japan, US, and 47 other countries which formally terminated the Occupation, but China and USSR were absent (opposed Japan/US security treaty; China didn’t want Japan to recognize PRC) The Security Treaty established basic framework for economic and military cooperation between US and Japan in context of the Cold War. Basically the US would come to Japan’s defense in case of an attack. This conference was important because it gave much sovereignty to Japan and led to the dominance of conservative powers in postwar foreign policy making. Also, it directly caused the San Francisco System which relegated Japan to second-class status in the world both militarily and diplomatically. It established the supremacy of the US-Japan relationship (both military and economic) in Japanese foreign policy. The relationship is the most important thing for each of the countries, making sure it is in good standings. Yasukuni Shrine – A Shinto shrine located in Tokyo, Japan, dedicated to the spirits of soldiers and others who died fighting on behalf of the Japanese emperor. The shrine is a source of considerable controversy. Included in the Book of Souls are over1,000 people convicted of war crimes, including 12 convicted Class A war criminals. The shrine's history museum contains an account of Japan's actions in World War II, which is considered revisionist by some. Visits to the shrine by cabinet members have been a cause of protest at home and abroad. The People's Republic of China and South Korea have protested against various visits since 1985. Despite the controversy, the former Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi made annual visits from 2001 to 2006. Unit 731 – Unit 731 was a covert medical experiment unit of the Imperial Japanese Army which researched biological warfare through human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) and World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried out by Japanese personnel. At the end of the war Douglas MacArthur secretly granted immunity to the physicians of Unit 731 in exchange for providing America with their research on biological warfare. The United States believed that the research data was valuable because the allies had never publicly conducted or condoned such experiments on humans due to moral and political revulsion. The U.S. also did not want other nations, particularly the Soviet Union, to acquire data on biological weapons, not to mention the military benefits of such research. Fifty Years later, the Japanese continue to deny or minimize this part of their wartime record. This is one of the reasons there remains a strain between Japan and China today. Marco-Polo Bridge Incident – In 1937: Chinese fire at soldiers training near Marco Polo bridge near Peking. This incident triggered a Japanese assault on the Chinese and it marks the start of the second Sino-Japanese war. There are some disputes among historians over the incident with some historians believing that this was an unintentional accident while others believing that the entire incident was fabricated by the Kantogun in order to provide a pretext for the invasion of central China. Checkbook Diplomacy – A term was introduced to describe Japanese international involvement during and after the Gulf War I. The term has been used since then to describe international diplomacy solely handled with money. Because of restrictions placed into the constitution when it was drawn up under allied occupation following World War II (article IX), Japan was unable to commit troops to the coalition. Instead they volunteered large amounts of financing for the war effort. The Bubble Economy – A term given to the 1980s economic growth in Japan. Following the 1985 Plaza Accord, the yen rose sharply in value over the next few years to three times its value in 1971, in the fixed exchange rate system. With the increase in the price of Japanese exports, competitiveness was decreased overseas, while government financial measures increased demand domestically. The bubble “busted” at the very end of the 80s. By 1989, Japanese government officials were growing uneasy about the skyrocketing values of the Nikkei and land valuations. In May 1989, it tightened monetary policy by raising interest rates, and ordered another hike on Dec. 25. While the Nikkei reached its all-time high on Dec. 31, stock prices began to plummet in January. The government increased interest rates five more times before August 1990, to try and halt the continued rise of property prices. But as the Nikkei kept falling, it was forced to intervene in a futile attempt to try and revive the market and stave off recession. Throughout the 1990s, Japan experienced slower growth than any other major industrial nation Keiretsu – Industrial Policy – A complicated system of Industrial Policies was devised by the Japanese Government after World War II and especially in the 1950s and 1960s. The goal was to promote industrial development, and it cooperated closely for this purpose with private firms. The objective of industrial policy was to shift resources to specific industries in order to gain international competitive advantage for Japan. These policies and methods were used primarily to increase the productivity of inputs and to influence, directly or indirectly, industrial investment. Keiretsu, the postwar successor to the Zaibatsu, were formed and their ability to recover losses due to share holding, and their ability to corner a market made it difficult for foreign companies to take over. This policy has been criticized by foreign retailers because it makes it difficult them to penetrate the market. Gaiatsu – Meaning, external or foreign pressure. Defined as an explicit or tacit attempt by foreign countries to make Japan do what it otherwise would not do. Basically, Japan is highly sensitive to U.S. reaction toward foreign policy and international involvement and often changes their diplomatically actions under pressure to meet U.S. needs. Ishihara Shintaro – politician and author of The Japan that can say NO. His book argued that U.S. missiles depended on Japanese made semiconductors and guidance systems. If Japan sold chips to the Soviet Union and stopped selling to the U.S. this would cause a military upset. Overall it portrayed that Japan needs to end its continued dependence with the US at a time where feelings of mutual mistrust was open to the public. Shintaro opposed many policy issues regarding Japans ties with the U.S. and for the first time since the early post war period was one of few openly objecting to U.S. demands. Flying Geese – A metaphor originating in the 1930’s which reflects the booming takeover by the Japanese in the Southeast Asian and Chinese markets and their leadership position in the Asian economy during the 70’s- 80’s. The metaphor means that the smaller geese followed the head goose, Japan, in employing technology and new processes. Thus, as Japan moved into cutting edge, profitable electronics at home, it passed down auto and steel production to the lower waged geese such as Taiwan and South Korea. It also targeted a new