The Cold War By: Jessie Abdulnour & Kirsten White BRRR!!!! It’s Cold! Let’s Get Down To Business! Yeah…. We’ll make men (& women) out of you! Geographical Changes Division of Germany Separated between the Allies and the Soviets Brought about boundaries we use today Created tension in Europe Escalated animosity Map Before Cold War Map Map During Cold War Nato and Warsaw Pact Breather! I'm out of vodka and money. My semester is officially over. The way I see it, my finals are just forms I need to fill out in order to leave campus. Texts From Last Night Politics Politics The Cold War began immediately after WWII and was named for its indirect fighting Politics: Causes There was an Mainly US vs. intense rivalry USSR (only two between superpowers communist to come out and non- of the Second communist World War) nations - were major spread of competitors. communism Politics Causes The Soviets believed to be in a Nuclear arms state of war with race. (US vs. capitalism USSR) The United States Soviet Union’s felt it was its duty to power. save the world (EVERYONE vs. from communistic RUSSIA) efforts IRON CURTAIN!!! There was no à Ideological mutual agreement and physical towards German boundary re-unification dividing Europe Major Playas! Yanks vs. Commies Two major superpowers (blue vs. red) Soviet Union Stalin: Imperialist/ capitalistic vs. communist/ progressive Nikita Khrushchev: imperialism and capitalism could coexist without war because communism was so powerful. Soviet Union Leonid Brezhnev: Trezhnev doctrine à which proposed intervention in Soviet bloc nations if a threat to Communist rule existed. Mikhail Gorbachev: withdrawal United States Truman: Free vs. subjugation of other nations Eisenhower: doctrine of rollback Johnson: Vietnam War United States Nixon: detente relaxation of tension Reagan: doctrine of rollback. The use of military force to "roll back" communism in countries where it had taken root. Great Britain Winston Churchill: Iron Curtain speech The Warsaw Pact (1955- 91): Treaty of Friendship Created a unified military command and a system of mutual assistance Eastern Bloc: Allowed for the multinational invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 Containment: a policy using military, economic, and diplomatic strategies to temper the spread of communism. Domino effect The Long Telegram George. F Kennan outlined soviet belief and proposed the policy of Containment. Major Political Movements, Policies, and Philosophies Expansionism: the doctrine of a nation's expanding its territorial base, usually, though not necessarily, by means of military aggression. Traditionalist: believed that Soviet expansion precipitated the Cold War Revisionists: claimed that U.S. hostility toward communism led to the Cold War Post-revisionists: argued that mutual misperceptions led to shared responsibility for the Cold War. Breather! Today, after school, as I was walking to my bus, I passed my male principle who was singing "Pants On The Ground" while three of my administrators bobbed their heads and shuffled their feet. My Life is Average The Truman Doctrine (1947) The Marshall Plan (1947-51): America sent large amounts of money to help non-communist countries recover from the effects of World War II. The establishing of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) international military alliance between anti-communist nations to prevent the organization of alliances between communist countries. Major Events say what??? =) MAJOR BREATHER! Major Events The Tehran Conference (1943) The Yalta Conference (1945): the “Big Three” meet to settle matters of war believed to have been what started the war. Established the four zones of Germany Realization of soviet power The Potsdam conference (July-Aug., 1945) During the conference of Yalta, Stalin was advancing through the Eastern Front. The British bomb Dresden to destroy German morale and halt Soviet expansion. In late March, The United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union cross the Rhine in their race to Germany. After Hitler’s death (April 30th), Germany surrenders. VE Day: Victory in Europe Day Major Battles and Conflicts of the Cold War KOREA The Korean War (1950-1953) was the first armed conflict of the war and it emphasized the struggle between communism and democracy. VIETNAM The Vietnam War (1955-1975) came after the country split into a communist North and a non-communist South. GERMANY Berlin Blockade: (major confrontation) the Soviet Union blocked the western Allies’ railways and road sectors to parts of Berlin. Berlin Airlift Berlin Crisis of 1961: the Germans block the border between the eastern and western sectors of Germany. Emigration to the West Erection of the Berlin Wall Major Battles and Conflicts CUBA Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962: soviets placed nuclear missiles in Cuba and the United States was trying to remove them. The closest the world ever came to nuclear war Kennedy and Khrushchev helped avert war SIX DAY WAR (June 5-10, 1967): six day long conflict between Israel and its neighbors CZECHOSLOVAKIA The 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia: the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact countries invaded Czechoslovakia