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Sino-Japanese War – War between China and Japan occurring in 1894 over increasing
tension due to Japanese view of Korea as a Line of National interest. The war was won
very quickly and seen by the Chinese as an embarrassing short war. It was an example of
a more aggressive imperialistic Japanese foreign policy

Greater (East) Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere – an idea of uniting asian countries into a
united group of nations against western aggression, but it was just a
prettier name for japan's imperialism of neighboring asian countries, making
them colonies for Japan's economic benefit. important to FP b/c it describes
Japan's international relations policy towards its neighbors in Asia, and
also as propoganda to help polarize others' opinion against the western
nations. Used to bring other asians onto the same side as Japan

Treaty of Shimonoseki – Treaty concluded in 1895 in regards to the Sino-Japanese War.
It forced China to identify Korea as an “independent” state, as well as cede the Liaotung
Peninsula and Taiwan to Japan, open 4 treaty ports to Japan, and give Japan most favored
nation status. Was an enormous boost to Japan’s international prestige, as well as a first
step towards an imperial Japan. Shows Japan becoming more similar to the west.

Okinawa – Currently hosts the U.S. bases, despite okinawan citizen protests and
questions raised about american influence and effect on japanese sovereignty. Important
to FP because its one of the problem points between US japan relations, because since the
end of the cold war, the major reasons for their existence have disappeared, and thus
america must provide legitimate reasons to stay, perhaps due to regional stability
concerns and N Korea

Anglo-Japanese Alliance – Created in 1902 between the UK and Japan. It was a mutual
treaty that either group would come to the aid of the other if they were to be attacked.
Britain recognizes Japan’s naval power in the region, through a series of treaties, and
agreements. Significant that Japan was finally accepted as a large military power and
given a strong military ally.

Manchukuo – A puppet state established in 1932, in Manchuria by Japan. It was mainly
developed as a war base for military campaigns against China, and was marketed to
Japanese as a "land of opportunity". This of course strained already sour relations with
China. It was seen as an aggressive act even as Japan has already been condemned for
aggressive behaviour by the League of Nations. Japan is seen as encroaching upon China
and trying to further spread it's imperialistic rule. Japan withdraws from the League of
Nations due to it's condemnation, and Japan ends up ostracized from the international

The Reverse Course – the term is a misnomer: should not signify an unraveling of
democratization. Occurs during the occupation. Japan appeared weak and seemed to be
heading right for Communism. The US decided that Japan needed to be built up
economically, and in the process be turned into America’s #1 ally in the region. It led to
labor activism, the 1950 Red Purge, and a halt to the Zaibatsu busting process eventually
loosening the Anti-Monopoly Law. Significant that it led to the US being Japan’s
number one ally.

The Dodge Line – a monetary policy that raised taxes, cut expenditures, and tightened
the money supply. It was brought into Japan after MacArthur’s busting of anti-monopoly
laws had ruined the Japanese economy. It worsened living conditions in the short term,
but with the help of the Korean War, Japan’s economy began to pick up. The Dodge
Line effectively curbed the inflation rate making it easier to export to other countries,
especially the US. Ministry of International Trade and Industry created in 1949.

1960 Security Treaty Crisis – signed in Washington in 1960 and renamed the
“US-Japan Mutual Defense Treaty.” After the revision, the US forces no longer had the
right to intervene at request of Japanese govt. in domestic disturbances, and Japan no
longer needed US consent to grant military rights to a 3rd party. It also put more
emphasis on mutual consultation. It became a hotly debated
topic in Japan and was able to pass only because PM Kishi called a midnight
snap vote when leftist parties were absent.-The protests that followed forced Kishi to
resign and Eisenhower to cancel his visit. By signing the treaty, Japan isolated itself
from its two large communist neighbors. Because of the treaty, the Soviets refuse to
return 2 islands it had promised to and vetoed Japan from joining UN.

1% Defense Ceiling – 1% defense ceiling was that japan only spend 1% of GDP
on defense spending, which allowed it more money to spend on its economy.
The extra money helped to put more into Japan's post-war economy. It is
important to international relations in that with such a low defence
budget, it supports article 9 and reflects a non-aggressive posture towards
other nations, in particular, the 2 koreas and China. Militarization would
affect regional stability, and by having a low defense budget, its neighbors
are not inclined to increase theirs in response.

