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					                                 Coordinators’
                                 Notebook            No. 29, 2007

                      AN INterNAtIoNAl resourCe for eArly ChIldhood


                      A global call to action for early childhood




                                                        InsIde
                                                        4 Cornerstones: strong
                                                        Foundations for Global
                                                        development                     6
                                                        International early Childhood
                                                        Reports: Moving the early
                                                        Childhood Agenda Forward        7
Nepal: rob Buchanan




                                                        Case studies                    46
                                                        network notes                   54
2                                              IntRoduCtIon




Contents                                         Investing in early childhood:
Coordinators’ Notebook
No. 29, 2007
                                                 Meeting the challenge
                                                 A declaration and global call to action from
Articles                                         the Consultative Group on early Childhood
2007 Global Monitoring report:                   Care and development
strong foundations                        7
                                                 In recent months, four international        3. A review carried out for the World
the lancet: early Childhood
                                                 publications have presented strong          health organisation titled “early Child
development series                        22
                                                 scientific, social, economic, and moral     development: A Powerful equaliser”:
Who Commission on the social                     evidence to argue for increasing
determinants of health report -–                                                             • Argues that early childhood
                                                 investment in programmes intended
eCd: A Powerful equalizer                 29                                                 development (defined in terms
                                                 to improve the development and well-
                                                                                             of physical, social-emotional, and
General Comment 7: Implementing                  being of young children.
                                                                                             language and cognitive development)
Child rights in early Childhood           35     1. the prestigious health journal The       increases economic participation
uN Convention on the rights of                   Lancet published a rigorous review of       throughout life, improves literacy and
Persons with disabilities: Implications          research by an interdisciplinary group      numeracy, and reduces criminality
for early Childhood                       38     of internationally renowned scientists      while also reducing stunting, heart
                                                 that:                                       disease, and mental illness. In so
Case studies                                                                                 doing, eCd contributes to social and
turkey - National early Childhood                • estimates that at least 200 million
                                                                                             gender equity.
education Advocacy Campaign               46     children under the age of 5 worldwide
                                                 are unable to realise their potential.      • examines how elements of nurturing
Brazil - engaging the Private and
                                                                                             environments affect brain development
Public sectors in Brazil:                        • Identifies risk factors in development.
                                                                                             (and therefore the life course) through
A Multisectoral Approach to eCCe          50     • Provides evidence that programme          the quality of stimulation, relationships,
                                                 actions can significantly moderate          and language during the earliest years.
Activities of the
                                                 risks, promote protective factors, and
CG secretariat                            54                                                 • Proposes ways that governments
                                                 positively affect child developmental
Regional Reports                                                                             and civil society actors, from local to
                                                 outcomes, as well as reducing
                                                                                             international, can work in concert with
strengthening regional Capacity                  mortality, disease, and undernutrition
                                                                                             families to provide equitable access to
in the Caribbean                          56     during the early years.
                                                                                             strong nurturant environments.
latin America                             57     2. An extensive review by the
                                                                                             4. “A Guide to General Comment 7:
                                                 committee charged with monitoring
Central Asia/eastern europe and                                                              Implementing Child rights in early
                                                 the global education for All (efA)
the Commonwealth of                                                                          Childhood” is based on the uN
                                                 initiative—Strong Foundations, Global
Independent states                        59                                                 Committee on the rights of the Child’s
                                                 Monitoring report, 2007:
Association for the development                                                              (uNCrC) General Comment No. 7
of education in Africa, Working                  • Presents strong arguments for             (GC7) which was drafted and adopted
Group on eCd                              62     investing in early childhood, including     in 2004 in response to the uNCrC’s
                                                 the contribution of early development       observation that young children were
Advocacy in the Arab region               64     to reaching other efA goals and the         almost entirely overlooked in states
Asia-Pacific regional Network                    Millennium development Goals.               parties’ reports on their progress
for early Childhood                       66                                                 towards implementing the Convention
                                                 • Notes that early child development
International early Childhood                                                                on the rights of the Child (CrC). GC7:
                                                 and education are given relatively low
Resources                                 69     priority in the budgets of governments      • Broadly considers the realisation of
early Childhood Calendar                  70     and donor agencies.                         child rights for, and on behalf of young
                                                                                             childen, beyond child mortality and
Credits                                   71     • summarises what programmes work,
                                                                                             basic health and welfare.
                                                 as well as what needs to be done.


                                                                                                     CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
                                                                                                                                                                            IntRoduCtIon     3


   • embraces the notion of the young                     their rights are respected, and reduce                                                 Key advocacy messages:
   child no longer powerless, voiceless, or               inequality, especially for the most                                                    4 Cornerstones to Secure
   invisible but as a positive, participating             disadvantaged children. As Nobel Prize-                                                a Strong Foundation for
   social actor, actively participating in                winning economist James heckman                                                        Young Children
   their development and in the social life               observed in the Wall Street Journal
   of family and neighbourhood in the                     (January 10, 2006), “It is a rare public                                               the global attention to the critical need
   “here and now”, rather than solely as                  policy initiative that promotes fairness                                               for improved early childhood policies
   “becoming” for the future.                             and social justice and at the same time                                                resulting from the above publications
                                                          promotes productivity in the economy                                                   has presented the CGeCCd with new
   In addition, the new Convention on                                                                                                            opportunities for advocacy. taking
                                                          and in society at large. Investing in
   the rights of Persons with disabilities                                                                                                       advantage of the launch of the 2007
                                                          disadvantaged young children is such a
   (CrPd) recently adopted by the uN                                                                                                             Global Monitoring report in New york
                                                          policy.”
   General Assembly, signed by 121                                                                                                               in october 2006, the Consultative
   countries and ratified by 14 countries:                National governments and international                                                 Group convened a special session at
                                                          organisations are failing to meet the                                                  the CG’s 2006 annual consultation
   • Makes a major shift away from the
                                                          challenge by providing the policies,                                                   to answer the question “What
   medical to the social model of disability.
                                                          programmes, and resources that are                                                     programmes and policies should
   • offers a renewed opportunity                         needed, despite an accumulation                                                        be in place to help assure the early
   for every country, community, and                      of work that shows the alarming                                                        development of children?”
   organisation to “re-energise” and/or                   magnitude of the problem; offers
   reexamine existing legislation, policies,              evidence about risks, protective factors,                                              Participants from all regions of the
   budgets, and programmes.                               and benefits; and suggests ways to                                                     world contributed to the development
                                                          improve child development.                                                             of the following 4 Cornerstones, or key
   • Promotes coordinated efforts to
                                                                                                                                                 messages about early childhood (see
   ensure that all persons with disabilities              If this impressive outpouring of evidence                                              page 6):
   are guaranteed the same rights as                      goes unheeded, intellectual, social,
   others.                                                and economic potential will continue                                                   • start at the Beginning
                                                          to be lost, and the rights of children                                                 • Get ready for success
   these works, which are summarised in
                                                          will continue to be violated. the                                                      • Improve Primary school Quality
   this issue of the Coordinators’ Notebook
                                                          Consultative Group on early Childhood                                                  • Include early Childhood in Policies
   beginning on page 7, are buttressed by
   the work of noted economists who hail                  Care and development (CGeCCd) calls                                                    since we know that no magic
   early Childhood as the best investment                 for immediate and urgent action in                                                     age or programme exists, the 4
   to improve the health and nutrition                    all realms, including policy, advocacy,                                                Cornerstones are meant to reflect
   of young children, prepare them for                    finance, aid, administration, and                                                      the developmental spectrum of early
   elementary schooling, guarantee that                   monitoring.                                                                            childhood from prenatal through to the
                                                                                                                                                 early primary grades. Moreover, given
                                                                                                                                                 that investments in early childhood
                                                                                                              Aga Khan Foundation/Jean-Luc Ray




                                                                                                                                                 vary tremendously across regions, the
                                                                                                                                                 Cornerstones are meant to be adapted
                                                                                                                                                 to the particular needs and issues
                                                                                                                                                 emerging at country and community
                                                                                                                                                 levels.
                                                                                                                                                 In June 2007, the Cornerstones were
                                                                                                                                                 discussed and revised at a meeting of
                                                                                                                                                 Consultative Group partners and others
                                                                                                                                                 that was held at uNesCo in Paris.
                                                                                                                                                 International organisations and regional
                                                                                                                                                 networks were asked to share these
                                                                                                                                                 key messages and provide ongoing
                                                                                                                                                 feedback so that the 4 Cornerstones
     Governments and civil societies need to intervene earlier and invest intensively in high quality Early                                      can remain a living document. the
     Childhood services and programmes that combine family support, health, nutrition, stimulation and                                           regional reports in this issue of the
     learning opportunities for young children.
                                                                                                                                                 Coordinators’ Notebook (see page 56)
CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
4   IntRoduCtIon




    are framed around the 4 Cornerstones        • In what areas are we doing             • how can we use these messages to
    and were presented at the CG’s Annual       well? Where do we need the most          help build capacity in the field of early
    Consultation in october 2007 in             improvements?                            Childhood to take action on behalf of
    santiago, Chile.                                                                     young children?
                                                • how can we use the 4 Cornerstones
    Naturally, using these key messages         to raise public awareness and gain       • how can we use these messages
    raises a number of questions,               consensus around a policy agenda?        with policymakers? Media? other new
    particularly when developing a specific     Where would we start? Which area         champions for young children?
    policy agenda:                              needs the most attention?
                                                                                         • What special events can be planned
    • What do these statements mean for         • Given our particular needs, what       throughout the year that can highlight
    our community, country, or region?          messages are missing? What other goals   promising initiatives around each
                                                are important?                           message?
                                                                                         As the importance of the early years
                                                                                         gains recognition, we will come under
       PRInCIPles And GuIdelInes                                                         increasing pressure to define what
       In creating policy and when planning and implementing early childhood             we want policymakers to do. these
       programmes, several principles and guidelines should be kept in mind.             messages are only a beginning. you can
       these include the following:                                                      make them come alive when discussing
                                                                                         them in the context of your community
       • development begins before birth. therefore attention to children’s              and country. Please continue to let us
       developmental needs and risks should begin with pre- and post-natal               know how you use these Cornerstones.
       interventions.                                                                    What works? What needs further
       • development occurs continuously as a changing child interacts with a            revision?
       changing environment. therefore, interventions can focus on changing
       the child and/or on changing environments, including family, community,
                                                                                         developing an advocacy
       service delivery, and broader social and economic environments.                   strategy for early childhood
       • development is multifaceted and integral. therefore, it is essential            recognising the strengths of the
       to integrate health, nutrition, and stimulation/learning in programme             CGeCCd as a global coalition that
       elements.                                                                         facilitates influential knowledge-
                                                                                         networking and advocacy processes
       • Children develop along many paths as risk conditions are reduced
                                                                                         aimed at influencing decision makers
       and as they play, use all their senses, imitate, and interact socially with
       others. therefore, a range of programme options are available to facilitate       and development partners working in
       development.                                                                      Majority and Minority World contexts,
                                                                                         the CG proposes a framework for
       • Children develop when adults provide a healthy environment, are
                                                                                         advocacy, based on the 4 Cornerstones,
       emotionally and socially responsive and involved, talk to children, provide
                                                                                         to move our work forward globally
       appropriate and varied play materials, etc. therefore, interventions should
                                                                                         and on a regional/national level. this
       include attention to adults as well as to children.
                                                                                         framework includes:
       • While recognising the importance of universal approaches, it is important
       for equity reasons (and perhaps for financial reasons) to focus interventions     • raising public awareness about the
       on those who are most vulnerable, attempting to reach the largest possible        importance of early Childhood.
       number of children who live in conditions that put them at risk.                  • developing consensus on specific
       • It is important to build on what caregivers know and do well, including         policy goals and monitoring.
       traditional knowledge and practices. this may require flexibility in              • Building capacity within the early
       programmes that are sensitive to cultural differences, but it also requires       Childhood community to advocate for
       awareness of the general framework provided by the CrC.                           change.
       • Programmes should be cost-effective and efficient.                              • reaching out to new champions who
       • to be effective, early childhood interventions and programmes must              have influence on policymakers.
       assure adequate quality.                                                          • targeting specific events throughout
                                                                                         the year.
                                                                                                   CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
                                                                                                                                     IntRoduCtIon                                              5



   the challenge and




                                                                                                                                                    Cambodia: PLAN International/Adam Hinton
   call to action
   It is against this background that the
   CGeCCd offers the following challenge
   and call to action.
   1. We respectfully request that our own
   participating organisations:
   • Maintain and strengthen their
   attention to early Childhood with
   financial resources, human resources,
   programmes, and technical support.
   • Integrate early Childhood into ongoing
   or new programmes, including those
   focused on:
   - health
   - Nutrition
   - education
   - social protection
   - Conditional cash transfers
   - hIV/AIds                                    Promotion and support of cost-effective early childhood programmes must be a priority for global
                                                 development.
   - emergencies
   - Women´s work
   - Community development                      early Childhood into its programming.               interventions. learning begins at birth—
                                                this action would:                                  it does not wait until kindergarten
   In particular, we call on uNICef, with its                                                       or primary school. We need to
   worldwide reach and prestige, to play        • Be consistent with the Who
                                                                                                    intervene earlier and invest intensively
   the important role that it can play to       Constitution that says: “health is a
                                                                                                    in programmes that combine health,
   improve early childhood.                     state of complete physical, mental and
                                                                                                    nutrition, and stimulation for young
                                                social well-being and is not merely the
   We also call on the World Bank and                                                               children ages 0-8. early Childhood
                                                absence of disease or infirmity.”
   others to continue to incorporate early                                                          Care and development is the first step
   childhood into the fast track Initiative.    • recognise that the health, nutrition,             towards achieving education for All and
   to do so would be consistent with            and early stimulation and learning                  the Millennium development Goals.
   the 1990 Jomtien declaration on              components in an intervention                       the fast track Initiative cannot succeed
   education for All and the subsequent         programme directed to young children                unless we focus on children’s early
   recommendations in dakar (2000)              can operate synergistically to increase             years.
   which clearly state that “learning           the effectiveness of all components,
                                                                                                    Promotion and support of cost-effective
   begins at birth.” It would respond           enhancing physical and psychosocial
                                                                                                    early childhood programmes must be a
   as well to the target set forth in the       well-being.
                                                                                                    priority for global development. young
   efA framework for Action, which              • help to mobilise the technical and                children are a wise investment—perhaps
   recommends “expansion of early               political power and resources of the                the most productive investment a
   childhood care and education activities,     health community, without which eCCd                society can make. By investing in young
   including family and community               will improve slowly, at best, and without           children, we can help to guarantee a
   interventions, especially for poor,          respecting the holistic nature of child             more equitable and prosperous future
   disadvantaged, and disabled children.”       development.                                        for all.
   2. We urge the World health                  We know what needs to be done to                    Louise Zimanyi, Director
   organisation’s Commission on social          move the early Childhood agenda                     With input from CG Partners
   determinants of health to incorporate        forward. We need to rethink the                     Robert Myers and Joan Lombardi
                                                conventional wisdom on education


CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
6                                            4 CoRneRstones




                                                              4 cornerstones
                                                              To secure a strong
                                                              foundation for
                                                              young children
    uNICef/Peru/Walter silvera




                                                              Early childhood programmes provide a strong foundation
                                                              for good health, growth, and success in education and life.
                                                              Investing in young children saves money and pays off
                                                              in the long run.
                                                              CoRNERstoNE 1: Start at the beginning
                                                              Integrate early stimulation, child development, and parenting information
                                                              into prenatal, early health, nutrition, and education services by:
                                                              n   Providing access to parenting programmes that address holistic child
    uNesCo/Gary Masters




                                                                  development, particularly for the most vulnerable families;
                                                              n   Improving services for young children and families including early
                                                                  stimulation, health, nutrition, and child care.

                                                              CoRNERstoNE 2: Get ready for success
                                                              Ensure access to at least two years of quality early childhood programmes
                                                              prior to formal school entry, beginning with the most vulnerable and
                                                              disadvantaged children.

                                                              CoRNERstoNE 3: Improve primary school quality
                                                              Increase investments and improve the transition from home or preschool
    Aga Khan foundation/Miranda Goodenough




                                                              to primary school and the quality of learning in grades 1-3 by:
                                                              n   Providing teachers with knowledge about early childhood, learning
                                                                  environments and styles, and methods for teaching early literacy and
                                                                  numeracy during pre/in-service teacher training;
                                                              n   Giving children adequate learning materials; and
                                                              n   Ensuring smaller classes.

                                                              CoRNERstoNE 4: Include early childhood in policies
                                                              Address early childhood in all national policies and plans across sectors, including
                                                              Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs), Common Country Assessments (CCAs),
                                                              UN Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), One UN Plan documents,
                                                              Education for All Plans (EFA), and Fast Track Initiative (FTI) Plans. Assure adequate
                                                              resources and multi sectoral coordination by ensuring that Early Childhood is
                                                              integral to development and macroeconomic planning and budgeting.


                                                                         the CoNsultAtIVe GrouP oN eArly
    PlAN International




                                                                         ChIldhood CAre ANd deVeloPMeNt
                                                                         www.ecdgroup.com


                                                                                                                  CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
                                                                                                                                 7

   strong foundations:
   early childhood care and education
                                               efA Global Monitoring report team, with
                                               Michelle neuman, special advisor on early childhood care
                                               and education for the 2007 edition

   learning begins well before a child        Convention on the rights of the Child,    for more early childhood policies
   walks through the classroom door           now endorsed by 192 nations, is a         and programmes. Access to good
   for the first time. the paramount          unique instrument to protect children’s   early childhood programmes is not
   importance of the child’s early years      rights to survival, development, and      widespread in developing countries. In
   is expressed in the first of the six       protection. rapid economic and            contrast, most children in developed
   education for All (efA) goals adopted      social change is increasing the need      countries have access to at least
   by 164 countries in dakar in 2000.
   they are years of extreme vulnerability       BOX 1
   and tremendous potential, during
   which adequate protection, care, and         the 2007 efA Global Monitoring report was formally launched in New york
   stimulation are essential to provide the     on october 26, 2006 in the presence of uNesCo director-General Koïchiro
   foundations for the child’s well-being       Matsuura and uNICef executive director Ann M. Veneman. education
   and development.                             ministers from Chile, Ghana, and Jamaica, World health organisation
                                                Assistant director-General Joy Phumaphi, uN Committee on the rights of
   the fifth edition of the efA Global          the Child member lothar Krappmann, and eminent Indian educator Inderjit
   Monitoring report, launched in               Khurana each brought their own voice of support to the urgent cause of
   october 2006, assesses progress              early childhood care and education. In a video message, President Michelle
   towards the first efA goal, which            Bachelet of Chile reiterated her government’s priority to early childhood
   calls on governments to expand               protection “because we understand that the first few years are crucial for
   and improve “comprehensive early             development throughout a person’s life.”
   childhood care and education,
   especially for the most vulnerable           early childhood care and education was a central feature of the united
   and disadvantaged children”—those            Nations Girls’ Initiative meeting and the high level Group on education
   who have the least access to such            for All in Cairo (November 2006). the report was also presented and
   opportunities and who stand to benefit       discussed at a press conference with egypt’s Minister of education. since
   most from them.                              then, the report has been presented in 37 countries in all regions, very
                                                often involving ministers of education, government officials responsible
   Comprehensive programmes refer to            for eCCe, NGos, and bilateral and multilateral representatives. In several
   a holistic approach that encompasses         cases, policy workshops have provided opportunities to discuss the report’s
   both care and education for children         recommendations. In dakar, representatives from 13 sub-saharan African
   from birth to age 8. such programmes         countries (including seven ministers) spent three days discussing ways to
   focus on a range of needs, from health       strengthen eCCe policies. In the Mekong region, officials from several
   and nutrition to cognitive, social, and      countries called for better training and capacity building for policy makers
   emotional development. holistic early        and knowledge sharing across the subregion.
   childhood programmes have a leading
   role to play in any strategy to attain       Beyond the six uN languages, the report summary has been translated into
   basic education for all and to reduce        a number of others, including Bangla, hindi, Japanese, Khmer, Portuguese,
   poverty, the overarching objective of        and Vietnamese.
   the Millennium development Goals.            the report is sparking policy discussion of eCCe. In several sub-saharan
   Programmes of good quality improve           African countries, work is underway with key partners on developing
   health and nutrition, combat hIV/AIds,       comprehensive early Childhood policies. donors, including sweden and
   and prepare children for a smooth            Norway, have recognised that early Childhood should feature more
   transition to primary school.                prominently in their aid policies. Monitoring of efA goal 1 is featured in
   Commitment to early childhood has            the report released december 5, 2007. Continued advocacy and capacity
   increased in recent years. the 1989 uN       building over the long term will be crucial for sustaining and increasing
                                                commitment to quality eCCe.

CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
8   stRonG FoundAtIons: eArly ChIldhood CAre ANd eduCAtIoN




    two years of free preschool before
    beginning primary school.
                                                         the case for early                                                              the CrC has few provisions specific
                                                                                                                                         to the youngest age group, but
    After setting out the rationale for
                                                         childhood care                                                                  its monitoring committee, the uN
    strengthening early childhood care and               and education                                                                   Committee on the rights of the Child,
                                                                                                                                         put early childhood on its agenda in
    education (eCCe) programmes, this
    article evaluates countries’ provision               Very young children                                                             2005, noting in a General Comment
                                                         have rights                                                                     that young children have a particular
    of such services, especially for children
                                                                                                                                         need for nurturing, care, and guidance.
    from disadvantaged or vulnerable                     several human rights instruments                                                this working document, which defines
    groups. serving children from birth to               are specific to children. Although                                              early childhood as the period from
    age 8 in diverse settings with different             not legally binding, the 1959 united                                            birth to age 8, reminds parties to the
    purposes, programmes are by nature                   Nations declaration on the rights of                                            CrC of their obligation to develop
    extremely varied, yet many features                  the Child affirms some of the most                                              comprehensive policies covering health,
    of good practice can be singled out.                 basic principles of children’s rights,                                          care, and education for young children
    Key aspects of national strategies for               including the provision of health care,                                         as well as assistance to parents and
    expanding provision are then analysed.               housing, social security, education,                                            caregivers. early childhood education,
    the 2007 efA Global Monitoring                       and protection from neglect, cruelty,                                           it says, should be directly linked to
    report’s findings are based on cross-                and exploitation. But the 1989                                                  the rights of children to develop their
    national education statistics, household             Convention on the rights of the                                                 personalities, talents, and mental
    surveys, consultations, literature                   Child (CrC) ushered in a new era                                                and physical abilities from birth (see
    reviews, and specially commissioned                  for children’s rights. the CrC puts                                             page 35).
    papers available on the uNesCo                       the best interests of the child at the
                                                         forefront and is attentive to the voice                                         recognition that children have rights of
    website (www.efareport.unesco.org),
                                                         and language of children. the most                                              their own establishes an international
    which also includes this summary as
                                                         widely ratified human rights treaty in                                          standard that is not always accepted
    well as the full report, statistical tables,
                                                         the world, the CrC commits countries                                            by individual state parties. Provisions
    regional overviews, and over 100
                                                         to translate international standards                                            empowering the state to intervene on
    country profiles on early childhood.
                                                         into domestic law and national                                                  a child’s behalf remain controversial.
    the report and summary are available
                                                         practice.                                                                       still, the CrC, with its near-universal
    in multiple languages (see box 1).
                                                                                                                                         adoption, has a status that few other
                                                                                                                                         international treaties can match, and
                                                                                                                                         it has contributed greatly to shaping
                                                                                                          Cameroon: Emily Vargas-Baron




                                                                                                                                         stronger policy agendas for childhood.

                                                                                                                                         the impact of experiences
                                                                                                                                         in the early years
                                                                                                                                         early childhood is a highly
                                                                                                                                         sensitive period marked by rapid
                                                                                                                                         transformations in physical, cognitive,
                                                                                                                                         social, and emotional development.
                                                                                                                                         undernutrition, deprivation of care,
                                                                                                                                         and poor treatment are particularly
                                                                                                                                         damaging to young children, with
                                                                                                                                         repercussions often felt into the adult
                                                                                                                                         years. Inadequate stimulation and
                                                                                                                                         exposure to toxic substances in the first
                                                                                                                                         years of life can have serious long-term
                                                                                                                                         effects. A child who receives extremely
                                                                                                                                         poor care or who rarely hears language
                                                                                                                                         (as in some orphanages) is likely to
      Quality Early Childhood programmes and services are an instrument to guarantee children’s rights,                                  suffer developmental deficits that are
      open the way to all EFA goals, and contribute powerfully to reducing poverty, the overarching                                      difficult to redress later.
      objective of the Millennium Development Goals.

                                                                                                                                                  CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
                                                                    stRonG FoundAtIons: eArly ChIldhood CAre ANd eduCAtIoN         9


   Good programmes can significantly         in malnourished children: iron             the turkish early enrichment Project,
   enhance young children’s well-being in    supplements, extra food, deworming,        which provided preschool experience
   these formative years and complement      and psychosocial stimulation. A more       to children and support to mothers in
   the care received at home.                holistic view of child development         low-income areas of Istanbul, resulted
                                             is gaining ground, informed by the         in 86% of the children still being in
   Adequate health and                       links between health and nutrition,        school after seven years, compared to
   nutrition required for learning           on the one hand, and education             67% for non-participants. Controlling
   More than 10 million children under       on the other. In east delhi, India, a      for GdP, the higher an African
   age 5 die every year, with over half      programme providing deworming and          country’s pre-primary enrolment
   of that number dying from five            iron supplements resulted in higher        ratio, the higher its primary school
   transmittable diseases that can be        preschool attendance. Interventions        completion rate and the lower its
   prevented or treated. Worldwide,          combining nutrition and education          primary repetition rate.
                                             are more likely to succeed than those
   about 86 of every 1,000 children born                                                the economic case
   in recent years will not reach age 5.     focusing on nutrition alone. studies in
                                             Guatemala and Vietnam found that           Given their positive impact on health,
   Infant mortality rates are highest in
                                             nutrition packages had a longer-lasting    nutrition, and education outcomes,
   sub-saharan Africa and south and West
                                             impact when children also received         early childhood programmes represent
   Asia (over 100 per 1,000 live births).
                                             sufficient cognitive stimulation.          a good investment in human capital.
   Poor nutrition has a negative             education should be considered an          Although research is limited, especially
   impact on school participation and        integral dimension of programmes           in developing countries, returns to
   achievement. stunted children (those      designed to address young children’s       investing in eCCe programmes are
   short for their age) are less likely to   health and nutrition problems.             positive, and indeed generally higher
   enrol in school and more likely to                                                   than those to investing in other
   enrol later and to drop out. A severe     Improving access to and                    education interventions. returns to
   or chronic lack of essential nutrients    progress in primary school                 eCCe investments are reaped over a
   in childhood impairs language, motor,                                                longer period than those targeting
                                             eCCe programmes enhance children’s
   and socioemotional development.                                                      older children, youth, or adults.
                                             physical well-being, cognitive and
                                                                                        furthermore, the skills acquired in
   extending the provision of safe           language skills, and social and
                                                                                        eCCe programmes are a foundation
   drinking water and proper sanitation      emotional development. the impact
                                                                                        for all further learning.
   globally would reduce infant and          of such programmes on participation
   child mortality dramatically. Access      in primary education and beyond            the most widely cited evidence on
   to treatment for hIV/AIds is crucial      is well documented. Preschool              early childhood programmes comes
   for the survival and development          experience in the united Kingdom,          from the longitudinal high/scope
   of young children. the limited            for example, was shown to result in        Perry Preschool Program in the united
   coverage of organised early childhood     improved intellectual development,         states. Between 1962 and 1967, the
   programmes in sub-saharan Africa          independence, concentration, and           programme targeted low-income
   makes it all the more difficult to        sociability during the first three years   African-American children assessed
   detect and treat health problems          of primary school.                         to be at high risk of school failure.
   linked to poor nutrition. In latin                                                   Participants and a control group were
                                             studies of programmes in several
   America and the Caribbean, early                                                     tracked annually from ages 3 to 11
                                             developing countries point to links
   childhood programmes have reduced                                                    and again several times until age 40.
                                             between participation in early
   the prevalence of malnutrition and                                                   Participation led to increased IQ at age
                                             childhood programmes, primary school
   stunting and contributed to children’s                                               5, higher rates of graduation from high
                                             enrolment, and better results over at
   well-being and school readiness.                                                     school, and higher earnings at age 40.
                                             least three to four years, particularly
   Measures designed to reduce mortality                                                detailed cost-benefit analysis suggests
                                             for disadvantaged children. In a poor
   and morbidity are a first step towards                                               that the programme yielded a 17:1
                                             district of Nepal, 95% of children
   establishing comprehensive care and                                                  benefit/cost ratio.
                                             who attended an early childhood
   education programmes for young            programme went on to primary school,       evidence from developing countries
   children. four types of intervention      as opposed to 75% who did not.             is slowly accumulating. A preschool
   have been found to have a large           Participants had significantly higher      health programme in delhi increased
   impact on cognitive outcomes              marks on exams at the end of grade 1.      average school participation by 7.7


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     percentage points for girls and 3.2           for the poor and vulnerable, to             developing countries since the 1950s,
     points for boys. the same programme           compensate for disadvantage. As             however, has changed the situation.
     would increase the net present value          the Nobel laureate James heckman            In 2005 women’s labour force
     of lifetime wages by us$29 per child          observes (Wall street Journal, January      participation rates were over 55% in
     while costing only us$1.70. In Bolivia, a     10, 2006), “It is a rare public policy      east Asia, south-east Asia, and sub-
     home-based programme had benefit/             initiative that promotes fairness and       saharan Africa and about 50% in latin
     cost ratios between 2.4:1 and 3.1:1,          social justice and at the same time         America and the Caribbean. they were
     with higher ratios for at-risk children;      promotes productivity in the economy        considerably lower in south Asia (35%)
     analyses in Colombia and egypt find           and in society at large. Investing in       and the Arab states (28%), but still up
     similar ratios. In all cases, the impact of   disadvantaged young children is such        significantly over previous decades. In
     eCCe is stronger for children from poor       a policy.”                                  general, the greater women’s relative
     families than for more advantaged                                                         control over household earnings and
     children; participation results in lower                                                  spending, the more likely it is that
     dropout and repetition rates in primary
                                                   early childhood                             children’s welfare will be considered
     school.                                       care and education:                         a priority in household decisions and

     Reducing social inequality                    the scale                                   that boys and girls will benefit equally
                                                                                               from early childhood provision.
     Advocates of programmes for young             of provision                                In more developed countries,
     children have long argued that                                                            women’s work in the industrial and
                                                   the rise of support to
     they can reduce social inequality.                                                        service sector is strongly associated
                                                   working mothers and
     recent research confirms that eCCe                                                        with higher enrolment in preschool
     programmes can compensate for
                                                   organised child care
                                                                                               programmes. the link between
     disadvantage, regardless of underlying        formal arrangements to care for young       employment patterns and pre-primary
     factors such as poverty, gender,              children date back to the eighteenth        education is weak in developing
     ethnicity, caste, or religion. head           century. In europe, a great variety of      countries. But migration, urbanisation,
     start, a public project launched in the       early childhood institutions took root in   and the hIV/AIds pandemic are
     united states in 1964 as part of the          the nineteenth century, some founded        weakening ties between extended and
     “War on Poverty,” was driven by the           by educators well known today, such         nuclear families and creating child care
     assumption that targeted interventions        as fröbel and Montessori. some              needs that current arrangements do
     could compensate for less favourable          addressed the needs of poor working         not meet. the number of single-parent
     family and community backgrounds.             mothers or neglected children, while        households, especially those headed by
     the high/scope Perry programme                others provided an enriched preschool       women and particularly in european
     helped level the playing field for            education for middle-class children.        union countries and latin America,
     disadvantaged children. research in           After the second World War, the             also has implications for child care.
     such diverse places as Cape Verde,            growing numbers of women in the
     egypt, Guinea, Jamaica, and Nepal                                                         Public policies supporting infant care
                                                   labour force began to demand decent-
     consistently finds that the most                                                          date back to the late nineteenth
                                                   quality and affordable care for their
     disadvantaged children are the ones                                                       century. By the 1970s, almost
                                                   young children. By the end of the
     who draw the greatest benefit from                                                        all organisation for economic
                                                   twentieth century, the state nursery
     eCCe programmes.                                                                          Cooperation and development (oeCd)
                                                   school predominated throughout
                                                                                               countries offered paid maternity
                                                   europe.
     early childhood programmes can also                                                       leave, and some (particularly among
     reduce gender inequality. Girls who           the formalisation of early childhood        the Nordic countries) have parental
     participate in such programmes are            provision in developing countries is        leave, allowing the mother or father
     more likely to begin school at the right      more recent and shows considerable          or, in rare cases, both to take time off
     age and to complete the primary cycle.        regional variation. the traditional         work. About 100 developing countries
     eCCe participation also tends to have         roles of women in agriculture and the       report having established some form
     a larger impact on girls’ health than on      informal sector meant greater reliance      of maternity leave, albeit frequently
     boys’.                                        on kin and informal community               limited to workers in certain sectors
                                                   arrangements for children’s care            and with often lax enforcement.
     the provision of quality early childhood
                                                   and upbringing. the massive entry
     care and support is essential for all
                                                   of women into the labour market in
     children, but particularly important

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                                                                         stRonG FoundAtIons: eArly ChIldhood CAre ANd eduCAtIoN           11



   Monitoring progress towards                  in programmes funded by other                 Pre-primary education:
   eFA goal 1                                   ministries, private groups, or local          sharp enrolment increases
                                                communities. enrolment patterns
   some 738 million children—11% of                                                           the International standard
                                                can also vary significantly within
   the total world population—are in                                                          Classification of education defines
                                                the 3 to 5 or 3 to 6 age group that
   the 0 to 5 age group. their number is                                                      pre-primary education (IsCed level
                                                most countries use when calculating
   expected to reach 776 million by 2020,                                                     0) as including all programmes that,
                                                participation in early childhood
   driven by growth in sub-saharan Africa                                                     in addition to providing children
                                                programmes.
   and the Arab states.                                                                       with care, offer a structured and
                                                the education of under-3s in                  purposeful set of learning activities,
   the wide diversity of provision,             developing countries is widely regarded       either in a formal institution or in a
   organisation, and funding of eCCe            as the responsibility of parents, private     non-formal setting. Governments play
   programmes presents formidable               associations, or non-government               a more active role in the provision of
   challenges for monitoring. Moreover,         agencies. one or more programmes              programmes for children aged 3 or
   the early childhood goal contains no         for these very young children can be          older, and a relatively limited one for
   quantitative target by which to gauge        identified in just over half the world’s      the under-3 group. Age 3 is the official
   progress. data problems include a lack       countries. they typically provide part-       starting age of pre-primary education
   of systematic data on programmes for         time organised custodial care for             in 70% of countries.
   children under 3; limited information        young children and, in some cases,
   on the extent to which programmes                                                          the number of children enrolled in
                                                health services and educational
   address health, physical development,                                                      pre-primary education worldwide has
                                                activities. Much more information is
   learning, and support to parents; and                                                      tripled in the past three decades, rising
                                                needed about programmes for children
   pre-primary enrolment data reported                                                        from 44 million in the mid-1970s
                                                under 3 if comprehensive monitoring
   by education ministries that may                                                           to about 124 million by 2004. Pre-
                                                of eCCe is to take place.                     primary gross enrolment ratios (Gers)
   undercount children’s participation
                                                                                              express total enrolment, regardless of

      fIGure 1



      Regional trends in pre-primary gross enrolment ratios




       Note: data for east Asia and the Pacific are for developing countries only; Australia, Japan, and New Zealand are included
       under developed and transition countries. the dotted line signifies a break in the data series due to a new classification.




