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The Cold War

VIEWS: 14 PAGES: 75

									The Cold War


        By:
Jessie Abdulnour
         &
  Kirsten White
BRRR!!!! It’s Cold!
Let’s Get Down To Business!


   Yeah…. We’ll make men (&
      women) out of you!
Geographical Changes
 Division of Germany
 Separated between the
  Allies and the Soviets
 Brought about boundaries
  we use today
 Created tension in Europe
 Escalated animosity
Map Before Cold War
Map
Map During Cold War
Nato and Warsaw Pact
Breather!
 I'm out of vodka and money.
  My semester is officially over.
  The way I see it, my finals are
  just forms I need to fill out in
  order to leave campus.
   Texts From Last Night
Politics
Politics
  The Cold War began
   immediately after WWII and
   was named for its indirect
   fighting
Politics: Causes
 There was an      Mainly US vs.
  intense rivalry    USSR (only two
  between            superpowers
  communist          to come out
  and non-           of the Second
  communist          World War)
  nations -          were major
  spread of          competitors.
  communism
Politics Causes
  The Soviets
   believed to be in a Nuclear arms
   state of war with       race. (US vs.
   capitalism              USSR)
  The United States Soviet Union’s
   felt it was its duty to power.
   save the world          (EVERYONE vs.
   from communistic        RUSSIA)
   efforts                IRON CURTAIN!!!
  There was no            à Ideological
   mutual agreement and physical
   towards German          boundary
   re-unification          dividing Europe
Major Playas!
 Yanks vs.
  Commies
 Two major
  superpowers
  (blue vs. red)
Soviet Union
               Stalin: Imperialist/
                capitalistic vs.
                communist/
                progressive
               Nikita
                Khrushchev:
                imperialism and
                capitalism could
                coexist without
                war because
                communism was
                so powerful.
Soviet Union
 Leonid Brezhnev:
  Trezhnev
  doctrine à which
  proposed
  intervention in
  Soviet bloc
  nations if a
  threat to
  Communist rule
  existed.
 Mikhail
  Gorbachev:
  withdrawal
United States
                Truman: Free vs.
                 subjugation of
                 other nations
                Eisenhower:
                 doctrine of
                 rollback
                Johnson:
                 Vietnam War
United States
 Nixon: detente
    relaxation of
   tension
  Reagan:
   doctrine of
   rollback.
  The use of
   military force to
   "roll back"
   communism in
   countries where
   it had taken root.
Great Britain
                Winston
                 Churchill: Iron
                 Curtain
                 speech
The Warsaw Pact (1955-
91): Treaty of Friendship
 Created a unified military command and a
   system of mutual assistance
  Eastern Bloc:
  Allowed for the multinational invasion of
   Czechoslovakia in 1968
 Containment: a policy using military,
   economic, and diplomatic strategies to
   temper the spread of communism. Domino
   effect
 The Long Telegram George. F Kennan
   outlined soviet belief and proposed the
   policy of Containment.
Major Political Movements,
Policies, and Philosophies

  Expansionism: the doctrine of a nation's
   expanding its territorial base, usually, though
   not necessarily, by means of military
   aggression.