Kuril(e) Islands – the chain of islands disputed by Japan and the Soviets. Under the San
Francisco Peace Treaty, Japan unilaterally abandons the Kuril chains, but since the
Soviets were not present at the Conference, the Japanese still claim it as their own
“Northern Territory.” This dispute has stalled relations between the two countries and
will likely continue with Putin in power.

Russo-Japanese War – 1904-05~occurs when Japan confronts Russia presence in Korea
and Manchuria. Since diplomacy does not work, Japan declares war and quickly wins.
Japan gains southern half of Sakhalin, Russia's rights in Manchuria and Port Arthur,
railway concessions in N. China, and Russia recognition of Japan's position on China.
This war further stresses Japan relations with Korean, Chinese, and Russia, and alerts the
West of Japanese true imperialistic intentions. Other Asian nations further develop a
distrust of Japan, and Western powers begin to fear loss of Western supremacy in Asia.

Treaty of Portsmouth – signed in Portsmouth, New Hampshire in 1905 that formally
ended the Russo-Japanese War. From the treaty, Japan gains the southern half       of
Sakhalin and Russia’s holdings in Manchuria and gets back the Liaotung Peninsula. -
After the treaty, there was no power strong enough in the Western Pacific to challenge
Japan, which skyrocketed Japanese nationalism and led to the annexation of Korea.

Tripartite Intervention – Over the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki; concluded in
1895. France, Russia, Germany believed that Japanese imperialism had advanced too far.
They advised Japan to return the Liaotung Peninsula to China or risk war. Japan
reluctantly agrees, and Russia quickly moves in to seize the peninsula, and other
European nations take advantage of the situation in China and seize more ports to expand
spheres of influence. Japan is PISSED. This leads to the policy of Gashin Shoutai or
"preserving through hardship" for the sake of revenge. Japan strengthens key industries
(iron and steal, military equipment, shipbuilding) at the expense of individual wants and
needs. This was a direct cause of the Russo-Japanese War.

SCAP – Following defeat in WWII, Japan was occupied by the allied powers. SCAP
stands for Supreme Commander of Allied Powers and refers directly to MacArthur and
the occupation in general. Due to wide ranging liberalizing and democratic reforms of
MacArthur and the occupation, as well as an improvement in conditions for the Japanese
people, SCAP was extremely popular and somewhat revered as a replacement for the
Emperor. SCAP’s effects on Japanese FP is far reaching as the constitution it created
solidified democracy in Japan but also contained Article IX, an anti-war article that
severely restricts Japan’s freedom of movement in the defense area and is a cause of great
controversy domestically and in the region. Furthermore, SCAP’s “reverse course”
(forced on MacArthur by the Presidency and the Cold War) contributed to the strong
conservative (LDP) control of Japan, in which the US-Japan relationship is viewed as the
most important aspect of FP throughout most of the conservative spectrum.

Article IX – When the Japanese constitution was adopted in 1947, serving the goals of
democratization and demilitarization, Article IX was the most radical change to Japanese
politics. Article IX renounces war as a sovereign right and the threat of force to solve
disputes as well. Furthermore, it seemingly prevents Japan from possessing land, sea and
air forces. However, due to interpretations dealing with the purpose and use of the forces,
the Japanese have actually maintained the best equipped military in the region. Even so,
the restrictions made certain that Japan would rely on America for defense and
contributed to the strength of the US-Japan relationship. Furthermore, politicians like
Yoshida could point to the article when told by the US that they were not spending
enough on the military, so that Japan could focus more on economic issues. As Japan has
been becoming more nationalistic, several politicians have seen the article as an
unnecessary restriction, and this has created a huge debate domestically, and has caused
several problems in the region, as Korea (North and South) and China are opposed to
Japanese militarization.
Yoshida Shigeru – Escaping harsh punishment from the occupation as he was jailed by
the military government of Japan, Yoshida emerged as a powerful conservative politician
who led Japan on the road to economic recovery and a “low posture” foreign policy.
Yoshida’s doctrine emphasized economic growth above all else. Significant to foreign
policy, Yoshida believed in low military spending and relying on the US for defense, and
also avoiding international disputes and being concerned with the US-Japan relationship
almost exclusively. Several future PMs would follow this line, shaping Japan’s FP for
most of the postwar period.

