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The Skeletal and Muscular Systems

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The Skeletal and Muscular Systems Powered By Docstoc
					The Skeletal and
Muscular Systems
     Nick Onuska
     Ashley Burns
The Skeletal System
    Evolutionary Development of the
            Skeletal System
   Throughout life, animals have specialized into
    several different types of skeletons
   Hydrostatic

   Exoskeletons

   Endoskeletons
           Hydrostatic Skeletons
   Hydrostatic Skeletons are
    mostly found in soft
    bodied in vertebrates
   A fluid fill cavity is
    surrounded by muscle
    which moves and
    changes the shape of this
    cavity
   This allows the creature
    to move
Exoskeletons
         Exoskeletons surround
          the body with a hard case
         This provides great
          protection
         However, during growth,
          the animal must molt
          and shed its old
          exoskeleton leaving the
          animal exposed
                     Endoskeletons

   Endoskeletons are found in vertebrates and echinoderms
   They consist of an internal skeleton that is connected to a system
    of muscles
   The animals often have a flexible exterior to accommodate
    movement
   This skeleton is typically composed of cartilage and/or bone
Purpose of the Skeletal System
                  Cells in the bones
                   produce immune cells
                   and cellular components
                   of the blood
                   Bone also helps regulate
                   blood calcium levels
                  In addition, the skeleton
                   helps the body to keep
                   its shape and stay
                   supported
        Structures and Functions of the
                Skeletal System
   There are several main components to the
    skeletal system
   axial skeleton
     bones that form the axis of the body
     protect the organs in the head, neck, and trunk

   appendicular skeleton
       bones that anchor the appendages to the axial
        skeleton
     Structures and Functions of the
             Skeletal System
   Within these groups, there are several types of
    bones
   Long Bones
   Short Bones
   Flat Bones
   Irregular Bones
Long Bones
        Bones that are typically
         longer then they are wide
        Hard outer casing with
         spongy bone in the
         centre
Short Bones

         Short Bones are about
          as wide as they’re long
         These bones contain a
          large about of bone
          marrow for making
          blood cells
Flat Bones

        Flat bones are flat strong
         bone structures used for
         support and muscle
         attachment
Irregular Bones
           Irregular bones do not fit
            into any other category
           These bones often have
            an unusual shape as well
The Structure of Bones
                Ossification
   When we are born, our bones are primarily
    composed of cartilage
   This cartilage is turned into bone through
    Ossification
   Video of bone growth
   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X6E5Rz9t
    OKE&feature=related
Axial Skeleton
          The Axial Skeleton
           consists of the areas
           commonly known as
           spinal cord, skull, and
           ribcage
Appendicular Skeleton
              The Upper Extremities

              The Lower Extremities

              The Shoulder Girdle

              The Pelvic Girdle
                        Joints
   Like many other things in the skeletal system,
    there are a couple of different types of joints as
    well
   Immoveable joints
   Slightly Movable Joints
   Freely Moveable Joints
Immoveable joints

            Joints in the skeleton
             that cannot be moved at
             all. (..duh)
            Ex. Sutures that join
             together the skull
             (Fibrous connective
             tissue)
Slightly Movable Joints

               This includes bones that
                have joints bridged by
                cartilage
               An example of this
                would be the
                intervertebral discs that
                allow movement in the
                spine
            Freely Moveable Joints

   There are many types of joints that may fit into
    the description of Freely Moveable Joints
   These are also known as synovial joints
     The ends of the bones are held in a synovial capsule
      filled with a lubricating fluid
     The ends of the bone are then capped with cartilage

   The structure of this joint dictates the
    movement of the joint
Freely Moveable Joints
Interdependence of Skeletal system
                    The skeleton relies extremely
                     heavily on the muscular
                     system
                    With out these muscles,
                     movement of the skeleton
                     would not be possible
                    The origin of the muscle
                     attaches to the part of the
                     bone that does not move
                    The insertion is the part of
                     the muscle that attaches to
                     the moving bone
         Diseases and disorders of the
               Skeletal system
   Osteoporosis
       loss of bone tissue caused by a lowered level of
        calcium
   Osteoarthritis
       The wearing out of a joint; known as a degenerative
        joint disease
   Tendinitis
       stiffness or pain in the muscles or joints
The Muscular System
    Evolutionary Development of the
            Muscular System
   Locomotion occurs in many forms throughout
    the world
   Different species have had to adapt their bodies
    different ways though evolution to adapt to their
    environment
     Land: Legs
     Air: Wings

     Water: Fins, tail, ect…
    Purpose of the Muscular System
   The primary purpose of the muscular system is
    to allow locomotion, movement of bones, and
    the internal movement of parts of organs within
    the body!
        Structures and Functions of the
               Muscular System
   Some of the main parts of the muscular system
    include:
     Skeletal Muscles
     Smooth Muscles

     Tendons

     Ligaments

     Adipose Tissue
Skeletal Muscles

           Skeletal muscles are
            muscles that connect to
            the various parts of the
            skeletal system and allow
            it to move.
           This are muscles that can
            typically be controlled
            voluntarily by the human
            mind
                 Smooth Muscles

   Smooth muscles are often said to be muscles
    that are controlled by the sub conscious parts of
    the human mind.
   They are often associated with the stomach and
    intestines and the urinary system.
   These tissues control blood flow in major
    organs and are key in regulating blood pressure
    in the circulatory system.
Tendons

       Tendons are the
        connective muscle
        between the skeletal
        muscles and the parts of
        the skeleton they control
       These muscles are
        strong, flexible, and
        resistant to damage
                      Ligaments

   Ligaments are fibrous
    material that connects
    two bones that are
    moved by skeletal
    muscles
    Ligaments stabilize
    bones both during
    movement and during
    rest.
   Adipose Tissue is
    another critical part of
    the muscular system
   This connective tissue
    stores fat as well as
    cushions joints
   It is very important in
    protecting joints
    during strenuous
    activity
Cardiac Muscles
                 Cardiac Muscle
   Cardiac Muscle is a type of muscle that is only found in
    the heart
   It is controlled by the autonomic nervous system.
   Cardiac muscle is different from the other muscle types
    in that contraction can occur even without an initial
    nervous input.
   The cells that produce the stimulation are called the
    pacemaker cells.
            Muscle Contraction
   http://www.youtube.co
    m/watch?v=gJ309LfHQ
    3M
   http://www.youtube.co
    m/watch?v=BqCj-
    S6cQgk&feature=related
        Generation of heat by muscular
                 contraction
   Skeletal muscle aids in heat generation
   During muscle contractions, muscle cells use
    energy
       most is converted to heat.
   The body releases heat from the blood and
    tissues through the skin
   Shivering causes muscle contractions that create
    heat
Interdependence of Muscular system
                    The muscular system
                     relies on the digestive
                     system and circulatory
                     system to provide the
                     energy need for the
                     contraction of muscles
                    In addition, the skeletal
                     system is needed for the
                     most of the muscles in
                     the body to be much use
                     to the body at all
         Diseases and disorders of the
              Muscular system
   Myasthenia Gravis: Impulse receptors in muscles
    fail
       Makes impulses sent from the brain ineffective
            Drooping eyelids, difficulty eating, blurred vision, muscle
             fatigue
   Cerebral Palsy: Occurs from the damage to muscle
    resistance control section of brain
   ALS (Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis)
       neurodegenerative disease that attacks motor neurons
         Causes degeneration of motor control