  Traditionalist: believed that Soviet expansion
   precipitated the Cold War
  Revisionists: claimed that U.S. hostility toward
   communism led to the Cold War
  Post-revisionists: argued that mutual
   misperceptions led to shared responsibility for
   the Cold War.
Breather!
 Today, after school, as I was
  walking to my bus, I passed my
  male principle who was singing
  "Pants On The Ground" while
  three of my administrators
  bobbed their heads and shuffled
  their feet.
   My Life is Average
The Truman Doctrine
(1947)
 The Marshall Plan (1947-51):
  America sent large amounts of
  money to help non-communist
  countries recover from the effects of
  World War II.
 The establishing of NATO (North
  Atlantic Treaty Organization)
  international military alliance
  between anti-communist nations to
  prevent the organization of alliances
  between communist countries.
Major Events say what???
=)
MAJOR BREATHER!
Major Events
  The Tehran Conference (1943)
  The Yalta Conference (1945): the “Big Three” meet to
   settle matters of war believed to have been what started
   the war.
  Established the four zones of Germany
  Realization of soviet power
  The Potsdam conference (July-Aug., 1945)
  During the conference of Yalta, Stalin was advancing
   through the Eastern Front.
  The British bomb Dresden to destroy German morale
   and halt Soviet expansion.
  In late March, The United States, Britain, and the Soviet
   Union cross the Rhine in their race to Germany.
  After Hitler’s death (April 30th), Germany surrenders.
  VE Day: Victory in Europe Day
Major Battles and
Conflicts of the Cold
War
   KOREA
   The Korean War (1950-1953) was the first armed conflict of
    the war and it emphasized the struggle between
    communism and democracy.
   VIETNAM
   The Vietnam War (1955-1975) came after the country split
    into a communist North and a non-communist South.
   GERMANY
   Berlin Blockade: (major confrontation) the Soviet Union
    blocked the western Allies’ railways and road sectors to
    parts of Berlin.  Berlin Airlift
   Berlin Crisis of 1961: the Germans block the border
    between the eastern and western sectors of Germany.
   Emigration to the West
   Erection of the Berlin Wall
Major Battles and
Conflicts
  CUBA
  Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962: soviets placed nuclear missiles in Cuba
   and the United States was trying to remove them.
  The closest the world ever came to nuclear war
  Kennedy and Khrushchev helped avert war
  SIX DAY WAR (June 5-10, 1967): six day long conflict between Israel
   and its neighbors
  CZECHOSLOVAKIA
  The 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia: the Soviet Union and Warsaw
   Pact countries invaded Czechoslovakia because of suspicions that
   Prague Spring (Czech reform) would threaten the communist
   authority.
  AFGHANISTAN
  Soviet War in Afghanistan (1979-1989):
  The Soviet army wanted to take over Afghanistan and the Afghans
   attempted resistance against the Soviet communist influence.
  Deployed under Brezhnev; withdrawn under Gorbachev.
Intellectual
Intellectual
 Modernism
 Writers challenge
  expectations, explore
  stream-of-consciousness
Modernist Writers