Washington Conference System – Laid the foundations for a post-WW1 system of
international peace and stability. Based on 2 principles: Multinational
consultation and cooperation; Gradualism and reformism. The system did not
eliminate imperialism in East Asia. Rather, a recognition of the imperialist
status quo. Mainlined stability in China, which was key to imperialism in
East Asia. Nine power treaty most important of the Washington Conference
treaties. Important to Japanese Foreign policy in that it was a
Anglo-American objective to keep Japanese expansion in check, raises Japan's
status to world power, but with treaties limiting Japanese military
expansion and growth.

Demilitarization – Demilitarization along with democratization was a primary objective
of the occupation. Not only did the occupation target and disarm the military, stripping
Japan of its territorial overseas possessions, and holding war crimes trials, but it also
targeted public servants in the purge of 1946, rooting out over 200,000 people that it
believed contributed to Japanese militaristic thought and policy. This purge was essential
to clear out opponents of democratic reform and paved the way for full democratization.
Importantly, Article IX of the constitution prevents Japan from military aggression
completely. Furthermore, the tribunal sparing Emperor Hirohito’s life would also cause
controversy in the aspect of “war memory” and Japan’s relations in the region.

The Yoshida Line – policy for post-war japan to rebuild, put as many resources
as possible behind economic growth, low defence spending, and work to match
the US on foreign policy and security stances. Important to FP in that it
shaped and served as a guide for Jpn FP, but later handicapped it in
post-cold war world, such as japan's lack of involvement in international
issues, like the Gulf war. Also, affected policy of subsequent PM's, leading
up to today.

The Nanking Massacre – Also referred to as the Rape of Nanking, the Nanking
massacre refers to the brutality of the Japanese troops after taking over Nanking on Dec.
13th, 1937. After the victory, Japanese troops proceeded to commit rape, murder and
other atrocities. It is believed that a minimum of 155,000 Chinese were killed with
Japanese researchers claiming that over 100,000 died against the Chinese claim of
300,000. Significantly, the massacre is a strong symbol of Japanese brutality during the
war and a major sticking point in Sino-Japanese relations. To this day, this aspect of the
“war memory” issue causes incredible friction with China which believes that the
Japanese have not done enough to atone for the massacre and are not doing enough to
apologize for it.

U.S.-Japan Security Treaty – 1951 U.S.- Japan Security Treaty (from the US
perspective) Allowed the US to give Japan independence. Solidified Japan’s position as
a key American ally in the Pacific in the context of the emerging Cold War. Its important
because it shapes all future interaction with Japan and the US and other countries,
solidifies the Yoshida doctrine and represents the ideals of the Yoshida doctrine. It
represents a change in domestic view of the Japanese and US security relationship. It is
important because it shows shifting interest in Japan toward foreign policy objectives. It
shows friction between the US and Japan because of the discontent with the presence of
US troops and bases in Japan.

Commodore Perry – Was commodore of the US Navy who was sent by President
Filmore in 1853 to Japan to embark on negotiations to secure a treaty with Japan. This
action was motivated by America wanting new buyers for their products, more demand,
new markets, and an increased international status. The Japanese treated Perry well but
this was because of the gunboat diplomacy – they had to help because America had large
firepower to attack if treated poorly. He is important because he set up all negotiations
and the beginning of treaties with Japan such as the 1854 Treaty of treaty ports in
Shimoda and Hakodate. This began the time of unfair treaties with Japan and other
foreign countries, and allowed US to enter trade with Japan.

Hirohito – Was Emperor of Japan during WW2, and most famous emperor of Japan.
Right before WW2, the Emperor was divine, god-like and was the head of everything.
Everything the military did was one in his name. He was spared during the Occupation,
to prevent chaos among Japanese people if he was tried and executed. He was stripped of
much of his power and told Japanese he was no longer divine. He welcomed the
Americans and cooperated with the Allied Occupation and helped rebuild Japan after
WW2, helping reshape Japan into the superpower it became. He was important to
Japanese foreign policy because he was seen as divine, and his actions during the War
were obeyed by all Japanese with no question. Also, he is important because he served as
leader of Japan and he directly influenced Japan’s actions before, during, and after WW2.

3 Non-Nuclear Principles – The three non-nuclear principles were announced in 1967
by Prime Minister Sato Eisak. Japan will not make nuclear weapons, possess them, or
bring them into Japan. This is important because US has bases in Japan and uses nuclear
powered ships, and this affects how Japan will trade or sell with countries that use
nuclear weapons. Also, this affects Japan’s military plans because they are pacifists and
will not use nuclear weapons, instead hoping to negotiate peacefully.