because of suspicions that Prague Spring (Czech reform) would threaten the communist authority. AFGHANISTAN Soviet War in Afghanistan (1979-1989): The Soviet army wanted to take over Afghanistan and the Afghans attempted resistance against the Soviet communist influence. Deployed under Brezhnev; withdrawn under Gorbachev. Intellectual Intellectual Modernism Writers challenge expectations, explore stream-of-consciousness Modernist Writers Marcel Proust (Search of the Lost Time) James Joyce (Ulysses) Virginia Wolf (Lighthouse) Existentialism Generally held that the focus of philosophical thought should be to deal with the conditions of existence of the individual person and their emotions, actions, responsibilities, and thoughts. Writers Jean- Paul Sartre (Nausea) Albert Camus (The Stranger) Women Feminist Movement Simone de Beauvoir (The Second Sex) questions the way gender shapes people’s lives Post-Modernism Argued that language and culture shaped society Postmodernism has influenced many cultural fields, including literary criticism, linguistics, architecture, visual arts, and music Post- Modernism Claude Levi- Strauss The Cold War Philosophies Differed from previous thought because they didn’t determine life through social class Lots of social mobility Accepting of new ideas and thoughts Prone to abstract thinking More open to “vulgar” topics Religion General Ideas Religious interest groups affected foreign policy more so than particular ideals. The American Jews pushed for the recognition of Israel in 1948, but the Reform Jews established the American Council for Judaism, against a completely Jewish state. Catholicism priests, nuns, and lay leaders were against the spread of communism Catholics vs. Protestants Catholic authoritarianism strengthened Catholic influence in anticommunist efforts. John F. Kennedy was a cosmopolitan catholic Christianity The birth "Judeo- Christian tradition" not only legitimized Judaism, but minimized the differences within Christianity. The National Council of Churches Authoritative voice of PROTESTANTISM ART Art Abstract Art dominated this time period It reflected society’s common thought because it exemplified living out of the norm, rather than following society’s mandates It influenced people to open up different avenues of thought process and to be more acceptable of random or un-popular movements In a sense, it encouraged people to simplify their lives, yet also influenced them to move foreword and progress Abstract Expressionism Photographs of the Holocaust made socially- aware paintings redundant Artists experimented with shapes and colors, specifically blue and orange *Think Tony The Tiger Abstract Expressionism Action Painting Defined as irrational, instinctive and impulsive movement of existence Jackson Pollock Abstract Expressionism Color Field Color was used without any perspective device, producing a sensation of impressive size Helen Frankenthaler Abstract Expressionism Hard Edge appeared in the late 1950's to describe geometric abstract works, which emphasized colorful atmospheres and imprecise shapes. Jules Olitski Art Brut “Raw Art” or “Rough Art” Interest in the art of insane asylum inmates Art Brut was immune to the influences of culture, immune to being absorbed and assimilated Andre Breton Lyrical Abstraction Painting was an instinctual act that let the work loom and emerge and decide for itself what its form would be. George Mathieu Pop Art Pop stresses frontal presentation and flatness of un-modulated and unmixed color bound by hard edges Andy Warhol Graffiti Graffiti is a type of deliberate marking on property, both private and public Graffiti can be viewed as creative expression, whether charged with political meaning or not Taki Breather We all have a cross to bear. Yours just happens to be attracting gay men. Texts From Last Night Technology Nuclear Arms Race InterContinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) were new arms used by the United States and The Soviet Union. The Manhattan Project resulted in the first atom bomb. Fat man and Little boy Influence on History brought peace or broke peace SALT TALKS (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks): armament control START (1) Agreement: treaty between the US and the Soviet Union on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms. Nuclear Arms Race INF Treaty (Intermediate- Range Nuclear Forces Treaty) a.k.a. The Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Elimination of Their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles. What a mouthful? TWSS =) Banned nuclear and conventional ground- launched ballistic and cruise missiles within intermediate ranges. Disarmament: The act of laying down arms, especially the reduction or abolition of a nation's military forces and armaments. Space Race The space race introduced the world to space travel, artificial satellites, lunar probes, rockets, and the idea of man in space (the man on the moon). On July 29, 1957, the year of 1957-58 was named the International Geophysical Year started the Race to space October 4, 1957 Sputnik 1 became the first artificial satellite to orbit Earth. US behind in space race. The United States creates NASA Breather Mary Brown was always sleeping. Everywhere. The Wal-Mart, Home, Movies, and at Sunday School.So One Day Mary was sitting next to a boy called Johnny in her Sunday SchoolﾊClass. As Usual she was sleeping.The teacher, Mrs FrankStein asked a question. ' Who created Adam and Eve?'Johnny got out pin and poked it on Mary's leg.'GOD' exclaimed Mary in pain.'Correct' said the Teacher. 