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     age, as a percentage of the population    to 2004 for developed countries and                  in Asia, the Ger is below 10% in
     of the official age group in each         the same amount for developing                       Cambodia, while the republic of
     country (typically 3 to 5). Between       countries, while the increase was more               Korea, Malaysia, and thailand register
     1975 and 2004, the global Ger more        pronounced for the transition countries              nearly universal enrolment). In Central
     than doubled, from about 17% to           (eighteen percentage points). the                    Asia, despite some recovery from the
     37%. Among developed and transition       number of young children enrolled                    decline of the 1990s, no country enrols
     countries, the ratio was about 40%        in pre-primary education declined in                 more than half its children. In North
     in 1970, increasing to 73% in 2004.       east Asia by almost 10%, mainly due                  America and Western europe, virtually
     Among developing countries, the           to trends in China following a period                all countries have Gers above 60%; in
     coverage of pre-primary education         of impressive expansion (enrolment                   half of them the ratio is 100%.
     was and remains considerably lower.       increased from 6.2 million in 1976 to
                                                                                                    Most of the fifty-two countries with
     In 1975, on average, less than 1 child    24 million in 1999 before dropping to
                                                                                                    Gers of less than 30% are in sub-
     in 10 was enrolled in pre-primary         the 2004 level of 20 million as the 0
                                                                                                    saharan Africa and the Arab states. In
     institutions; by 2004, coverage had       to 5 population decreased). forty-eight
                                                                                                    general, their recent progress has been
     increased to about 1 child in 3 (32%).    percent of the world’s pre-primary
                                                                                                    slow (typically less than five percentage
     over the period 1991-2004, coverage       enrolments are girls, a proportion
                                                                                                    points). of the eighty-six countries
     in pre-primary education increased in     unchanged since 1999.
                                                                                                    with Gers above 30% in 2004, the
     four fifths of the eighty-one countries
                                               Considerable disparities exist between               ratio had increased since 1999 in sixty-
     with comparable data for both years.
                                               countries in the same region; these                  six of them. rapid progress (more than
     there are marked regional differences     differences are generally related to                 ten percentage points) was reported
     in trends dating back to the 1970s.       national development levels (e.g., in                in Brazil, Cuba, ecuador, Mexico,
     In latin America and the Caribbean,       sub-saharan Africa, with a regional                  and Jamaica; most of the transition
     which has witnessed the strongest         average of only 10%, Mauritius and                   countries also recovered losses.
     increase, three quarters of countries     seychelles have Gers close to 100%;
     now have pre-primary Gers above
     75%, while in sub-saharan Africa,
     despite a steady increase since the
     1970s, half the countries have ratios
     lower than 10%. In the Arab states,
     coverage has been fairly stagnant
     since the 1980s. Gers have expanded
     noticeably across Asia. In south and
     West Asia most countries now enrol
     between one third and one half of
     their children in pre-primary education
     (see figure 1).
     since 1999, pre-primary enrolment
     increases have been particularly
     pronounced in sub-saharan Africa
     (where the number enrolled rose
     by 43.5%), the Caribbean (43.4%)
     and south and West Asia (40.5%).
     Although the number of children
     enrolled in pre-primary education rose
                                                                                                                                                     Jean Luc Ray




     sharply in sub-saharan Africa, the
     average Ger for the region did not,
     due to continuing high population
     growth.
                                                the lack of available data in many countries affected by recent or current armed conflict suggests
     the average Ger rose moderately (by        that the EFA situation is unlikely to be improving.
     four percentage points) from 1999


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                                                                     stRonG FoundAtIons: eArly ChIldhood CAre ANd eduCAtIoN          13


   Although goal 1 has no quantitative        lower than that of urban children.         more than 20% of pre-primary
   target, many countries have set            Barring a few exceptions, children         teachers are above the age of 50. In
   their own—at least for children over       in richer households have higher           low- and middle-income countries,
   3—in national plans for 2010 or            eCCe attendance rates than those           the recent expansion of pre-primary
   2015. Countries with relatively high       from poorer families. A mother with        education translates into a higher
   pre-primary Gers have tended to            secondary education substantially          proportion of younger teachers than at
   set universal preschool enrolment          increases the likelihood of children       the primary level.
   by 2015 as the objective. Chile and        attending eCCe programmes. Children
                                                                                         In most countries with data available
   Mexico, with current Gers above            without birth certificates and, to a
                                                                                         (mainly middle-income), pre-primary
   50%, have done so, for instance, as        lesser extent, vaccination records
                                                                                         and primary teachers’ salaries are
   have Paraguay, Kazakhstan, and India,      have lower attendance in eCCe
                                                                                         generally the same. Pay disparities exist
   all with Gers below 40%. Given past        programmes. those suffering from
                                                                                         between pre-primary teachers and
   growth rates, meeting these national       stunting have lower eCCe participation
                                                                                         other staff, and between those in the
   targets may not be feasible without        rates than other children.
                                                                                         formal system and those working in
   significant additional efforts.
                                              the eCCe workforce                         less formal programmes, often with
   Most regions are moving towards                                                       the youngest children. some countries,
   gender parity in pre-primary               entry qualifications for pre-primary       the united Kingdom among them,
   education—the overall ratio between        teachers are highly variable in            are moving to close the gap between
   the female and male Gers is 0.97.          developing countries and range from        education and care workers by
   Considerable progress has occurred in      lower secondary to tertiary level          introducing a national minimum wage
   regions with high disparities, notably     qualifications. In four out of twenty-     in eCCe.
   the Arab states, where the gender          three developing countries for which
                                              relevant data are available, pre-primary   Many countries are developing,
   parity index (GPI) was 0.87 in 2004
                                              teachers need only a lower-secondary       revising, or improving the training
   compared to 0.76 in 1999. south and
                                              qualification. In eight countries,         programmes through which pre-
   West Asia also moved towards parity
                                              completion of regular upper-secondary      primary teachers become qualified.
   between 1999 and 2004. Countries in
                                              studies is required. In the remaining      some countries are expanding the
   the Caribbean and several Pacific island
                                              eleven countries, a post-secondary         availability of eCCe programme
   states show a slight disparity in favour
                                              or tertiary qualification is required.     opportunities at general universities
   of girls. Many of these countries also
                                              formal entry requirements are often        and vocational institutions (e.g., New
   have gender disparities favouring girls
                                              not respected. Pre-primary school          Zealand). several universities in egypt
   at the primary and secondary levels.
                                              teachers receive little training—almost    have developed pre- and in-service
   the countries with the lowest GPIs are
                                              always less than their primary school      training programmes for kindergarten
   Afghanistan, Morocco, Pakistan, and
                                              counterparts. some countries,              teachers. other countries have recently
   yemen.
                                              including lesotho and uganda, have         developed their first programmes for
   Household surveys highlight groups         recently developed training courses for    preschool teachers. Many are also
   with limited access to ecce                pre-primary teachers.                      strengthening in-service training and
                                                                                         enhancing it with research-based
   household surveys, based on direct         In most industrialised countries, entry    evidence concerning child growth and
   interviews, provide a more detailed        qualifications usually require tertiary    development. each Moroccan province
   picture of early childhood provision       education and specific training. the       has a preschool resource centre
   than the administrative data on            care and education components of           providing continuing education and
   preschool reported so far. In most         early childhood provision are generally    pedagogical methods to teachers. the
   of the fifty-three countries for which     separate, leading to distinct staffing     serVol training Centre in trinidad
   survey data are available, the gender      policies. highly trained educators or      and tobago organises in-service
   gap is relatively small (less than 10%).   qualified pedagogues work alongside        training for other Caribbean islands.
   By contrast, urban-rural differences       untrained child care workers, many of
   are much larger and, except in             them part-time or volunteers.              Many european countries (e.g.,
   Jamaica, always to rural children’s                                                   denmark, finland, Italy, and Norway)
   disadvantage. In many countries,           Almost all pre-primary school teachers     are trying to reconcile primary and pre-
   the proportion of rural children with      are women, reflecting perceptions of       primary qualifications so that teachers
   access to early childhood provision        eCCe as an extension of the traditional    attain the same basic qualification
   is ten to thirty percentage points         mothering role. In oeCd countries,         levels.

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     designing quality                          model is expensive, and so best
                                                used as a targeted intervention with
                                                                                           the same time, this first exposure to
                                                                                           organised learning is an opportunity
     programmes for                             at-risk families. target groups for the    to challenge traditional gender roles.
     young children                             Community Mothers Programme in
                                                dublin, for instance, include single
                                                                                           finally, programmes should be inclusive
                                                                                           and take into account circumstances
     designing programmes for young             and/or teenage parents, refugees,          such as armed conflict.
     children is especially complex.            asylum-seekers, and people living
     Programmes need to integrate                                                          research in both developed and
                                                in disadvantaged areas. Community
     educational activities with health,                                                   developing countries highlights a
                                                Mothers—volunteers trained by
     nutrition, and social services to assure                                              consistently positive relationship
                                                nurses—visit parents once a month
     holistic development. Pedagogy must                                                   between measures of various aspects
                                                and use a specially designed child
     be adapted to the needs of young                                                      of quality and virtually every facet of a
                                                development programme focusing
     children from diverse backgrounds.                                                    child’s development. While structural
                                                on health care, nutrition, and overall
     And, in the child’s earliest years,                                                   features, such as class size and staff-
                                                development. evaluations show
     it is helpful to provide support to                                                   child ratios, are important elements of
                                                significant beneficial effects for both
     parents, too. No single model of                                                      a good early childhood environment,
                                                mothers and children in terms of self-
     early childhood provision can be                                                      research shows that interactions
                                                esteem, interaction, and support for
     applied uniformly in all countries.                                                   between the staff and the child are the
                                                the child’s learning experiences.
     for a start, parenting practices differ                                               most important predictors of children’s
     around the world. It is important          local communities also play a key          enhanced well-being.
     for early childhood programmes to          role in supporting young children
                                                                                           the IeA Pre-primary Project looked
     recognise the differences and ensure       and their families through home-
                                                                                           at how experience at age 4 affected
     that programmes are relevant to the        or community-based child care. In
                                                                                           children’s development at age 7 in
     country context and the groups for         Colombia, for example, the hogares
                                                                                           seventeen countries. It found, for
     which they are designed.                   Comunitarios programme has become
                                                                                           example, that when 4-year-olds had
                                                a major welfare initiative, catering
                                                                                           participated in programmes where
     Parenting programmes:                      for more than a million children from
                                                                                           unstructured activities, driven by the
     starting in the home                       birth to age 6. Initially designed to
                                                                                           child’s interests, predominated, they
     Parents (or other custodial caregivers)    improve nutrition in poor households,
                                                                                           achieved higher language scores at
     are the child’s first educators, and       it now includes child care as well.
                                                                                           age 7 than counterparts who had
     for the youngest age group the             eligible households elect a ‘community
                                                                                           experienced more activities aimed at
     home is the prime area of care.            mother’ who opens her home to up
                                                                                           developing skills such as literacy and
     the home environment has a major           to fifteen children. the programme
                                                                                           numeracy. the frequency of child
     impact on cognitive development            reaches the poorest children and
                                                                                           interaction, adult participation in
     and socioemotional well-being.             boosts their physical growth by
                                                                                           children’s activities, and the teacher’s
     the availability of reading materials      providing daily meals. Children aged
                                                                                           education level were all positively
     and drawing and art supplies is a          13 to 17 who once participated in the
                                                                                           related to later language performance
     predictor of cognitive outcomes such       programme were more likely to be in
                                                                                           as well.
     as attention, memory, and planning.        school and to have advanced to the
     the best way to support home               next grade than those who did not.         Gender: challenging stereotypes
     environments is to work directly with                                                 Perceptions of what is masculine
     parents.                                   Pedagogy and curriculum:
                                                                                           and what is feminine take hold in
                                                setting the groundwork for
     Parenting programmes are diverse                                                      early childhood. Curricula for this
                                                learning
     and hence difficult to monitor. often                                                 age group often are not gender-
     they are offered through the health        the most common form of eCCe,              neutral. Books tend to draw marked
     sector. But as ministries of education     particularly for the 3 to 6 age group,     distinctions between male and female
     increasingly take on responsibility        is centre-based provision. It is crucial   characters. When playing games,
     for education from birth onwards,          to make this experience a positive         children are often encouraged to
     they are also exploring how best to        one by ensuring that practices are         follow stereotypes. teachers tend to
     work with parents. home visiting           suited to the child’s age and cultural     respond differently to boys and girls
     programmes provide one-on-one              environment. learning is more              in listening, asking questions, and
     support for individual parents. the        effective in the mother tongue. At         interacting.

                                                                                                    CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
                                                                      stRonG FoundAtIons: eArly ChIldhood CAre ANd eduCAtIoN           15


   early childhood programmes can be           Bilingual models remain few and             for certain children into mainstream
   adapted to challenge gender roles.          far between, however. some claim            schools. Chile has an inclusive
   Pedagogy as well as teaching and            they are expensive and difficult to         approach to early childhood education
   play materials can promote egalitarian      implement or that they risk fostering       in which training courses for nursery
   values. sweden formed a delegation to       social and political divisions. But         school staff, monthly bulletins for
   encourage debate on ways to promote         countries including Cambodia,               teachers, and funds for wheelchairs
   gender equality in preschools and           Malaysia, Myanmar, Papua New                and hearing aids have improved care
   channel funding to preschool staff          Guinea, and Vietnam have developed          for young children with special needs
   wishing to develop alternative methods      effective bilingual early childhood         in mainstream centres. Most oeCd
   along these lines. training should          programmes that have influenced             countries also encourage inclusive
   compel teachers to reflect on their         practices in the first years of primary     approaches in line with international
   own practice. encouraging more men          education. In Papua New Guinea,             commitments to children’s rights.
   to work in early childhood programmes       the world’s most linguistically diverse
   can also help to challenge assumptions      nation, parents worked with local           Facilitating transition to primary
   of the woman as sole caregiver and          government and NGos in the 1970s to         school
   encourage fathers to be more involved       create two-year vernacular-language         Good quality eCCe is not just an end
   in their child’s upbringing.                preschools. In 1995, the government         in itself. It is also, as the efA goals
                                               encouraged the formal school system         recognise, an important foundation for
   Supporting early language                   to use vernacular languages in the first    subsequent education. thus it is vital
   development                                 three years of primary school, followed     not only for children to be made ready
   research consistently shows the             by gradual transition to english. today     for primary school, in terms of physical,
   importance of early literacy experiences    over 350 languages are used in the          social, and cognitive development, but
   (e.g., reading books to children,           country’s education system.                 also for primary schools themselves
   the number of books in the home)                                                        to provide decent learning conditions.
   for language development, reading           Bilingual storytelling and activities can   one route is to integrate eCCe more
   outcomes, and school success. In the        also help children develop literacy         closely with primary education.
   united Kingdom, the most important          skills that can be transferred from
                                               one language to another. recruiting         such integration is motivated by a
   influence on children’s success in
                                               multilingual staff is another promising     desire to overcome fragmentation and
   learning to read in primary school was
                                               strategy. several european countries        facilitate transition for children. this
   exposure to written materials during
                                               employ bilingual assistants to work         trend is most evident in europe, but
   the preschool years. Poverty also affects
                                               in preschool settings with new              is observed in a few other countries
   language development. In the united
                                               immigrant students and their parents.       including Brazil, Kazakhstan, south
   states, the number of words heard
                                               Parents from language minority              Africa, and Vietnam. the approach
   by age 4 differed enormously among
                                               backgrounds need to be informed             involves forging stronger links among
   welfare, working-class, and professional
                                               about opportunities for their children      the health, care, and education
   families. At age 3, the professional’s
                                               to attend early childhood programmes        components of eCCe, and often
   child had a larger vocabulary than
                                               and the value of preserving their home      making one administrative structure,
   the parent of the welfare child. this
                                               language and culture.                       usually the ministry of education,
   research underlines the importance
                                                                                           responsible for eCCe and primary
   of exposing children, especially from
                                               Inclusive approaches: special needs         education. While such efforts can
   lower socioeconomic backgrounds, to
                                               and emergency situations                    increase continuity for children, they
   language-rich settings at an early age.
                                                                                           entail a risk of excessive focus on
                                               As many as 85% of all children
   Although many children grow up in                                                       academic goals in preschool instead
                                               with special needs live in developing
   multilingual societies, learning in the                                                 of a broader, holistic approach that
                                               countries, where the incidence of
   official language is generally the norm                                                 incorporates welfare, health, and care.
                                               sensory problems such as childhood
   in preschools and primary schools
                                               blindness and hearing impairment is         A second goal of integrating eCCe
   around the world. yet children who
                                               disproportionately high. Adequate           and primary schooling is to assure
   learn in their mother tongue for six to
                                               screening for sensory and non-sensory       curricular continuity. some countries
   eight years from preschool through the
                                               disabilities can lead to effective          have an integrated preschool and
   early primary grades perform better
                                               interventions for young children            primary curriculum. In the step by step
   than those who start in the official
                                               with special needs. early childhood         curriculum followed in thirty countries
   language.
                                               programmes can also foster transition       of Central and eastern europe, no

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     grades exist for the first four years of
     primary education so that children can
                                                Fostering strong                            • though the evidence is limited,
                                                                                            attention to eCCe within efA plans,
     progress at their own pace. Jamaica’s      eCCe policies                               education and health sector plans,
     Pre-Primary to Primary transitions         If children are to benefit from quality     Poverty reduction strategy Papers
     follows the same principle. In India’s     care and learning opportunities in          (PrsPs), and legislation appears to be
     Bodh shiksha samiti and Colombia’s         their early years, governments, in          on the rise.
     escuela Nueva, multigrade classrooms       partnership with other stakeholders,        • Aid agencies, uN organisations,
     use an active curriculum and lesson        must develop and implement sound            foundations, and international NGos
     plans that respond to students’            policies for them. three key areas          are supporting capacity building and
     differing abilities and interests.         deserve attention: governance; quality      funding eCCe projects that could be
     Continuity can also be fostered            and financing—including targeting the       taken to scale. strong international
     by getting parents more engaged.           disadvantaged; and partnerships with        eCCe networks are informing national
     In Pakistan, parents in poor rural         international aid agencies.                 policy and planning efforts and
     communities help teach local songs         the governments of developing               encouraging information sharing.
     and stories. In france, community          countries have generally given limited      despite these positive factors, country
     mediators work with parents in low-        policy attention to early childhood,        experiences suggest that several
     income neighbourhoods to improve           among the efA goals, relative to that       barriers need to be addressed:
     dialogue with teachers. Where children     given to primary education and gender
     lack access to preschool, transition       parity. A review of policy documents        • Ambivalence about the role of
     can be eased through, for example,         for forty-five countries reveals that       government in the lives of families—
     visits to primary schools to familiarise   few adopt a holistic approach               public policy tends to be limited for
     children with their future environment,    encompassing education, health, and         children under 3, and the boundaries
     or structured and free play activities     nutrition for children 8 and under.         between the public and private spheres
     for small groups of children in the        for disadvantaged, vulnerable, and          are often unclear.
     months leading up to school entry.         disabled children, the lack of a national   • Insufficient public awareness of
     In Kazahkstan, pre-primary education       eCCe policy represents a truly missed       the benefits of eCCe, especially as a
     classes prepare 5- or 6-year-olds who      opportunity. Where eCCe does get            contribution to efA and Millennium
     have never attended preschool for          attention, it is usually for age 3 and      development Goals.
     formal schooling through a 32-week         up, so that opportunities for younger
     course. In Guatemala, the Centros de                                                   • limited financial and human
                                                children are also missed.
     Aprendizaje Comunitario en educación                                                   resources—most governments allocate
     Preescolar prepare children from           for governments to develop strong           the bulk of education funding to
     various ethnic backgrounds without         policies for young children, the            compulsory schooling and most
     access to preschool for entry to           political, social, and economic             bilateral donors focus heavily on
     primary school.                            conditions need to be supportive.           tertiary education.
                                                several developments over the past
                                                                                            • Competing policy priorities—in
                                                decade indicate movement in this
                                                                                            low-income countries, policy choices
                                                direction:
                                                                                            have immediate consequences for
                                                • the growing body of research on           child survival. Within education,
       The lack of a national Early
                                                the benefits of eCCe, especially for the    governments face tough choices
       Childhood policy represents a            disadvantaged and as a crucial first        whether, for example, to expand
       truly missed opportunity to create       stage of the education system, can          education systems from primary
                                                help build the political will to support    down to eCCe or up towards lower
       a national vision and strategies,
                                                eCCe.                                       secondary education.
       expand investments, and improve
                                                • the rising labour force participation
       intersectoral coordination for all                                                   How does eCCe gain political
                                                of mothers with young children,
       young children, but especially
                                                                                            clout?
                                                coupled with the decline of traditional
                                                                                            despite these barriers, governments
       those most vulnerable and                family child care, has made some
                                                                                            are increasingly beginning to elaborate
                                                governments more receptive to
       disadvantaged.                                                                       explicit and comprehensive national
                                                expanding and improving eCCe.
                                                                                            eCCe policies covering health,


                                                                                                     CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
                                                                     stRonG FoundAtIons: eArly ChIldhood CAre ANd eduCAtIoN         17


   nutrition, education, water, hygiene,      capabilities of children; protecting      south Africa, spain, and Vietnam)
   sanitation, and legal protection for       children in difficult circumstances;      have designated education as the lead
   young children. Although policy            expanding the role of the media; and      ministry for children from birth. Placing
   strategies must be tailored to relevant    monitoring and evaluation.                early childhood under the ministry
   cultural, political, and economic                                                    of education can make it easier to
                                              • Media campaigns can draw attention
   contexts, effective strategies share                                                 increase attention to young children’s
                                              to eCCe, in the process raising
   several key elements:                                                                learning and their transition to primary
                                              awareness of child care practices, for
                                                                                        school. But since early childhood
   • high-level political endorsement can     example, by disseminating knowledge
                                                                                        education is often not compulsory,
   get eCCe on the agenda. President          about newborns, the importance of
                                                                                        it may struggle for attention and
   Wade of senegal made early childhood       breastfeeding and reading to children,
                                                                                        resources within the education
   a priority from the 1980s, long before     and the role of fathers.
                                                                                        bureaucracy. Another concern is
   his first election in 2000. As president
                                              Governance issues                         that eCCe will be under pressure to
   he introduced les cases des tous
                                                                                        become more formal and school-like.
   petits—flexible community-based
                                              Who takes the lead?
   centres for children from birth to age                                               regardless of who takes the lead,
   6 that integrate health, education, and    eCCe involves multiple sectors,           coordination is needed among the
   nutrition as an alternative to the more    programmes, and actors, making            institutions and sectors involved.
   expensive preschools. Chile has a long     coordination a frequent challenge.        Coordination mechanisms provide
   tradition of eCCe that has benefited       Most countries, especially in europe      a forum for potentially achieving a
   recently from political support at the     and latin America, offer one or           common vision encompassing resources,
   highest level. since her election in       two years of pre-primary within the       standards, regulations, training, and
   2006, President Michelle Bachelet          education system, but other forms of      staffing. too often, coordinating
   has made a series of commitments to        eCCe, especially for children under 3,    bodies tend to be short-staffed and
   strengthen eCCe.                           fall under the auspices of ministries     advisory only, limiting their ability to
                                              in charge of health, social welfare,      move the agenda for young children
   • Broad stakeholder involvement helps      children and women’s affairs, etc. the    forward. south Africa is unusual
   promote ownership and consensus            involvement of multiple players can       in that its National Coordinating
   (e.g., in Ghana). engaging parents can     bring together agencies with different    Committee includes representatives
   encourage local community support          areas of expertise. It can also lead to   from several ministries, training
   for eCCe programmes.                       conflict between ministries. In some      institutions, universities, and NGos; it
   • Government partnerships with             countries, no single administrative       was instrumental in creating pre-primary
   international organisations, donor         body bears the main responsibility for    programmes for all 5- and 6-year-
   agencies, and NGos can generate            eCCe, making neglect more likely.         olds. In Jamaica, the early Childhood
   significant seed money and technical       In about 60% of the 172 countries         Commission established in 2002 brings
   assistance for projects that can then be   with available information, ministries—   together all policies, standards, and
   scaled up.                                 generally the education ministry—         regulations pertaining to day care and
                                              oversee or coordinate programmes          early childhood development under one
   • Aligning eCCe policies with other
                                              targeting children over 3. In 30% of      institutional umbrella.
   national and sectoral development
   policies is a strategic way to leverage    the countries, this function is shared    Arguments for decentralising eCCe
   resources and promote eCCe                 with another official body, such as       are often made, to the effect that
   integration. Ghana, uganda, and            a national institute or subnational       services and resources can thus be
   Zambia are integrating early childhood     authorities. In the remaining 10%,        better adapted to community needs
   development into their PrsPs.              non-government bodies are the             and circumstances. In practice,
                                              sole supervisors of early childhood       though, decentralisation can result
   • detailed action plans facilitate eCCe
                                              programmes.                               in uneven policy implementation,
   policy implementation by describing
                                              Although in a majority of countries       access, and quality. In many transition
   the division of responsibilities and
                                              administrative responsibility for early   countries, decentralisation in the 1990s
   allocation of resources and by setting
                                              childhood is divided by age group,        aggravated inequality between wealthy
   a time frame. Jordan’s National Plan of
                                              since the late 1980s a growing number     urban and poor rural communities and
   Action for Children (2004-13) focuses
                                              of countries (including Brazil, Chile,    led to deterioration in the quality and
   on five components: securing a healthy
                                              Jamaica, Kazakhstan, New Zealand,         coverage of kindergartens.
   life; developing and strengthening

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     It has since increasingly been              for regulation, quality assurance,         stigmatise children, labelling them as
     recognised that decentralisation must       monitoring, and promotion of equity.       “failures” or “not ready” to begin
     be accompanied by effective central                                                    school.
     government oversight and regulation.        Improving quality
                                                                                            since 2003, the Going Global Project,
     sweden, for example, introduced             Governments need to ensure that            a partnership of uNICef and Columbia
     a maximum fee for preschools and            minimum acceptable standards are           and yale universities in the usA, has
     a new curriculum framework after            met for all children. such regulations     helped countries to prepare national
     deregulation of fees in the 1990s led       should apply to all providers, public or   early learning and development
     to widespread disparities.                  private. Most governments regulate         standards in a range of domains. the
     Private actors as potential partners        eCCe programmes, using easy-to-            project is participatory, with standards
                                                 measure structural indicators of           based on scientific knowledge and
     Non-government actors—community-            quality such as class size, staff-child    research on early learning that takes
     based groups, NGos, faith-based             ratios, availability of materials, and     into consideration cultural, linguistic,
     organisations, and for-profit               staff training. equally important,         and socioeconomic differences. After
     entities—play a large role in eCCe in       if not more so, are caregiver-child        six pilot projects, Going Global is
     many countries. faith-based groups          relationships, inclusion of families,      expanding to other countries in latin
     are active in parts of europe, North        and responsiveness both to cultural        America and the Caribbean, east Asia,
     America, latin America, and the Arab        diversity and to children with special     and Central europe. Countries have
     states.                                     needs.                                     used the standards to revise preschool
     In about half of the 154 countries          five latin American countries have         curricula and teacher training models,
     with data, enrolment in private             developed national quality standards       as well as for national monitoring.
     institutions is less than one third of      for eCCe, and seven Caribbean              Governments need to enforce, not
     the total; in one third of countries, the   countries have assessed programme          just develop, regulations that promote
     private sector accounts for two thirds      quality using a common instrument to       quality. yet many countries do not
     or more of enrolment. the private           evaluate the learning environment and      have the resources to do this. An
     sector is particularly prominent in         caregiver-child interactions. Quality      alternative approach used in some
     sub-saharan Africa, the Arab states,        assessment projects have also been         countries (Australia, the uK, and
     the Caribbean, and east Asia, while         developed in Bangladesh, Vietnam,          the usA) is accreditation, which
     public provision has been integral to       and Pakistan with assistance from          encourages programme staff to reflect
     eCCe development in most european           multilateral organisations, NGos,          on their practice and to address any
     countries. In many transition countries,    and foundations. A few countries           limitations before having their work
     private providers stepped in where the      have early learning and development        validated by an external expert.
     state pulled out, leading to innovative     standards, that is, national
     practices but also to inequalities of                                                  Promoting quality through staffing
     access.                                                                                policies
     the role of for-profit actors is             The quality of interaction between        how children interact with their
     particularly controversial. Proponents                                                 caregivers and teachers largely
                                                  carer/teacher and child is the single
     of for-profit service provision say it                                                 determines the quality of learning.
     increases competition and parental           most important determinant of             several industrialised countries are
     choice. Critics note that private            programme success.                        moving toward an integrated system
     providers operating outside the public                                                 of eCCe provision from birth to school
     system often exclude poor children via                                                 entry that has involved restructuring
     high fees and entrance requirements.                                                   staff qualifications and training,
     there is a risk of a two-track system,      expectations of what children should       bridging the divide between the
     with low-income parents obliged to          know and be able to do. standards          education and care components of
     opt for lower-cost, poorer-quality          must be established with care, and         eCCe. In singapore, for example, all
     public alternatives. to avoid this          used with care, however. When set at       child care and preschool personnel
     inequality, governments need to take        national level, they may not take into     now undergo the same training and
     a more proactive role and develop           account cultural, linguistic, and other    accreditation.
     a commonly agreed framework                 forms of diversity; misused, they can