goose, Vietnam, where financial aid for reconstruction was sent by Japan as the U.S. retreated. Japan does this for the countries targeted as a result, all required purchase of Japanese goods. Zaibatsu – family owned corporations that held shares of each other and were Japaneese monopolies. It allowed for control of significant parts of the Japanese economy since the Edo to Meiji period but lost control during the Allied occupation of Japan where some were broken up in Post war reconstruction to demolish monopolies. By expanding Japanese industry and business the Zaibatsu not only helped modernize Japan economically but also helped mass produce the military weapons and supplies Japan needed during WWII. Reactive State – Changes in Japanese foreign policy occur as a response to the international community rather than domestic need. Characterizations of a Reactive State include: 1) state fails to undertake major independent foreign economic policy initiatives when it has the power and national incentive to do so. 2) It responds to outside pressures for change, albeit erratically, unsystematically and incompletely. Japan copes with situations created with others. For example, in the Gulf War Japan failed to find appropriate means to actively and swiftly participate in the war and reacted to U.S. pressures without taking a clear stance. Meiji Restoration – Period following the Meiji revolution with the Emperor coming to authority which causes a rapid social and political reform throughout Japan. It is also the period where Japan takes steps toward modernization. Not only does Japan begin to industrialize and establish systems of bureaucracy, but also it becomes more willing to open its market to foreign trade. Japan also establishes a foreign policy with two prime objectives: 1) state building 2) achieve equality among nations. Treaty Port System – The Treaty Port System was a neomercantilist system that guaranteed certain rights for foreigners in port cities, typically very low tariff ceilings and extraterritoriality (in which the foreign nation's laws applied for its citizens in the ports). Great Britain won such rights in the terms to China's surrender in the Opium War in 1842. As emphasized by LaFeber, China's loss signaled to Japan that the West would be coming for them, as well. Sure enough, the conditions of the British-Chinese "treaty" were the precursor to Commodore Perry's arrival (and thus Japan's modern introduction to foreign affairs) a decade later. By 1856, the US-Japanese treaty was expanded by Townsend Harris to resemble the Treaty Port System. The Gulf War – The First Gulf War perhaps threatened Japan's prosperity even more than that of the US - 70% of Japan's oil is imported from the Persian Gulf. Internally, Japan debated whether or not to intervene and whether or not that would breach Article IX. Prime Minister Kaifu's efforts to send paramilitary assistance in the form of peacekeepers, minesweepers, and even medics were blocked by the Diet. Japan's internal strife appeared to other nations as stalling, and Japan ultimately was criticized for unresponsiveness. As penance, Japan gave $13 billion to the Gulf War effort, thus furthering Japan's reputation for resorting to checkbook diplomacy. The Nye Initiative – (Note: someone at the group please double-check this; if the Nye Initiative is something specific then I missed class that day) Scholar Joseph Nye, a prominent Japan thinker, represents one side of an American debate centered on the continued American military presence in Japan. According to Nye, the US must remain in Asia (with Japan chief among host countries for the Americans) in order to guarantee the security and prosperity of both the US and Asia. The US, with the help of Japan and Korea, serves as a stabilizing force for the entire region. Nye argues that by continued presence, democracy will spread naturally which will further stabilize the region and contribute to American interests. American interests, Nye adds, have a lot to do with economic ties to Asia, so it fits that they (American interests) should be in play in the region. Futenma – A controversial air base on Okinawa. As one of the largest American military bases in Japan, Futenma is the linchpin in the struggle between Okinawan interests and American interests. Solutions and compromises have been introduced several times (including returning the land to Japan, and moving parts of it offshore), and finally the US moved the base in 2004, which only brought more complaints from Okinawans. In essence, Futenma is symbolic for the US presence in Okinawa. The US maintains that the bases must stay in order to provide for the security of Japan (and itself). Okinawans believe that the bases disrupted an indigenous, utopian culture that now depends on the bases for simple economic survival. The Japanese government, which must decide between siding with Okinawa or the US, unsurprisingly sides with the US in a quintessential show of response to "gaiatsu" - foreign pressure. Comfort Women – "Ianfu" in Japanese, these were women numbering in the hundreds of thousands and forced into sexual slavery by the Japanese army in its advance through Asia. The women, mostly young, rural Koreans, were either lured into servitude by promises of pay and education, or kidnapped outright. Though prostitution was legal in Japan, the lives of the comfort women were far more twisted than those of a normal prostitute - rapes in the double-digits, hard labor, physical abuse, imprisonment, malnourishment, and murder were all in a day's work. In war time, the comfort women were a symbol for Japan's sense of superiority in Asia. After the war, the comfort women have yet to have their catharsis, as the issue has been largely silenced by politics and the shame felt by the women themselves. In recent decades, as the comfort women and the Japanese military officers who controlled them have begun to die, the issue has become a sticking point in Japanese-Korean relations. Facing a UN investigation in 1995, Japan officially admitted to an unspecified role in military brothels, but still denies legal responsibility and refuses to issue an official apology. Tiananmen Square Incident – In 1989, the Chinese government (PRC) unleashed its army upon pro-democracy demonstrators in Tiananmen Square in Beijing. The Chinese Red Cross estimates Chinese civilian deaths in the thousands. In response to a serious human rights violation, the Japanese government cut off all economic aid to China, only to resume it in 1990. Officially, Japan claims a distaste for getting involved in the internal politics of other countries as part of a continuing form of "seikei bunri" - the separation of foreign trade and foreign affairs. Of course, there are complicating factors. That economic aid was largely spent to buy Japanese goods and services, so Japanese firms profit from the aid. On a grander scale, however, Japan's standing down from a human rights confrontation symbolizes the country's low posture in international affairs, which is to say that Japan has little issue with standing down from many confrontations.