'Who was God's son?'Johnny poked it again.'JESUS' exclaimed Mary in pain.'Correct' said the teacher. 'What did Eve say to Adam after she bore his last son?'Johnny did it again'IF YOU STICK THAT THING UP ME ONE MORE TIME I'LL STICK IT UP YOUR A-HOLE!' exclaimed Mary Brown Economic Economy QuickTime™ an d a Sorenson Video 3 decompre ssor are need ed to see this p icture . US Economic Policies Pent-up consumer demand fueled exceptionally strong economic growth in the postwar period The automobile industry successfully converted back to producing cars, and new industries such as aviation and electronics grew by leaps and bounds. US Economic Policies Members of the military, added to the expansion. The nation's gross national product rose from about $200,000 million in 1940 to $300,000 million in 1950 and to more than $500,000 million in 1960. At the same time, the jump in postwar births, known as the "baby boom," increased the number of consumers. More and more Americans joined the middle class. US Economic Policies The American work force also changed significantly. During the 1950s, the number of workers providing services grew until it equaled and then surpassed the number who produced goods. And by 1956, a majority of U.S. workers held white-collar rather than blue-collar jobs. At the same time, labor unions won long-term employment contracts and other benefits for their members. Farmers, on the other hand, faced tough times. Gains in productivity led to agricultural overproduction, as farming became a big business. Small family farms found it increasingly difficult to compete, and more and more farmers left the land. As a result, the number of people employed in the farm sector, which in 1947 stood at 7.9 million, began a continuing decline; by 1998, U.S. farms employed only 3.4 million people. USSR Economic Policies The vigorous Soviet economy of the late-1960s and early 1970s quickly fell victim to the very factors that had contributed to its success, central planning and raw materials allocation. USSR Economic Policies Throughout the 1970s and into the mid-1980s, the Soviet Union's GNP and industrial output continued to increase, but at a lessening pace, eventually leading to economic stagnation. The Ninth Five Year Plan (1970–1975) saw a growth rate of approximately 3%. The period of 1975–1980 experienced a growth rate of between 1% and 1.9%, depending on whether revised Soviet numbers or the West's estimate is examined. Likewise, 1980–1985 saw a further decline in economic growth, between 0.6% and 1.8%. Declining economic growth rates were not confined to the Soviet Union. Eastern Europe, with its economies intertwined with the Soviet Union's, suffered a similar fate. By 1980, the Soviet Union was spending nearly one-third of its GNP on capital investment, with most of the sum dedicated to the military. The military was consuming such a large portion of the Soviet economy for two reasons: the Soviet involvement in Afghanistan and the arms race with the United States. These two events would weigh heavily in the Soviet economic demise and lead to its inevitable fall. A weak economy prevented the Soviet Union from reacting appropriately to each experience. Breather Social Western European Society Social mobility and more general affluence blurred lines between classes in the Increased crime rates and racial disturbances reflected continued social tensions. One of the most significant postwar social changes was the change in women's status and the nature of the family. Western European Society From the 1950s, the numbers of married women working constantly increased. The numbers of unmarried women in the work force dropped as younger women tended to stay in school.Women also achieved the right to vote in postwar Europe and also found greater access to European university systems. Women also achieved the right to vote in postwar Europe and also found greater access to European university systems. Western European Society Family rights improved as women were able to divorce more easily and had access to a variety of birth control and abortion. Pressures on the new concept of family resulted in higher rates of divorce. Women demanded economic and social equality. Popular culture seemed more lively than formal intellectual culture. Sexual culture became generally more pleasure oriented and less traditional in the West. Eastern European Society The Communist party also had a cultural agenda. The basis of Soviet culture was a pervasive secularism designed to glorify the functions of the state. The Orthodox Church was forbidden to offer instruction to the young, restricting active Church membership to the elderly. The Jewish minority was also discriminated against. The state criticized the emulation of Western artistic styles. Eastern European Society Soviet literary forms remained more diverse and often earned censorship from the government. The Soviet academy also emphasized the sciences and social sciences. Urged to reject Western theories, Soviet scientists who served government ideology were rewarded through state funding. Ambivalence towards the West and state control created a culture neither Western nor traditional. Time Line 1945･1945 Soviet army marches into Berlin; the German capital city falls. World War II ends. Soviet Union, United States, Great Britain, and France divide Berlin and Germany into four zones of occupation, a decision made during the Yalta conference. ･1946 British Prime Minister Winston Churchill's ﾒIron Curtainﾓ speech marks beginning of the Cold War.