                                                                                                    CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
                                                                   stRonG FoundAtIons: eArly ChIldhood CAre ANd eduCAtIoN         19


   A key issue is how to recruit and        Assuring adequate financing                the Caribbean, public expenditure
   retain large numbers of trained eCCe                                                per child in pre-primary education
                                            expanding and improving eCCe will
   personnel. to draw more candidates                                                  averages closer to 70% of that in
                                            require raising additional public and
   to the field, some countries are                                                    primary (though reaching about 90%
                                            private funds and allocating them
   developing flexible entry routes                                                    in france, Germany, and Greece). In
                                            through more efficient financing
   into higher education and teacher                                                   the few countries with data in sub-
                                            mechanisms. Given the variety of
   training. several Caribbean islands                                                 saharan Africa, south and West Asia,
                                            situations involved, country-specific
   give competency-based credit. Modern                                                and the Arab states, spending on pre-
                                            estimates of the costs of expanding
   technology is also being harnessed                                                  primary is very low as a percentage of
                                            and improving eCCe are of greater
   in several countries. Pakistan has                                                  that for primary.
                                            policy relevance than a global estimate.
   created an early Childhood education
                                            sixty-five of the seventy-nine countries   While it is not possible to provide a
   Certificate Programme that includes
                                            with data allocated less than 10%          realistic estimate of the global cost of
   in-service training workshops. the
                                            of education spending to eCCe in           meeting the eCCe goal, a few country-
   early Childhood development Virtual
                                            2004. over half of those sixty-five        specific exercises have been carried
   university (eCdVu) is a training and
                                            countries allocated less than 5%. of       out, using a range of assumptions
   capacity-building initiative to help
                                            the fourteen countries allocating more     about coverage and content. five
   meet the need for leadership and
                                            than 10%, most were in europe.             scenarios have been estimated for
   development in this field in Africa
                                                                                       Burkina faso, for example, which is
   and the Middle east. students, who       As a share of GNP, public expenditure
                                                                                       a country characterised by very low
   are in-service early childhood staff,    on pre-primary education is greatest
                                                                                       coverage of children from birth to
   are taught by faculty members from       in Central and eastern europe
                                                                                       age 6 (1.2% in 2005). such exercises
   around the world and work with           (0.5%), compared to 0.4% in North
                                                                                       can clarify the financial implications
   mentors in their own country or          America and Western europe and
                                                                                       of specific choices (coverage, nature
   region.                                  0.2% in latin America. for North
                                                                                       of service, child/staff ratios, staff
                                            America and Western europe as a
   to ease the transition from early                                                   qualifications, facilities) and explore
                                            whole, expenditure on pre-primary
   childhood programmes to primary                                                     the trade-offs, such as choosing to
                                            programmes is around 26% of the
   school, several countries are                                                       invest in providing more coverage as
                                            total for primary education, though the
   introducing measures to assure                                                      opposed to putting more money into
                                            share rises to around 60% in france
   professional continuity between                                                     staff qualifications.
                                            and Germany. In latin America and
   the two levels. these measures
                                            the Caribbean, expenditure on pre-         overall, funding of eCCe is both
   include joint training (offered in
                                            primary education averages 14% of          public and private, with public funds
   france, Ireland, Jamaica, and the
                                            that on primary, with large variations     often provided by more than one level
   uK), emphasis on active learning
                                            across countries.                          of government. the relative shares
   approaches, and equal professional
                                                                                       of public and private funding vary
   status between eCCe and primary          the small share of total public
                                                                                       considerably. Among oeCd countries,
   school teachers.                         education spending allocated to
                                                                                       for instance, the parents’ share runs as
                                            pre-primary education reflects low
   despite these positive trends, several                                              high as 60% of the total in the united
                                            enrolment ratios rather than low
   areas require further attention in                                                  states but closer to 20% in sweden
                                            spending per child. for all countries
   relation to training: engaging parents                                              and france. Among developing
                                            with data, average public expenditure
   and other caregivers more actively;                                                 countries the variations are even
                                            per child is 85% of that at primary
   adopting inclusive practices for                                                    greater. In Indonesia, eCCe is mainly
                                            level. Indeed, when the full costs of
   children with disabilities and other                                                regarded as a family responsibility,
                                            pre-primary education are met by
   special education needs; working with                                               and public funding represents no
                                            the state, as tends to be the case
   linguistically and culturally diverse                                               more than 5% of the total, usually
                                            still in the former socialist countries
   children; and meeting the needs                                                     as subsidies to privately operated
                                            of Central and eastern europe, unit
   of orphans and vulnerable children                                                  urban child care centres. In Cuba, the
                                            costs are almost 25% higher in pre-
   (particularly those affected by hIV/                                                government covers 100%.
                                            primary than in primary education,
   AIds) and of children in emergency
                                            mainly because pupil-staff ratios are      An alternative to funding eCCe
   and crisis situations.
                                            lower. In North America and Western        programmes directly is for
                                            europe and in latin America and            governments to provide resources


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     (vouchers) enabling parents to             package of nutrition, immunisation,       policy for all children and settings, but
     purchase services from one of a variety    health check-ups and referral services,   begin by focusing public resources on
     of providers, an approach taken in         and education for children under 6        the most disadvantaged.
     Chile, the united states, and taiwan       and for pregnant and nursing mothers
     (China). In france, the fiscal and         has a positive impact on the survival,    Aid policies for early
     social security systems help offset        growth, and development of young          childhood
     families’ child care costs. since 2002,    children. Vietnam targets remote and      eCCe is not a priority for development
     the government of Vietnam requires         mountainous areas. Kenya targets          aid. In a survey of sixty-eight donors,
     10% of the education budget to be          children from pastoralist communities     only four of the seventeen agencies
     allocated to early childhood.              (see box 2). targeting by income, the     responding identified eCCe as a
                                                more common option, can include           specific component of their overall
     Corporations and other employers
                                                restricting eligibility, subsidising      aid strategy; the others include early
     may contribute to the provision of
                                                enrolment of the poor, and provision      childhood within the education
     eCCe, either directly or indirectly. In
                                                of vouchers.                              or health sector strategy. donors
     Colombia, for instance, all private
     and public employers must deposit          With eCCe, as with other public           give priority to centre-based eCCe
     the equivalent of 3% of their total        services, there are risks that targeted   programmes covering children from
     payroll into an earmarked account          approaches may not attract enough         3 to primary school age, and, to a
     that allows the semi-autonomous            political support. targeting can          lesser extent, to support for parents
     Institute for family Welfare to provide    segregate children, leading to a          and caregivers. uNICef and usAId
     direct services and to contract with       concentration of the disadvantaged        were the only respondents supporting
     NGos and others to provide services,       in programmes. Precise targeting is       informal eCCe programmes. While not
     including community child care, parent     also very difficult. Many developed       necessarily representative of all donors,
     education, nutritional supplements,        countries have publicly funded            these funding priorities may not match
     school meals, and child protection.        preschool programmes that serve           country needs. less formal and less
     other options include microenterprise      all children but also target extra        costly arrangements than centres can
     loans to child caregivers to establish     resources to the most disadvantaged       help reach more children.
     home-based day care and the bundling       communities. this approach is less        It is difficult to separate early
     of day care with services such as          applicable in many developing             childhood from basic education in
     primary schooling or health centres.       countries, where most children are        the main international aid database.
                                                excluded from eCCe. A phase-in            In addition, some components of
     targeting vulnerable and                   approach may be most feasible, where      eCCe are included in other sectors,
     disadvantaged children                     countries develop a national eCCe         such as health. low-income countries
     eCCe programmes’ greatest
     potential is among vulnerable and
                                                 BOX 2
     disadvantaged children, but these
     are precisely the children least likely     Child care in Kenya’s pastoralist communities
     to have access. When countries have
     limited resources, how can they be          Kenya’s national policy of universal free primary education has put
     allocated to reach those most in            pastoralist communities in the north under pressure to become more
     need? two types of targeting are            settled. loipi—“shade” in the local language—are enclosed places where
     used: geographical, and by income.          grandmothers once looked after children, passing on oral traditions and
     In addition, inclusion policies often       skills. since 1997, several pastoralist peoples have pooled resources to
     involve targeting particular groups,        care for children aged 2 to 5, with professional guidance and financial
     such as the disabled and linguistic or      support. Now reaching over 5,200 children, the loipi programme is rooted
     ethnic minorities.                          in traditional approaches to childrearing while offering access to health and
                                                 nutrition services, income generation, and information on harmful practices
     Geographical targeting is the               such as female genital mutilation. enclosures and play materials are made by
     approach of India’s Integrated              the community. results include improved access to vaccination programmes,
     Child development services, which           better nutrition, and, according to preschool teachers, a positive influence
     concentrates on remote rural regions,       on children’s transition to primary school.
     urban slums, and tribal areas, reaching
     over 23 million children. Its integrated

                                                                                                   CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
                                                                         stRonG FoundAtIons: eArly ChIldhood CAre ANd eduCAtIoN                                                                21


   tend to receive less funding for eCCe     eCCe workforce. effective partnerships                quality measures, and national
   than middle-income ones. Apart from       with the private sector—a major eCCe                  expenditure on pre-primary education.
   Australia, Greece, and spain, donors      actor in many countries—should be
                                                                                                   efA means education for all, not just
   allocate to the pre-primary level         developed and the sector regulated to
                                                                                                   education for some. It means all six
   less than 10% of what they give to        safeguard against inequities in access
                                                                                                   goals, not just those related to primary
   primary education; a majority allocate    and quality.
                                                                                                   school. It means paying particular
   less than 2%. eCCe’s share of total aid
                                             Although national policy should                       attention to the early years, when
   to education is less than 0.5% for a
                                             encompass all young children, public                  effective steps to offset disadvantage
   majority of donors.
                                             resources in certain contexts may be                  can be taken at lowest cost, and when
   stronger international political          best targeted initially to vulnerable and             strong foundations are most easily laid.
   support, increased commitment             disadvantaged children. It is essential               failing the youngest generation today
   from developing countries, and more       to include eCCe in key documents on                   not only violates their rights, it also
   extensive dissemination of research on    public resource allocation (national                  sows the seeds of deeper poverty and
   the benefits of eCCe would help to        budgets, sector plans, PrsPs). other                  inequalities tomorrow.
   increase donor agencies’ commitment       donors need to follow uNICef’s lead in
                                                                                                   For more information, contact:
   to eCCe issues. so would improved         prioritising early childhood issues.
                                                                                                   Cynthia Guttman,
   alignment of eCCe policies with
                                             technical expertise should be brought                 Communications Officer
   education and health sector plans and
                                             to countries to assist in collecting                  E-mail: c.guttman@unesco.org
   poverty reduction strategies.
                                             more detailed information on eCCe,
                                                                                                   For the full report, as well as for
                                             especially with regard to programmes
                                                                                                   regional/translated reports, see
   Conclusion                                for children under 3, eCCe personnel
                                                                                                   http://www.efareport.unesco.org
                                             other than pre-primary teachers,
   the efA goals represent a
   comprehensive approach to education,
   but governments are not taking
   sufficient public responsibility for
   literacy and eCCe.
   there is a very strong case for eCCe.
   All too often it is the missing link in
   the education system. Giving children
   strong foundations through holistic,
   quality early childhood programmes
   carries enormous benefits, especially
   for the most disadvantaged and
   vulnerable. such programmes not
   only improve the child’s overall
   development at an age of huge
   potential, they contribute to better
   achievement in primary school, thereby
                                                                                                                                                   Colombia: UNEsCo/Alejandra Vega Jaramillo



   improving the efficiency of education
   systems.
   high-level political endorsement,
   recognising eCCe as essential to
   children’s present welfare and future
   development, is key. Countries need to
   develop national policy frameworks on
   eCCe for children from birth to age 8
   with a clearly designated lead ministry    By neglecting the connections between early childhood, primary and secondary education and
   or agency that works with all related      adult literacy, countries are missing opportunities to improve basic education and in the process,
   sectors. they need to upgrade the          the prospects of children, youth and adults everywhere.



CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
22

     our global responsibility:
     the developmental potential of
     over 200 million young children
                                                The Lancet early Child development series
                                                Patrice engle


     “finally I have data to convince          at the Institute of development            infectious diseases and environmental
     my Minister of finance to invest in       studies, uK, has been a senior uN and      contaminants that threaten their
     early child development,” reported        uNICef official for over twenty years,     survival. Not surprisingly, policy
     Malawi’s Minister of Women and Child      including during the uNICef Child          makers, governments, and non-
     development at university College         survival revolution. Jolly compared        governmental organisations are
     london’s Institute of Child health in     the significance of The Lancet series      concerned with strategies to promote
     January 2007.                             findings to the development of             child survival. however, there is far
                                               immunisation and oral rehydration          less emphasis, either at a policy or an
     the Minister was responding to the
                                               therapy, which dramatically reduced        intervention level, on the cognitive and
     launch of The Lancet series on early
                                               child deaths in the 1980s and 1990s.       social development of the millions of
     Child development in developing
                                               these papers, if taken seriously, Jolly    surviving children living in poverty in
     Countries. since January 2007,
                                               stated, “could have an impact hardly       developing countries. Although policy
     launches, meetings, and press all over
                                               less dramatic. the problem is not the      makers and government ministries
     the world have responded to the four
                                               lack of knowledge about what to            recognise that poverty is related
     main messages of The Lancet series’
                                               do but the lack of professional and        to poor health and increased child
     three papers:
                                               political commitment to mobilise action    mortality, there is little recognition
     • over 200 million children under         on the scale required—and for poorer       of the negative impact that social
     5 years of age worldwide are not          communities in countries throughout        conditions related to living in poverty
     developing to their potential due to      the world” (Jolly, 2007, pg. 8).           have on children’s cognitive or social-
     poverty, poor health and nutrition, and                                              emotional development.
                                               The Lancet’s early Child development
     lack of stimulation.
                                               series is the culmination of a one-        the risks associated with living in
     • the best-documented immediate           and-a-half-year research project led by    poverty, when suffered early, are
     risk factors include stunting, iron       Patrice engle, of California Polytechnic   particularly harmful to children’s
     and iodine deficiency, and lack of a      state university and uNICef, and sally     long-term success. they affect the
     stimulating and nurturing environment.    McGregor of the university of london,      architecture of the developing brain,
     • Interventions exist at scale that can   with a core team (International Child      which is so critical to learning, health,
     reduce the loss of human potential        development steering Committee)            and behaviour.
     during early childhood, particularly      comprised of Maureen Black, university
                                                                                          this lack of emphasis on children’s
     for the most disadvantaged. these         of Maryland; ted Wachs, Purdue
                                                                                          early development is particularly
     include parenting interventions,          university; Betsy lozoff, university
                                                                                          worrying given that one of the major
     home visits, health-related services,     of Michigan; Julie Meeks-Gardner,
                                                                                          united Nations 2000 Millennium
     and comprehensive programmes              Caribbean Child development Centre;
                                                                                          development Goals is to ensure that all
     that combine learning opportunities,      and susan Walker, university of the
                                                                                          children complete primary schooling.
     nurturing environments, nutrition         West Indies. twenty-one authors
                                               from organisations and universities        The Lancet series of three papers
     and health, and environmental
                                               around the world and representatives       shows that almost half of the
     improvement.
                                               from the World Bank, World health          children—89 million—not developing
     • Although effective interventions        organisation, and uNICef contributed       their potential live in south Asia,
     are available, coverage is far too        to the project and the series.             and that ten countries account for
     low, political will is lacking, and                                                  145 million (66%) of the 219 million
     opportunities are being lost.             young children living in poverty in
                                                                                          disadvantaged young children in
                                               developing countries are exposed to
     sir richard Jolly, development                                                       the developing world. these ten
                                               a variety of biomedical risks, such
     economist and honorary Professor                                                     countries are India, Nigeria, China,
                                               as malnutrition and exposure to
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                                      ouR GloBAl ResPonsIBIlIty: the deVeloPMeNtAl PoteNtIAl of oVer 200 MIllIoN youNG ChIldreN        23


   Bangladesh, ethiopia, Indonesia,            countries showing that children’s            exists, the paper utilised existing
   Pakistan, democratic republic of            cognitive and social-emotional               country-level databases to assess the
   Congo, uganda, and tanzania. In             development prior to school enrolment        extent of early childhood chronic
   eleven countries (Angola, Zambia,           influences their subsequent progress in      growth retardation (stunting, defined
   Malawi, tanzania, uganda, ethiopia,         school. fewer years of schooling and         as length-for-age less than –2 standard
   Niger, Mali, Nigeria, Burkina faso,         less learning per year in school have        deviations [sd]) as well as to establish
   Nepal), over 60% of children are            long-term economic consequences              the number of young children living in
   not reaching their potential. these         for adult income and economic                absolute poverty (income of less than
   disadvantaged children are likely to do     productivity. the review of educational      us$1 per day).
   poorly in school and subsequently have      progress in developing countries
                                                                                            Both poverty and stunting are strongly
   low incomes, high fertility, and provide    indicates that over 20% of children
                                                                                            associated with poor development,
   poor care for their children, thus          enrolled in school fail to complete
                                                                                            with low scores on cognitive tests
   contributing to the intergenerational       primary school and that many children
                                                                                            prior to school entry, and with poor
   transmission of poverty (Grantham-          have lower achievement levels than
                                                                                            achievement while the child is in
   McGregor et al. 2007). the loss in          children from developed countries at
                                                                                            school. the paper therefore used the
   productivity is estimated to be more        the same grade level.
                                                                                            prevalence of early childhood stunting
   than 20% of yearly adult income for
                                               to derive an estimate of the number          and living in absolute poverty as
   the 219 million disadvantaged children
                                               of young children from developing            indicators of the numbers of children
   when they become adults.
                                               countries who are at risk for deficits       from low-income countries who are
   Paper 1. Developmental Potential            in early development through the first       at risk for delayed development and
   in the First 5 Years for children           five years of life and for subsequent        for not achieving their developmental
   in Developing countries                     school failure, ideally a global indicator   potential. to avoid double-counting
   (Grantham-McGregor et al., 2007)            of child development would be used.          children who are both stunted and
                                               however, since no such indicator             living in poverty, the authors estimated
   over 200 million children in
   developing countries fail to reach their
   developmental potential in the first           fIGure 1
   five years of life. how do we come to
   this conclusion? the first paper in The        Pathways from poverty to poor child development
   Lancet series uses international data
   on poverty and chronic malnutrition            sociocultural risk factors include gender inequity, low maternal education, and
   to estimate the number of children             reduced access to services. Biological risks include pre- and postnatal growth,
   around the world who do not reach              nutrient deficiencies, infectious diseases, and environmental toxins. Psychosocial
   their developmental potential and              risks include parenting factors, maternal depression, and exposure to violence.
   who are at risk for educational                Although not shown in this figure, the consequences of impairments in child
   failure. these data are proxies of             development are likely to be intergenerational. Poorly developing children are
   poor child development because in              likely to remain in poverty as adults, thus continuing the pathways shown for
   developing countries, poverty and              their offspring. reproduced from Walker et al., 2007.
   associated problems of poor health
   and undernutrition undermine
   children’s development early in life
   when brain growth is rapid. As a
   result, millions of young children
   from developing countries living in
   poverty are likely to be exposed to
   multiple biological and psychosocial
   risks that can detrimentally affect their
   cognitive, motor, and social-emotional
   development.
   the early years affect school progress
   and eventual productivity. the paper
   presents evidence from developing

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     the prevalence of stunting among            Paper 2. child Development:                  and psychosocial risks that affect
     children in poverty and calculated the      Risk Factors for Adverse Outcomes            development through changes in
     number of stunted children plus the         in Developing countries                      brain structure and function. Children
     number of non-stunted children living       (Walker et al., 2007)                        growing up in poverty are frequently
     in poverty.                                                                              exposed to multiple and cumulative
                                                 the second paper in The Lancet series
                                                                                              risks. research clearly indicates that the
     the analysis indicated that there           identifies biological and psychosocial
                                                                                              greater the number of risks, the more
     are 559 million children under 5 in         risks for children’s development
                                                                                              a child’s development is compromised.
     developing countries, including 156         that have been well documented,
                                                                                              for example, in Guatemala there was
     million who are stunted and 63 million      can be modified, and are of high
                                                                                              a linear decrease in adolescents’ school
     who are not stunted but are living in       prevalence in the developing world.
                                                                                              achievement and cognition when a
     poverty, for a total of over 219 million    these risk factors, outlined in figure
                                                                                              greater number of risk factors were
     children under 5 years of age who           1, affect children’s school readiness
                                                                                              experienced by children in the first
     are not fulfilling their developmental      on school entry, which is predictive
                                                                                              three years of their lives.
     potential. Most of these children           of later school progress. school
     live in south Asia and sub-saharan          readiness is affected by cognitive           Paper 2 identifies four key risk factors
     Africa. regression analyses reveal that     ability, social-emotional competence,        that are causally and consistently
     both poverty and stunting predict the       and sensorimotor development. It is          linked to development, affect large
     proportion of children who do not           important to recognise that school           numbers of infants and young children
     reach the final grade in primary school.    readiness is not just a function of          from developing countries, and can be
                                                 mastering academic skills like letter        modified. the four risk factors that fit
     Much of the research and intervention
                                                 recognition, but also involves many          these criteria are:
     has been done in industrialised
                                                 social skills, such as understanding
     countries, however, it is worth noting                                                   • malnutrition that is chronic and
                                                 how to work in a group.
     that only 11% of the world’s young                                                       severe enough to cause stunting
     children live in those countries, and       Poverty, and the sociocultural
                                                                                              • inadequate cognitive stimulation or
     only 3% live in the usA.                    conditions that accompany it, often
                                                                                              learning opportunities
                                                 occurs along with the biological

      fIGure 2

       dQ/IQ scores of stunted and non-stunted Jamaican children from age 9-24 months
       through 17-18 years
       the data show long-term deficits associated with stunting and the sustained benefits to stunted children who received a
       home-visiting programme providing early childhood stimulation. reproduced from Walker et al., 2007.




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                                    ouR GloBAl ResPonsIBIlIty: the deVeloPMeNtAl PoteNtIAl of oVer 200 MIllIoN youNG ChIldreN          25



      TABLe 1


     Risk factors for poor development

      Risk                PRevalence            effects on childRen                               stRength of evidence
      stunting            25-30%                6-13 DQ points, (0.4-0.8 SD), social and          Strong
                                                emotional effects
      Iodine deficiency   35%                   9-13 IQ points (1 SD)                             Strong
      Iron deficiency     20-30%                1.73 IQ/10 g/L Hb; some supplementation           Strong
      anaemia                                   trials show benefits to motor, social-emotional
                                                and cognitive development of 0.3-0.4 SD
      Lack of child       60-90% of parents     Provision of stimulation/learning opportunities   Strong
      stimulation         do not stimulate      has benefits of 0.5-1.0 SD in IQ
      and learning
      opportunities
      Maternal            17%, rates may be     0.5 to 1.0 SD in cognitive development scores     correlations clear; need for
      depression          higher                                                                  treatment approaches
      exposure to         Major armed           Behaviour problems, post-traumatic stress         Urgent need for research,
      violence            conflict in 27-38%    disorder                                          particularly on interventions
                          of countries from
                          1990-2003, affects
                          20 million children
      Intrauterine        11%                   0.25 to 0.5 SD compared to non-low birth          Associated with developmental
      growth                                    weight                                            deficits to age 3y; need for
      retardation                                                                                 longitudinal studies
      Malaria             40% of pop. in 90     Significant cognitive impairments associated      Negative associations clear; needs
                          countries, 300-600    with severe malaria or cerebral malaria, or       further study
                          million               number of episodes of malaria
      Lead levels         40%                   2-5 IQ points                                     correlational studies in developed
                                                                                                  and developing countries
      Lack of             40-50%                Small effects on cognition (2-5 IQ pts), may      consistent but small to moderate
      breastfeeding                             affect bonding                                    effects; hard to design good
                                                                                                  studies
      Parental loss       Over 43 million       Descriptive studies show higher rates of          Need for interventions and
                          orphans in Sub-       mortality, some behaviour problems, sense of      intervention research
                          Saharan Africa,       vulnerability, depression, improves over time
                          16% below age 6 (7
                          million) in 2003
      Lack of maternal    Unknown               Associated with less secure attachment, lower     Need for more intervention studies
      responsivity                              cognitive ability and more behaviour problems
      Zinc deficiency     33%                   cognitive development and activity                Mixed results
      Intestinal          33%                   cognitive development                             Inconsistent results
      helminths
      HIV infection       2%                    can be severe; developmental delays, language     evidence for risk is strong
                                                delays
      Diarrhoea           common                Some associations with cognitive development      Suggestive; needs further study
                                                found
      Arsenic             High in areas such    Lowered IQ                                        correlational data; only
                          as Bangladesh                                                           investigated in older children
      Manganese,          Depends on area       Lowered IQ                                        Some data but need for more
      pesticides




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     • iodine deficiency                         as well as social and emotional             to 13 IQ points (almost 1 standard
                                                 effects, including apathy, less positive    deviation) and improvements of 9 IQ
     • iron-deficiency anaemia
                                                 affect, less play, and more insecure        points with supplementation. one
     these risks are shown in table 1. Based     attachment than well nourished              longitudinal study showed that the
     on available evidence, there is also an     children. Where reported, gains             greatest impact on child IQ occurred
     urgent need for further investigation of    during intervention range from 6-13         if supplementation began in the first
     other potentially important risk factors,   developmental quotient (dQ) points          and second trimester of pregnancy.
     such as inadequate breastfeeding,           compared with controls. the data            Worldwide, 35% of people have
     zinc deficiency, maternal responsivity      from a study in Jamaica over 18 years       insufficient iodine intake.
     and depression, exposure to violence,       illustrates this effect on IQ (see figure
                                                                                             Anaemia, of which half is iron-
     malaria, diarrhoea prevalence, and          2). A long-term follow-up—through
                                                                                             deficiency anaemia, affects between
     parental loss. table 1 summarises 18        to age 30—in Guatemala showed
                                                                                             45 and 65% of children under 4
     known and potential biological and          the effects of early supplementation.
                                                                                             years. evidence is conclusive that
     psychosocial risk factors that affect       stunting affects approximately 25-30%
                                                                                             infants with iron-deficiency anaemia
     substantial numbers of children from        of young children in the developing
                                                                                             are developmentally at risk in the
     developing countries and that have          world.
                                                                                             short term, and consistent evidence
     epidemiological, if not causal evidence
                                                 Iodine deficiency can cause irreversible    shows that they continue to be at
     linking them to impairments in young
                                                 mental retardation, making it the           risk in the long term, despite iron
     children’s cognitive or social-emotional
                                                 most common preventable cause of            therapy. Children with iron deficiency
     development. for each, the effects
                                                 mental retardation. severe iodine           have been shown to have poorer
     on children are shown, along with
                                                 deficiency causes cretinism, but even       mental and motor functioning (1.73
     the strength of our knowledge about
                                                 modest levels of iodine deficiency          IQ points for each 10 g/l decrease in
     their potential effect on children’s
                                                 have been shown to have an effect           haemoglobin levels), social problems,
     development.
                                                 on cognitive functioning. two               anxiety or depression, and inattention
     stunting, or low height for age, often      meta-analyses of studies in 1994            through adolescence. supplementation
     beginning with low birth weight,            and 2005 reported deficits in IQ            with iron during the preschool years
     has been associated with cognitive          in iodine-deficient children of up          has been shown to have an impact in
                                                                                             the short term, but as yet there have
                                                                                             been no long-term trials.
         fIGure 3
                                                                                             All but one of 16 studies in developing
          IQ scores among female Korean orphans at age 10                                    countries showed that improving
                                                                                             children’s cognitive stimulation or
          subjects varied by history of malnutrition and by age of adoption into middle-
                                                                                             child learning opportunities resulted in
          class homes (indicating length of time in a more stimulating environment).
                                                                                             improvements in children’s cognitive
                                                                                             development of between one half and
                                                                                             one standard deviation. the evidence
                                                                                             strongly supports the importance of
                                                                                             early cognitive stimulation for young
                                                                                             children’s cognitive abilities. follow-
                                                                                             up studies in turkey, south Africa,
                                                                                             and Jamaica show lasting benefits
                                                                                             for cognition with some maintained
                                                                                             up to age 17 (figure 2). four of five
                                                                                             studies also report benefits for social-
                                                                                             emotional development in areas such
                                                                                             as social behaviour, self confidence, and
                                                                                             positive affect. one mechanism may
                                                                                             be increases in maternal sensitivity and
                                                                                             responsivity. results from two small
                                                                                             studies indicate that when caregivers



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   are aware of their children’s abilities,     exclusively from developing countries,       environment on the outcomes of
   they are more responsive and their           representing all regions.                    children adopted into middle-class
   children do better in the short term.                                                     homes (see figure 3).
                                                there has been increasing interest in
   risk factors often co-occur or               early child development (eCd) from           All of the eight evaluations of
   cumulate. exposure to multiple risks         both the health and educational              centre-based programmes find
   has a much larger impact on children’s       sectors within developing countries.         a significant effect on children’s
   development than exposure to single          for example, by 2005, the World              cognitive development, either through
   risks. these cumulative risks contribute     Bank had financed loans to fifty-            preschools or treatment centres
   to a developmental trajectory that           two developing countries for eCd             for malnourished children. these
   includes poor health, immature               programmes, for a total of 1.6 billion       programmes also demonstrate non-
   behaviour, lack of readiness for             dollars. In addition, at least thirty-four   cognitive gains such as social skills,
   school, poor academic performance,           developing countries had policies on         self-confidence, willingness to talk to
   limited preparation for economic             eCd, and uNICef was supporting               adults, and motivation. evaluations
   opportunities, and perpetuation of           parenting programmes in sixty                that follow children into school report
   the intergenerational cycle of poverty.      countries. however, there have been          improvements in the number of
   Because many young children from             relatively few systematic evaluations of     children entering school, age of entry,
   developing countries experience              eCd programmes.                              retention, and performance.
   multiple risks, integrated interventions
                                                through an extensive search, we              of the six parenting interventions using
   that address several of these identified
                                                identified twenty eCd programmes             home visiting that were evaluated,
   risk factors are the most effective.
                                                that have been implemented in                four found positive effects on child
   such interventions are discussed below.
                                                developing countries that had an             development. the remaining two
                                                adequate comparison group, measured          parenting programmes used group
   Paper 3. Strategies to Avoid the Loss        children’s outcomes, and occurred            sessions with mothers. In one, mothers
   of Developmental Potential in more           prior to age 6. the programmes fall          practice skills to play with their children,
   than 200 Million children in the             into three groups: (1) centre-based          with demonstrated short- and long-
   Developing World (engle et al., 2007)        early learning; (2) parenting or parent-     term effects on child development.
   Based on the conclusions from the            child interventions; and (3) community-      In the other programme, sessions
   previous papers in the series, paper 3       based interventions. All include             include information, but no activities.
   evaluates programmes that promote            health and nutrition interventions.          the mothers’ knowledge increased,
   child development and either prevent         As noted in the earlier papers,              but no impact on child development
   or ameliorate the effects on child           strong evidence exists of an additive        was demonstrated. effective parenting
   development of stunting, iodine              or synergistic effect of stimulation         programmes need to be designed to
   deficiency, iron-deficiency anaemia,         and improved nutrition on a child’s          help parents improve their skills with
   and inadequate stimulation.                  development. this is illustrated by          children. one approach is to emphasise
                                                studies showing the combined effect          skill-based activities involving children.
   the evidence from industrialised             of initial malnutrition and improved
   countries is clear that there are short-                                                  five of the six community-based
   and long-term effects of quality                                                          programmes illustrate the beneficial
   programmes to improve disadvantaged             The challenge is clear.                   effects of integrating eCd programmes
   young children’s cognitive and social-                                                    into existing community-based systems.
                                                   The size and nature of the
   emotional functioning; these effects                                                      the remaining programme shows
                                                   problem is defined, along with            how reduced gains occur when child
   have been shown to last through to
   age 40, and cost-effectiveness has              the seriousness of its long-              development interventions are not
   been demonstrated. however, the                                                           delivered with a sufficient level of
                                                   term consequences. What
   applicability of these findings to a                                                      intensity.
                                                   remains open is only the world’s
   developing country context has been                                                       the size of the effect ranged from
   questioned. for this reason, paper 3            response, and our own.
                                                                                             one third to almost two standard
   reviewed evaluations of programmes                                                        deviations (effect sizes). Given these
   to improve children’s cognitive                 Richard Jolly, The Lancet 2007
                                                                                             effect sizes, if there were coverage
   and social-emotional development                                                          of 90% of disadvantaged children



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     with an early child development           completion for girls and boys,              years, we hope to be able to report on
     programme, the result would be a net      governments and civil society should        the global progress made in reducing
     increase of a year of school per child.   expand high-quality, cost-effective         the number of young children who
     Preschool enrollment would contribute     eCd programmes. other policy                are not achieving their potential. the
     to increases of about 5-10% in lifetime   recommendations include making              Care for development Module of
     labour income.                            child development promotion a goal          Integrated Management of Childhood
                                               in developing countries and including       Illness (IMCI) will also be revised and
     effective eCd programmes have the
                                               indicators to track progress in child       prepared for launching.
     following characteristics:
                                               cognitive and social-emotional
                                                                                           the opportunity is here—and we
     • they are targeted towards               development.
                                                                                           need to work together now to be
     disadvantaged children.
                                               Where do we go from here?                   sure that each child not only survives,
     • they provide services for younger                                                   but thrives.
     children (children under 3).              since these articles appeared
                                               in January 2007, launches and               For more information, contact:
     • they continue throughout early                                                      Dr. Patrice Engle, Professor
                                               presentations have been held in
     childhood.                                                                            Department of Psychology and
                                               Bangladesh, london, and Washington,
     • they are of high quality, as defined    d.C. to organisations that include          Child Development, California
     by structure (e.g., child-staff ratio,    the Paediatric Academic society,            Polytechnic State University
     staff training) and processes (e.g.,      the society for research in Child           E-mail: pengle@calpoly.edu
     responsive interactions, variety of       development, and the Interamerican
                                                                                           References
     activities).                              development Bank; other events are
                                               planned.                                    engle, P. l., Black, M. M., Behrman, J. r.,
     • they provide direct services to
                                                                                           Cabral de Mello, M., Gertler, P. J.,
     children and parents.                     At the london launch in January 2007,
                                                                                           Kapiri, l., et al. (2007). strategies
                                               many organisations made statements
     • they are integrated into existing                                                   to avoid the loss of developmental
                                               of commitment to investing in eCd, or
     health, nutrition, or educational                                                     potential in more than 200 million
                                               discussed their emerging plans to work
     systems.                                                                              children in the developing world.
                                               in eCd. these organisations include
                                                                                           The Lancet, 369, 229-42.
     despite convincing evidence,              the uK department of International
     programme coverage is low. Barriers       development (dfId), Who, uNICef,            Grantham-McGregor, s., Cheung,
     include a lack of awareness of            World Bank and uNesCo; foundations          y. B., Cueto, s., Glewwe, P.,
     children’s loss of developmental          such as Bernard van leer and Aga            richter, l., strupp, B., et al. (2007).
     potential, and its cost; lack of          Khan foundations; and NGos                  developmental potential in the first
     globally accepted indicators for child    including CAre, save the Children,          5 years for children in developing
     development to monitor progress           and Plan International.                     countries. The Lancet, 369, 60-70.
     or ensure accountability; difficulty
                                               In the coming year, the International       Jolly, r. (2007). early childhood
     of making long-term investments;
                                               Child development steering Group            development: the global challenge.
     multiple stakeholders for young
                                               will join with the Consultative Group       The Lancet, 369, 8-9.
     children; and the lack of a single
                                               to advocate for eCd programmes.             Jones, G., steketee, r. W., Black,
     strategy or “package” of interventions
                                               several activities are planned.             r. e., Bhutta, Z. A., Morris, s. s.,
     for eCd. efforts are underway to
                                               With support from the rockefeller           & the Bellagio Child survival study
     address some of these concerns,
                                               foundation, the International Child         Group. (2003). how many deaths
     such as the lack of a global indicator,
                                               development Group met with other            can we prevent this year? The Lancet,
     and systems for calculating costs are
                                               researchers and policy advocates at         362, 65-71.
     improving. But more work is urgently
                                               the Bellagio study and Conference
     needed to determine what kinds of                                                     Walker, s. P., Wachs, t. d., Gardner, J.
                                               Centre in october 2007 to address
     interventions are most effective in                                                   M., lozoff, B., Wasserman, G. A.,
                                               three goals: supporting the effort to
     which contexts.                                                                       Pollitt, e., et al. (2007). Child
                                               define indicators for child development
     to achieve the Millennium                 and coverage; establishing priorities for   development: risk factors for adverse
     development Goals of reducing             research; and evaluating components         outcomes in developing countries.
     poverty and ensuring primary school       of successful programming. In two           The Lancet, 369, 145-57.