Douglas MacArthur – Douglas MacArthur was a hero to many Japanese; harbinger of
peace and democracy. SCAP: Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (refers to both
MacArthur and the Occupation in general) He became a new leader to Japan, and is
important to foreign policy because his actions and the occupation helped tie Japan to the
US. He was the main force behind reshaping Japanese politics. He also helped rebuild
Japan economically. HE helped to introduce democracy into Japan and wanted Japanese
to act more like Americans. As a result, Japan became more westernized, had a new US-
written constitution, and an improved government. He ultimately helped Japan grow and
become number one allies with the US.

Manchurian Incident – In September 1931, a section of railroad owned by Japan’s
South Manchuria Railway was blown up by Japanese junior officers. Japan’s military
accused China of the act, which gave an excuse for Japan to annex Manchuria. It is
important because this was a turning point when Japan began an all out invasion of China.
Japan was told by foreign powers to withdraw, but the army advanced and this was seen
as the beginning of the second sin-Japanese war. It is also important because it led to
worsening of relations between China and Japan.

San Francisco Peace Conference – The San Francisco Peace Conference was held in
1951 with 2 goals in mind: To sign Peace Treaty and to finalize US Japan Security Treaty.
The Peace Treaty had signatories from Japan, US, and 47 other countries which formally
terminated the Occupation, but China and USSR were absent (opposed Japan/US security
treaty; China didn’t want Japan to recognize PRC) The Security Treaty established basic
framework for economic and military cooperation between US and Japan in context of
the Cold War. Basically the US would come to Japan’s defense in case of an attack. This
conference was important because it gave much sovereignty to Japan and led to the
dominance of conservative powers in postwar foreign policy making. Also, it directly
caused the San Francisco System which relegated Japan to second-class status in the
world both militarily and diplomatically. It established the supremacy of the US-Japan
relationship (both military and economic) in Japanese foreign policy. The relationship is
the most important thing for each of the countries, making sure it is in good standings.

Yasukuni Shrine – A Shinto shrine located in Tokyo, Japan, dedicated to the spirits of
soldiers and others who died fighting on behalf of the Japanese emperor. The shrine is
a source of considerable controversy. Included in the Book of Souls are over1,000 people
convicted of war crimes, including 12 convicted Class A war criminals. The shrine's
history museum contains an account of Japan's actions in World War II, which is
considered revisionist by some. Visits to the shrine by cabinet members have been a
cause of protest at home and abroad. The People's Republic of China and South Korea
have protested against various visits since 1985. Despite the controversy, the former
Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi made annual visits from 2001 to 2006.

Unit 731 – Unit 731 was a covert medical experiment unit of the Imperial Japanese Army
which researched biological warfare through human experimentation during the Second
Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) and World War II. It was responsible for some of the
most notorious war crimes carried out by Japanese personnel. At the end of the war
Douglas MacArthur secretly granted immunity to the physicians of Unit 731 in exchange
for providing America with their research on biological warfare. The United States
believed that the research data was valuable because the allies had never publicly
conducted or condoned such experiments on humans due to moral and political revulsion.
The U.S. also did not want other nations, particularly the Soviet Union, to acquire data on
biological weapons, not to mention the military benefits of such research. Fifty Years
later, the Japanese continue to deny or minimize this part of their wartime record. This is
one of the reasons there remains a strain between Japan and China today.

Marco-Polo Bridge Incident – In 1937: Chinese fire at soldiers training near Marco
Polo bridge near Peking. This incident triggered a Japanese assault on the Chinese and it
marks the start of the second Sino-Japanese war. There are some disputes among
historians over the incident with some historians believing that this was an unintentional
accident while others believing that the entire incident was fabricated by the Kantogun in
order to provide a pretext for the invasion of central China.

Checkbook Diplomacy – A term was introduced to describe Japanese international
involvement during and after the Gulf War I. The term has been used since then to
describe international diplomacy solely handled with money. Because of restrictions
placed into the constitution when it was drawn up under allied occupation following
World War II (article IX), Japan was unable to commit troops to the coalition. Instead
they volunteered large amounts of financing for the war effort.