･1947 U.S. President Harry Truman requests funds to support Greek and Turkish efforts to fight communism. It marks the beginning of the Truman doctrine.･1948 The Berlin airlift supplies West Berlin with basic necessities after the Soviet Union blocks off the city in an effort to force the West to give it up.･ 1949 The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is formed by the United States and many western European countries to defend Europe against Soviet aggression.･ 1949 Communist forces under Mao Zedong take over mainland China. The United States continues to support the government of Nationalist China, led by Chiang Kai- shek, which is forced to retreat to the island of Taiwan.1950･1950 U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy begins his communist witch hunt in the United States.･1950 The Korean War begins, the first armed conflict in the Cold War, the global struggle between communism and democracy.･1953 More than 300,000 East Germans flee to West Berlin and then to West Germany.･1954 The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) assists in the overthrow of Guatemala's communist-influenced government.･1954 Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) is formed to thwart the spread of communism in Southeast Asia.･1954 The Vietnam War begins shortly after Vietnam is divided into communist North Vietnam and non-communist South Vietnam. The United States' involvement spans 1961-73, making it the country's longest war. Time Line 1955･1955 The Warsaw Pact is formed by the Soviet Union and communist countries in eastern Europe as a military defense organization to counter NATO.･1959 Cuba becomes communist under Fidel Castro.1960･1961 Soviet-controlled East Germany divides Berlin with the Berlin Wall.･1961 The Alliance for Progress is formed, a U.S.-sponsored program to counter communism in Latin America.･ 1961 The U.S. orchestrates the ill-fated Bay of Pigs invasion, an unsuccessful attempt by Cuban exiles to overthrow Fidel Castro's communist regime in Cuba.･1962 The Cuban Missile crisis sparks a major confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union when the U.S. discovers the existence of Soviet missile installations in Cuba.･1963 U.S. President John F. Kennedy tells a crowd of Germans in Berlin that the Wall proves the failure of the Soviet system.･1963 The Soviet Union and the United States agree to install a hot-line - which is a point-to-point communications link - that allows both countries to directly communicate during a crisis.･1964 The United States Congress approves the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which grants President Johnson authority to send troops to South Vietnam.1965･ 1967 The Soviet Union accuses the United States of encouraging the Israeli attack and seizure of the Sinai, Gaza Strip, the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Golan Heights. This attack becomes known as the Six Day War.･1968 Soviet and Warsaw Pact allies invade Czechoslovakia to arrest the current leadership and restore hard-line Communists to power.1970･1972 U.S. President Richard Nixon becomes the first U.S. leader to visit communist China, leading to a thaw in Cold War relations.･1972 Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty I (SALT I) is signed by the Soviet Union and the United States, limiting the proliferation of weapons, including nuclear missiles.･1973 The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) secetly helps overthrow Chile's socialist government under Salvador Allende.1975･1979 The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan, beginning a decade-long war that ends with their withdrawal in 1988.1980･ 1983 The Soviet Union accuses the United States of violating the 1972 Antiballistic Missile Treaty following President Reagan's announcement of his Strategic Defense Initiative, or "Star Wars" - a space-based defense shield intended to destroy attacking missiles.1985･1985 Mikhail Gorbachev becomes Soviet leader; he begins to ease away from old communist policies.･1987 U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev sign INF treaty, which removes medium and short-range nuclear missiles.･1989 The Berlin Wall falls.1990･1990 East and West Germany are reunited.･1991 The Strategic Arms Reduction Talk (START) is signed by U.S. President George H. W. Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, Gorbachev calling for additional disarmament of U.S. and Soviet nuclear weapons.･1991 The Soviet Union breaks up into independent republics; the Cold War ends.
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