    Marcel Proust (Search of the Lost Time)
    James Joyce (Ulysses)
    Virginia Wolf (Lighthouse)
Existentialism
 Generally held that the focus of
  philosophical thought should be
  to deal with the conditions of
  existence of the individual
  person and their emotions,
  actions, responsibilities, and
  thoughts.
Writers
 Jean- Paul
  Sartre
  (Nausea)
 Albert Camus
  (The Stranger)
Women Feminist
Movement
 Simone de Beauvoir (The
  Second Sex) questions the
  way gender shapes people’s
  lives
Post-Modernism
 Argued that language and
  culture shaped society
 Postmodernism has
  influenced many cultural
  fields, including literary
  criticism, linguistics,
  architecture, visual arts, and
  music
Post- Modernism
            Claude Levi-
             Strauss
The Cold War Philosophies
 Differed from previous thought
  because they didn’t determine
  life through social class
 Lots of social mobility
 Accepting of new ideas and
  thoughts
 Prone to abstract thinking
 More open to “vulgar” topics
Religion
General Ideas
 Religious interest groups affected
  foreign policy more so than
  particular ideals.
 The American Jews pushed for
  the recognition of Israel in 1948,
  but the Reform Jews established
  the American Council for
  Judaism, against a completely
  Jewish state.
Catholicism
  priests, nuns, and lay
   leaders were
   against the spread
   of communism
  Catholics vs.
   Protestants
   Catholic
   authoritarianism
   strengthened
   Catholic influence in
   anticommunist
   efforts.
  John F. Kennedy
   was a cosmopolitan
   catholic
Christianity
                The birth "Judeo-
                 Christian tradition"
                 not only legitimized
                 Judaism, but
                 minimized the
                 differences within
                 Christianity.
                The National
                 Council of Churches
                Authoritative voice
                 of PROTESTANTISM
ART
Art
 Abstract Art dominated this time
   period
  It reflected society’s common thought
   because it exemplified living out of the
   norm, rather than following society’s
   mandates
  It influenced people to open up
   different avenues of thought process
   and to be more acceptable of
   random or un-popular movements
  In a sense, it encouraged people to
   simplify their lives, yet also influenced
   them to move foreword and progress
Abstract Expressionism
             Photographs of
              the Holocaust
              made socially-
              aware paintings
              redundant
             Artists
              experimented
              with shapes and
              colors,
              specifically blue
              and orange
             *Think Tony The
              Tiger
Abstract Expressionism
 Action
  Painting
 Defined as
  irrational,
  instinctive and
  impulsive
  movement of
  existence
 Jackson
  Pollock
Abstract Expressionism
             Color Field
             Color was used
              without any
              perspective
              device,
              producing a
              sensation of
              impressive size
             Helen
              Frankenthaler
Abstract Expressionism
 Hard Edge
   appeared in the
   late 1950's to
   describe
   geometric
   abstract works,
   which
   emphasized
   colorful
   atmospheres
   and imprecise
   shapes.
  Jules Olitski
Art Brut
           “Raw Art” or
            “Rough Art”
           Interest in the art
            of insane asylum
            inmates
           Art Brut was
            immune to the
            influences of
            culture, immune
            to being
            absorbed and
            assimilated
           Andre Breton
Lyrical Abstraction
 Painting was an
   instinctual act
   that let the work
   loom and
   emerge and
   decide for itself
   what its form
   would be.
  George Mathieu
Pop Art
          Pop stresses
           frontal
           presentation
           and flatness of
           un-modulated
           and unmixed
           color bound
           by hard edges
          Andy Warhol
Graffiti
   Graffiti is a type of
    deliberate marking
    on property, both
    private and public
   Graffiti can be
    viewed as creative
    expression, whether
    charged with
    political meaning or
    not
   Taki
Breather
 We all have a cross to bear.
  Yours just happens to be
  attracting gay men.
   Texts From Last Night
Technology
Nuclear Arms Race
  InterContinental Ballistic
   Missiles (ICBMs) were new
   arms used by the United
   States and The Soviet Union.
  The Manhattan Project
   resulted in the first atom
   bomb.
  Fat man and Little boy
  Influence on History
   brought peace or broke
   peace
  SALT TALKS (Strategic Arms
   Limitation Talks): armament
   control
  START (1) Agreement: treaty
   between the US and the
   Soviet Union on the
   Reduction and Limitation of
   Strategic Offensive Arms.
Nuclear Arms Race
             INF Treaty (Intermediate-
              Range Nuclear Forces Treaty)
              a.k.a. The Treaty Between the
              United States of America and
              the Union of Soviet Socialist
              Republics on the Elimination
              of Their Intermediate-Range
              and Shorter-Range Missiles.
              What a mouthful? TWSS =)
             Banned nuclear and
              conventional ground-
              launched ballistic and cruise
              missiles within intermediate
              ranges.
             Disarmament: The act of
              laying down arms, especially
              the reduction or abolition of
              a nation's military forces and
              armaments.
Space Race
  The space race
   introduced the world to
   space travel, artificial
   satellites, lunar probes,
   rockets, and the idea of
   man in space (the man
   on the moon).
  On July 29, 1957, the year
   of 1957-58 was named
   the International
   Geophysical Year
   started the Race to
   space
  October 4, 1957 Sputnik
   1 became the first
   artificial satellite to orbit
   Earth.
  US behind in space race.
  The United States creates
   NASA
Breather
  Mary Brown was always sleeping. Everywhere. The
   Wal-Mart, Home, Movies, and at Sunday School.So
   One Day Mary was sitting next to a boy called
   Johnny in her Sunday SchoolハClass. As Usual she
   was sleeping.The teacher, Mrs FrankStein asked a
   question. ' Who created Adam and Eve?'Johnny
   got out pin and poked it on Mary's leg.'GOD'
   exclaimed Mary in pain.'Correct' said the Teacher.
   'Who was God's son?'Johnny poked it again.'JESUS'
   exclaimed Mary in pain.'Correct' said the teacher.
   'What did Eve say to Adam after she bore his last
   son?'Johnny did it again'IF YOU STICK THAT THING UP
   ME ONE MORE TIME I'LL STICK IT UP YOUR A-HOLE!'
   exclaimed Mary Brown
Economic
Economy


            QuickTime™ an d a
     Sorenson Video 3 decompre ssor
      are need ed to see this p icture .
US Economic Policies




  Pent-up consumer demand fueled
   exceptionally strong economic growth in the
   postwar period
  The automobile industry successfully converted
   back to producing cars, and new industries
   such as aviation and electronics grew by leaps
   and bounds.
US Economic Policies
              Members of the military,
               added to the expansion.
              The nation's gross national
               product rose from about
               $200,000 million in 1940 to
               $300,000 million in 1950
               and to more than
               $500,000 million in 1960.
              At the same time, the
               jump in postwar births,
               known as the "baby
               boom," increased the
               number of consumers.
               More and more
               Americans joined the
               middle class.
US Economic Policies
    The American work force also changed significantly.

