Art Cinema New Cinema by mikesanye


									  A New Wave Breaks

Final Freeze Frame of Truffaut's The 400 Blows,
      Jean-Pierre Léaud as Antoine Doinel
    New Cinema / Young Cinema

• During the period 1958-67, many "new
  wave" & "new cinema" movements appear.
• These films and movements are strongly
  youth-oriented, and many of the directors
  are very young.
• Thus sometimes called "Young Cinema":
• Often opposed to "Papa's Cinema" or
  "Tradition of Quality" films, which Truffaut
  attacks as un-cinematic.
   Youth Culture / Young Cinema
• Rise of New or Young Cinema parallels the
  development of Youth Culture (The "Young
  Generation") in many countries.
• Young generation of 1960s (not just in US) saw
  themselves breaking with the past, rebelling
  against their parents' generation.
• Anti-establishment and counter-cultural attitudes,
  political involvement (anti-Vietnam War), sexual
  liberation, new styles of music, fashion, films.
 Youth Culture / Young Cinema
• At a pragmatic level: as film attendance
  declines with rise of multiple leisure
  activities and TV (during 1950s), film
  producers increasingly target films to
  young urban and suburban audiences.
• Youth culture as new market for new,
  "independent" style of films, internationally.
• Thompson & Bordwell: "Youth culture
  accelerated the internationalizing of film
               New Cinemas
• Although we will focus on the French New Wave today,
  the "new cinema" phenomenon extended to many other
  countries and filmmakers:
• Cinema Nôvo in Brazil
• Japanese New Cinema
• The New German Cinema
• New Italian Cinema (Pier Paolo Pasolini, Bernardo
  Bertolucci, and Sergio Leone, as well as the later,
  1960s films of Fellini and Antonioni)
• British "Kitchen Sink" Cinema
• Eastern Europe: especially Poland, Czechslovakia,
  Yugoslavia, and Hungary.
        The French New Wave
         (La Nouvelle Vague)
• Of these new cinema movements, French
  New Wave is especially influential.
• Note on Textbook: Thompson & Bordwell
  make distinction between the New Wave
  filmmakers and the Left Bank (Rive
  Gauche) group of filmmakers.
• But often considered together (as T & B
  themselves do in their chronology box).
             The French New Wave
• New Wave brought not only youthful, anti-establishment
  ideas to their films, but also new ideas about film style.
• Period of experimentation, breaking old rules of style,
  editing, narrative.
• Stories were episodic; actions and events seemed almost
  random at times. Godard divides films into sections, puts
  in quotations.
• Great students of films: draw both from Neorealist, long
  take films championed by film critic André Bazin and from
  montage style films (Soviet Montage: Eisenstein &
• New Cinemas made possible by new lightweight cameras
  & tape recorders, which allowed location shooting and
  much cheaper films.
                  Major Directors
• Probably the two most famous/influential directors were
  François Truffaut and Jean-Luc Godard, both former
  Cahiers critics, with Alain Resnais (Left Bank) also
  considered very important.
• But many other important directors in group: Agnès
  Varda, Claude Chabrol, Eric Rohmer, Jacques Rivette.
• Usually, in film classes, either Truffaut's The 400 Blows
  (1959) or Godard's Breathless (1960) will be shown to
  illustrate the French New Wave. (Or sometimes,
  Resnais' Hiroshima Mon Amour [1959]).
• Masculine-Feminine is a later film (1966) that also
  illustrates growing shift during 1960s: from "art" cinema
  to more political cinema.
                           • Mainly a film about
                             youth culture/consumer
                           • But can see Godard's
                             interest in politics here.
                           • As Godard says: it's
                             about The Children of
                             Marx and Coca-Cola.
                           • As with most Godard
                             films, many
 Masculine-Feminine (1966)   "in-jokes" and
     Jean-Luc Godard         references.
Pictured: Jean-Pierre Léaud &
        Chantal Goya
              M-F : In 15 Acts
1.  Godard divides film into 15 Numbered Sections ("a
    film in 15 Precise Acts") of varying lengths.
2. But then he breaks his own system by numbering one
    section 4A and leaving some out.
3. As always with Godard, many references to other
    films, literature, philosophy, popular culture.
4. Most obvious reference: casting Jean-Pierre Léaud
    as Paul.
4A. Léaud had at 14 played lead character Antoine Doinel
    in Truffaut's The 400 Blows (1959).
5. When Paul suddenly says "What, your lordship, I
    have no old mother?" it is a line from Jean Renoir's
    famed 1939 film The Rules of the Game.
6.  The film within a film that they see is a parody of
    Ingmar Bergman's 1963 film The Silence (shot by
    Godard in Sweden).
7. Uncredited appearance by French movie star
    Brigitte Bardot, who had starred in Godard's
    Contempt (1963).
8. The scene with two black men and white woman on
    the subway is a scene from black playwright LeRoi
    Jones' (later Amiri Baraka) play Dutchman.
9. One of the black men in this scene is African
    filmmaker Med Hondo.
10. References are made in the film to James Bond,
    Bob Dylan, the Beatles, and the Pepsi Generation.
11. Godard fills the film with quotations, sometimes
    spoken by characters, sometimes in voiceover,
    sometimes in block print on the screen.
12. Godard frequently uses an interview format in
    discussions between male and female characters.
    In these segments, the characters are never on
    screen at the same time.
13. Godard seems to link women to consumer culture &
    casual sexuality, but he also shows male characters
    as hopelessly naïve and hapless.
14. Chantal Goya plays Madeleine, who wants to be a
    pop singer; Goya was already a famous pop singer.
15. Paul's friend Robert jokes that there is nothing in
    the word "feminin," but the end of film reveals that
    "FIN" (the end) is within the word.

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