                                                                                                     CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
                                                                                       eARly CHIld deVeloPMent: A PoWerful eQuAlIser            29



   early child development:
   A powerful equaliser
                                                    lori G. Irwin, Arjumand siddiqi, Clyde Hertzman




   the World health organisation set              the Knowledge Network on early                globally. Given the powerful impact of
   up a global Commission on social               Child development (KN-eCd) has                eCd on adult life, it is imperative that
   determinants of health (Csdh) in               informed the Csdh of opportunities            governments recognise that disparities
   March 2005 to promote better health            towards fostering leadership, policy,         in the nurturant environments required
   and greater health equity for all. the         action, advocacy, and the intersectoral       for healthy child development will
   Csdh is intended to draw society’s             collaboration needed to create positive       affect nations and societies differently.
   attention to the social determinants of        change for children in a range of             In some societies, inequities in eCd
   health that are known to be among              country contexts through two main             translate into vastly different life
   the leading causes of poor health              documents: an evidence synthesis titled       chances for children; in others,
   and inequalities between and within            the total environment Assessment              disparities in eCd reach a critical point
   countries. the Cdsh is structured              Model for eCd; and a summary of               where they become a threat to peace
   around specific themes that underpin           its findings and recommendations              and sustainable development.
   actions on social determinants of              titled early Child development: A
                                                                                                As is well known, the early years
   health in a global context. the arms of        Powerful equaliser. the following
                                                                                                are marked by the most rapid
   the Csdh involve country work, civil           excerpt summarises the KN-eCd’s
                                                                                                development, especially of the central
   society, and nine knowledge networks:          final report and the discussion and
                                                                                                nervous system. the environmental
   early Child development (eCd);                 recommendations that have resulted
                                                                                                conditions to which children
   Measurement and evidence; Women                from the work of evidence synthesis.1
                                                                                                are exposed in the earliest years
   and Gender; Priority Public health
                                                  executive summary                             “sculpt” the developing brain. the
   Conditions; employment Conditions;
                                                                                                environments that are responsible
   Globalisation; social exclusion; urban         the principal strategic insight of the        for fostering nurturant conditions
   settings; and health systems. these            KN-eCd’s final report for the Csdh            for children range from the intimate
   networks constitute the Commission’s           is that the nurturant qualities of the        realm of the family to the broader
   primary mechanism for organising and           environments where children grow              socioeconomic context shaped by
   synthesising knowledge, strengthening          up, live, and learn matter the most for       governments, international agencies,
   country practice, and supporting               their development, yet parents cannot         and civil society. these environments
   leadership. twenty Commissioners               provide strong nurturant environments         and their characteristics are the
   who are global and national leaders            without help from local, regional,            determinants of eCd; in turn, eCd is a
   from political, government, civil              national, and international agencies.         determinant of health, well-being, and
   society, and academic fields will              therefore, this report proposes ways          learning skills across the balance of the
   communicate the key messages and               in which government and civil society         life course.
   recommendations of the Commission              actors, from local to international,
   in policy arenas and draw political            can work in concert with families to          economists now argue on the basis of
   attention to social factors that lead to       provide equitable access to strong            the available evidence that investment
   ill health.                                    nurturant environments for all children       in early childhood is the most powerful




    1
      this work was made possible through funding provided by the Public health Agency of Canada and undertaken as work for the early
    Child development Knowledge Network established as part of the Who Commission on the social determinants of health (Csdh). the
    views presented in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the decisions, policy, or views of Who, the Csdh
    Commissioners, or the Consultative Group on early Childhood Care and development.

CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
30   eARly CHIld deVeloPMent: A PoWerful eQuAlIser




     investment a country can make, with       4. to highlight opportunities to foster    sourced approach ensures that the
     returns over the life course many times   nurturant conditions for children at       conclusions and recommendations
     the size of the original investment.      multiple levels of society (from family-   of this report are borne out of the
                                               level action to national and global        perspectives of a diverse array of
     the scope of the report is fourfold:
                                               governmental action) and by multiple       stakeholders and are thus broadly
     1. to demonstrate which environments      means (i.e., through programmatic          applicable to societies throughout the
     matter most for children. this includes   implementation and through child-          world.
     environments from the most intimate       centred social and economic policy
                                                                                          one guiding principle is an equity-
     (family) to the most remote (global).     development).
                                                                                          based approach to providing nurturant
     2. to review which environmental          In keeping with international policy       environments for children everywhere.
     configurations are optimal for eCd,       standards, early childhood is defined as   Multiple perspectives—from the
     including aspects of environments that    the period from prenatal development       provisions of human and child rights
     are economic, social, and physical in     to 8 years of age. the evidentiary base,   declarations to the realities reflected
     nature.                                   as well as interpretation of the body      by research evidence—make clear the
     3. to determine the “contingency          of evidence, is derived from three         importance of equity. Programmes
     relationships” that connect the           primary sources: (1) peer-reviewed         and policies must create marked
     broader socioeconomic context of          scientific literature; (2) reports from    improvements in the circumstances of
     society to the quality of nurturing in    governments, international agencies,       societies’ most disadvantaged children,
     intimate environments such as families    and civil society groups; and (3)          not just in absolute terms, but in
     and communities.                          international experts in the field of      comparison to the most advantaged
                                               eCd. this evidence-based, multiple-        children as well.

        fIGure 1


        total environment assessment model for early child development




         source: siddiqi, Irwin & hertzman, 2007. total environment Assessment Model for early Child
         development report for the Commission on social determinants of health.

                                                                                                   CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
                                                                                   eARly CHIld deVeloPMent: A PoWerful eQuAlIser         31


   In this report we provide a framework       circumstances, despite their                 larger sociopolitical contexts of society;
   (see figure 1) for understanding the        importance, are not fate.                    as such, reciprocal engagement with
   environments that play a significant                                                     other relational groups, civil society
                                               the family environment is the primary
   role in providing nurturant conditions                                                   organisations, and governmental
                                               source of experience for a child, both
   to all children in an equitable manner.                                                  bodies is a means of addressing the
                                               because family members (or other
   the framework acts as a guide to                                                         interests and resource needs of their
                                               primary caregivers) provide the largest
   understanding the relationships                                                          members.
                                               share of human contact with children
   between these environments,
                                               and because families mediate a child’s       the availability of eCd programmes
   putting the child at the centre
                                               contact with the broader environment.        and services to support children’s
   of her or his surroundings. the
                                               Perhaps the most salient features of         development during the early years
   environments are not hierarchical,
                                               the family environment are its social        is a crucial component of an overall
   but rather are truly interconnected.
                                               and economic resources. the gradient         strategy for success in childhood. eCd
   At the most intimate level is the
                                               effect of family resources on eCd is         services may address one or more
   family environment. At a broader
                                               the most powerful explanation for            of the key developmental domains
   level are residential communities
                                               differences in children’s well-being         (i.e., language-cognitive, socio-
   (such as neighbourhoods), relational
                                               across societies.                            emotional, and physical development).
   communities (such as those based on
                                                                                            the quality and appropriateness of
   religious or other social bonds), and       Children and their families are also
                                                                                            services is a central consideration in
   the eCd service environment. each of        shaped by the residential community
                                                                                            determining whether existing eCd
   these environments (where the child         (where the child and family live) and
                                                                                            programmes improve outcomes for
   actually grows up, lives, and learns)       the relational communities (family
                                                                                            children. some principles of eCd
   is situated in a broad socioeconomic        social ties to those with a common
                                                                                            programmes and services are readily
   context that is shaped by factors at the    identity) in which they are embedded.
                                                                                            transferable between places; however,
   regional, national, and global level.       residential and relational communities
                                                                                            many programme features require
                                               offer families multiple forms of
   the framework affirms the importance                                                     tailoring to the social, economic, and
                                               support, from tangible goods and
   of a life course perspective in decision                                                 cultural contexts in which they are
                                               services that assist with child rearing to
   making regarding eCd. Actions taken                                                      found. health care systems (hCss)
                                               emotional connections with others that
   at any of these environmental levels                                                     are key to providing many important
                                               are instrumental in the well-being of
   will affect children not only in the                                                     eCd services. the hCs is in a unique
                                               children and their caregivers.
   present day, but also throughout their                                                   position to contribute to eCd, since
   lives. the framework also suggests that     “relational community” refers to the         hCss provide facilities and services
   historical time is critically influential   adults and other children who help           that are more widely accessible in
   for children: large institutional           form a child’s social identity (tribal,      many societies than any other form of
   and structural aspects of societies         ethnic, religious, language/cultural).       human service, are already concerned
   (e.g., government policy-clusters,          often, this is not a geographically          with the health of individuals
   programmes, and the like) matter for        clustered community. relational              and communities, employ trained
   eCd, and these are built or dismantled      communities provide social networks          professionals, and are a primary point
   over long periods of time.                  and collective efficacy, including           of contact for child-bearing mothers.
                                               instrumental, informational, and
   While genetic predispositions and                                                        the influence of the regional and
                                               emotional forms of support. however,
   biophysical characteristics partially                                                    national environments is fundamental
                                               discrimination, social exclusion, and
   explain how environment and                                                              in determining the quality and
                                               other forms of subjugation are often
   experience shape eCd, the best                                                           accessibility of services and resources
                                               directed at groups defined by relational
   evidence leads us to consider the child                                                  to families and communities. these
                                               communities. the consequences of
   as a social actor who shapes and is in                                                   environments are also salient for
                                               these forms of discrimination (e.g.,
   turn shaped by his or her environment.                                                   understanding the levels of social
                                               fewer economic resources) can result
   this is known as the “transactional                                                      organisation at which inequalities in
                                               in discernable inequities. Moreover,
   model,” which emphasises that                                                            opportunity and outcome may be
                                               relational communities can be
   the principal driving force of child                                                     manifest, and the levels of organisation
                                               sources of gender socialisation, both
   development is relationships. Because                                                    at which action can be taken to
                                               equitable and non-equitable. relational
   strong nurturant relationships can                                                       ameliorate inequities.
                                               communities are also embedded in the
   make for healthy eCd, socioeconomic

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32   eARly CHIld deVeloPMent: A PoWerful eQuAlIser




     Many interrelated aspects of regional
     environments are significant for eCd,
                                                  the global environment can influence
                                                  eCd through its effects on the
                                                                                              Recommendations
     including physical (e.g., the degree         policies of nations as well as through      to assist key stakeholders in their
     of urbanisation, the health status of        the direct actions of a range of            pursuit of creating the conditions
     the population), social, political, and      relevant actors, including multilateral     that support early child development,
     economic factors. these aspects of           economic organisations, industry,           the evidence leads us to make the
     the regional environment affect eCd          multilateral development agencies,          following recommendations.
     through their influence on the family        non-governmental development
                                                                                              creation of a global alliance for early
     and neighbourhood as well as on eCd          agencies, and civil society groups.
                                                                                              child development
     services. In contrast to more intimate       A major feature of the global
     environments, such as the family, the        environment in relation to children’s       1. While governments can do much
     significance of large environments, such     well-being is the element of power in       to change the circumstances of the
     as the region, is that they affect large     economic, social, and political terms.      world’s children and families, this
     numbers of children. thus, changing          Power differentials between types of        review has also demonstrated the
     the environment at this level can            actors, particularly between nations,       need for global collaboration in the
     influence the lives of many children.        have many consequences, including           area of eCd. We propose an expanded
     Much more research and accumulation          the ability of some nations (mainly         global interagency collaboration—
     of knowledge is required regarding how       resource-rich ones) to influence the        the Global Alliance for early Child
     regional characteristics can be modified     policies of other nations (mainly           development (GA-eCd)—that will
     to positively influence eCd.                 resource-poor ones) to suit their own       build upon existing informal networks
                                                  interests. Although power differentials     of agencies currently working on
     the most salient feature of the                                                          eCd internationally, such as uNICef,
                                                  may have invidious effects on eCd,
     national environment is its capacity                                                     uNesCo, the Consultative Group
                                                  they can be exploited for the benefit
     to affect multiple determinants                                                          on eCCd, World Bank, Bernard van
                                                  of children, too. requiring a minimum
     of eCd through wealth creation,                                                          leer foundation, soros foundation,
                                                  level of government spending on
     public spending, child- and family-                                                      Aga Khan foundation and Who. this
                                                  eCd and compliance with the rights
     friendly policies, social protection,                                                    alliance should work towards linking
                                                  in early Childhood provisions of the
     and protection of basic rights. At the                                                   eCd to the Millennium development
                                                  Convention on the rights of the Child
     level of the national environment,                                                       Goals, especially to poverty reduction,
                                                  as preconditions for international
     comprehensive, intersectoral                                                             education, gender equality, and child
                                                  developmental assistance are two
     approaches to policy and decision                                                        survival.
                                                  mechanisms that can be used.
     making work best for eCd. Although
                                                  Analogous mechanisms have been
     eCd outcomes tend to be more                                                             World Health Organisation’s unique
                                                  used effectively in other areas of
     favourable in wealthy countries than in                                                  contribution for ecD
                                                  international development in the past.
     poor ones, this is not always the case.                                                  2. Who has a critical role to play
     It is clear that a commitment of 1.5 to      Civil society groups are conceptualised     in advocacy for eCd as a key social
     2.0% of GdP to an effective mix of           as being organised at, and acting           determinant of health that must be
     policies and programmes in the public        on, all levels of social organisation,      addressed beyond the Commission on
     sector can effectively support children’s    from local through global. the ability      social determinants of health.
     early development. those nations with        of civil society to act on behalf of
     less economic and political power are        children is a function of the extent        3. In their commitment to eCd and
     less free to determine their internal        of social capital, or connectedness of      to equity, Who should recognise,
     policy agendas, and they are more            citizens, and the support of political      by subsuming its child survival and
     influenced by the interests of the           institutions in promoting expressions       health programmes globally under the
     international community, including           of civil organisation. When civil society   developmental perspective articulated
     other nations and multilateral               is enabled, it can engage on behalf of      in this report, that eCd is a key social
     organisations. Notwithstanding this          children through many avenues. Civil        determinant of health playing a critical
     reality, most of the recommendations         society groups can initiate government,     role for achieving the Millennium
     in this report are within the capabilities   NGo, and community action on social         development Goals.
     of any national government that              determinants of eCd.                        4. Who should be responsible for
     meets the international criteria for a                                                   provision of technical support for
     competent authority.                                                                     the inclusion of eCd policies within


                                                                                                       CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
                                                                                 eARly CHIld deVeloPMent: A PoWerful eQuAlIser                        33


   national development policies and in       understanding of what is involved         monitoring rights in early childhood
   the national development frameworks/       in eCd, and to convey it to a much        under the uN Convention on the
   instruments (sWAPs, PrsPs, fast track      wider audience than in the past. this     rights of the Child.
   Initiatives, etc.).                        effort should take shape as a social
                                              marketing campaign that expands           Structural requirements for
   5. Who should provide technical                                                      implementation
                                              to include audiences not traditionally
   support to regions, countries, and                                                   13. Governments should create an
                                              thought of as eCd stakeholders,
   partners for the integration of simple                                               interministerial policy framework
                                              for example, finance and planning
   eCd interventions such as the IMCI                                                   for eCd that clearly articulates the
                                              departments of government, the
   Care for development intervention                                                    roles and responsibilities of each
                                              economic sector, the corporate world,
   in health services and in community                                                  sector and how they will collaborate.
                                              and media.
   health initiatives.                                                                  Governments should also integrate
                                              10. the Consultative Group on eCCd        eCd policy elements into the agendas
   6. Assessing the costs and benefits
                                              (a consortium that includes Who,          of each sector to ensure that they
   of programmes remains a challenge,
                                              uNICef, uNesCo, the World Bank and        are considered routinely in sectoral
   but Who should take responsibility for
                                              key INGos) should continue to focus       decision making. Governments
   gathering data on the effectiveness of
                                              on broad dissemination of the science     will need to reallocate resources to
   interventions, especially those that are
                                              of eCd in conjunction with a social       decrease inequities in access to high-
   connected to the health care system.
                                              marketing campaign.                       quality eCd programmes and services;
   7. Who should commit to
                                              11. Governments, by ratifying the         to facilitate this reallocation, our
   overseeing an interagency
                                              Convention on the rights of the           review has identified evidence that can
   collaboration for scaling up eCd
                                              Child, have committed themselves          be used as a benchmark for judging
   programmes through district health
                                              to realising rights in early childhood.   the quality of eCd programmes and
   systems in several countries to develop
                                              Implementation pilots, like those         services.
   models and to disseminate these
                                              in Jamaica, are designed to raise         14. Children benefit most when
   findings to all countries.
                                              consciousness among families,             national governments adopt child- and
                                              communities, service providers, and       family-friendly policies that guarantee
   Generating the necessary commitment        policy makers about rights in early
   at multiple levels of society                                                        adequate income for all, maternity
                                              childhood, and should be a model of       benefits, and financial support for the
   8. local, regional, and national           how to conduct such campaigns in          ultra-poor. Governments should take
   governments should incorporate the         other countries.                          up the challenge of creating policies
   “science of early child development”
                                              12. there must be a fully funded          that allow parents and caregivers to
   into policy.
                                              global capacity-building strategy to      balance their home and work lives by
   9. to achieve a global consensus on        assist countries in incorporating the     putting systems in place to ensure that
   the importance of eCd, there is a need     science of early child development        quality out-of-home community-based
   to foster a broader and more profound      into policy and implementing and          child care relevant to local culture and

                                                                                                                               Cambodia: Jim Holmes




CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
34   eARly CHIld deVeloPMent: A PoWerful eQuAlIser




     context is available for the children of    gender inequities in years of schooling       relationships in the environments
     working mothers.                            are eliminated, and that schooling is         where they live. to provide nurturant
                                                 free and compulsory.                          environments for their children, all
     15. In order to have the appropriate
                                                                                               families need support from community
     capacity/infrastructure to tackle           20. A common formula needs to
                                                                                               and government. the quality of
     issues related to eCd, governments,         be created for calculating national
                                                                                               support received by families should be
     in association with international           expenditures on eCd, as well as per
                                                                                               monitored by local NGos, including
     agencies, should create interdisciplinary   capita investment in children. such
                                                                                               community groups and parents’
     opportunities for professional training     a formula could be created by the
                                                                                               committees, as part of the reporting
     and research in eCd in resource-poor        proposed GA-eCd in collaboration
                                                                                               under the CrC. the goal is universal
     countries. this could be achieved           with uNICef. An economic analysis
                                                                                               access to a range of eCd services,
     through regional centres of excellence,     that indicates the return on their
                                                                                               including parenting and caregiver
     such as that emerging at the Aga Khan       investment that society can anticipate
                                                                                               support, quality child care, nutrition,
     university in Karachi, and/or successful    from different types of eCd
                                                                                               social protection, primary healthcare,
     distance education models such as the       programmes and services should be
                                                                                               and basic education—preschool
     eCd Virtual university.                     created and disseminated.
                                                                                               through school-age. to be effective,
     16. Community involvement is an             Monitoring processes and outcomes             these services need to be coordinated
     important component of successful           related to ecD                                at the regional level and delivered at
     eCd programming, therefore,                                                               the local level in a way that puts the
     governments should involve                  21. there is an immediate need to
                                                                                               child at the centre.
     local communities in developing,            expand the evidence base related to
                                                 eCd programmes, services, policy,             24. National governments and
     implementing, monitoring, and
                                                 and evaluations in resource-poor              international agencies should be
     reviewing eCd policies, programmes,
                                                 countries where systems are stressed,         responsible for funding independent
     and services. Community involvement
                                                 resources are low, and challenges of          monitoring of eCd programmes and
     does not absolve governments from
                                                 basic living are high. It is not acceptable   services for quality and effectiveness.
     their responsibilities but ensures
                                                 for inferences made from research             this should include an assessment
     stronger relationships between
                                                 conducted in resource-rich countries to       of barriers to and opportunities
     government and the local communities
                                                 be applied to resource-poor countries.        for access, with a particular focus
     where service delivery occurs.
                                                 essential in this evidence base are           on decreasing inequity in eCd.
     Strategies for implementation               economic analyses of the effectiveness        Mechanisms need to be developed
     17. Given the overlap in underlying         of eCd programmes and services as             and implemented to insure that
     determinants, governments should be         they occur in resource-poor countries.        communities and central agencies
     building upon established child survival                                                  work together to collect reliable data
                                                 22. An essential precondition for
     and health programmes to make                                                             on outcomes.
                                                 eCd is the child’s basic right to a
     eCd programmes accessible through           name and a nationality; thus, national        this report’s principal contribution is
     existing platforms. the health care         governments have an essential                 to propose ways in which government
     system is often the most cost-effective     predisposing role to play in ensuring         and civil society actors, from local to
     platform and the most universal point       that all children are registered at birth,    international, can work in concert with
     of contact.                                 through maintaining a functioning,            families to provide equitable access to
     18. Governments need to develop             comprehensive birth registry without          strong nurturant environments for all
     strategies for scaling up effective         financial costs to families for               children globally. Now is the time to
     programmes from the local to the            registration.                                 build on the global momentum of the
     national, without sacrificing the                                                         Child survival, Child health, education
                                                 23. We now understand that
     characteristics of the programme                                                          for All, Gender equity and Child rights
                                                 the transactional nature of young
     that made it effective. Implementation,                                                   agendas towards better health for all.
                                                 children’s relationships is far more
     integrity, and accountability at the        important for their growth and                For more information, contact:
     local level must be sustained, even         development than traditionally has            Lori G. Irwin, Associate Director,
     when programmes are scaled to the           been recognised. Children do not just         Human Early Learning Partnership
     national level.                             grow up according to internal laws            Telephone: (604) 827-5395
     19. Governments should ensure that          of biology; they grow and develop             E-mail: lori.irwin@ubc.ca
     children are enrolled in school, that       through the interplay of human

                                                                                                        CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
                                                                                                                                    35

   General Comment No. 7:
   Implementing child rights in
   early childhood
                                              Alan Kikuchi White,
                                              external relations officer, Bernard van leer foundation


   the Convention on the rights of the       child rights for, and on behalf of,         overlooked young children as rights
   Child (CrC) reminds us that children,     young children. the implication of          holders (GC7 para.3). the Comment
   while retaining their entitlement to      such inadequate awareness of young          seeks to redress this oversight by
   the full range of human rights, are       children’s rights by states parties was     clarifying state obligations for CrC
   often marginalised or excluded, and       that the states parties ignored their       implementation with respect to
   thus represent a special case requiring   obligations towards young children, or      all children “below the age of 8”
   additional safeguards. Within the         treated children as objects of care but     (GC7 para.4). In the introduction,
   constituency of children, particular      not as subjects actively participating in   the Committee declares: “this
   groups remain vulnerable to further       their development and in the social life    general comment arises out of the
   risk factors that require additional      of family and neighbourhood.                Committee’s experiences of reviewing
   measures for state ratification. one                                                  states parties’ reports. In many cases,
                                             early childhood specialists informed the
   method of addressing these risk                                                       very little information has been offered
                                             deliberations of the uNCrC (in 2004)
   factors is through the development                                                    about early childhood, with comments
                                             that went into the drafting of GC7 (in
   of a General Comment, a statement                                                     limited mainly to child mortality, birth
                                             2005). In collaboration with uNICef
   of some ten to twenty pages based                                                     registration and health care” (GC7
                                             and the Committee, the Bernard van
   on the expertise and experience of                                                    para.1).
                                             leer foundation published A Guide
   the uN Committee on the rights of
                                             to General Comment 7: Implementing          In contrast to the emphasis on this
   the Child (uNCrC), a body composed
                                             Child Rights in Early Childhood, which      limited set of “usual suspects” in
   of independent experts elected
                                             contains extracts from the papers the       state reports, GC7 presents an
   by countries that have ratified the
                                             Committee considered when drafting          ecological and holistic view of young
   Convention.
                                             GC7.                                        children as competent social actors
   since the CrC’s development, the                                                      actively participating in families, peer
                                             the purpose of GC7 is to recognise
   uNCrC has adopted ten General                                                         groups, communities, and society
                                             the rights of all young children as
   Comments (see General Comments                                                        (GC7 para.5). young children are
                                             outlined in the CrC, as well as to
   at http://www.ohchr.org/english/                                                      regarded as active meaning-makers
                                             emphasise early childhood as a vital
   bodies/crc/comments.htm) guiding                                                      with “evolving capacities” (CrC Art.5)
                                             period in acknowledging these rights.
   states on specific issues such as hIV/                                                requiring age-appropriate guidance
                                             the Comment provides a definition
   AIds, the aims of education, violence                                                 and support and whom, both as
                                             of the term “early childhood” and
   against children, and, in 2005, General                                               individuals and as a constituency,
                                             identifies characteristics and features
   Comment 7 (GC7) on implementing                                                       have a voice that must be given due
                                             specific to this developmental period.
   child rights in early childhood.                                                      consideration. Parents/caregivers
                                             In addition, GC7 examines research,
                                                                                         and states are reminded to balance
   GC7 explains how the CrC should be        general principles, and rights in early
                                                                                         control and guidance with respect to
   interpreted when it comes to young        childhood. the Comment also explores
                                                                                         the evolving capacities of the young
   children. It was drafted and adopted in   policies and programmes, capacity
                                                                                         child, as well as to keep in mind
   response to the uNCrC’s observation       building, and the responsibilities of
                                                                                         the obligation to facilitate genuine
   that young children were almost           parents and states parties for early
                                                                                         participation of young children in the
   entirely overlooked in states parties’    childhood.
                                                                                         processes affecting their development.
   reports on their progress towards
   implementing the CrC. Where               GC7: young children as active               to further consider GC7, we
   present, references were limited to       social participants                         make reference to the CrC’s four
   child mortality and basic health and      GC7 recognises that in implementing         fundamental principles:
   welfare; they neglected broader           the CrC, states parties have often          • Non-discrimination (Art.2)
   considerations of the realisation of