The Bubble Economy – A term given to the 1980s economic growth in Japan.
Following the 1985 Plaza Accord, the yen rose sharply in value over the next few years
to three times its value in 1971, in the fixed exchange rate system. With the increase in
the price of Japanese exports, competitiveness was decreased overseas, while government
financial measures increased demand domestically. The bubble “busted” at the very end
of the 80s. By 1989, Japanese government officials were growing uneasy about the
skyrocketing values of the Nikkei and land valuations. In May 1989, it tightened
monetary policy by raising interest rates, and ordered another hike on Dec. 25. While the
Nikkei reached its all-time high on Dec. 31, stock prices began to plummet in January.
The government increased interest rates five more times before August 1990, to try and
halt the continued rise of property prices. But as the Nikkei kept falling, it was forced to
intervene in a futile attempt to try and revive the market and stave off recession.
Throughout the 1990s, Japan experienced slower growth than any other major industrial

Keiretsu –

Industrial Policy – A complicated system of Industrial Policies was devised by the
Japanese Government after World War II and especially in the 1950s and 1960s. The
goal was to promote industrial development, and it cooperated closely for this purpose
with private firms. The objective of industrial policy was to shift resources to specific
industries in order to gain international competitive advantage for Japan. These policies
and methods were used primarily to increase the productivity of inputs and to influence,
directly or indirectly, industrial investment. Keiretsu, the postwar successor to the
Zaibatsu, were formed and their ability to recover losses due to share holding, and their
ability to corner a market made it difficult for foreign companies to take over. This
policy has been criticized by foreign retailers because it makes it difficult them to
penetrate the market.

Gaiatsu – Meaning, external or foreign pressure. Defined as an explicit or tacit attempt
by foreign countries to make Japan do what it otherwise would not do. Basically, Japan is
highly sensitive to U.S. reaction toward foreign policy and international involvement and
often changes their diplomatically actions under pressure to meet U.S. needs.

Ishihara Shintaro – politician and author of The Japan that can say NO. His book
argued that U.S. missiles depended on Japanese made semiconductors and guidance
systems. If Japan sold chips to the Soviet Union and stopped selling to the U.S. this
would cause a military upset. Overall it portrayed that Japan needs to end its continued
dependence with the US at a time where feelings of mutual mistrust was open to the
public. Shintaro opposed many policy issues regarding Japans ties with the U.S. and for
the first time since the early post war period was one of few openly objecting to U.S.

Flying Geese – A metaphor originating in the 1930’s which reflects the booming
takeover by the Japanese in the Southeast Asian and Chinese markets and their leadership
position in the Asian economy during the 70’s- 80’s. The metaphor means that the
smaller geese followed the head goose, Japan, in employing technology and new
processes. Thus, as Japan moved into cutting edge, profitable electronics at home, it
passed down auto and steel production to the lower waged geese such as Taiwan and
South Korea. It also targeted a new goose, Vietnam, where financial aid for
reconstruction was sent by Japan as the U.S. retreated. Japan does this for the countries
targeted as a result, all required purchase of Japanese goods.

Zaibatsu – family owned corporations that held shares of each other and were Japaneese
monopolies. It allowed for control of significant parts of the Japanese economy since the
Edo to Meiji period but lost control during the Allied occupation of Japan where some
were broken up in Post war reconstruction to demolish monopolies. By expanding
Japanese industry and business the Zaibatsu not only helped modernize Japan
economically but also helped mass produce the military weapons and supplies Japan
needed during WWII.

Reactive State – Changes in Japanese foreign policy occur as a response to the
international community rather than domestic need. Characterizations of a Reactive State
include: 1) state fails to undertake major independent foreign economic policy initiatives
when it has the power and national incentive to do so. 2) It responds to outside pressures
for change, albeit erratically, unsystematically and incompletely. Japan copes with
situations created with others. For example, in the Gulf War Japan failed to find
appropriate means to actively and swiftly participate in the war and reacted to U.S.
pressures without taking a clear stance.

Meiji Restoration – Period following the Meiji revolution with the Emperor coming to
authority which causes a rapid social and political reform throughout Japan. It is also the
period where Japan takes steps toward modernization. Not only does Japan begin to
industrialize and establish systems of bureaucracy, but also it becomes more willing to
open its market to foreign trade. Japan also establishes a foreign policy with two prime
objectives: 1) state building 2) achieve equality among nations.

