Week Lecture Notes The Vertebral Column

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					Week 9 Lecture Notes- The Vertebral Column
Vertebral Column
Consists of
 7 cervical vertebrae
 12 thoracic vertebrae
 5 lumbar vertebrae
 5 sacral vertebrae
 4 coccygeal vertebrae

Total of
Its purpose is to




Spinal curvatures

Primary curvatures
 develop during foetal life
 thoracic kyphosis
 sacral kyphosis
Secondary curvatures
 develop during infancy
 cervical lordosis
 lumbar lordosis

Scoliosis
 lateral curvature of the spine
 Many different types:
 Many different causes
Lumbosacral angle
 Angle between the
 Varies between



Ossification of Vertebrae- Typical vertebrae
 Cartilaginous ossification
 3 primary centres
    1 x

    2 x

 5 secondary centres
    1 x

    2 x

    2 x
1° ossification
 Begins in the foetus
 Complete ossification of the vertebrae by
2° ossification
 centres develop in puberty
 Usually complete by



Features of a Vertebrae
 Vertebral body
 Vertebral arch
     
     
     
     
 Vertebral foramen
Seven processes
 1x
 2x
 2x
 2x



C3-6 Typical Vertebrae
 Vertebral body
     
     
   Vertebral arch
   Vertebral foramen
     
     
   Spinous process
     
   Transverse processes
     
     
     
   Superior articular p’s
     
   Inferior articular p’s
     
     



C7 Atypical Vertebrae
Typical Features
 uncinate processes
 vertebral arch with pedicles and lamina
 vertebral foramen
 transverse processes
 superior and inferior articular processes
Atypical Features





C1 Atypical Vertebrae (Atlas)
Atypical Features
 Absent
    
    
    
   Anterior arch
    
    
   Posterior arch
    
    
   Lateral masses
    
    



C2 Atypical Vertebrae (Axis)
Typical Features
 vertebral arch
 vertebral foramen
 spinous process (bifid)
 transverse processes
 transverse foramen
 inferior articular processes
Atypical Features
 vertebral body
 superior articular facets



T2-9 Typical Vertebrae
 Vertebral body
    
   Costal facets
    
    
   Vertebral arch
   Vertebral foramen
    
   Spinous process
     
     
   Transverse processes
     
     
     
   Superior articular p’s
     
   Inferior articular p’s
     
     



T1 Atypical Vertebrae
Typical Features
 Inferior costal demifacet articulates with the tip of rib 2
 Costal facet on the anterior aspect of T1 transverse process for the tubercle of rib 1
Atypical Features

T10 Atypical Vertebrae
Atypical Features

Absent

T11 and T12 Atypical Vertebrae
Atypical Features
 Inferior articular p’s
     
   Costal facets
     


Absent




L2-4 Typical Vertebrae
 Vertebral body
     
   Vertebral arch
     
   Vertebral foramen
     
   Spinous process
     
     
   Transverse processes
     
     
     
   Superior articular p’s
     
     
     
   Inferior articular p’s
     
     
     



L1 Atypical Vertebrae
Typical Features
 vertebral arch
 spinous process
 superior articular p’s
    concave
    face medial & posterior
 inferior articular p’s
    convex
    face lateral & anterior
Atypical Features



L5 Atypical Vertebrae
Typical Features
 vertebral body
 vertebral arch
 vertebral foramen
 spinous process
 superior articular p’s
    face medially and are concave
Atypical Features


     
     
Sacrum (S1-5 fused vertebrae)
 large
 base
 apex
 auricular surfaces form
 Passes

Significant Features
 Superior articular processes of S1
 Sacral canal
 Sacral foramina
 Sacral hiatus and cornua
 Inferior lateral angle (ILA)
 Sacral crests
    1 x
    2 x
    2 x
 Sacral promontory



Coccyx
 Usually formed by
 Can be 3 or 5 vertebrae
 First vertebrae
 The remaining vertebrae
Significant Features





Intervertebral Disc (IVD)
 Secondary cartilaginous joint (symphysis)
 Designed for weight bearing and strength
 Vary in shape with the spinal curvatures and movement
 Located between the bodies of adjacent vertebra (absent at C1-2)
IVD’s consist of

    
    

    
    
    
Zygapophyseal (facet) Joints
 Joints between
 Plane synovial joints
 Permits
 Each joint is innervated by
Ligaments
 Ligamentum flavum
    
   Intertransverse ligament
   Interspinous ligament
   Supraspinous ligament
   Nuchal ligament
    




Spinal Ligaments
 Anterior Longitudinal Ligament (ALL)
    
   Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (PLL)
    
   Ligamentum flavum
   Interspinous ligament
   Supraspinous ligament
   Intertransverse ligament

Uncovertebral Joints
 Also called
 Formed by the
 Considered to be
 Located

Atlanto-Occipital Joint
(OA or C0-1)
 Joints between

 Permits
 Has very limited
Connecting C1 to the skull
 Anterior atlanto-occipital membrane
    
   Posterior atlanto-occipital membrane
    
Atlanto-Axial Joint
(AA or C1-2)


   1 pivot synovial joint
    
   2 plane synovial joints
    


Ligaments
 1 x apical ligament
 2 x alar ligaments
 1 x cruciate ligament with three bands
    
    
    
   Tectorial membrane
    




Intervertebral Foramen
Boundaries
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Movements of the vertebral column
 Flexion and Extension
 Sidebending
 Rotation
 Varies in different regions due to
    
    
    


Cervical spine
 Thick IVD’s
Facets

   Superior articular processes
    
   Inferior articular processes
    


Allows

Thoracic spine
 IVD’s are
Facets
 Lie in
 superior articular processes
    
   inferior articular processes
    



Movements:



Lumbar spine
 IVD’s
Facets
 Orientated
 Allow
 Almost complete limitation
 Can be great variation in the facet joints of the lumbar spine

				
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