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     • the “best interests of the child”         thirdly, with respect to CrC (Art.6)         with young children, encourages
     (Art.3)                                     and life and development, GC7                families and caregivers to anchor the
                                                 acknowledges early childhood as              child’s view in their activities, and
     • life, survival, and development
                                                 a time of particular vulnerabilities.        trains parents, professionals, and
     (Art.6)
                                                 the Comment identifies specific              other authorities in facilitating that
     • the right to express an opinion and       threats to positive development, from        participation.
     to have those opinions considered           the physical effects of preventable
                                                                                              the conflict between adult attitudes
     (Art.12)                                    malnutrition and disease to the
                                                                                              and childhood capabilities is addressed
                                                 detrimental psychosocial impacts
     Fundamental principles                                                                   in GC7 with respect to the notion
                                                 of neglect and abuse. Measures to
                                                                                              of the “evolving capacities” of the
     the four fundamental principles,            address these vulnerabilities (e.g., in
                                                                                              child as identified in the CrC (Art.5).
     as with all of the CrC articles,            relation to improving perinatal care,
                                                                                              evolving capacities are referred to
     are to be regarded as universal,            reducing infant mortality, and general
                                                                                              as “the process of maturation and
     interdependent, and indivisible.            steps to improve child well-being) are
                                                                                              learning whereby children progressively
     We cannot, for example, consider            called for. the question of well-being
                                                                                              acquire knowledge, competencies
     genuine participation in isolation          is considered holistically, encompassing
                                                                                              and understanding.” GC7 is very clear
     when to ignore views and voice is           both the physical and psychosocial
                                                                                              on the interpretation of this article in
     discriminatory (when adults decide,         development of the child. GC7 again
                                                                                              relation to young children. evolving
     without appropriate or even any             emphasises the interdependence
                                                                                              capacities is an enabling principle
     consultation, what is best for the          of rights in relation to well-being
                                                                                              that requires parents, caregivers, and
     child) and to deny agency inhibits          and development through the
                                                                                              professionals, with appropriate state
     full personal development. GC7              implementation of the rights to health,
                                                                                              support, to adjust levels of direction,
     recognises that young children are,         to education and play, and to social
                                                                                              guidance, and control with respect to
     by virtue of their age, discriminated       security (GC7 para.10).
                                                                                              the child’s emerging interests, wishes,
     against, marginalised, and excluded.        lastly, we consider specifically the right   and capacity for autonomous decision
     GC7 reinforces the non-discriminatory       to express a view and to have those          making. evolving capacities are not
     language of the CrC (Art.2),                views given serious consideration.           an endorsement of authoritarian
     identifying young girls as particularly     GC7 reinforces this principle and            practices which restrict autonomy and
     vulnerable, but referring also to           identifies the young child as “an            self-expression, justified by appeals to
     discrimination in relation to disability,   active participant in the promotion,         the incompetence and immaturity of
     hIV/AIds, ethnic and social caste,          protection, and monitoring of their          children or the need for socialisation
     refugee and asylum status, birth out        rights” (GC7 para.14). discriminatory        (GC7 para.17).
     of wedlock, and being affected by           views of young children that deny
     multiple dimensions of discrimination                                                    In essence, GC7 embraces the
                                                 them voice and agency on the basis
     (GC7 para.11).                                                                           notion of the young child no longer
                                                 of age and immaturity, or that view
                                                                                              powerless, voiceless, or invisible but
     secondly, with respect to the best          them as empty vessels passively
                                                                                              as a positive, participating social actor,
     interests of the child, GC7 emphasises      subject to socialisation processes or
                                                                                              actively “being” in the here and now,
     the CrC (Art.3) obligation to consider      as incompetent, undeveloped, and
                                                                                              rather than solely as “becoming” for
     those best interests in relation to all     in need of training, are rejected. the
                                                                                              the future (GC7 para.14).
     decisions and actions which affect          Comment also points to the multiple
     child development. At an individual         languages or paths of communication          Implementation
     level, GC7 reinforces the issue of          that are available to children and to        With regard to the care and protection
     participation in decisions relating to      adults either willing or able to listen.     of young children, GC7 focuses on
     the care, education, and health of          It is argued, therefore, that young          parental/caregiver responsibilities and
     the young child. however, GC7 also          children are able to communicate             the state’s obligation to support those
     reminds states that young children,         many thoughts, feelings, and wishes          caring environments. In this regard, the
     as a specific constituency, must be         long before verbal or written forms          Comment restates the CrC definition
     considered more widely in policy            of language are available to them. In        of family as the “fundamental group”
     making with respect to the indirect         facilitating that communication, GC7         and the “natural environment” for
     impacts of environmental, transport,        calls on states to develop policy that       growth and well-being, but recognises
     and housing policy (GC7 para.13).           allows for appropriate consultation          that the concept of family extends


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                                                             GeneRAl CoMMent no. 7: IMPleMeNtING ChIld rIGhts IN eArly ChIldhood      37


   well beyond the “nuclear” model.             emerging vision, which runs like a         in september 2006. An operational
   Parents and caregivers are identified        golden thread through the whole            framework of indicators was proposed
   as principal actors in the construction      document, is one of an actively            to assist states parties in the analysis
   of identity and the development of           participating and socially competent       of young children’s enjoyment of
   skills, knowledge, and behaviours and        young child. this young child is           their rights and hence encourage
   as duty-bearers in the realisation of        ecologically situated within family        more appropriate reporting by states
   the young child’s rights (GC7 para.15).      and caregiving environments, in            parties. As a result of that meeting,
   states are therefore reminded of their       relationships with peers, as part of       former uNCrC Chair Professor Jaap
   obligation to support these caregiving       a community, and as a member of            doek invited the interested eCd and
   environments and their facilitation of       society. this young child is to be         early childhood rights stakeholders
   child participation.                         considered holistically as a being         to prepare and propose a suitable
                                                whose emotional, social, physical,         framework of early childhood rights
   on health, in addition to provisions
                                                and cognitive capacities are evolving      indicators.
   such as sanitation, immunisation, and
                                                in various social and cultural settings.
   clean drinking water, GC7 calls for                                                     Framework development
                                                GC7 presents a vision of the young
   age-appropriate health education for
                                                child that embraces holistic and           process for GC7 indicators
   young children that allows them to
                                                ecological considerations and requires     A proposed framework for child
   participate actively in healthy lifestyles
                                                us to reconsider young, active,            rights indicators is currently being
   and, ultimately, in the realisation of
                                                participant children in the broadest       developed by the GC7 Working
   their right to health (GC7 para.27).
                                                possible sense, both as individuals and    Group, which includes representatives
   With respect to social security, GC7
                                                as a constituency.                         of uNCrC, uNICef, Who, Bernard
   (para.26) refers to CrC (Art.27) and
   the entitlement to a standard of living                                                 van leer foundation (Bvlf), human
                                                GC7 Working Group                          early learning Partnership (helP), the
   that is adequate for the “physical,
   mental, spiritual, moral and social          Information is limited on the use          Consultative Group on early Childhood
   development” of the child.                   of the General Comment by states           Care and development (CGeCCd), and
                                                parties. often Comments are not            the World Bank, in consultation with
   on education, GC7 reiterates the aims        distributed and are thus not known.        others.
   of education expressed in General            If they are read, they tend to be
   Comment 1 (GC1), to “empower                                                            GC7’s content and structure has
                                                regarded as theoretical in nature
   the child by developing his or her                                                      provided the foundation for decisions
                                                because they address a problem
   skills, learning and other capacities,                                                  about which indicators to include in
                                                in general. obviously they require
   human dignity, self-esteem and                                                          the framework; the uNCrC reporting
                                                operationalisation to facilitate states
   self-confidence” (GC1 para.2).                                                          Guidelines are the primary source for
                                                parties’ implementation efforts and
   human rights education is called                                                        the cluster structure of the framework.
                                                reporting.
   for that facilitates the young child’s                                                  In addition, the GC7 Working Group
   practice of rights and responsibilities,     the convening of a GC7 Working             is building upon the previous work of
   making them active participants in           Group comprised of experts in the area     uNICef’s Multiple Indicator Cluster
   the realisation of their rights (GC7         of early child development and child       survey (MICs)/household survey studies
   para.28).                                    indicators, child rights experts, and      by adapting some of their indicators to
                                                legal experts is an attempt to address     include, or more explicitly represent,
   In meeting these obligations, GC7            these issues based on GC7. It is the       young children. A final framework will
   calls on states to implement properly        first of its kind.                         be presented to the CrC committee in
   resourced, human-rights-based,                                                          early 2008.
   coordinated strategies and training          Because of the various collective
   which set professional standards for         interests of the GC7 Working Group in      For more information, contact:
   age-appropriate practice.                    the matter of young children’s rights,     Alan Kikuchi White
                                                and because of the uNCrC’s identified      E-mail: alangrahamwhite@gmail.com
   summary                                      need to raise the profile of General       Website: http://www.bvleerf.nl
                                                Comments through dissemination             Also available in Spanish and
   GC7 has been drafted to reflect the
                                                and operationalisation, the GC7            French.
   concept of child participation as
                                                Working Group met with the uNCrC
   a cross-cutting issue. As such, the



CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
38

     the new uN Convention on the
     rights of Persons with disabilities:
     Initial thoughts on implications for eCCd
                                                 Garren lumpkin,
                                                 former uNICef regional Adviser for education,
                                                 the Americas and Caribbean regional office


     Brief overview of CRPd,                    special session on Children. two of the    facilitate their active participation in
     linked to the World                        established principles and objectives      the community.” 4
     Fit for Children (WFFC)                    highlighted in the above-mentioned
                                                                                            “It is vital that national goals for
     commitments and action plan                declaration give emphasis to the rights
                                                                                           children include targets for reducing
                                                of all children and the importance to
     In december 2006 the uN General                                                       disparities, in particular, those which
                                                “start early” and address in an integral
     Assembly adopted the Convention on                                                    arise from discrimination on the basis
                                                manner the multiple elements that
     the rights of Persons with disabilities                                               of race, between girls and boys, rural
                                                guarantee the “best possible start in
     (CrPd). this new Convention,                                                          and urban children, wealthy and poor
                                                life” (see box 1).3
     signed by an impressive eighty-one                                                    children, and those with and without
     countries on the first session day         Within the corresponding Plan of           disabilities.” 5
     (March 30, 2007), “opened a new            Action for “Creating a World fit
                                                for Children,” specific mention            Importance of the early
     era in securing the presently unmet
     rights of the majority of children         and commitments were made to               years—for all young children
     with disabilities and their families.” 1   guarantee the rights of some of the        In recent times, the importance of
     By the end of 2007, 121 countries          most excluded children—those with a        focusing on the critical early years
     had signed the CrPd and sixty-eight        disability and with other special needs.   of life and what it means for the
     the optional Protocol, while during        for example:                               child’s long-term development
     this same time period, fourteen             “We will take all measures to ensure      has gained significant recognition
     ratified the Convention and seven          the full and equal enjoyment of            within the scientific and educational
     the Protocol. 2 With the Millennium        all human rights and fundamental           world, combined with an emerging
     development Goals Agenda (MdG)             freedoms, including equal access to        understanding by other key members/
     and other international initiatives        health, education and recreational         sectors of society. research and
     (especially those framed within the        services, by children with disabilities    specific country-level experiences and
     education for All declaration and Plan     and children with special needs, to        results confirm the importance and the
     of Action) a “re-energised force”          ensure the recognition of their dignity,   multiple benefits of increasing financial
     has been generated to mobilise and/        to promote their self reliance, and to     and human investments for integrated
     or strengthen national government
     and civil society organisations to           BOX 1
     design and implement—in a collective
     effort—more sustainable and scaled-         two general principles of WFFC declaration
     up strategies and programmes to
                                                 • leave no child behind: “each girl and boy is born free and equal in dignity
     guarantee established rights and to
                                                 and rights; therefore, all forms of discrimination affecting children must
     promote the inclusion and participation
                                                 end.”
     of the most excluded individuals.
                                                 • Care for every child: “Children must get the best possible start in life.
     for the young child, the CrPd builds
                                                 their survival, protection, growth and development in good health and with
     on other child and adolescent related
                                                 proper nutrition is the essential foundation of human development. We
     rights frameworks, one being the
                                                 will make concerted efforts to fight infectious diseases, tackle major causes
     declaration of heads of state and
                                                 of malnutrition and nurture children in a safe environment that enables
     Government and the Plan of Action
                                                 them to be physically healthy, mentally alert, emotionally secure, socially
     adopted by the united Nations General
                                                 competent and able to learn.”
     Assembly following the May 2002


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                                            neW un ConVentIon on tHe RIGHts oF PeRsons WItH dIsABIlItIes: IMPlICAtIoNs for eCCd          39


   eCCd programmes and family-based              Potential implications of the                on the rights of the Child, the uN
   services and support.                         new un Convention on the                     standard rules on the equalization
                                                 lives of young children                      of opportunities for Persons with
   since for all children the first years
                                                                                              disabilities, and the education for
   are critical, support to immediate and
                                                 the new uN Convention (CrPd) offers          All declaration (see Annex 2). “All
   extended family members is essential
                                                 a renewed opportunity for every              point the way towards overcoming
   to create the required caring and
                                                 country, community, and organisation         discrimination and recognizing the
   stimulating environment. But the reality
                                                 to “re-energise” and/or reexamine            right to full participation of children
   for many children with a disability and/
                                                 existing legislation, policies, budgets,     and adolescents with disabilities—in
   or having special health needs is that
                                                 and programmes and to promote                the home and community, in school
   they are often fated to a “poor start
                                                 coordinated efforts to ensure that all       and health services, during recreation
   in life” and denied timely and critical
                                                 persons with disabilities are guaranteed     activities and in all other aspects of
   learning opportunities and protective
                                                 the same rights as others. But, the          life.” 8 Governments and civil society
   mechanisms to help them develop to
                                                 CrPd should not be seen in isolation         are now challenged to take advantage
   their full potential. their families in
                                                 from other International human rights        of the complementary role of each
   many cases do not receive the needed
                                                 standards and specific development           standard and commitment.
   support to provide this environment.
                                                 commitments, such as the Convention
   Children with disabilities then face
   barriers not only within their families
   and communities, but all too often they          BOX 2
   are also denied sustainable access to all
                                                    Highlights on critical issues
   forms and levels of quality education
   and health care, especially during the
                                                    (based on research and experience)
   early years. In addition, recognition            • the years 0-3 are critical in the formation of intelligence, personality,
   should be given to the challenges of             and social behaviour, and the effects of neglect are cumulative.
   children whose parents have disabilities,
                                                    • research has demonstrated that at least 80% of the brain’s capacity is
   and interventions to address their needs
                                                    developed before the age of three.
   and rights (as expressed in the CrPd)
   should be guaranteed.                            • Brain development is much more vulnerable to environmental influences
                                                    than suspected. this includes not only nutrition but also the quality of
   Because experiences and support
                                                    interaction, care, and stimulation.
   during the early years influence
   the child’s lifelong learning and                • there are proven ’windows of opportunity’ for learning during the first
   inclusion, family and community                  years of a child’s life. If these windows are not opened at the critical time
   efforts to create a healthy, safe, and           period, it will be difficult, if not impossible, for a particular type of learning
   stimulating environment are critical             to occur at a later date.
   for all children. More important,
                                                    • for almost all impairments, the timing for intervention is critical and
   for those children living in poverty
                                                    becomes particularly important when a child runs the risk of missing an
   and violent situations and/or faced
                                                    opportunity to learn during a state of maximum readiness.
   with specific developmental delays
   and/or disabilities, more systematic             • It is not uncommon for some disabilities to go unnoticed unless parents
   interventions and quality support are            are aware of what to look for. for example, many children are not identified
   required for them and their extended             as being deaf or hearing impaired until the age of two or more. since
   family. Box 2 outlines the findings              hearing is connected to every other aspect of development, however,
   from research on the importance of               it is important to make an early identification.
   the early years for infants and young            • developmental delays should be prevented or reversed during this early
   children with developmental delays               period of rapid brain growth. It becomes increasingly difficult to reverse
   and/or disabilities. 6 / 7 research clearly      delays after age three.
   demonstrates the importance of
   prevention of or early intervention for          Source: One-in-Ten RI/UNICEF publication “Early Intervention for Children with
   a number of disabilities in order to help        Disabilities” and Consultative Group Draft Handout—Cornerstone 1: Pregnancy
                                                    to Age Three (2007)
   children develop to their full potential.



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     What must be considered as a                 to explore ways to place disability and       the lives of a significant portion of
     critical aspect of the CrPd? the             eCCd issues on the public agenda              the world’s population and impacting
     new Convention makes a major shift           (“discussion table”), to “make visible”       more on those already excluded.
     away from the medical to the social          the rights and needs of some of the
                                                                                                “Poverty is a pervasive barrier to rights
     model of disability, which recognises        most vulnerable and excluded young
                                                                                                achievement and participation and is
     that “obstacles to participation in          children, and to design and implement
                                                                                                both a cause and a consequence of
     society and its institutions reside in       specific programmes and interventions
                                                                                                disability. families living in poverty are
     the environment rather than in the           with a priority on the early years and
                                                                                                much more vulnerable to sickness and
     individual, and that such barriers can       families?
                                                                                                infection, especially in infancy and
     and must be prevented, reduced or
                                                  • Why, with all the intense effort            early childhood. they are also less likely
     eliminated.” Also family and societal
                                                  to promote and advocate for the               to receive adequate health care or to
     attitudes play a critical role (especially
                                                  rights and participation of children,         be able to pay for basic medicines or
     in the early years), often projecting
                                                  adolescents and women with and                school fees. the costs of caring for a
     “widespread underestimation of the
                                                  without a disability and special              child with a disability create further
     abilities and potential of children with
                                                  needs, are the youngest children with         hardship for a family, particularly for
     disabilities, which creates a vicious
                                                  disabilities and their families not fully     mothers who are often prevented from
     cycle of under-expectation, under-
                                                  considered, even by the same adult            working and contributing to family
     achievement and low priority in the
                                                  disability movement and/or those              income.” 10 It is also well known that
     allocation of resources.”
                                                  organisations and agencies involved           having a disability or a family member
     Without a doubt, the CrPd provides           with and promoting eCCd policies and          with a disability makes it more likely
     an additional “spark” to guarantee           specific initiatives?                         that one will live in poverty or descend
     the rights of young children with                                                          into poverty.
                                                  Productive efforts to achieve stated
     disabilities and special needs. A brief
                                                  CrPd objectives and results for all           As we attempt to achieve the MdG
     review and analysis of the CrPd
                                                  children and adolescents—especially           and efA goals, especially in those
     Preamble section and specific articles
                                                  for those young children with                 components related to young
     will assist to reveal some important
                                                  established disabilities or special health    children and their families, we have
     elements to advocate for and act
                                                  needs who are experiencing delays in          an excellent opportunity to combine
     upon, in relation to the rights of and
                                                  their development—will depend on              (integrate) strategies and promote
     required actions for children and their
                                                  the capacity and commitment of all            timely initiatives leading to multiple
     families (see Annex 1 for an overview
                                                  sectors of society to undertake and           results. We must recognize that MdG
     of specific sections supporting families
                                                  sustain collective initiatives, recognising   and efA goals will not be achieved if
     and young children with special
                                                                                                children, adolescents, and adults with
     needs).
                                                                                                disabilities and special health needs,
     A specific call to action                      10% (200 million) of the world’s            and their families, are left out of the
                                                                                                picture (considering Who estimates
                                                    children and young people are
     With all the excitement and movement                                                       that around 10% of the world’s
     for the new CrPd, we must ask                  born with or develop a sensory,             children and young people have a
     ourselves some difficult questions if          intellectual or mental health               sensory, intellectual, or mental health
     we truly want to take advantage of                                                         impairment).
                                                    impairment
     this opportunity to make a long-lasting
     impact on the lives of young children                                                      the new Convention, with its fifty
                                                    World health organisation                   Articles and optional Protocol,
     with disabilities and their families,
     and advance towards achieving stated                                                       provides us with an important and
     goals:                                                                                     renewed platform for action. We, as
                                                  that disabilities and existing attitudes
                                                                                                a concerned community, must make
     • Why, with all the knowledge we             on rights cannot be seen in isolation
                                                                                                visible and alive those critical aspects
     have accumulated, combined with              and the impact of such conditions and
                                                                                                related to the early years that are not
     years of experience and recognising          negative attitudes crosses all aspects
                                                                                                presently emphasised. As a first step
     the existence of and approval by             and stages of a child’s life. existing
                                                                                                and in line with emerging CGeCCd
     a high percentage of countries’              poverty situations—targeted for
                                                                                                priorities, we must expand our vision
     legal frameworks and international           reduction by international agencies and
                                                                                                and efforts in the upcoming eCCd
     commitments, are we still attempting         national governments—are affecting
                                                                                                advocacy, social mobilisation, and

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   communication initiatives (based             Please note: a more detailed                disabilities and (2) how the CG’s
   on the 4 Cornerstones), to make              article will be prepared with               4 Cornerstones can be expanded
   the present invisible topic of young         specific references to other                to include more specific elements
   children with developmental delays,          international commitments (EFA,             related to children with special
   disabilities, and/or special health needs    etc.) and will include more in-depth        needs.
   and their families more public and a         discussions on: (1) the importance
   concern of all.                              of early intervention and family
                                                involvement for children with




     ANNeX 1

    un Convention on the Rights of Persons with disabilities
    (Overview of specific sections supporting families and young children with special needs)
    Preamble The States parties to the present Convention:
    (d) recalling the International Covenant on economic, social and Cultural rights, the International Covenant on Civil
        and Political rights, the International Convention on the elimination of All forms of racial discrimination, the
        Convention on the elimination of All forms of discrimination against Women, the Convention against torture and
        other Cruel, Inhuman or degrading treatment or Punishment, the Convention on the rights of the Child, and the
        International Convention on the Protection of the rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their families.
    (e) recognising that disability is an evolving concept and that disability results from the interaction between persons with
        impairments and the attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinder their full and effective participation in society
        on an equal basis with others.
    (g) emphasising the importance of mainstreaming disability issues as an integral part of relevant strategies of sustainable
        development.
    (r) recognising that children with disabilities should have full enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms
        on an equal basis with other children, and recalling obligations to that end undertaken by states parties to the
        Convention on the rights of the Child.
    (x) Convinced that the family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by
        society and the state, and that persons with disabilities and their family members should receive the necessary
        protection and assistance to enable families to contribute towards the full and equal enjoyment of the rights of
        persons with disabilities.
    Article 1: Purpose
    the purpose of the present Convention is to promote, protect and ensure the full and equal enjoyment of all human
    rights and fundamental freedoms by all persons with disabilities, and to promote respect for their inherent dignity.
    Article 3: General principles
    the principles of the present Convention shall be:
    (h) respect for the evolving capacities of children with disabilities and respect for the right of children with disabilities to
        preserve their identities.
    Article 4: General obligations
    3. In the development and implementation of legislation and policies to implement the present Convention, and
    in other decision-making processes concerning issues relating to persons with disabilities, states parties shall closely



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       consult with and actively involve persons with disabilities, including children with disabilities, through their representative
       organisations.
       Article 6: Women with disabilities
       1. states parties recognize that women and girls with disabilities are subject to many kinds of discrimination, and in
       this regard shall take measures to ensure the full and equal enjoyment by them of all human rights and fundamental
       freedoms.
       Article 7: Children with disabilities (entire section is relevant)
       1. states parties shall take all necessary measures to ensure the full enjoyment by children with disabilities of all human
       rights and fundamental freedoms on an equal basis with other children.
       2. In all actions concerning children with disabilities, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration.
       3. states parties shall ensure that children with disabilities have the right to express their views freely on all matters
       affecting them, their views being given due weight in accordance with their age and maturity, on an equal basis with
       other children, and to be provided with disability and age-appropriate assistance to realise that right.
       Article 8: Awareness-raising
       1. states parties undertake to adopt immediate, effective and appropriate measures:
       (a) to raise awareness throughout society, including at the family level, regarding persons with disabilities, and to foster
       respect for the rights and dignity of persons with disabilities.
       2. Measures to this end include:
       (b) fostering at all levels of the education system, including in all children from an early age, an attitude of respect for
           the rights of persons with disabilities.
       Article 16: Freedom from exploitation, violence and abuse
       2. states parties shall also take all appropriate measures to prevent all forms of exploitation, violence and abuse by
       ensuring, inter alia, appropriate forms of gender- and age-sensitive assistance and support for persons with disabilities
       and their families and caregivers, including through the provision of information and education on how to avoid,
       recognise and report instances of exploitation, violence and abuse. states parties shall ensure that protection services are
       age-, gender- and disability-sensitive.
       5. states parties shall put in place effective legislation and policies, including women- and child-focused legislation
       and policies, to ensure that instances of exploitation, violence and abuse against persons with disabilities are identified,
       investigated and, where appropriate, prosecuted.
       Article 18: liberty of movement and nationality
       2. Children with disabilities shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have the right from birth to a name, the
       right to acquire a nationality and, as far as possible, the right to know and be cared for by their parents.
       Article 23: Respect for home and the family
       1. states parties shall take effective and appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against persons with
       disabilities in all matters relating to marriage, family, parenthood and relationships, on an equal basis with others, so as
       to ensure that:
       (a) the right of all persons with disabilities who are of marriageable age to marry and to found a family on the basis of
           free and full consent of the intending spouses is recognised.
       (b) the rights of persons with disabilities to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of their children
           and to have access to age-appropriate information, reproductive and family planning education are recognised, and
           the means necessary to enable them to exercise these rights are provided.


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    3. states parties shall ensure that children with disabilities have equal rights with respect to family life. With a view to
    realising these rights, and to prevent concealment, abandonment, neglect and segregation of children with disabilities,
    states parties shall undertake to provide early and comprehensive information, services and support to children with
    disabilities and their families.
    Article 24: education
    1. states parties recognize the right of persons with disabilities to education. With a view to realising this right without
    discrimination and on the basis of equal opportunity, states parties shall ensure an inclusive education system at all levels
    and lifelong learning directed to:
    (a) the full development of human potential and sense of dignity and self-worth, and the strengthening of respect for
        human rights, fundamental freedoms and human diversity.
    (b) the development by persons with disabilities of their personality, talents and creativity, as well as their mental and
        physical abilities, to their fullest potential.
    (c) enabling persons with disabilities to participate effectively in a free society.
    2. In realising this right, states parties shall ensure that:
    (a) Persons with disabilities are not excluded from the general education system on the basis of disability, and that
    children with disabilities are not excluded from free and compulsory primary education, or from secondary education, on
    the basis of disability.
    (b) Persons with disabilities can access an inclusive, quality and free primary education and secondary education on an
        equal basis with others in the communities in which they live.
    (d) Persons with disabilities receive the support required, within the general education system, to facilitate their effective
        education.
    (e) effective individualised support measures are provided in environments that maximise academic and social
        development, consistent with the goal of full inclusion.
    Article 25: Health
    1. states parties recognise that persons with disabilities have the right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable
    standard of health without discrimination on the basis of disability. states parties shall take all appropriate measures
    to ensure access for persons with disabilities to health services that are gender sensitive, including health-related
    rehabilitation. In particular, states parties shall:
    (b) Provide those health services needed by persons with disabilities specifically because of their disabilities, including
        early identification and intervention as appropriate, and services designed to minimise and prevent further
        disabilities, including among children and older persons.
    Article 26 : Habilitation and rehabilitation
    1. states parties shall take effective and appropriate measures, including through peer support, to enable persons
    with disabilities to attain and maintain maximum independence, full physical, mental, social and vocational ability, and
    full inclusion and participation in all aspects of life. to that end, states parties shall organize, strengthen and extend
    comprehensive habilitation and rehabilitation services and programmes, particularly in the areas of health, employment,
    education and social services, in such a way that these services and programmes:
    (a) Begin at the earliest possible stage, and are based on the multidisciplinary assessment of individual needs and
        strengths.
    (b) support participation and inclusion in the community and all aspects of society, are voluntary, and are available to
        persons with disabilities as close as possible to their own communities, including in rural areas.



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       Article 28: Adequate standard of living and social protection
       1. states parties recognise the right of persons with disabilities to an adequate standard of living for themselves and
       their families, including adequate food, clothing and housing, and to the continuous improvement of living conditions,
       and shall take appropriate steps to safeguard and promote the realisation of this right without discrimination on the
       basis of disability.
       2. states parties recognise the right of persons with disabilities to social protection and to the enjoyment of that
       right without discrimination on the basis of disability, and shall take appropriate steps to safeguard and promote the
       realisation of this right, including measures:
       (a) to ensure equal access by persons with disabilities to clean water services, and to ensure access to appropriate and
           affordable services, devices and other assistance for disability-related needs.
       (b) to ensure access by persons with disabilities, in particular women and girls with disabilities and older persons with
           disabilities, to social protection programmes and poverty reduction programmes.
       (c) to ensure access by persons with disabilities and their families living in situations of poverty to assistance from the
           state with disability-related expenses, including adequate training, counselling, financial assistance and respite care.
       Article 30: Participation in cultural life, recreation, leisure and sport
       5. With a view to enabling persons with disabilities to participate on an equal basis with others in recreational, leisure
       and sporting activities, states parties shall take appropriate measures:
       (d) to ensure that children with disabilities have equal access with other children to participation in play, recreation and
           leisure and sporting activities, including those activities in the school system.



       ANNeX 2

       Human rights instruments and high-level decisions reinforcing the rights of persons with
       disabilities
       Complementing the universal declaration of human rights, the International Covenant on economic, social and Cultural
       rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political rights and the Convention on the rights of the Child, the
       following texts and international events specifically address the rights of persons with disabilities:
       1971          declaration on the rights of Mentally retarded Persons stipulates that a person with an intellectual
                     impairment is accorded the same rights as any other person
       1975          declaration on the rights of disabled Persons proclaims the equal civil and political rights of all disabled
                     persons and sets standards for equal treatment and access to services
       1981          International year of disabled Persons (united Nations)
       1982          World Programme of Action concerning disabled Persons
       1983−1992 International decade of disabled Persons (united Nations)
       1990          World declaration on education for All and framework for Action to Meet Basic learning Needs adopted
                     at the World Conference on education for All in Jomtien, thailand in March 1990, promotes “equal access
                     to education to every category of disabled persons as an integral part of the education system”
       1993          united Nations standard rules on the equalisation of opportunities for Persons with disabilities provide
                     detailed guidelines for policy development and implementation
       1993−2002 Asian and Pacific decade of disabled Persons



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       1994            salamanca statement and the framework for Action on special Needs education. Adopted by the uNesCo
                       World Conference on special Needs education: Access and Quality, salamanca, spain, 7-10 June 1994.
                       Adopted by 92 governments and over 25 international organizations, putting the principle of inclusion on
                       the educational agenda worldwide
       1995            World summit for social development, Copenhagen declaration and Programme of Action calls upon
                       governments to ensure equal educational opportunities at all levels for disabled children, youth and adults,
                       in integrated settings
       1998            human rights of Persons with disabilities, Commission on human rights resolution 1998/31
       2000            World education forum, dakar, statement and framework for Action established attainable and affordable
                       educational goals, including the goals of ensuring that by 2015 all children of primary age have better
                       access to complete free schooling of an acceptable quality, that gender disparities in schooling are
                       eliminated and that all aspects of educational quality are improved
       2000            human rights of Persons with disabilities, Commission on human rights resolution 2000/51
       2001−2009 African decade of disabled Persons
       2002            uN General Assembly resolution on the rights of the Child, following the World summit on Children, calls
                       upon states to take all necessary measures to ensure the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and
                       fundamental freedoms by children with disabilities, and to develop and enforce legislation against their
                       discrimination, so as to ensure dignity, promote self-reliance and facilitate the child’s active participation
                       in the community, including effective access to educational and health services
       2002            ’A World fit for Children,’ outcome document of the uN General Assembly special session on Children,
                       makes clear reference to the rights of children with disabilities, especially regarding protection from
                       discrimination, full access to services, and access to proper treatment and care, as well as the promotion
                       of family-based care and appropriate support systems for families
       2003−2012 second Asian and Pacific decade of disabled Persons
       2004−2013 Arab decade of disabled Persons
       2006            uN Convention on the rights of Persons with disabilities
       2006−2016 Inter-American decade of disabled Persons



   References
   1 uNICef   – Innocenti research Centre,
                                                       5
                                                        World fit for Children – Plan of Action, section    8
                                                                                                             uNICef – Innocenti research Centre,
   “Promoting the rights of Children with              A; Creating a World fit for Children, adopted        “Promoting the rights of Children with
   disabilities,” Innocenti digest No. 13, 2007.       by the uN General Assembly at the 27th special       disabilities,” Innocenti digest No. 13, 2007.
                                                       session, 10 May, 2002.
   2
    united Nations website (united Nations enable
                                                                                                            9
                                                                                                             uNICef – Innocenti research Centre,
   rights and dignity of Persons with disabilities),
                                                       6
                                                        rehabilitation International – uNICef, one-in-      “Promoting the rights of Children with
   8 January 2008, http://www.un.org/disabilities.     ten rI/uNICef publication, “early Intervention for   disabilities,” Innocenti digest No. 13, 2007.
                                                       Children with disabilities,” Volume 20, 1999.
   3
    declaration of the World fit for Children,                                                               uNICef – Innocenti research Centre,
                                                                                                            10



   adopted by the uN General Assembly at the 27th
                                                       7
                                                        Consultative Group on early Childhood Care          “Promoting the rights of Children with
   special session, 10 May, 2002.                      and development (CGeCCd), draft handout –            disabilities,” Innocenti digest No. 13, 2007.
                                                       Cornerstone 1: Pregnancy to Age three (section
   4
    World fit for Children – Plan of Action, section   – “Why invest in the beginning of life?”), 2007.
   A; Creating a World fit for Children, adopted
   by the uN General Assembly at the 27th special
   session, 10 May, 2002.




CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
46

     Planning for success:
     Advocacy as process in turkey’s
     Mother Child education Foundation (AÇeV)
                                                 Frank smith and Ayla Goksel Gocer


     effective advocacy depends on more         budget, and no other organisation            set of clear and attainable objectives,
     than a series of successful activities;    for economic Cooperation and                 a plan on how to achieve them, and
     it requires a carefully thought out        development (oeCd) country spent             adequate resources, the advocacy
     process that includes analysis, planning   a smaller portion of its education           effort would fail.
     and strategising, negotiation and          budget on eCe. Consequently, in 2003
     consensus building, action, and            only 360,000 children (15.7%) were           AÇeV’s advocacy strategy
     evaluation. this process maximises         enrolled in eCe services. regional           the strategy included three phases:
     limited resources and ensures that         disparities in service provision meant       (1) analysis and strategic planning;
     activities have the greatest chance to     that access was as low as 2% in              (2) implementation; and (3) monitoring
     influence people who have the power        some provinces. the vast majority of         and evaluation.
     to change a situation.                     preschool children entered first grade
                                                with no education, a situation that          Phase 1: Analysis and strategic
     the Mother Child education
                                                would seriously affect their long-term       planning
     foundation (AÇeV) was set up in
                                                educational success.                         Planning was key. thus phase 1
     1993 to provide both early childhood
     and adult education. In its first          to address the situation and to meet         involved:
     ten years, the organisation helped         its organisational objectives, AÇeV          • Analysis and research to identify
     300,000 people across turkey and           realised that it would need to engage        the issues, problems, and possible
     abroad through its projects. the           at the national policy level. Moving         solutions, as well as solid evidence to
     organisation’s successful track record     into the area of national advocacy           highlight the extent of the problem, its
     gained widespread recognition and,         represented a departure from                 impact, and the viability of solutions.
     on its 10th anniversary, AÇeV won          AÇeV’s core work, which had been             this analysis was the basis for the
     the prestigious Vehbi Koç Award            programme based. staff therefore             development of messages.
     from the Vehbi Koç foundation for          dedicated some time to understanding
     its work in and contribution to the        the principles and steps involved in         • A power analysis to identify key
     field of education. despite its success    advocacy. they then developed a              stakeholders, including audiences,
     at the local field level, AÇeV’s impact    detailed strategy that identified the        targets, and opponents, and then
     at the national policy level remained      key obstacles to the expansion of eCe,       analyse their understanding and
     limited. the organisation responded        the means of overcoming them, and            attitudes toward the issue. this step
     by developing an advocacy campaign         the support base that needed to be           included an analysis of how decisions
     to address public perceptions and          mobilised for this to happen.                are made, who makes them, and who
     understanding of early childhood                                                        influences them.
                                                AÇeV realised that neither the
     education (eCe), as well as to increase                                                 • Identification of human as well
                                                strength of the message alone nor the
     government response to the needs of                                                     as financial resources, taking into
                                                organisation’s credibility as a successful
     young children.                                                                         consideration organisational credibility
                                                implementer of eCe programmes were
                                                sufficient to persuade the government        and access to decision makers.
     early Childhood education
                                                to change its policies and practice on       • definition of strategies and
     in turkey
                                                eCe. they needed to develop a way            development of an action plan to set
     despite a number of limited                to ensure that the right information         clear and realistic objectives, identify
     statements recognising the importance      reached decision makers at the right         approaches to be taken, agree on
     of eCe, the turkish government had         time—and in the right format to              actions with allies, and identify key
     not prioritised the issue. Government      influence the policy process. Analysis       dates and the timing of decisions
     spending on eCe accounted for the          and planning were seen as critical to        made at the government level (to
     smallest fraction of its education         the advocacy campaign. Without a             ensure that interventions were made in


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                                    PlAnnInG FoR suCCess: AdVoCACy As ProCess IN turKey’s Mother ChIld eduCAtIoN fouNdAtIoN (AÇeV)              47


   a manner that linked in with political             • turkey’s planned european union               “Continuing effects of early
   decision-making processes).                        accession produced a greater                    Intervention in Adult life” (Çigdaem
                                                      government desire to signal its                 Kagıtçıbası, sevda Bekman, diane
   Phase 2: Implementation                            willingness to undertake social reforms         sunar, Zeynep Cemalcılar, AÇeV
   AÇeV engaged in a series of                        and engage civil society in governance.         2004) and “A Cost-Benefit Analysis
   activities with partners and allies that                                                           of Preschool education” (Mehmet
                                                      • the planned 2007 election offered
   included media work, updating and                                                                  Kaytaz, AÇeV 2004). these reports
                                                      the opportunity to influence parties to
   disseminating research, lobbying,                                                                  highlighted the strengths and
                                                      include eCe in their manifestos.
   meetings and conferences, public                                                                   weaknesses of different eCe models
   mobilisation, and events.                          Based on the analysis of the climate            (e.g., home-based versus eCe centres),
                                                      and an understanding of the nature              demonstrated long-term effects of eCe
   Phase 3: Monitoring and evaluation                 of political opportunity open to the            in adulthood, and strengthened the
   Monitoring was a constant process                  advocacy team, two main objectives              arguments for the economic benefits
   that occurred throughout the                       were developed:                                 of eCe. the advocacy campaign had
   campaign, allowing the team to                                                                     three main messages:
                                                      • to increase awareness of the
   change course as needed and to
                                                      importance of preschool education               • eCe is important and there is a
   remain relevant to changes in the
                                                      among decision makers, opinion                  scientific basis for considering it so.
   outside world as the advocacy
                                                      leaders, and the general public.
   campaign progressed. evaluations took                                                              • Parents can and should play
   place periodically, as well as at the end          • to influence a change in education            an active role in supporting the
   of the campaign, to review success                 policy and make preschool education             development of children between the
   and strategic direction.                           (age 5-6) universal in turkey within five       ages of 0 and 6 years.
                                                      years, utilising a variety of models and
   A positive climate for an                                                                          • Politicians of all parties need to do
                                                      focusing on the most disadvantaged
                                                                                                      more to address eCe.
   eCe advocacy campaign                              groups in society.
                                                                                                      Very soon after the campaign was
   An analysis of the environmental,                  AÇeV took a three-phased approach
                                                                                                      launched, turkey’s most influential and
   political, and social factors in turkey            to the advocacy campaign:
                                                                                                      powerful business association, tusIAd
   identified a positive climate for an
                                                      • Build and consolidate alliances.              (turkish Businessmen and Industrialists
   advocacy campaign on eCe. this was
                                                      • raise awareness about the social,             Association), also commissioned
   due to a number of factors, including
                                                      economic, and political importance              and published a report on eCe. the
   the following:
                                                      of eCe through a coordinated media              press launch was conducted with
   • the World Bank published a long-                                                                 the participation of the Minister of
                                                      public awareness campaign targeting
   term impacts and cost-benefit analysis                                                             education and put forward the costs
                                                      the general public, private sector
   of eCe at the end of 2004.1                                                                        and investments needed to increase
                                                      interests, political players, and other
   • the government made a                            key decision makers.                            eCe in the next five years. this made a
   commitment to prioritise an education                                                              watertight case for eCe and the need
                                                      • engage the government directly,               for increased government attention.
   sector reform that included expansion,
                                                      using AÇeV’s research and expertise to
   albeit limited, of preschool coverage.                                                             AÇeV updated its information
                                                      shape the debate.
   • Political stability, with one party                                                              regularly, thereby remaining topical
                                                      the main arguments for an increased             on the issue, which is important for
   in power (rather than a coalition
                                                      investment in eCe in turkey were                campaign and media credibility. A
   government) for the next three years,
                                                      contained in a report commissioned              public awareness survey was also
   allowed greater possibility of policy
                                                      by AÇeV for the education reform                conducted to measure public attitudes
   reform.
                                                      Initiative Consultative forum of May            and understanding of the issue. this
   • the country’s economic stability                 2003. the report, “early Childhood              allowed effective production and
   presented an opportunity for policy                education: Current situation and                packaging of messages.
   reforms, advancing a social as well as             recommendations,” highlighted
   an economic stabilisation agenda.                  areas of reform in turkey. AÇeV                 the key message of the campaign and
                                                      commissioned two further reports,               the logo “7 is too late!” was based

   1   “turkey—education sector study: Programmatic sector study Concept Note.” the World Bank Group, 2004.


CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
48   PlAnnInG FoR suCCess: AdVoCACy As ProCess IN turKey’s Mother ChIld eduCAtIoN fouNdAtIoN (AÇeV)




        fIGure 1

        Ads used in media and communications campaign.
        the headings are “1 to 7!”; “2 years ahead!”; “More successful!”; and “fair Chance for All!”




     on the Consultative Group’s “8 is too    from agencies and media groups.         posters. this tremendous output was
     late!” message, ensuring a degree of     editors, journalists, and columnists    accompanied by an eight-week radio
     consistency with the messages of other   were kept informed, and they became     show on Acık radyo. In addition,
     eCCd advocacy campaigns around the       sympathetic to the campaign. A          meetings were held at thirty-three
     world.                                   campaign website was set up (see        universities. t-shirts, bracelets, and
                                              www.7cokgec.org) and many other         shawls that carried campaign messages
     Campaign activities                      events were organised, including        were created by major designers
     Many activities were carried out         numerous lobbying activities. the       and sold in chain stores. six major
     during the advocacy campaign,            timing of the events and the target     companies now carry campaign logos
     including numerous press conferences     audiences were carefully thought out    on their products.
     and television appearances, regular      to ensure that the events were more
                                              likely to have the desired impact.      Measuring success
     spots on a popular daytime women’s
     television show, celebrity endorsement   the media campaign, which has now       the advocacy campaign was very
     (from Cem yılmaz, a popular turkish      been suspended to allow AÇeV to         successful. thirty million people (out
     stand-up comedian), and support from     focus on lobbying, produced 405         of a population of 70 million) were
     the private sector. A major national     articles in newspapers and magazines,   exposed to the campaign’s messages
     conference was held on eCe for           127 television news interviews, 2,800   through the various television, radio,
     economic and social development and      television advertisement spots, 205     and print media. In the academic
     was attended by the first lady and       advertisements in newspapers and        year 2004-5 when the campaign
     Queen rania.                             magazines, 100 advertisement spots      started, the preschool enrolment rate
                                              shown during movie screenings,          was 16.1%; in 2006-7 it increased
     A media campaign was designed
                                              and 400 outdoor billboards and          to 25.1%. this translates to an
     and implemented with major support
                                                                                      astonishing increase of 56% in access



                                                                                               CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
                              PlAnnInG FoR suCCess: AdVoCACy As ProCess IN turKey’s Mother ChIld eduCAtIoN fouNdAtIoN (AÇeV)            49


   to preschool education among children     • Advocacy is time-consuming in detail       next steps
   aged 4 to 6. the campaign changed         and follow-up; therefore adequate            the campaign has been successful in
   perceptions on eCe, as reflected in       human resources are needed and an            raising awareness on early childhood
   statements made by senior education       effective team needs to be built.            in turkey. the challenge now remains
   officials, including the Minister of                                                   for policy changes to take place.
                                             • the advocacy team can’t do
   education, on the importance of eCe.                                                   AÇeV has decided that it will focus
                                             everything; expertise needs to be
   the Minister even used the campaign                                                    its efforts for the next two years
                                             hired in, and it is important to trust
   slogan in a number of speeches.                                                        on lobbying for legislative change.
                                             their expert advice, in particular for
   Parliamentarians are also discussing                                                   under current legislation, compulsory
                                             the production of creative material to
   the introduction of a compulsory                                                       education begins at age 6. AÇeV is
                                             ensure that campaign products have
   kindergarten year. An attitudinal                                                      now pushing for a change in legislation
                                             a professional look and feel.
   survey conducted by the advocacy                                                       to make compulsory education start
   team demonstrated a marked change         • Messages should target the people          a year before formal schooling, in
   in attitude and understanding of eCe      who are skeptical rather than the            kindergarten at age 5. AÇeV is also
   among people in positions of power in     already-converted.                           working with the Ministry of education
   society.                                                                               and the state Planning organisation
                                             • specific messages are needed to
   In the most recent phase, the             mobilise the public; be clear about          for further analysis on the costs and
   campaign capitalised on the upcoming      what you want people to know and             financing of preschool expansion.
   national elections and ran full-page      to do.                                       efforts on the international front to
   advertisements in newspapers calling                                                   promote early childhood education and
                                             • Media headlines do not mean
   on all political parties and the public                                                raise awareness among stakeholders
                                             advocacy success. It is easy to get
   to promote eCe and to make universal                                                   and decision makers have always been
                                             carried away with communications and
   preschool education an election issue.                                                 very important for AÇeV’s work. even
                                             neglect other activities that may need
   this was followed up by television                                                     the campaign slogan “7 is too late!”
                                             different strategies.
   and radio appearances by the political                                                 was borrowed from the Consultative
   candidates.                               • Be clear about who the decision            Group’s “8 is too late!” advocacy
                                             makers are (they are different from          initiative for the Jomtien Conference.
   It was gratifying to note that many
                                             decision approvers and decision              AÇeV urges international actors such
   of the political parties mentioned
                                             advisors).                                   as the Consultative Group to increase
   eCe in their election manifestos and
   put forward targets for increasing        • A mechanism needs to be                    their efforts to place early childhood
   provision. however these fell short       established to ensure that funds can         on the global agenda, as this will aid
   of the campaign’s target of universal     be collected by different organisations      the work of national and local actors.
   preschool education by 2010.              for specific pre-agreed advocacy             Update at time of printing:
                                             activities. failure to do this may lead to   the government is making preschool
   lessons learned                           disagreement on how donations and            education compulsory in 10 provinces
                                             funding are used.                            (out of 81) in the new academic year.
   Measured against its objectives,
   the advocacy campaign has been a          • An organisation’s own networks             this piloting almost certainly means that
   success. however, the team learnt         should be mobilised.                         it will be rolled out in other provinces in
   a number of lessons related to the                                                     the next few years and the goal of the
                                             • the media lose attention quickly;          campaign—to ensure that all children in
   planning and implementation of large-
                                             they need to be fed with new stories         turkey benefit from at least one year of
   scale advocacy campaigns. AÇeV
                                             and fresh events, not rehashed               preschool by 2011—will be a reality!
   learned that:
                                             information.
   • A five-year plan and budget is                                                       For more information, contact:
                                             • Awareness is not an end in itself;         Ayla Goksel Gocer
   needed in order to realistically meet
                                             be clear about how you want people           Anne Çocuk egitim Vakfı – Mother
   objectives.
                                             to translate knowledge into action.          Child education foundation (AÇeV)
   • the plan should be rolled out                                                        Buyukdere Cad. No 85/2
                                             • International consensus and
   consistently and systematically; any                                                   Mecidiyeköy 34387
                                             pressure can greatly increase the
   break in activities risks a loss of                                                    Istanbul, turkey
                                             impact of any national advocacy
   momentum.                                                                              e-mail: aylag@acev.org
                                             effort.
                                                                                          Website: http://www.acev.org

CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
50

     engaging the private and public sectors in Brazil:
     A multisectoral approach to eCCd
                                                              Alessandra schneider, leila Almeida, Maria da Graça
                                                              Gomes Paiva and Frank smith 1



     Coordinating the efforts of like-minded                the impact of advocacy work.                        and increase the effort and investment
     individuals and organisations is a                     further, engaging and mobilising                    in eCCd. the Brazilian Millennium
     key strategy for advocacy on behalf                    different institutions across multiple              fund for early Childhood was launched
     of young children. other important                     sectors can increase the overall                    in december 2003 in the states of rio
     strategies include garnering the                       impact of programmes and generate                   Grande do sul and santa Catarina.
     support of potential champions for                     advocacy outcomes over and above                    the fund had three primary sponsors:
     children and helping them to see                       those anticipated by an individual                  uNesCo, the World Bank, and the
     how they might be allies; creating                     programme.                                          Mauricio sirotsky sobrinho foundation
     presentations and media products to                                                                        (fMss), which is part of the “rede
                                                            the Millennium fund for early
     inform, move, and persuade people;                                                                         Brasil sul de Comunicação-rBs,” a
                                                            Childhood, supported by the World
     maximising opportunities to plant the                                                                      Brazilian multimedia communications
                                                            Bank and two Brazilian private
     seeds of belief and introducing those                                                                      network that operates in southern
                                                            foundations, the Mauricio sirotsky
     seeds to decision makers and their                                                                         Brazil. the latter’s participation has
                                                            sobrinho foundation and the Gerdau
     support staff; lobbying skilfully and                                                                      been particularly useful in engaging
                                                            Institute, aims to enhance the quality
     personably; and positioning advocates                                                                      the media on eCCd and promoting
                                                            of early childhood centres in poor
     strategically on committees, especially                                                                    the fund.
                                                            neighbourhoods by establishing
     those who are willing to do the actual
                                                            “educational boards” to promote                     the objectives of the Millennium fund
     work of drafting policy documents to
                                                            in-service teacher training. the                    for early Childhood are consistent with
     ensure that the belief is represented in
                                                            pioneering public policy programme                  those of the global commitment of
     its proper context and with sufficient
                                                            Primeira Infância Melhor (Better early              the education for All (efA) movement
     weight (de los Angeles-Bautista,
                                                            Child development Programme; PIM)                   (for which uNesCo is the leading
     Coordinators’ Notebook no. 27, 2003).
                                                            was implemented by the rio Grande                   agency for both implementation
     In this article we will focus on two                   do sul state government with the                    and monitoring). uNesCo has been
     ground-breaking eCCd programmes                        technical support of uNesCo and                     lobbying the private sector to invest
     in Brazil—the Millennium fund                          its partner the Centro de referencia                in the fund and to augment the initial
     for early Childhood and Primeira                       latinoamericano para la educación                   seed money provided by the World
     Infância Melhor (Better early Child                    Preescolar (Centre of latin American                Bank.
     development Programme; PIM)—that                       reference on Preschooling education;
                                                                                                                the Millennium fund for early
     utilised these key advocacy strategies,                CeleP).
                                                                                                                Childhood aims to:
     among others. the two programmes
     complemented each other, drawing on                    engaging the private sector:                        • Improve the quality of early
     the strengths of the private sector to                 the Millennium Fund for                             childhood care and education (eCCe)
     mobilise resources and public opinion,                 early Childhood                                     provided by community-based,
     and on those of the state to formulate                                                                     philanthropic, or public crèches and
                                                            the concept of a Millennium fund
     the policies by which the programmes                                                                       preschools by establishing educational
                                                            for early Childhood was developed in
     could be effectively and sustainably                                                                       Boards 2 to promote in-service training
                                                            2002 at a meeting convened by the
     implemented.                                                                                               for eCCe teachers.
                                                            World Bank to address private sector
     engaging and mobilising different                      investment in eCCd services. the idea               • ensure that vulnerable children have
     institutions on eCCd within a                          was that a Millennium fund could                    better and healthier early childhoods
     particular sector greatly increases                    galvanise private sector participation              by increasing their opportunities to

     1 Alessandra schneider, Psychologist, is the early Childhood Care and education (eCCe) Programme officer, uNesCo Brasilia office; leila Almeida,
     social Worker, is the Better early Child development Programme Coordinator; Maria da Graça Gomes Paiva, Phd in education, is a uNesCo consultant;
     frank smith is an advocacy consultant.
     2   educational Boards are fully equipped resource centres that work with five local eCCe institutions, providing them with training and support.

                                                                                                                            CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
                                                   enGAGInG tHe PRIVAte And PuBlIC seCtoRs In BRAzIl: A MultIseCtorAl APProACh to eCCd                               51




                                                                                                                                                               Brasil: UNEsCo
       Launching of the Millennium Fund for Early Childhood with the presence of the state Governor, private sector leaders (Gerdau Group and RBs Chairmen,
       among others), and former UNEsCo Brasilia office Director, Porto Alegre, september 2003.


   play and learn, thereby broadening                    Boards in twelve cities in the southern              to an increase in public awareness
   their cultural universe, increasing their             states of rio Grande do sul and                      of the importance of eCCd and
   capacity to socialise with others, and                santa Catarina. By the end of 2006,                  highlighted the positive impacts of
   building positive values.                             the programme had trained 1,010                      effective eCCe provided by specially
                                                         educators from eighty-seven early                    trained staff. As a result of the
   An important part of the Millennium
                                                         childhood centres, benefiting 8,400                  programme’s work, one of the
   fund structure is its Advisory Council,
                                                         children from 0 to 6 years of age.                   largest steel companies in the world,
   a consultative body that holds
                                                                                                              Gerdau Group, decided to become
   quarterly meetings to oversee the                     Impact to date                                       an official partner of the programme
   implementation of the programme.
                                                         the Millennium fund for early                        and is supporting its extension to
   Council members include uNesCo, the
                                                         Childhood has increased the                          other Brazilian states (four so far). In
   Mauricio sirotsky sobrinho foundation,
                                                         effectiveness of eCCe institutions                   addition to their financial support,
   Gerdau Institute, and a number of
                                                         and their ability to act as an effective             the Gerdau Group’s participation has
   state institutions.
                                                         bridge to formal schooling. the media                acted as a catalyst for other companies
   over the past three and a half                        campaigns to enlist support for the                  to become programme partners. A
   years, the Millennium fund for early                  programme have also contributed                      recent television campaign led by the
   Childhood has established educational

   3 for example, M. N. McCain & J. M. fraser, The Early Years Study: final report, toronto: Canadian Institute for Advanced research, 1999; organisation
   for economic Cooperation and development (oeCd). Starting Strong: Early Childhood, Education and Care. Paris, 2001 [Brazilian edition: uNesCo Brasil,
   oeCd, and Ministério da saúde, Educação e Cuidado na Primeira Infância: Grandes Desafios, Brasília: uNesCo, 2002]; uNesCo, early Childhood services
   in Brazil: some Considerations on services for Crèches and Preschools and on Co-ordination of Public Policies for early Childhood [in Portuguese: Os
   Serviços para a Criança de 0 a 6 Anos no Brasil: Algumas Considerações sobre o Atendimento em Creches e Pré-Escolas e sobre Articulação de Políticas,
   Brasília: uNesCo, 2003]; uNICef, Situação da infância brasileira, 2001: Desenvolvimento Infantil, relatório, Brasilia: uNICef, 2001; World Bank, Brazil –
   early Child development: A focus on the Impact of Preschools, report, Washington, 2001.

CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
52   enGAGInG tHe PRIVAte And PuBlIC seCtoRs In BRAzIl: A MultIseCtorAl APProACh to eCCd




     Gerdau Group and the rBs Chairmen          terra, the state secretary of health,       ages of 0 and 3, including Baby’s
     that aimed to mobilise private sector      who became a passionate advocate            day and Baby’s Week, during which
     support for the fund had a positive        of eCCd and who spearheaded                 four international seminars have been
     impact on the business community.          the initiative at the state level. dr.      organised to date. senator hillary
     so far ten companies have become           terra has since become the official         Clinton was invited to the last seminar,
     partners, citing the Gerdau Group’s        Programme Coordinator.                      in March 2006. Although she could
     participation as a key reason for their                                                not attend, she recorded and sent
                                                the importance of solid research in
     support of the programme.                                                              a three-minute welcome speech.
                                                influencing policy makers cannot be
                                                                                            these initiatives were made possible
     engaging the public sector:                underestimated. It is the source of
                                                                                            through cooperation between state
                                                legitimacy for the advocacy initiative
     Primeira Infância Melhor                                                               government officials, uNesCo, and
                                                and a precondition for lobbying and
     though rio Grande do sul is one of                                                     staff from the World Bank. to reach
                                                public communications.
     Brazil’s most prosperous states, only                                                  the whole community, the government
                                                PIM aims to promote the holistic            also produced a media campaign
     264,225 of its children between the
                                                development of children from before         that included a one-minute video and
     ages of 0 and 6 are regularly enrolled
                                                birth (through prenatal care) and up        a song for the radio. the national
     in early childhood centres; of these,
                                                to the age of 6, paying particular          Globo television aired the video on its
     16.95% are in preschools (ages 4-6)
                                                attention to children under the age of      evening news bulletins.
     and only 6.75% are in crèches (0-3).
                                                3. the approach is based on an eCCd
     A staggering 1,064,214 children                                                        Impact to date
                                                methodology developed by the Cuban
     between the ages of 0 and 6 are
                                                programme “educa tu hijo” (teach            engaging the state has ensured that
     not officially enrolled in the local
                                                your Child). the programme provides         any obstacles at the policy level have
     educational systems (Censo escolar
                                                culturally and socially relevant guidance   been addressed to increase the overall
     2006, state secretariat of education,
                                                and information to families to enable       effectiveness of the programme. the
     in rio Grande do sul). uNesCo is
                                                them to better care for and support         state legislature has passed a number
     currently working with the public
                                                their children’s holistic development.      of decrees that have had a positive
     authorities to address this gap in eCCe
                                                PIM focuses on low-income families,         impact on the programme, including
     coverage.
                                                many of whom have incomes of                the following:
     In 2000 uNesCo, uNICef, and the            only about us$65 a month, and
     World Bank supported the federal                                                       • decree 42.199 of April 7, 2003
                                                whose children have no access to
     government and a local NGo, the                                                        officially set up the state Committee
                                                early childhood centres (crèches or
     Instituto Zero a três (Zero to three                                                   for early Child holistic development
                                                preschool). It also aims to promote
     Institute), to organise three scientific                                               (CedIPI).
                                                prenatal care for pregnant women.
     events where leading experts               the programme is being implemented          • decree 42.200 of April 7, 2003
     presented key findings on eCCd 3           by 1,544 home visitors and currently        officially announced a “Baby’s day”
     in Brasilia (federal district), Porto      benefits 57,900 children under the age      (November 23) and a “Baby’s Week”
     Alegre (rio Grande do sul) and rio         of 6 from 38,600 low-income families,       in the state of rio Grande do sul,
     de Janeiro (rio de Janeiro). Among         as well as 4,632 pregnant women.            during which different activities and an
     those attending these events were                                                      International Convention on eCCd are
                                                the programme is a multisectoral
     members of the state government of                                                     held.
                                                initiative coordinated by the state
     rio Grande do sul. the presentations
                                                secretariat of health in partnership        • regulation 15/2003 of April 7,
     made such an impression on these
                                                with the state secretariats of              2003 officially set up the programme
     members of government that, when
                                                education, of Culture, and of Justice       and established financial incentives
     they were in a position to do so, they
                                                and social development. responsibility      (allocated monthly) for each home
     decided to design and implement an
                                                for its implementation lies with local      visitor channelled through the
     eCCd pilot project called “Primeira
                                                governments. By July 2007, PIM had          municipalities. two later regulations
     Infância Melhor” (Better early Child
                                                been implemented in 219 of the 496          have increased the incentive (to
     development Programme; PIM). they
                                                municipalities in rio Grande do sul.        r$400,000 or us$208).
     did this with guidance and technical
     support from uNesCo. the pilot             the state government has set up many        In July 2006, the state Governor
     project was presented to the state         initiatives to highlight the importance     tabled a law that was approved by
     Governor by dr. osmar Gasparini            of eCCd, especially between the             all parliamentarians in the house of


                                                                                                     CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
                                              enGAGInG tHe PRIVAte And PuBlIC seCtoRs In BRAzIl: A MultIseCtorAl APProACh to eCCd          53


                                                  government and the private sector           the eCCd initiatives and programmes
                                                  have seen the benefits of their             are sustainable and can be scaled up
      Partnerships between
                                                  particular initiatives spread far           regionally and nationally.
      private sector and local                    beyond the specific areas they were
      public authorities facilitated              engaging in, either through direct          next steps
      by international cooperation                interventions or through mobilising         • PIM is to be implemented in other
                                                  resources and political will. the           municipalities in both rio Grande do
      agencies contribute to                      public awareness campaigns that             sul and other states, in partnership
      sustainability and scaling up efforts       formed an integral aspect of both           with public authorities and with the
                                                  programmes complemented each                support of private institutions and
                                                  other and increased the momentum            foundations.
                                                  behind eCCd, leading to an increase
   representatives to officially adopt PIM        in support from the private sector          • the development and
   as state policy (law 12.544 backdated          and to greater interest by the federal      implementation of a new programme,
   from July 4, 2006). rio Grande do              government and other states in Brazil.      PIM-dIVersIty, aims to evaluate,
   sul is the first state in Brazil to pass                                                   adapt, and design specific PIM
   such a law. PIM, as a pioneering               lessons learned                             activities and resources for Quilombo
   and successful eCCd programme,                                                             (Afro-Brazilian) and Indigenous
   has gained official interest from              • the support provided by
                                                                                              communities.
   Brazil’s federal government and from           international multilateral agencies is
                                                  vital when launching development            • the Brazilian Millennium fund for
   other states and municipalities, as
                                                  and partnership programmes across           early Childhood aims to expand its
   well as from private institutions and
                                                  different areas and sectors.                presence and activities to include other
   foundations.
                                                                                              states and to increase its partnership
                                                  • Collaborative efforts to promote
   Coordinating approaches                                                                    base.
                                                  eCCd have proved to be more
   the two programmes complement                  effective than individual ones. It is       UNESCO has been formally working
   each other. the Millennium fund                worth investing in new (coordinated)        in Brazil since 1964. However, it was
   for early Childhood is focused on              management approaches in the public         only in 1992 following the Jomtien
   raising adequate resources for                 sector, such as round-table decision        Conference (Thailand, 1991) that
   eCCd; PIM is aimed at developing               making on an intersectoral basis, and       UNESCO began to work more closely
   a model programme and, in the                  in partnership with civil society and the   with Brazil’s Ministry of Education.
   process, developing a positive policy          private sector.                             From then on, UNESCO consolidated
   climate and institutional structures                                                       its presence throughout the country,
                                                  • reciprocal exchange and learning
   at the municipal and state levels                                                          mobilising its technical competence
                                                  between the state and municipal
   to implement the programme.                                                                to support projects on education and
                                                  authorities challenges the traditional
   the overlap between these two                                                              other issues (e.g., natural and social
                                                  top-down relationship between state
   programmes has enabled them to                                                             sciences, culture, communication,
                                                  and local governments and increases
   increase their impact at the national,                                                     and information). UNESCO’s Brasilia
                                                  organisational learning at both levels.
   state, and local levels. Although the                                                      Office works to support the efforts of
   initial focus of the programmes has            • the use of academic research in           Brazilian authorities (federal, state, and
   been on the states of rio Grande do            different areas (e.g., neuroscience,        municipal) to develop and implement
   sul and santa Catarina, their impact           psychology, education, infant and           effective programmes to address issues
   is now spreading to other states as            maternal health) has proved to be an        such as ECCD.
   well as coming to the attention of             efficient source of information that
                                                                                              For more information, contact:
   other countries. Many other states are         legitimises the work and increases the
                                                                                              Alessandra Schneider
   now considering adopting the policies          support for eCCd.
                                                                                              Focal Point for ECCE – UNESCO
   developed as a result of PIM as well as        • the partnership between the private       Brasilia Office/Brazil
   the concept of a Millennium fund for           sector and public authorities at the        Coordinator of UNESCO Antenna
   early Childhood.                               local level (which is facilitated by        Office in Porto Alegre/RS/Brazil
   By coordinating approaches across              international cooperation agencies)         E-mail:
   different sectors, both the state              provides the basis for assuring that        alessandra.schneider@unesco


CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
54

     Activities of the CG secretariat
                                        the impacts of climate change on young children
                                        and implications for programming in early childhood

     In addition to focusing on priority              problem.” It is a human development               the acceleration of migration, conflict,
     areas including young Children and               issue that threatens to undermine the             poverty, and social and economic
     emergencies, hIV/AIds, Costing and               global socioeconomic system.                      instability. Most sobering of all was
     financing and leadership, the CG                                                                   the evidence that, even if greenhouse
                                                      • Children on all continents and in all
     has convened a new Working Group                                                                   gas emissions were stabilised at
                                                      nations, regions, communities, and
     on the Impact of Climate Change on                                                                 current levels, climate change will
                                                      groups will be affected, but some will
     young Children as result of the CG’s                                                               continue for the next 100 years due to
                                                      be worse off than others.
     2007 Annual Consultation.                                                                          the level of emissions already present
                                                      • the changes we are witnessing are               in the atmosphere.
     the theme of the Annual Meeting,
                                                      largely human-induced, and we can
     16th-18th october, hosted this                                                                     having considered the presentations
                                                      do something about them.
     year by uNICef, uNesCo and the                                                                     made by leonard Nurse on the
     Government of Chile, was to identify             • Climate change is a global challenge            scientific evidence for climate
     the impacts of climate change on                 that cannot be tackled successfully               change and the impacts on
     young children and the implications              unless there is a commitment by all               children participants in the Annual
     for eCCd programming. A day                      nations to participate in a manner                Consultation discussed in break-
     of presentations, discussion, and                that is consistent with their historic            out groups the implications
     action planning was designed by                  contribution to the problem and their             for programming in four key
     leon Charles 1, presented and led by             respective capabilities to respond                areas: advocacy, networking,
     leonard Nurse 2, and facilitated by              (access to financial resources and                re-programming, and child
     sian Williams 3. In the week preceding           technology).                                      participation.
     the meeting the award of the Nobel
                                                      the cost of tackling climate change is            the declaration (http://www.
     Peace Prize to the Inter-Governmental
                                                      affordable and will cost an average of            ecdgroup.com/climatechange.
     Panel on Climate Change provided
                                                      0.12% of annual global GdP in the                 asp) drafted for comment and
     additional gravitas both to the content
                                                      period up to 2030 (IPCC). these costs             subsequently developed further in the
     and to the leadership by leonard
                                                      are significantly lower than the cost             last plenary session serves to clarify
     Nurse at the meeting.
                                                      of the damage that will result from               our commitment as CG partners
     the scientific evidence of the impacts           unmitigated climate change (stern                 raising awareness and to urging
     of climate change was summarised as              review of the economics of Climate                governments to take action.
     follows:                                         Change, 31 January 2006, Cambridge
                                                                                                        In summary, five main areas emerged
                                                      university Press, uK).
     • Climate change is already occurring,                                                             for strategic intervention in what
     and is accelerating.                             the presentations identified the key              we came to describe as a process of
                                                      impacts, region by region, including              ‘re-programming,’ by which we mean
     • the impacts are already evident and
                                                      the increased destructiveness, intensity          the adjustment—radical or otherwise
     will become even more evident within
                                                      and duration of natural disasters,                —to what we currently do in eCCd
     the next 10-40 years.
                                                      water shortage, food insecurity, poor             programming that accompanies a
     • Climate change can no longer be                sanitation, and health and the major              paradigm shift, the awareness of a
     regarded simply as an “environmental             consequences of these impacts for                 new dimension through which to


     1
       leon Charles is Chair, uN framework Convention on Climate Change (uNfCCC), Ad hoc Working Group on further Commitments for Annex 1 parties
     to the Kyoto Protocol, 2007, and development Consultant on early Childhood development in the Caribbean.
     2
      leonard Nurse is Member of the Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a lead author on each of the four global assessments of the
     impact of climate change including the recent 2007 report, and senior lecturer on the Graduate Programme in Climate Change, Centre for resource
     Management and environmental studies, university of the West Indies.
     3
      sian Williams is Caribbean early Childhood development Adviser, uNICef, and Member of the executive Board of the Consultative Group on early
     Childhood Care and development, 2005-2007.