    During the 1950s, the number of workers providing services grew until it
     equaled and then surpassed the number who produced goods.

    And by 1956, a majority of U.S. workers held white-collar rather than
     blue-collar jobs.

    At the same time, labor unions won long-term employment contracts and
     other benefits for their members.

    Farmers, on the other hand, faced tough times.

     Gains in productivity led to agricultural overproduction, as farming
     became a big business.

    Small family farms found it increasingly difficult to compete, and more and
     more farmers left the land.

    As a result, the number of people employed in the farm sector, which in
     1947 stood at 7.9 million, began a continuing decline; by 1998, U.S. farms
     employed only 3.4 million people.
USSR Economic Policies
 The vigorous Soviet economy of the
  late-1960s and early 1970s quickly fell
  victim to the very factors that had
  contributed to its success, central
  planning and raw materials allocation.
USSR Economic Policies
    Throughout the 1970s and into the mid-1980s, the Soviet Union's GNP and
     industrial output continued to increase, but at a lessening pace, eventually
     leading to economic stagnation.

     The Ninth Five Year Plan (1970–1975) saw a growth rate of approximately
     3%. The period of 1975–1980 experienced a growth rate of between 1%
     and 1.9%, depending on whether revised Soviet numbers or the West's
     estimate is examined.

     Likewise, 1980–1985 saw a further decline in economic growth, between
     0.6% and 1.8%.

     Declining economic growth rates were not confined to the Soviet Union.
     Eastern Europe, with its economies intertwined with the Soviet Union's,
     suffered a similar fate.

    By 1980, the Soviet Union was spending nearly one-third of its GNP on
     capital investment, with most of the sum dedicated to the military.

    The military was consuming such a large portion of the Soviet economy for
     two reasons: the Soviet involvement in Afghanistan and the arms race
     with the United States.

