; Skeletal Disorders
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Skeletal Disorders


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									 Thoracic Cage

And Skeletal Disorders
Thoracic Cage

            • Def.- AKA the rib
              cage and is a bony
              structure which
              surrounds the
              thoracic cavity and
              supports the
              pectoral girdle,
              forming a portion
              of the human
               True Ribs
• Known as the superior seven pairs
• Attach directly to the sternum by means of
  coastal cartilages
• The colored ribs in the image below are
  the true ribs
               False Ribs
• Known as the inferior five pairs
• These do not attach directly to the sternum
• The major diff. between false ribs and true
  ribs is that true ribs are directly attached,
  while false ribs are not.
              Floating Ribs

• The 2 lowermost pairs in the rib cage,
  which are 11 and 12
• Attached to the vertebrae only, and not to
  the sternum or cartilage coming off the
 The colors in the image shown
below represent the floating ribs
         and false ribs.
• AKA the breast bone is divided into 3
  different parts, which are the manubrium,
  the body, and the xiphoid process.
• Xiphoid process is a very important
  landmark of the sternum because during
  cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) it is
  crucial to place the hands over the
  sternum rather the xiphoid process.
The square region in the image
     below is the sternum
             Jugular Notch
• Def-A notch in the inferior border of the
  occipital bone behind the jugular process
  that forms the posterior part of the jugular
              Sternal Angle
• It is the slight elevation that can be felt at
  the junction of the manubrium and the
  body of the sternum. This junction is
  important because it identifies the second
• The identification allows the second rib to
  be counted and allows location of the apex
  of the heart, which is located between the
  5th and 6th ribs.
Sternal angle is located under supernatural notch
               in the diagram below
Skeletal Disorders
     Osteogenesis Imperfecta

• Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic
  disorder characterized by fragile bones
  that break easily. It is also known as
  “brittle bone disease.” A person is born
  with this disorder and is affected by it
  throughout their life.
              Facts on OI
• The majority of cases are caused by a
  dominant mutation to type 1 collagen
• Cases vary from mild to severe
• Approximately 35% of children with OI are
  born into a family with no history of OI.
  Most often this is due to a new mutation to
  a gene and not by anything the parents did
  before or during pregnancy.

• Treatments focuses on minimizing fractures, maximizing
  mobility, maximizing independent function and general

• Treatments include
   –   Physical therapy and safe exercise including swimming
   –   Casts, splints or wraps for broken bones
   –   Braces to support legs, ankles, knees and wrists as needed
   –   Medications to strengthen bones
   –   Mobility aids such as canes, walkers, or wheelchairs and
       other equipment or aids for independence may be needed to
       compensate for weakness or short stature.
    – Three general causes of scoliosis
•   Congenital (present at birth) scoliosis is
    due to a problem with the formation of
    the spine bones (vertebrae) or fused ribs
    during development in the womb or early
    in life.
•   Neuromuscular scoliosis is caused by
    problems such as poor muscle control or
    muscle weakness, or paralysis due to
    diseases such as cerebral palsy,
    muscular dystrophy, spina bifida, and
• Idiopathic scoliosis is scoliosis of unknown
  cause. Idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents is the
  most common type.
  – Facts
• Some people may be prone to curving of the
  spine. Most cases occur in girls. Curves
  generally worsen during growth spurts. Scoliosis
  in infants and young children are less common,
  and commonly affect boys and girls equally.
– Symptoms
– A doctor may suspect scoliosis if one shoulder
  appears to be higher than the other, or the pelvis
  appears to be tilted. Untrained observers often do not
  notice the curving in the earlier stages.
     • Other symptoms can include:
–   Backache or low-back pain
–   Fatigue
–   Shoulders or hips appear uneven
–   Spine curves abnormally to the side (laterally)
• Treatment
  – Depends On
     • cause of the scoliosis
     • the size and location of the curve
     • how much more growing the patient is expected to do.

     • Most cases of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (less than
       20 degrees) require no treatment, but should be
       checked often, about every 6 months.
     • As curves get worse (above 25 to 30 degrees in a child
       who is still growing), bracing is usually recommended to
       help slow the progression of the curve. There are many
       different kinds of braces used. The Boston Brace,
       Wilmington Brace, Milwaukee Brace, and Charleston
       Brace are named for the centers where they were
• Alternative Names- Hypertrophic
  osteoarthritis; Osteoarthrosis;
  Degenerative joint disease; DJD; OA;
  Arthritis - osteoarthritis
      Causes of Osteoarthritis
• In osteoarthritis, the cushioning (cartilage)
  between the bones wears away in the
  joints. As osteoarthritis gets worse, the
  cartilage disappears and bone rubs on
  bone. Bony spurs or growths usually form
  around the joint. The ligaments and
  muscles around the joint loosen and
  become weaker.
the symptoms of osteoarthritis include:
• Deep aching joint pain that gets worse after
  exercise or putting weight on it, and is relieved
  by rest
• Over time, pain is present even when you are at
• Grating of the joint with motion
• Increase in pain during humid or moist weather
• Joint swelling
• Limited movement
• Muscle weakness around arthritic joints
Images of Osteoarthritis

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