                                                                                                                    CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
                                                                                                         CG seCRetARIAt RePoRt     55



  understand a changed reality. these        sustain active cooperation agreements     • Integrate a climate change
  five main areas are:                       in all countries to strengthen intra-     dimension to situational analyses
                                             regional collaboration and mutual         to raise the fundamental questions
  1. Children born today must
                                             support.                                  that need to be addressed for
  participate and learn to act in their
                                                                                       individual countries and the options
  own interests as they grow into            4. strategic inter-agency
                                                                                       for addressing them. this is critical for
  adulthood into a world impacted by         partnerships need to be forged
                                                                                       focusing attention on the youngest
  climate change. Children have a right      with climate change scientists
                                                                                       children.
  to know what kind of world they are        and environmental agencies. each
  growing up in, what is changing it and     country and subregion needs to work       • Provide leadership for an inter-
  how. they need the kind of conceptual      with the IPCC scientists, uNeP, and       agency report on Climate Change
  skills, understandings and life skills     national agencies to project adaptation   Impacts and Consequences for Children
  to deal with the fast-changing reality     and mitigation measures required and      Born in the Next 5 years: What Needs
  and to act on it. existing strategies to   to consider programming requirements.     to Be done in collaboration with IPCC.
  ensure learning-by-doing, to introduce     furthermore, there needs to be a          this can build on the work set out
  practical skills and strategies and        fundamental questioning leading to the    in the uNdP human development
  knowledge into the curriculum, must        exploration of different paradigms for    report 2007/8 on the impact of climate
  be accelerated based on the core           the development of societies likely to    change (to be published 27 November
  principle that children must be enabled    be not only impacted but also changed     2007).
  to participate.                            in functioning by climate change.
                                                                                       • Advocate for urgent
  2. Anticipation of climate change          5. Advocacy. Advocacy interventions       implementation of child-centered
  effects has become a critical              with governments have to now address      and child-participatory learning
  driver in the way we think about           the need to respond to the causes         strategies in early childhood to effect
  programming and what we                    and impacts of climate change as          the attitudinal and behavioural changes
  prioritise. re-programming across the      part of the process of improving the      needed to ensure the survival and
  work undertaken in support of health       situation of children. this will entail   development of the next generation.
  (also echoed in the Policy statement       highlighting the need for deep cuts in
                                                                                       • urge governments to implement
  of the Committee on environmental          global greenhouse gas emissions and
                                                                                       IMMedIAtely relevant adaptation,
  health of the American Academy             the need for climate change adaptation
                                                                                       mitigation, and reduction measures,
  of Pediatrics Global Climate Change        strategies to be included in national
                                                                                       consistent with each country’s
  and Children’s Health, 29 october          sustainable development and poverty
                                                                                       contribution to the threat of global
  2007), water and sanitation, education     reduction programming.
                                                                                       warming and capacity to respond.
  development, and disaster risk
  reduction and emergencies is needed        What kind of strategic interventions      • establish mechanisms for
  to ensure that climate change effects      can we make in eccD programming?          strengthening inter-country cooperation
  are anticipated and that strategies are    Initial ideas include:                    and mutual support, making young
  developed for coping, adjusting, and       • dedicate technical expertise            children visible in strategic planning
  preventing further impacts.                to develop guidelines for                 and implementation.
                                             the re-programming of existing
  3. subregional programming is                                                        • BuIld AWAReness. eduCAte
                                             programmes to reflect anticipation
  essential to build response and                                                      tHe PuBlIC and key stakeholders
                                             of climate change impacts and to
  planning capacity across countries.                                                  about the potential impact of climate
                                             programme for their consequences for
  Climate change effects such as                                                       change on young children and the
                                             very young children. the World Bank
  those caused by intense hurricanes                                                   kinds of responses that will be needed.
                                             is already doing programme relevant
  can reduce in a matter of hours an
                                             climate sensitivity analysis across its   For more information on
  emerging middle-income country
                                             entire development portofolio and it      background, presentations by
  into an aid-dependent country with
                                             may be possible to learn from their       Leonard Nurse, and concrete action
  a negative growth rate. We cannot
                                             experiences in this regard.               points, see http://www.ecdgroup.
  predict which countries will be most
                                                                                       com/climatechange.asp
  affected and therefore we need to




CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
56 reGIONAL rePOrTS
                                                                                            At the CG’s 2007 Annual
                                                                                            Consultation, the 4 Cornerstones
 strengthening regional capacity:                                                           provided a useful framework for

 eCd in the Caribbean Region
                                                                                            regional updates and discussions.



 In collaboration with uNesCo, and with     chairs the regional eCd Working Group         development of quality
 support from uNICef and the Inter-         to coordinate activity at the regional        indicators
 American and Caribbean development         level. twelve member organisations
                                                                                          Access to data was identified as a criti-
 Banks, the Caribbean Community and         participate, including international
                                                                                          cal constraint to providing a full profile
 Common Market (CArICoM) secretariat        development partners, regional
                                                                                          of eCd at the national level. A project
 initiated a process to review progress     NGos, and research institutions. the
                                                                                          was prepared to assist countries to test
 in early childhood policy development      Working Group meets twice a year
                                                                                          and pilot data collection mechanisms on
 in the region. research in fourteen        to support eCd capacity building of
                                                                                          an agreed set of indicators to monitor
 Caribbean countries for Education for      the CArICoM secretariat in advocacy,
                                                                                          the performance of the early childhood
 All: Global Monitoring Report on Early     policy formulation, strategic planning,
                                                                                          sector. A pilot project in three coun-
 Childhood Care and Education found:        monitoring and evaluation, and
                                                                                          tries will test the feasibility and utility
 • A lack of services for children,         community resource mobilisation.
                                                                                          of the proposed indicators and identify
 particularly for those under 3 years old   uNesCo and uNICef are members
                                                                                          and develop the modalities that will be
                                            of the group and support the
 • Weak licensing, certification, and                                                     required for effective implementation at
                                            participation of the regional NGos
 monitoring systems                                                                       the country level. Key actions for 2008
                                            and research institutions as required
                                                                                          will include capacity building of early
 • A preponderance of small,                to ensure comprehensive and effective
                                                                                          childhood coordinators in the analysis
 undercapitalised operators                 cooperation.
                                                                                          and use of data for reporting and deci-
 • low levels of training among             Key actions supported in 2006-08 by           sion making, policy development, and
 caregivers                                 uNesCo and uNICef include:                    service improvement.
 • Absence of national standards            • development of guidelines for quality
                                            eCd policy and standards
                                                                                          next steps by the Regional
 • Varying standards of care and quality                                                  eCd Working Group
                                            • development of indicators to monitor
 • Absence of sector-wide governance                                                      Key issues to be addressed through
                                            the performance of the eCd sector
 at the national level, including                                                         technical assistance and through a
 national plans, policies, or regulatory                                                  series of guidelines for the CArICoM
 mechanisms                                 development of guidelines                     secretariat and member states include:
 • 87% of services in the region were       A regional workshop was held in               • implementation of standards
 provided by community organisations,       Antigua in september 2006. the                • establishment of monitoring systems
 churches, and private operators.           twenty participating countries reviewed       • development of national financing
                                            existing eCd standards within the             mechanisms and investment strategies
 Caribbean forum on eCd                     broader framework of policies and             • establishment of organisational
 In March 2006, seventy participants        regulatory systems being established          structures for governance and support
 from seventeen countries across the        at national level. the workshop               in eCd sectors.
 region and from nine regional and          resulted in the drafting of guidelines
                                                                                          Presented by uNICef and uNesCo
 international organisations attended the   to assist CArICoM states to develop
                                                                                          on behalf of CArICoM eCd Working
 Caribbean early Childhood development      comprehensive policy, minimum                 Group initiatives in the Caribbean
 (eCd) forum in Kingston. the forum         standards, and regulatory frameworks          region.
 recommended key regional strategies        for eCd services. Consultation took
 to address eCd as a development            place with member states, through             For more information, contact:
 priority in the effort to reduce poverty   intersectoral committees headed               Sian Williams, Caribbean ECD
 and crime and to promote integrated        by ministries of education, on the            Advisor, UNICEF
 human and social development. these        acceptability and utility of the guidelines   E-mail: sgwilliams@unicef.org
 included a number of coordination          prior to their adoption by CArICoM.           Paolo Fontani, Education Specialist,
 mechanisms and partnerships. for           the guidelines will be published in           UNESCO, Kingston Office, Caribbean
 example, the CArICoM secretariat           2008.                                         E-mail: p.fontani@unesco.org

                                                                                                CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
                                                                                       ReGIonAl RePoRt: lAtIn AMeRICAn netWoRK       57



    report: latin American network
    of the Consultative Group on eCCd
     the latin American Network of the         (CINde) adapted the latin American          states (oAs), and the latin American
     Consultative Group on eCCd meets          Network’s working plan, developed at        Network for Children’s rights.
     every three to four years to identify     the Panama meeting, to reflect them.
                                                                                           • translation of key materials (e.g.,
     eCCd priorities in the region. the        the working plan is even broader,
                                                                                           The Coordinators’ Notebook advocacy
     fourth Meeting of the Network was         however, and aims to strengthen
                                                                                           issue, no. 27, 2003, emily Vargas-
     held in Panama June 27-29, 2006.          links between education, health,
                                                                                           Barón´s book Planning Policies for
                                               nutrition, protection, and children’s
     At this meeting, representatives of                                                   Early Childhood Development:
                                               participation.
     international organisations, worldwide                                                Guidelines for Action).
     networks, universities, governmental      the framework defined at the Panama
                                                                                           • Publication of Panorama
     and non-governmental organisations,       meeting is outlined below, and links
                                                                                           Latinoamericano de la Primera Infancia
     and other eCCd stakeholders in            to the 4 Cornerstones are highlighted.
                                                                                           (latin American eCCd overview), an
     latin America gathered for three
                                               the latin American                          electronic publication of the network
     days of workshops that opened the
                                                                                           by country (Peru and Brazil have been
     possibility of collaborative actions to   network’s Working Plan
                                                                                           published; the dominican republic,
     strengthen eCCd and affect public         the Network’s highest priority until        honduras, Guatemala, and Cuba are
     policy processes in latin America.        2009, which relates to Cornerstone          in preparation).
     National and local experiences from       4, is to support regional organisations
     Brazil, Nicaragua, Chile, Colombia,                                                   • Publication of Creciendo Unidos
                                               and countries in latin America in the
     and Guatemala provided an overview                                                    (Growing together) and Conexion
                                               design and implementation of national
     of the situation of children and                                                      Niñez (Children’s Connection), both of
                                               and subnational eCCd policies.
     families in the region. the workshops                                                 which focus on advocacy.
     were developed from four important        cornerstone 4: Include early                • Networking with our regional
     components:                               childhood in policies                       partners, including the World forum
     • Conditions for the formulation and      ongoing and/or planned activities           on eCCd, the World organisation for
     high-priority development of eCCd         include:                                    early Childhood education/organistion
     policies.                                                                             Mondiale pour l’education Préscolaire
                                               • support to national stakeholders
                                                                                           (oMeP), the latin American and
     • Main subjects regarding early           and regional organisations in
                                                                                           Caribbean Network for Children’s
     childhood.                                Guatemala, the dominican republic,
                                                                                           rights, the Global Campaign, Brazil
                                               honduras, Nicaragua, Colombia, Peru,
     • Processes in the construction of                                                    Zero to three, and the eCCd group of
                                               and Brazil.
     public policies.                                                                      MerCosur’s education coordination
                                               • support for local (subnational/           body. (MerCosur is south
     • development of human resources.
                                               municipal) processes, including the         America’s leading trading bloc. Known
     the meeting allowed an interchange        Central American Mayors’ Initiative,        as “the Common Market of the
     of experiences, knowledge acquisition,    honduras; rights and acts in Colombia       south,” it aims to bring about the free
     and encounters with actions that are      (official budgetary monitoring); local      movement of goods, capital, services,
     happening in the region regarding         experiences of preschool education in       and people among its member states.
     public policy development.                border regions with uNesCo ecuador          It has been likened to the european
                                               and Colombia; and programmes such           union, but with an area of 12 million
     When the Consultative Group
                                               as Primeira Infância Melhor (PIM) in        square kilometres, it is four times as
     developed/launched the
                                               rio Grande do sul.                          big.)
     4 Cornerstones to secure a strong
     foundation for young Children             • Promotion of and participation in         • dissemination of quality research
     in october 2006, the technical            regional events of the Network itself       such as uNesCo reports and the
     secretariat of the Centro Internacional   and of other organisations such as          evaluation of quality of services
     de educación y desarrollo humano          uNICef, organisation of American            conducted in Mexico.

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     cornerstone 3: Improve primary                    • Promoting monitoring and evaluation                              excellence of Montreal university
     school quality                                    of parents’ competencies.                                          to translate the eCCd Virtual
                                                       • reviewing growth and development                                 encyclopaedia into spanish.
     ongoing and/or planned activities
     include:                                          scales.                                                            • translating into english latin
                                                                                                                          American research reports and
     • Promotion of and participation in the           Strengthening links with health,
                                                                                                                          theoretical papers as part of the
     development of simulation software                nutrition, and protection specialists
                                                                                                                          encyclopaedia, as well as documents
     to estimate the cost of basic quality             and organisations
                                                                                                                          from practitioners in a new section,
     education (e.g., by save the Children
                                                       efforts were made at the Panama                                    “Voices from the field.”
     foundation uK in Peru, Brazil, and
                                                       Network meeting to include the
     Colombia).                                                                                                           • Working with World forum national
                                                       participation of health, nutrition,
     • helping to collect and consolidate                                                                                 representatives for latin America to
                                                       and social agency partners such as
     existing and new data on public                                                                                      translate the exchangeeveryday into
                                                       PAho (latin American Center for
     expenditures.                                                                                                        spanish, Portuguese, and probably
                                                       Perinathology), INCAP (Central-America
                                                                                                                          french.
     • Promoting and disseminating                     and Panama Nutrition Centre), and
     partners’ experiences linking eCCd and            flACso (latin American faculty of
                                                                                                                          Challenges ahead
     basic education programmes across the             social sciences). Actions planned by
     region.                                           the Network that relate to Cornerstone                             • Continue advocating for reduction
                                                       1: start at the Beginning, include the                             of the gaps between theory, public
     • Promoting and disseminating                                                                                        declarations, and practice.
                                                       following:
     research on teacher training, such as
     the Chilean study of public and private           • translating materials such as the                                • Promote health, nutrition, protection,
     training programmes.                              uNICef toolkit.                                                    and education links within and
                                                       • training Network members and their                               between eCCd programmes.
     • Promoting as part of the school
     readiness and transitioning programme             partners.                                                          • Prioritise research and innovations to
     the use of assessment/evaluation                  • Promoting the training of young                                  strengthen and expand 0-3 initiatives/
     instruments to support students’                  eCCd researchers as well as provision                              programmes as part of the early life-
     transitioning to school.                          of scholarship funds for research.                                 cycle process (linked to preschool
                                                                                                                          education).
     cornerstone 2: Get ready for success              • Promoting special issues such as
                                                       articulation and readiness, children’s                             • expand the exchange of regional
     ongoing and/or planned activities
                                                       participation, and disabilities.                                   experiences and research on teachers’
     include:
                                                                                                                          and caregivers’ initial and ongoing
                                                       • translating key publications and
     • Promoting programmes to                                                                                            training as well as technical assistance
                                                       materials on eCCd, along with signing
     strengthen parents’ involvement and                                                                                  and monitoring systems.
                                                       an agreement with the Centre de
     competencies.
                                                                                                                          • strengthen the exchange of and
                                                                                                                          support for cross-country experiences
                                                                                             Peru: UNICEF/Walter silver




                                                                                                                          on financing, costing, and private
                                                                                                                          sector involvement.
                                                                                                                          • share experiences on national and
                                                                                                                          local regulations, standards, indicators,
                                                                                                                          and developmental scales.
                                                                                                                          • share experiences on alternatives
                                                                                                                          to organise institutional structures to
                                                                                                                          develop policies and delivery systems in
                                                                                                                          a decentralisation process.
                                                                                                                          For more information, contact:
                                                                                                                          Alejandro Acosta, Regional Director,
                                                                                                                          CINDE Technical Secretariat
                                                                                                                          E-mail: aacosta@cinde.org.co
       Promoting programmes to strengthen parent involvement and competencies.

                                                                                                                                  CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
                                                                                           ReGIonAl RePoRt: oPen soCIety InstItute      59



   recent developments in Cee/CIs: early Childhood
   Programme of the open society Institute
   the open society Institute’s (osI)           community engagement into strongly          situation analysis that will inform
   early Childhood Programme focuses            entrenched national preschool and           eCd policy planning and programme
   on expanding access to quality early         primary education systems. over             development. Work with the
   childhood development, with special          time it emphasised development of           Palestinian citizens of Israel will
   attention to minorities, children            national NGos and institutions, formal      focus on the development of quality
   with disabilities, and children living       evaluation of pilot projects, and           preschool standards. Plans for 2008
   in poverty. osI, a private operating         then concerted advocacy to reform           include an early literacy project for
   and grantmaking foundation, aims             early childhood policies. Programme         families living on the thai border of
   to shape public policy to promote            models include centre-based services        Burma.
   democratic governance, human rights,         in crèches, preschools, and schools for
   and economic, legal, and social reform.      children from birth to age 10, as well      An agenda for advocacy,
   Working in thirty-four countries, the        as parenting initiatives and training       policy planning, and
   early Childhood Programme supports           sessions that focus on inclusion and        accountability
   osI’s mission through an agenda              social justice. osI continues to provide
                                                                                            the Consultative Group’s 4
   based on: (1) increasing human               significant support to twenty-nine
                                                                                            Cornerstones provide an important
   development potential through                step by step NGos and their regional
                                                                                            organising framework for our advocacy
   effective early interventions in the lives   network, the International step by step
                                                                                            efforts. osI joins international
   of the youngest and most vulnerable          Association (IssA).
                                                                                            networks of donors, practitioners,
   children and their families; (2) holding
                                                                                            and researchers to advocate for:
   governments accountable for their            extending our activities
   commitments to young children                to Asia, Africa, and the                    • Increasing international investments
   and families; and (3) promoting the          Middle east                                 in quality eCd.
   development of a vibrant civil society                                                   • extending the range of early
                                                While continuing to enhance our
   by fostering children’s participation                                                    childhood programme options
                                                work in Cee/CIs, we are extending
   skills and critical thinking, engaging                                                   available.
                                                our activities to three regions: Asia,
   parents and communities to advocate
                                                Africa, and the Middle east. our
   on behalf of their children, and                                                         • ensuring access for minority children
                                                holistic and interdisciplinary approach
   supporting a strong early childhood                                                      to high quality eCd programmes
                                                to support children from birth includes
   sector.                                                                                  that respect and reflect their cultural
                                                working with a wide group of                diversity.
                                                education, social service, and health
   our flagship initiative in
                                                and welfare providers; communities;         • supporting the rights of children
   Central eastern europe/                                                                  with disabilities to inclusive education.
                                                families; and children themselves.
   Commonwealth of                              In expanding to new regions, we
   Independent states                                                                       osI’s early Childhood Programme
                                                work with local partners to develop         engages in the development of
   (Cee/CIs): step by step                      the most contextually appropriate           national early childhood policies
   our flagship initiative is the step by       solutions. In 2007, we began to             in accordance with its mission of
   step Programme, which began in 1994          work in Bangladesh and liberia, as          extending quality services to children
   in the Cee/CIs region as a response          well as with Palestinian citizens of        most at risk. this includes leveraging
   to declining social supports for young       Israel. In Bangladesh, osI and the          funding for eCd through the
   children and their families. designed        Bangladesh rural Advancement                education for All fast track Initiative
   for a region with a deep pedagogical         Committee (BrAC) university                 (ftI) and other development bank
   history and a post-communist legacy          have developed a postgraduate               mechanisms, capacity building of
   of widespread teacher-centred                programme in child development.             policymakers, preparation of policy
   preschools, the initiative aimed to          In liberia, osI is partnering with the      recommendations, and policy planning.
   introduce child-centredness and              Ministry of education to develop a          Advocacy is particularly important in


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     Central Asia and the Caucuses, where        a policy analysis of eCd for roma            Divya Lata
     expanding access and diversifying           children and a review of the placement       Senior Programme Officer,
     programmes available is necessary           of children with disabilities into special   Early Childhood Programme
     both to reach more children and to          education or mainstream education.           Open Society Foundation
     meet local needs.                                                                        divya.lata@osf-eu.org
                                                 For more information, contact:
     our current work in europe focuses                                                       Michelle Neuman
                                                 Sarah Klaus
     on monitoring and accountability                                                         Senior Programme Officer,
                                                 Director, Early Childhood
     of groups that are often excluded                                                        Early Childhood Programme
                                                 Programme
     from quality eCd, that is, migrants,                                                     Open Society Foundation
                                                 Open Society Foundation
     minorities, and marginalised                                                             michelle.neuman@osf-eu.org
                                                 sarah.klaus@osf-eu.org
     populations. We are working on




     ReGIonAl RePoRt: InteRnAtIonAl steP By steP AssoCIAtIon




     report: International step by step Association
     the International step by step              and over the years it has developed          communities. IssA’s member
     Association (IssA) is a membership          close cooperation with osI in several        organisations provide training
     organisation that connects                  programme areas.                             to caregivers, teachers, school
     professionals and organisations                                                          administrators, parents, educational
     working in the field of early childhood     As a partner of the Consultative
                                                                                              authorities, and other representatives
     development and education. IssA             Group on early Childhood Care and
                                                                                              of the community at local, regional,
     promotes and emphasises equal               development, IssA is committed to
                                                                                              and national levels.
     access to quality education and care        the education for All and Millennium
     for all children, especially in the early   development Goals. IssA’s own                Quality early education Programme
     years of their lives. established in the    principles, based on democratic
                                                                                              through its Quality early education
     Netherlands in 1999, IssA’s network         values, child-centred approaches to
                                                                                              Programme, IssA provides
     now stretches across the globe from         teaching, parental and community
                                                                                              professional development support
     Central and eastern europe to Central       involvement in children’s development
                                                                                              to educators working in infant/
     Asia, Asia, and the Americas.               and education, and a commitment
                                                                                              toddler programmes, preschools,
                                                 to diversity and inclusion, are closely
     While IssA offers general                                                                and kindergartens through training,
                                                 aligned with the Consultative Group’s
     membership and information sharing                                                       mentoring, and the development
                                                 4 Cornerstones to secure a strong
     to all interested individuals and                                                        of educational resources that stress
                                                 foundation for young Children.
     organisations, its core members are                                                      developmentally appropriate practice,
     the thirty NGos, located primarily in       Cornerstone 1:                               holistic child development, and active
     Central eastern europe and the former       start at the beginning                       family participation. In recent years,
     soviet union, that implement the step                                                    IssA Pedagogical standards have
     by step Programme initiated by the          IssA’s early Childhood                       been introduced. the standards
     open society Institute (osI) in 1994.       education (eCe) Programmes                   are a network-developed tool,
     Within this network, IssA supports          IssA is firmly committed to improving        based on principles of child-centred
     a wide array of programmes that             care and educational services for            teaching, which define quality in
     collectively provide a comprehensive        young children in its core membership        teaching practices and the classroom
     set of educational services, as well        countries. Activities are targeted and       environment. they offer a unique
     as advocacy tools to positively             implemented both inside the formal           approach and an integrated set of
     influence policy reform for children        educational sector, in schools and           materials to support teachers’ self-
     and their families. IssA receives           institutions, and outside the formal         assessment, mentoring, assessment,
     generous financial support from osI,        system in cooperation with local             and certification within the network.

                                                                                                       CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
                                                                       ReGIonAl RePoRt: InteRnAtIonAl steP By steP AssoCIAtIon         61


   the standards are available for            advocating for preschool programmes           early age. IssA Pedagogical standards
   adaptation and implementation in           for children from ethnic minorities           help ensure quality and focus on
   new contexts.                              (with an emphasis on the romani               teachers’ ability to implement well
                                              minority), children with disabilities, and    planned, developmentally appropriate,
   Disability and education for Social        children living in remote areas or in         reflective practice; demonstrate respect
   Justice Programmes                         poverty. As a result of IssA members’         for diversity; and promote meaningful
   IssA programmes pay special attention      participation in osI’s roma education         family participation.
   to children from ethnic minorities,        Initiative, over two thousand romani
   children with disabilities, and children   children, who otherwise would not             Cornerstone 4: Including
   living in remote areas or in poverty. to   have had the opportunity, gained              early childhood in policies
   promote access to quality education,       access to preschool programmes.
                                                                                            ISSA’S advocacy agenda
   IssA has developed its education           IssA and osI continue to work
   for social Justice Programme, which        closely together on developing and            IssA campaigns for effective policies
   provides training to a variety of          implementing programmes that                  and forges links with government
   target audiences in social justice,        emphasise equal access for all.               agencies and international
   multicultural, and bilingual education.                                                  organisations to ensure that successful
                                              IssA, osI, the uNICef regional
   the disability Programme, developed                                                      approaches and programmes
                                              office (Cee/CIs), and the Institute
   and managed in cooperation with osI,                                                     have policy impact or become
                                              of education in london jointly
   focuses on the inclusion of children                                                     mainstreamed. In october 2006,
                                              organised a study tour to the uK in
   with disabilities into mainstream                                                        IssA, the roma education fund (ref),
                                              November 2007. Participants included
   classrooms. the disability Programme                                                     and the european early Childhood
                                              governmental representatives, uNICef
   enhances teachers’ professional                                                          research Association (eeCerA) jointly
                                              education officers, and representatives
   capacity and advocates for the rights                                                    submitted an amicus brief to the
                                              of IssA’s core members. the tour
   of children with disabilities and their                                                  european Court of human rights in
                                              was intended to strengthen country
   families. several IssA projects on                                                       strasbourg in reference to the case
                                              level capacity to advocate for, plan,
   inclusion have received eu funding.                                                      d.h. and others v. the Czech republic.
                                              and implement quality programmes
                                                                                            this brief emphasised that appropriate
   Parent and community-Based                 for young children, especially those
                                                                                            and effective assessment practices
   Programmes                                 pertaining to children’s readiness for
                                                                                            need to include the use of multiple
                                              entering primary school.
   recognising that many children are not                                                   tests/pieces of evidence, contributions
   involved in formal preschool education,                                                  from multiple perspectives and
                                              Cornerstone 3: Improve
   IssA, together with osI, has developed                                                   disciplines, and the taking into account
                                              primary school quality
   the Parent and Community-Based eCd                                                       of children’s developmental, ethnic,
   Programme. this programme offers           Promoting quality through                     cultural, and linguistic diversity.
   user-friendly materials, activities for    pedagogical standards
                                                                                            one of IssA’s main functions, building
   parents and children, and modules for      IssA and its members continue to
                                                                                            capacity among its members, including
   facilitators from the local community      build upon the success of osI’s step
                                                                                            the capacity to effectively advocate
   to support families in their effort to     by step Programme in Central and
                                                                                            for including early childhood in
   promote their children’s development       eastern europe and the former soviet
                                                                                            policies, has been realised through
   and education. uniquely, it integrates     union. Professional development
                                                                                            a partnership with the World forum
   child development, early stimulation,      programmes and primary school level
                                                                                            foundation (Wff). IssA supports the
   and parenting information into             methodology have been recognised
                                                                                            participation of eight representatives
   prenatal, early health, and education      and included in the official list of
                                                                                            of its core members in the Wff’s
   services.                                  services by several ministries of
                                                                                            Global leaders for young Children
                                              education in the region. As with the
                                                                                            Programme, which aims to improve
   Cornerstone 2:                             preschool/kindergarten programmes, in
                                                                                            life chances for young children by
   Get ready for success                      implementing the step by step primary
                                                                                            developing early childhood leaders.
                                              school programme, IssA is guided by
   Supporting access to preschool             the belief in child-centred, interactive      IssA uses its annual conference and
   education                                  pedagogy that promotes active                 other events to promote its advocacy
   Many IssA network members have             participation, critical thinking, and life-   agenda. IssA hosted the 2007 eeCerA
   been active in providing access to and     long learning habits and skills from an       Conference, “exploring Vygotsky’s


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     Ideas: Crossing Borders,” in Prague           Citizenship: democratic Practices in      2008 Conference is scheduled for
     from August 29 to september 1, 2007.          education,” organised jointly with the    october 9-12, 2008 in Budapest.
     the event provided a rare opportunity         Wff, will explore the understanding of
                                                                                             For more information, contact:
     for researchers and practitioners             democracy in the early years and will
                                                                                             Liana Ghent
     from east and West to engage in a             underline the importance of advocacy
                                                                                             Executive Director
     dialogue exploring convergences and           for democratic practices in eCe. Panels
                                                                                             International Step by Step
     divergences in the understanding and          will look at what the promotion of
                                                                                             Association
     application of Vygotsky’s work to             democracy means for practice and for
                                                                                             E-mail: lghent@issa.nl
     policy, research, and practice today.         advocacy/policy, highlighting global
                                                                                             Website: http://www.issa.nl
     the 2008 IssA Conference, “Active             and regional advocacy priorities. the