Treaty Port System – The Treaty Port System was a neomercantilist system
that guaranteed certain rights for foreigners in port cities, typically very
low tariff ceilings and extraterritoriality (in which the foreign nation's
laws applied for its citizens in the ports). Great Britain won such rights
in the terms to China's surrender in the Opium War in 1842. As emphasized
by LaFeber, China's loss signaled to Japan that the West would be coming for
them, as well. Sure enough, the conditions of the British-Chinese "treaty"
were the precursor to Commodore Perry's arrival (and thus Japan's modern
introduction to foreign affairs) a decade later. By 1856, the US-Japanese
treaty was expanded by Townsend Harris to resemble the Treaty Port System.

The Gulf War – The First Gulf War perhaps threatened Japan's prosperity even
more than that of the US - 70% of Japan's oil is imported from the Persian
Gulf. Internally, Japan debated whether or not to intervene and whether or
not that would breach Article IX. Prime Minister Kaifu's efforts to send
paramilitary assistance in the form of peacekeepers, minesweepers, and even
medics were blocked by the Diet. Japan's internal strife appeared to other
nations as stalling, and Japan ultimately was criticized for
unresponsiveness. As penance, Japan gave $13 billion to the Gulf War
effort, thus furthering Japan's reputation for resorting to checkbook

The Nye Initiative – (Note: someone at the group please double-check this;
if the Nye Initiative is something specific then I missed class that day)
Scholar Joseph Nye, a prominent Japan thinker, represents one side of an
American debate centered on the continued American military presence in
Japan. According to Nye, the US must remain in Asia (with Japan chief among
host countries for the Americans) in order to guarantee the security and
prosperity of both the US and Asia. The US, with the help of Japan and
Korea, serves as a stabilizing force for the entire region. Nye argues that
by continued presence, democracy will spread naturally which will further
stabilize the region and contribute to American interests. American
interests, Nye adds, have a lot to do with economic ties to Asia, so it fits
that they (American interests) should be in play in the region.

Futenma – A controversial air base on Okinawa. As one of the largest
American military bases in Japan, Futenma is the linchpin in the struggle
between Okinawan interests and American interests. Solutions and
compromises have been introduced several times (including returning the land
to Japan, and moving parts of it offshore), and finally the US moved the
base in 2004, which only brought more complaints from Okinawans. In
essence, Futenma is symbolic for the US presence in Okinawa. The US
maintains that the bases must stay in order to provide for the security of
Japan (and itself). Okinawans believe that the bases disrupted an
indigenous, utopian culture that now depends on the bases for simple
economic survival. The Japanese government, which must decide between
siding with Okinawa or the US, unsurprisingly sides with the US in a
quintessential show of response to "gaiatsu" - foreign pressure.

Comfort Women – "Ianfu" in Japanese, these were women numbering in the
hundreds of thousands and forced into sexual slavery by the Japanese army in
its advance through Asia. The women, mostly young, rural Koreans, were
either lured into servitude by promises of pay and education, or kidnapped
outright. Though prostitution was legal in Japan, the lives of the comfort
women were far more twisted than those of a normal prostitute - rapes in the
double-digits, hard labor, physical abuse, imprisonment, malnourishment, and
murder were all in a day's work. In war time, the comfort women were a
symbol for Japan's sense of superiority in Asia. After the war, the comfort
women have yet to have their catharsis, as the issue has been largely
silenced by politics and the shame felt by the women themselves. In recent
decades, as the comfort women and the Japanese military officers who
controlled them have begun to die, the issue has become a sticking point in
Japanese-Korean relations. Facing a UN investigation in 1995, Japan
officially admitted to an unspecified role in military brothels, but still
denies legal responsibility and refuses to issue an official apology.

Tiananmen Square Incident – In 1989, the Chinese government (PRC) unleashed
its army upon pro-democracy demonstrators in Tiananmen Square in Beijing.
The Chinese Red Cross estimates Chinese civilian deaths in the thousands.
In response to a serious human rights violation, the Japanese government cut
off all economic aid to China, only to resume it in 1990. Officially, Japan
claims a distaste for getting involved in the internal politics of other
countries as part of a continuing form of "seikei bunri" - the separation of
foreign trade and foreign affairs. Of course, there are complicating
factors. That economic aid was largely spent to buy Japanese goods and
services, so Japanese firms profit from the aid. On a grander scale,
however, Japan's standing down from a human rights confrontation symbolizes
the country's low posture in international affairs, which is to say that
Japan has little issue with standing down from many confrontations.

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