    These two events would weigh heavily in the Soviet economic demise and
     lead to its inevitable fall. A weak economy prevented the Soviet Union
     from reacting appropriately to each experience.
Breather
Social
Western European Society
 Social mobility and more general
  affluence blurred lines between
  classes in the Increased crime rates
  and racial disturbances reflected
  continued social tensions.
 One of the most significant postwar
  social changes was the change in
  women's status and the nature of
  the family.
Western European Society
 From the 1950s, the numbers of married
   women working constantly increased. The
   numbers of unmarried women in the work
   force dropped as younger women tended
   to stay in school.Women also achieved the
   right to vote in postwar Europe and also
   found greater access to European
   university systems.
  Women also achieved the right to vote in
   postwar Europe and also found greater
   access to European university systems.
Western European Society
 Family rights improved as women were
   able to divorce more easily and had
   access to a variety of birth control and
   abortion.
  Pressures on the new concept of family
   resulted in higher rates of divorce. Women
   demanded economic and social equality.
  Popular culture seemed more lively than
   formal intellectual culture. Sexual culture
   became generally more pleasure oriented
   and less traditional in the West.
Eastern European Society
  The Communist party also had a cultural agenda.
  The basis of Soviet culture was a pervasive
   secularism designed to glorify the functions of the
   state.
  The Orthodox Church was forbidden to offer
   instruction to the young, restricting active Church
   membership to the elderly.
  The Jewish minority was also discriminated
   against.
  The state criticized the emulation of Western
   artistic styles.
Eastern European Society
 Soviet literary forms remained more
  diverse and often earned censorship from
  the government.
  The Soviet academy also emphasized the
   sciences and social sciences.
  Urged to reject Western theories, Soviet
   scientists who served government
   ideology were rewarded through state
   funding.
  Ambivalence towards the West and state
  control created a culture neither Western
  nor traditional.
Time Line
    1945・1945 Soviet army marches into Berlin; the German capital city falls. World War
     II ends. Soviet Union, United States, Great Britain, and France divide Berlin and
     Germany into four zones of occupation, a decision made during the Yalta conference.
     ・1946 British Prime Minister Winston Churchill's メIron Curtainモ speech marks
     beginning of the Cold War.・1947 U.S. President Harry Truman requests funds to
     support Greek and Turkish efforts to fight communism. It marks the beginning of the
     Truman doctrine.・1948 The Berlin airlift supplies West Berlin with basic necessities
     after the Soviet Union blocks off the city in an effort to force the West to give it up.・
     1949 The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is formed by the United States
     and many western European countries to defend Europe against Soviet aggression.・
     1949 Communist forces under Mao Zedong take over mainland China. The United
     States continues to support the government of Nationalist China, led by Chiang Kai-
     shek, which is forced to retreat to the island of Taiwan.1950・1950 U.S. Senator
     Joseph McCarthy begins his communist witch hunt in the United States.・1950 The
     Korean War begins, the first armed conflict in the Cold War, the global struggle
     between communism and democracy.・1953 More than 300,000 East Germans flee to
     West Berlin and then to West Germany.・1954 The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
     assists in the overthrow of Guatemala's communist-influenced government.・1954
     Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) is formed to thwart the spread of
     communism in Southeast Asia.・1954 The Vietnam War begins shortly after Vietnam
     is divided into communist North Vietnam and non-communist South Vietnam. The
     United States' involvement spans 1961-73, making it the country's longest war.
Time Line
    1955・1955 The Warsaw Pact is formed by the Soviet Union and communist countries in eastern
     Europe as a military defense organization to counter NATO.・1959 Cuba becomes communist under
     Fidel Castro.1960・1961 Soviet-controlled East Germany divides Berlin with the Berlin Wall.・1961 The
     Alliance for Progress is formed, a U.S.-sponsored program to counter communism in Latin America.・
     1961 The U.S. orchestrates the ill-fated Bay of Pigs invasion, an unsuccessful attempt by Cuban exiles
     to overthrow Fidel Castro's communist regime in Cuba.・1962 The Cuban Missile crisis sparks a major
     confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union when the U.S. discovers the existence of
     Soviet missile installations in Cuba.・1963 U.S. President John F. Kennedy tells a crowd of Germans in
     Berlin that the Wall proves the failure of the Soviet system.・1963 The Soviet Union and the United
     States agree to install a hot-line - which is a point-to-point communications link - that allows both
     countries to directly communicate during a crisis.・1964 The United States Congress approves the Gulf
     of Tonkin Resolution, which grants President Johnson authority to send troops to South Vietnam.1965・
     1967 The Soviet Union accuses the United States of encouraging the Israeli attack and seizure of the
     Sinai, Gaza Strip, the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Golan Heights. This attack becomes known
     as the Six Day War.・1968 Soviet and Warsaw Pact allies invade Czechoslovakia to arrest the current
     leadership and restore hard-line Communists to power.1970・1972 U.S. President Richard Nixon
     becomes the first U.S. leader to visit communist China, leading to a thaw in Cold War relations.・1972
     Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty I (SALT I) is signed by the Soviet Union and the United States, limiting
     the proliferation of weapons, including nuclear missiles.・1973 The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
     secetly helps overthrow Chile's socialist government under Salvador Allende.1975・1979 The Soviet
     Union invades Afghanistan, beginning a decade-long war that ends with their withdrawal in 1988.1980・
     1983 The Soviet Union accuses the United States of violating the 1972 Antiballistic Missile Treaty
     following President Reagan's announcement of his Strategic Defense Initiative, or "Star Wars" - a
     space-based defense shield intended to destroy attacking missiles.1985・1985 Mikhail Gorbachev
     becomes Soviet leader; he begins to ease away from old communist policies.・1987 U.S. President
     Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev sign INF treaty, which removes medium and
     short-range nuclear missiles.・1989 The Berlin Wall falls.1990・1990 East and West Germany are
     reunited.・1991 The Strategic Arms Reduction Talk (START) is signed by U.S. President George H. W.
     Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, Gorbachev calling for additional disarmament of U.S. and
     Soviet nuclear weapons.・1991 The Soviet Union breaks up into independent republics; the Cold War
     ends.

								
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