     ReGIonAl RePoRt: AdeA WoRKInG GRouP on eCd




      report: AdeA Working Group on eCd
      the Association for the development           in this issue of The Coordinators’        (1) start at the beginning; (2) Get
      of education in Africa’s Working              Notebook), highlighted the fact that      ready for success; (3) Improve primary
      Group on eCd (WGeCd/ AdeA),                   millions of children in sub-saharan       school quality; and (4) Include early
      established in 1993, has been                 Africa still lack access to the care      childhood in policies. In the past
      operational as a network since 1997.          programmes, basic immunisation,           few years, the Working Group has
      Its aim is to influence policy around the     clean water, adequate food, and early     focused mainly on Cornerstone 4,
      development of the young child and            stimulation that are needed for their     supporting countries in the process of
      thereby contribute to expanding and           survival, growth, and development.        elaborating national policies and policy
      improving sustainable and appropriate                                                   frameworks.1 however, other work
                                                    In response, the WGeCd/AdeA has
      eCd provision in Africa. Its overall                                                    undertaken by the Working Group in
                                                    developed, with its members and
      objective is to work as a catalyst and                                                  past years can also be articulated in
                                                    partners, a regional framework/Plan of
      facilitator in the sub-saharan Africa                                                   terms of the 4 Cornerstones.
                                                    Action for 2006-10. the Work Plan’s
      region to promote a coherent and
                                                    main strategies include:                  cornerstone 1: Start at the beginning
      coordinated response to the challenges
      facing eCd in that part of the world.         • Advocacy at the political level,        Cornerstone 1 calls for a focus
                                                    including heads of state, regional        on parenting programmes and
      Much progress has been made
                                                    political bodies in the us, economic      integrated services. the Working
      overall in Africa since 1997. several
                                                    Community of West African states          Group’s regional framework, strategy
      African countries have developed eCd
                                                    (eCoWAs), New Partnership for             4.1 includes support for parental
      policies and implemented a number
                                                    Africa’s development (NePAd)              education and functional adult literacy
      of effective programmes with donor
                                                                                              programmes, “ensuring eCd contents
      and international support. With the           • A regional communication strategy
                                                                                              and messages.”
      increasing realisation that cost-effective    • Networking and partnership building
      eCd interventions can reduce the                                                        cornerstone 2: Get ready for success
      long-term costs of not investing in           • Capacity building
                                                                                              Cornerstone 2 calls for access to
      eCd, there is a challenge to continue         • National policy support                 at least two years of eCd services
      to work towards increasing access to
                                                    In conjunction with this approach the     prior to formal school entry for the
      quality eCd interventions, especially by
                                                    2008 Work Plan will be structured         most disadvantaged. In relation to
      the most vulnerable.
                                                    around the Consultative Group’s           the sub-saharan Africa context,
      the 2007 Global Monitoring report,            4 Cornerstones to secure a strong         this cornerstone is translated in the
      Strong Foundations: Early Childhood           foundation for young Children:            regional framework’s strategy 4.5
      Care and Education (summarised

                                                                                                       CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
                                                                                                 ReGIonAl RePoRt: AdeA WoRKInG GRouP on eCd              63


    as “supporting scaling up for IeCd                 framework—networking and                            Central in 2008 is the proposed
    programmes.”                                       partnership building (in particular,                transfer from the current set-up
                                                       strengthening the national                          of the Working Group to an All
    cornerstone 3: Improve primary                     networks, facilitating exchanges of                 Africa network for eCd with the
    school quality                                     information and experiences); strategy              establishment of an administrative
    Cornerstone 3 calls for increased                  4.3—supporting a gender perspective                 base in Africa in an agency that
    investments and a focus on teacher                 in eCd objectives and implementation;               deals with eCd issues and can take
    training, whereas strategy 4.2 of the              and strategy 4.4—supporting hIV/AIds                on administrative responsibilities
    Working Group’s regional framework                 prevention and management in eCd                    (including dealing with funds). the
    is to support capacity building at                 programmes.                                         steering Committee has chosen save
    the national level and to work with                                                                    the Children usA in Nairobi for this
    partners on initiatives such as the early          An African institutional base                       role. to strengthen the WG steering
    Childhood Virtual university (eCdVu.               the Working Group has been                          Committee and ensure linkages with
    org), African Virtual university, and              coordinated by the Chair of the                     the political agenda, it is also proposed
    the uNesCo initiative of mapping                   WGeCd from the Netherlands Ministry                 that the next Chair will be uNesCo
    universities that deliver eCd                      of foreign Affairs, the lead agency                 Breda, based in dakar. this would
    programmes by distance, as well                    for the WG since 1998. the Chair                    ensure the political leverage of the
    as all African universities delivering             is currently located in Mozambique,                 Working Group, as well as coverage of
    eCd programmes.                                    assisted by a consultant based                      both east/southern and West/Central
                                                       in Ghana. With the increasing                       Africa and the two major languages,
    cornerstone 4: Include early childhood                                                                 french and english.
    in policies                                        responsibility of the Working Group as
                                                       the lead catalyst for eCd in Africa, and
    three strategies of the regional                                                                       next steps
                                                       with the expansion of eCd activities
    framework are directly linked to                                                                       the first National focal Points meeting
    Cornerstone 4: strategy 1—advocacy                                                                     in summer 2008 will allow us to
    for eCd at the political level; strategy                                                               continue the work of the November
    2—a regional communication strategy                 2006-2010 Regional                                 2007 WG steering Committee meeting
    directed at high-level decision makers              Framework/Plan of Action                           in adapting the Consultative Group’s
    (in collaboration with the Consultative                                                                4 Cornerstones to the sub-saharan
    Group); and strategy 5—supporting
                                                        • Political Advocacy
                                                                                                           Africa context, based on national and
    multisectoral coordination for eCd.                 • Development of a Regional                        regional expertise. this coordination
    strategy 5.1 specifically calls for                   Communication Strategy                           with a global network will assist us in
    “supporting the process of national                                                                    moving forward.
    eCd policy/policy framework, costing                • Networking and Partnership
    exercises, and planning.”                             Building                                         For more information, contact:
                                                                                                           Ms. Stella Etse
    future work of WGeCd/AdeA will                      • Capacity Building                                WGECD Coordinator
    reinforce the assets and results of this                                                               c/o UNICEF – United Nations
                                                        • National Policy Support
    joint work at national and regional                                                                    Children’s Fund
    levels.                                                                                                UNICEF House
                                                                                                           4 – 8 Rangoon Close
    Cross-cutting issues                               in the region in the last three years,
                                                                                                           P.O. Box AN 5051
                                                       it became necessary to engage a
    other strategies employed by the                                                                       Accra North, Ghana
                                                       second consultant on a part-time basis.
    Working Group are cross cutting                                                                        E-mail: wgecdafrica@gmail.com
                                                       the team has constituted a “virtual
    the ones described above. these                                                                        Website: http://www.ecdafrica.com,
                                                       secretariat” since 2006.
    include strategy 3 of the regional                                                                     http://www.adeanet.org



   1these activities include supporting a costing exercise for Burkina faso and the Gambia in collaboration with the World Bank and Alain Mingat;
   organising a special session on eCd in the 2006 AdeA Biennale on education in Africa; contributing to the preparation of the 2007 efA Global
   Monitoring report on eCd; supporting the regional (ssA) launch of the report; publishing a study “Investing in eCd: Benefits, savings and financing
   options” (by K. hyde); and disseminating the report of the Ghana African/International Conference in 2005.



CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
64   ReGIonAl RePoRt: AdVoCACy In tHe ARAB ReGIon




     Advocacy in the Arab Region
     Arab resource Collective (ArC) is a          • training, learning, and                  structures mandated to manage the
     regional, independent, non-profit            communications.                            focus on childhood and establish
     organisation founded in 1988. ArC            the early Childhood Care and               cooperation between the government
     works with partners in several Arab          development (eCCd) programme               structures and the NGo sector, where
     countries, including lebanon, Palestine,     is the largest single programme in         the latter exists in any significant way.
     syria, Jordan, yemen, egypt, and             ArC. over the years it has developed       In some contexts, these councils play
     sudan.                                       an effective participatory approach        a positive and synergic role; in others
     ArC’s mission is to build on the             to the development of human and            they operate as a neutralising factor for
     capacities of each person and on             material resources in several Arab         independent NGo initiatives.
     people’s experience to develop               countries. outputs include a basket        International instruments have provided
     knowledge and translate rights               of awareness raising materials on the      some leverage for NGos to reclaim the
     into reality. It takes a holistic and        importance of eCCd, an acclaimed           advocacy ground. As an example, the
     integrated approach to development,          training manual (Adults and Children       Convention on the rights of the Child
     and practices collective work through        Learning: A Holistic and Integrated        (CrC), through its regular reporting
     consultation, networking, and                Approach to Early Childhood Care and       system, encourages “alternative”
     partnerships.                                Development), and a set of longer-term     contributions by civil society. NGos in
     ArC’s objective is to produce resources,     capacity-building processes with eCCd      some contexts compile and present
     build capacities, and generally              networks in three countries.               their own reports; in others, they join
     nurture the resource culture in Arab                                                    forces with ministries (namely under
                                                  Advocacy                                   the umbrella of a hCMC) and often
     countries. Working with partners,
     ArC contributes to better childhood,         Advocacy for eCCd is not a common          succeed in nurturing reports with a
     health, education, communication,            practice in the Arab region; it is         dose of professionalism, first-hand
     and community development by                 an emerging field for civil society,       knowledge of the field, and accurate
     producing reference books (such as the       NGos, and eCCd professionals. As           assessment. the education for All
     Arabic edition of “Where there is No         a regional networking NGo rather           (efA) process, with its insistence on
     doctor”), training manuals, newsletters,     than a structured network, ArC does        the elaboration of national policies, is
     and other educational materials, as          get involved, when appropriate, in         another point of entry.
     well as by convening workshops and           advocacy initiatives, particularly at      Another positive development
     training programmes to build human           regional and international levels.         generated partly by the dynamics of
     resources.                                   however, the role it has chosen for        the CrC reporting system has been
                                                  itself has been to facilitate collective   the emergence in certain countries of
     ArC’s programmes cover:
                                                  work among partner NGos. the               coalitions of NGos for the rights of the
     • early childhood care and                   major focus of such work is on the         child, which have been able to garner
     development                                  production and dissemination of            support for raising awareness and
     • Children’s rights                          knowledge in the form of approaches        lobbying.
                                                  and resources, and, more recently, on
     • the child-to-child approach                                                           In certain contexts, the injection
                                                  capacity building. this applies also to
     • Mental health for a new generation         the field of advocacy for eCCd.            of substantial grants (e.g., by the
                                                                                             World Bank in egypt and Jordan) or
     • youth and healthy living                   though sociopolitical structures in the    the intervention of external actors
     • disability, special needs, and inclusion   region are varied, they are generally      (e.g., the Aga Khan foundation in
     • health for all through primary health      characterised by distance between          syria) creates momentum and allows
     care, women’s health, and rational use       governments/states and citizens, or        eCCd professionals in the country to
     of drugs                                     what could be broadly termed “civil        participate in influencing and planning,
                                                  society.” A common feature is the          as well as in various aspects of
     • digital solidarity with deprived           existence of national higher Councils      implementation.
     communities                                  for Motherhood and Childhood
     • Information and communication              (hCMC). Created as a sort of public-       In most of the above, the focus is on
     technologies for development                 private venture, they are generally        children in general, often from a rights

                                                                                                     CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
                                                                                ReGIonAl RePoRt: AdVoCACy In tHe ARAB ReGIon        65


   perspective. Within this context, the      It is also important to note that          though such processes have generally
   early childhood constituency has had       community initiatives have been            allowed for significant cooperation
   to elbow its way to generate a specific    emerging to provide some forms of          engaging the professional eCCd
   focus on eCCd. Progress has been           structured programming to prepare          sector, including NGos, it has also
   made, however. following is a look at      children for the transition from home      encountered significant obstacles and
   how programmes for young children          to basic education. An illustration of     setbacks in all the contexts.
   in the Arab region relate to the           this type of community initiative is
   Consultative Group’s 4 Cornerstones        the project of a learner in the eCdVu      A State of Permanent emergency
   to secure a strong foundation for          course in yemen, who implemented           Although positive signs of movement
   young Children.                            such a programme in her village during     are indicated on all of the above
                                              the summer break.                          fronts, attention must be drawn
   cornerstone 1: Start at the beginning
                                                                                         to the growing scope and level of
   the need for structured programmes         cornerstone 3: Improve primary             emergencies in the Arab region.
   focusing on child development              school quality                             Conflicts and upheavals have always
   from conception to age 3 has been          As in many regions, the problems           existed in the region, but the situation
   identified as urgent for a number of       linked to transition from eCCd             is now one of permanent emergency
   years. however, such projects are          programmes (where they exist) to           in Palestine, Iraq, lebanon, and sudan,
   still rare on the ground. Cooperation      primary schooling have been a great        and the potential for a worsening
   between eCCd and health                    concern for eCCd professionals in          of the situation is on everyone’s
   professionals is only now emerging as      Arab countries, because of the often       minds. this state of emergency goes
   a point of entry. one illustration would   abysmally low quality of the primary       far beyond occasional suspension of
   be one of the outcomes of the 2006         schooling afforded to the most             normal services. on the one hand, it is
   early Childhood development Virtual        deprived social sectors. though the        producing a chronic degradation of the
   university (eCdVu.org) programme           problem is talked about profusely,         real progress made in years past. on
   in yemen; at the end of the seminar        there is an overall sentiment that very    the other, it requires the allocation of
   on leadership and programming, the         little can be done about this challenge.   limited energies and resources to cope
   participants in the course invited the     however, initiatives can be pointed        with the consequences, to the extent
   Ministers of social Affairs and health     to as illustrative of possible ways        that we in ArC have started thinking
   and lobbied them to ensure integration     forward. for example, eCCd actors          of the need to introduce strategies to
   from the early years.                      within Palestinian refugee camps,          meet the needs of the young children
                                              which generally are NGos in lebanon        and families affected (pretty much
   cornerstone 2: Get ready for success
                                              and elsewhere, have developed              everyone in some contexts) as a key
   enrolment in kindergarten is a current     highly successful eCCd provision.          part of our mainline programming.
   focus of most governments and              Cooperation has been gradually
   societies in the region, driven by a                                                  this poem by toufic Zayyad, mayor of
                                              emerging with the schools run by
   variety of factors (e.g., conviction,                                                 Nazareth in the 1970s, illustrates the
                                              united Nations relief and Works
   efA requirements, external funding).                                                  reality of life in the region:
                                              Agency (uNrWA), which is the uN
   Although the challenge is colossal         agency mandated to provide support         The roses had blossomed on the sill of
   (typically, the goal would be growth       services, including education, to          my window.
   from 10% to 60% by 2015),                  Palestinian refugees, to design various    And the vine had climbed the stairs
   momentum has been created.                 strategies for working on transition,      draping them in green.
   Advocacy has focused on such issues        including training of uNrWA teachers.
   as generating resources at the local                                                  My house was leaning on a ray of sun,
   level and ensuring quality through         cornerstone 4: Include early childhood     sunbathing.
   capacity building and well designed        in policies                                And I was dreaming of bread in
   curricula. An example is the project                                                  abundance to all people.
                                              Work on national policies has received
   adopted by the current two World           an active boost in many Arab countries     That was before they came in a tank
   forum Global leaders in egypt (from        in recent years, thanks to the external    splattered with blood.
   save the Children us), who focused         leverage mentioned above (i.e., efA,       For more information, contact:
   on mobilising resources and adopting       CrC). for example, a national policy       Youssef Hajjar, Senior Coordinator
   appropriate approaches for increasing      has been adopted in Jordan, and the        Arab Resource Collective
   enrolment in one rural district.           process has been going on for some         E-mail: arcyh@gn.apc.org
                                              time in egypt, syria, and yemen.           http://www.mawared.org/
CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
66   ReGIonAl RePoRt: AsIA ReGIonAl netWoRK FoR eARly CHIldHood RePoRt




     report: Asia-Pacific Regional
     network for early Childhood
     several mechanisms exist for                  sharing knowledge and experiences,          As the Network evolves and matures
     coordination of early Childhood (eC)          and initiating joint efforts.               and its membership increases, various
     professionals globally, including both                                                    committees and thematic groups
     the Consultative Group on eCCd and            objectives                                  will be formed around member
     the World forum. Professional societies       two main objectives have been               interest, thereby attracting increased
     in early childhood publish journals and       identified:                                 membership. In addition, government
     hold annual conferences; several of                                                       policy makers and key donors will
                                                   • to share experiences, policies, good
     these exist in Asia and the Pacific at                                                    be an important target group of the
                                                   practices, and documentation between
     the national level. until now, however,                                                   advocacy and research initiatives
                                                   and among members of the regional
     there has yet to be established an                                                        carried out through the Network.
                                                   network.
     official network of early childhood                                                       Capacity building will directly benefit
     professionals in Asia.                        • to build capacity of eC professionals     eC professionals at various levels and,
                                                   through regular communication and           in the long run, children as well.
     during the eC Policy review workshop
                                                   exchange, workshops and seminars,
     held in Bangkok in July 2007,
                                                   and through other activities.               Role of Core Group
     participants from nine Asian countries
     (Pakistan, Nepal, Mongolia, China,            In addition, as complementary to and        A Core Group of volunteers including
     Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, lao         in support of these core objectives, the    members from PlAN International
     Pdr, and singapore) and representing          Network will also:                          regional offices, uNICef and uNesCo
     government, NGos, universities,                                                           regional/national offices, NGos and
                                                   • support and/or disseminate studies        universities have agreed to work
     institutes, and the uN, met to
                                                   and multicountry research efforts.          together through e-mail to carry
     discuss the possibility of forming an
     Asian network of early childhood              • Carry out advocacy and build              out specific activities designed to
     professionals. during the workshop,           common understanding among eC               get ArNeC up and running. once
     a self-selected group of participants         professionals, policy makers, and           the steering Committee (sC) is
     met to discuss the preparation of a           researchers.                                established, the Core Group will cease
     concept note to outline the formation                                                     functioning and can be dissolved. It is
                                                   • Build interpersonal and                   hoped, however, that the Core Group
     of the Asia-Pacific regional Network
                                                   organisational linkages within the          members will remain active in the
     for early Childhood (ArNeC). the
                                                   region.                                     eC resource Network, either within
     Network recognises that vast economic
     imbalances exist between and within           Membership                                  the sC or as leaders and members of
     countries in the Asia-Pacific region, an                                                  the various committees and thematic
                                                   Membership in ArNeC is not restricted       groups formed.
     area characterised by ethnic, cultural,
                                                   to Asia, but is free and open for all
     linguistic, and topographical diversity.
                                                   interested individuals. for the time        Role of steering Committee
     this diversity is reflected in wide
                                                   being, we will not be seeking to
     variations in access to early childhood                                                   the sC will facilitate the smooth
                                                   establish institutional or organisational
     services and their quality. yet, it is felt                                               functioning of ArNeC. Its main tasks
                                                   memberships.
     a need exists to share good policies                                                      will be:
     and practices for the benefit of all          Members will receive regular news
                                                                                               • decision making on programme
     countries in the region. this report          and updates, will be sent and/or have
                                                                                               matters.
     summarises these discussions.                 access to a journal or newsletter, and
                                                   will be kept informed of events being       • fund raising, including preparation
     the main purpose of ArNeC is to build
                                                   organised in the region.                    of a work plan and budgetary planning
     the capacity of eCd organisations and
                                                                                               decisions.
     individuals through development of            the target group for the Network is
     a shared vision, mutual cooperation,          manyfold. first off, members will be        • Policy direction and focus.
                                                   direct beneficiaries of the Network.


                                                                                                        CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
                                                       ReGIonAl RePoRt: AsIA ReGIonAl netWoRK FoR eARly CHIldHood RePoRt              67




                                                 The Network recognises that vast economic imbalances exist
                                                 between and within countries in the Asia-Pacific region, an area
                                                 characterised by ethnic, cultural, linguistic, and topographical
                                                 diversity. This diversity is reflected in wide variations in access to
   • Prioritisation of work plan and
                                                 early childhood services and their quality. Yet, it is felt a need
   activities.
                                                 exists to share good policies and practices for the benefit of all
   • oversight of the secretariat and            countries in the region.
   its annual work plan.
   • Assistance in managing and/or
   coordinating the various thematic         Network; ensuring that sC members          reviewed by a special body set up by
   groups and committees.                    are identified and connected; initiating   the sC.
                                             discussions on website design and
   sC members will number                                                               Potential houses that have been
                                             compilation of relevant documents;
   approximately twelve and must                                                        identified include the university of
                                             and preparing for and supporting the
   be based in south or east Asia or                                                    hong Kong, university of the south
                                             ArNeC sC meeting in february 2008.
   the Pacific. efforts will be made                                                    Pacific, Beijing university, east China
   to ensure representation from all         on January 7, 2008, Anna smeby             Normal university, regional training
   subregions, from various professional     will join the ArNeC secretariat team       and resource Centre (rtrC)—
   roles (e.g., policy maker, researcher,    on a full-time basis. In particular,       singapore, and the Korea Institute
   practitioner), and from various types     Anna will be responsible for               for Child Care and education, among
   of organisations (e.g., uN, NGo,          administering ArNeC, including             others. While the house location may
   government, university, institute). sC    expanding membership; coordination         rotate over time, it is felt that it should
   members will serve a two-year term.       of the sC, preparation of the Annual       remain at least two to three years in
                                             Workplan, and overseeing work plan         one location.
   Role of secretariat                       implementation; website maintenance
                                             and updates; and supporting the            Initial activities
   the secretariat is considered essential
   to the smooth running of ArNeC. this      preparations for and processes of the      While not a detailed work plan, the
   is a lesson learned by other Networks,    sC meeting, the Global early learning      following activities were identified
   including the Consultative Group.         and development standards (elds)           during the meeting as areas where the
   the key roles of the secretariat would    Validation workshop, and the eC            Core Group, followed by the sC and
   include:                                  Policy review workshop, all held in        secretariat, should put their energies
                                             Bangkok in february 2008.                  over the following year:
   • Administration of the Network.
   • Website maintenance and updates.
                                             Potential mechanism to                     • finalise the Concept Note and make
                                             house the secretariat                      it an official document.
   • Coordination between various
                                             In the beginning and over the              • Map key players in eCd/eCCe in
   committees, thematic groups, and
                                             short term, as the Network is being        Asia with whom the Concept Note
   initiatives.
                                             established and additional funds and       can be shared—and through whom
   • overseeing of work plan                 interest raised, the secretariat will be   membership and interest can be
   implementation and follow-up.             based in Bangkok in one of the offices     generated.
   Chemba raghavan joined the Asia           of the initial funding agencies (uNICef    • Prepare a memorandum of
   eC resource Network secretariat           eAPro, uNesCo Bangkok, or Plan             understanding between funding
   in october 2007 on a part-time            International).                            organisations willing to provide initial
   basis to support coordination and         In the long term, a process will           support to the Network (uNICef,
   communication of the Network.             be instituted to select an official        uNesCo, PlAN, sCf) for establishing
   Chemba will assist with gathering         “house”—an institute or university         the initial secretariat in Bangkok.
   ideas on potential member interests,      where the secretariat will be based.       • Initiate a coordinated review of
   including what they would like to         Proposals for hosting the Asia eC          eCCe sections of efA Mid-decade
   contribute to and receive from the        resource Network secretariat will be       Assessment (MdA) National reports,


CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
68   ReGIonAl RePoRt: AsIA ReGIonAl netWoRK FoR eARly CHIldHood RePoRt




                                                                                                                    CG updates
                                                                                                                    for updated regional news
                                                                                                                    and information on CG areas
                                                                                                                    of focus and Working Groups




                                                                                     thailand: PLAN International
                                                                                                                    including emergencies, hIV/
                                                                                                                    AIds, Costing and financing
                                                                                                                    and leadership, see
                                                                                                                    http://www.ecdgroup.com




     with Core Group members supporting        complete review of eCCe sections of
     the role of the eCCe efA MdA              efA MdA National reports.
     technical support Group.
                                               • Initiate efforts to secure funding for
     • Complete formalisation of ArNeC,        the future, especially support costs
     with secretariat and sC terms of          related to shifting the secretariat to
     reference revised, with committees        the future house.
     and thematic groups formed and
                                               ArNeC will hold its first steering
     their coordinators chosen, and with
                                               Committee meeting in february
     mechanisms in place for management
                                               2008, bringing together all members
     and administration of the Network.
                                               to officially initiate the Network, to
     • disseminate findings of the eC Policy   agree upon protocols and governance
     review.                                   procedures, and to finalise the first
                                               annual work plan.
     • establish a website for ArNeC.
     Prepare modes for exchanges, for          For more information, contact:
     keeping members informed of               Cliff Meyers
     events and activities in the regions,     UNICEF East Asia and Pacific
     for sharing reports and documents,        Regional Office
     and for building awareness among          E-mail: cmeyers@unicef.org
     potential partners of ArNeC itself.
                                               Chemba Raghavan
     • Provide input and feedback to efA       E-mail: c.raghavan@unescobkk.org
     MdA eCCe Progress Note for south
                                               Anna Smeby
     and east Asia and the Pacific and
                                               E-mail: asmeby@unicef.org


                                                                                                                       CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
                                                                                     InteRnAtIonAl eARly CHIldHood ResouRCes          69


   International early
   Childhood Resources
   new Journal—Child Health                   Africa’s Future, Africa’ s                  Right to Play: early Child Play
   and education                              Challenge: early Childhood                  Resources
   Available online. the current issue is     Care and development in                     targeted at children aged 2-5 years,
   a “special Issue” focused specifically     sub-saharan Africa                          early Child Play promotes holistic
   on eCd, an extension of The Lancet         Garcia, M., Pence, A., & evans, J.          development of the young child
   series on Child development. the           [eds.], 2008                                using parallel and cooperative play
   articles include some new examples                                                     activities. early Child Play concentrates
                                              this book draws from views of authors
   of successful programs. see: www.                                                      on building confidence, physical
                                              and watchers of African trends. It
   childhealthandeducation.com/articles/                                                  dexterity, and cooperation. using the
                                              presents the case for investment in
   current.htm                                                                            same five coloured balls and areas of
                                              eCd based on new findings from
                                                                                          development as the red Ball Child
   How to Avoid the Loss of Potential         neuroscience. trends in eCd from
                                                                                          Play resource, this resource contains
   in Over 200 Million Young Children         sociohistorical perspectives—including
                                                                                          over 65 physical games and activities
   in the Developing World                    the new threats to early childhood
                                                                                          that concentrate primarily on physical
   Patrice engle, sally Grantham-McGregor,    such as hIV/AIds, the challenges of
                                                                                          development of the young child.
   Maureen Black, susan Walker,               caring for children under 3, and the
   & theodore Wachs                           role of African fathers—are presented       for more information, see:
                                              to provide the context of how               http://www.righttoplay.com/
   Risk Factors and the Development of
                                              households, communities, and the
   Competence in Children from Low-                                                       Contact:
                                              public sector care for Africa’s children.
   Income Countries: The Importance                                                       teresa Gonzalez
   of Social-Emotional Outcomes and           similarly, comparative studies on how       director of Program, Monitoring
   Multiple Process Models                    various countries are addressing eCd        and evaluation
   theodore d. Wachs                          policy indicate a variety of approaches     right to Play
                                              including participatory eCd planning        65 Queen st West thomson Building,
   Integrated Childhood Development           and community-based approaches              suite 1900
   Services in Nicaragua                      that work. this book includes several       toronto ontario M5h 2M5 Canada
   Aimee Verdisco, emma Näslund-              results of evaluations on the impact        416 498-1922 ext 236
   hadley, & ferdinando regalia               of programs designed to promote             e-mail: tgonzalez@righttoplay.com
                                              children’s care and development in
   Early Intervention and Caregiving:
                                              various countries. As ways forward,
   Evidence from the Uganda Nutrition
                                              this book also describes financing
   and Early Childhood Development
                                              of early childhood programs and
   Program
                                              the approaches being taken toward
   Pia rebello Britto, Patrice engle, and
                                              capacity building and knowledge
   harold Alderman
                                              dissemination.
                                                                   Copies of this
     Uganda: Right to Play / Melissa Bedard




                                                                   book may be
                                                                   purchased through
                                                                   amazon.com. for
                                                                   orders of 10 or
                                                                   more copies of
                                                                   this book, please
                                                                   contact Alan Pence
                                                                   (apence@uvic.ca)




CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
70   CAlendAR




     early Childhood             Calendar
     See the CG’s online Calendar of Events:
     http://www.ecdgroup.com/calendar1.asp
     for a list of events in 2008, including:


     the Global Campaign for        ‘Action now, Action How’        World Forum Global leaders
     education World Assembly       International AIds Conference   Meeting
     January 22-24, 2008            Preconference symposium         october 7-8, 2008
     sao Paolo, Brazil              August 1-2, 2008                Budapest, hungary
                                    Mexico City, Mexico
     eCd in southern and eastern                                    International step by
     Africa Conference              XVII International AIds         step Association Annual
     feb 18-21, 2008                Conference                      Conference
     Arusha, tanzania               August 3-7, 2008                october 9-12, 2008
                                    Mexico City, Mexico             Budapest, hungary
     Comparative International
     education society Annual       AdeA Working Group on eCd,      CG Annual Consultation
     Meeting                        national eCd Focal Points       october 13-15, 2008
     March 17-21, 2008              Meeting                         hosted by IssA
     New york City, usA             september 2008                  Budapest, hungary
                                    Nairobi, Kenya
     special Interest Group on
     early Childhood
     March 17-18, 2008
     New york City, usA




                                                                         CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
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   the Consultative Group on early Childhood Care and development (CG)
   is an international consortium dedicated to improving early childhood policy and practice focusing
   on young children (pre-birth to 8 years) in disadvantaged circumstances.
   launched in 1984, the CG works                                                         on a particular issue or topic, as well
                                                 Key objectives
   actively to identify gaps, critical issues,                                            as offering network news. We try
   and emerging areas of need and                •	Knowledge	Generation	and	              to provide information on the most
   interest related to eCCd for its work         Dissemination                            appropriate research, field experiences,
   in awareness-raising, advocacy, and           Contribute to the development of a       and practices to benefit individuals
   dissemination, and to seek out new            diverse global knowledge base on         working with young children and
   partners. We believe it is critical to        eCCd through the analysis, synthesis,    their families. We encourage you to
   promote a more diverse and creative           and dissemination of information         share this information with other
   range of eCCd activities that link            which is accessible and used by a wide   networks you take part in. feel free
   different sectors, are more inclusive,        range of actors and stakeholders.        to copy portions of this Notebook and
   and better address children’s needs                                                    disseminate the information to those
   and circumstances in the context of           •	Communications	and	Advocacy            who could benefit from it. Please let
   the family and/or community.                  facilitate a broad-based global          us know about any programmes or
                                                 understanding of the critical            efforts benefiting young children and
                                                 importance of eCCd to social             their families in which you may be
                                                 development and poverty reduction        involved.
                                                 and advocate for improved
                                                 investments, policies, and actions to
                                                 support the holistic development of
                                                 young children.

                                                 •	Strengthening	Regional	Capacity
                                                 strengthen national and regional
                                                 capacities to generate and disseminate
                                                 knowledge, share information, and
                                                 advocate for the support of children’s
                                                 overall development.
                                                 the CG includes a broad-based
                                                                                          For more information, contact:
     Coordinators’                               network of uN agencies, multi and
                                                 bilateral organisations, international
                                                                                          Louise Zimanyi, Director

     Notebook                                    foundations and agencies, national
                                                 and regional organisations and
                                                                                          The Consultative Group on
                                                                                          Early Childhood Care and
                                                                                          Development
     No. 29, 2007                                networks, and academic/educational
                                                                                          c/o Ryerson University
     A publication of the Consultative           institutions. see www.ecdgroup.com/
                                                                                          350 Victoria Street
     Group on early Childhood Care and           participation.asp for an updated list.
     development, published annually.                                                     Faculty of Community Services
                                                 the CG operates through a secretariat
                                                                                          Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 Canada
     editors:                                    overseen by an elected executive Board
     leslie Prpich
                                                                                          Tel: (1) (416) 979-5000 ext. 4801
                                                 made up of current partners.
     louise Zimanyi                                                                       Fax: (1) (416) 979-5384
     louise Curtis                               the CG, currently housed at ryerson      info@ecdgroup.com
     design/Production:                          university in toronto, Canada, is         www.ecdgroup.com
     Joss Maclennan design,                      jointly supported by the office of
                                                                                          office:
     www.joss.to                                 International Affairs and the faculty
                                                                                          99 Gerrard Street East
     Printing: thistle Printing                  of Community services.
                                                                                          Sally Horsfall Eaton Centre for
     Photos: provided by CG partners;            the Coordinators’ Notebook is            Studies in Comunity Health
     Jean-luc ray, Jim holmes, and               produced annually and is one of our      (5th Floor, SHE 588)
     rob Buchanan
                                                 networking tools. each issue focuses     Toronto, Ontario M5B 1G8 Canada

CooRdInAtoRs’ noteBooK: Issue 29
Mongolia: UNICEF/HQ00-1000/Giacomo Pirozzi

				
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