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					          ARACY Annual Forum

Community attitudes to children: helpful or
                harmful?




            www.aracy.org.au
                      ARACY Annual Forum
        Community attitudes to children: helpful or harmful?



What’s wrong with our kids? How our affluent
         society has failed children.

    Speaker – Professor Fiona Stanley AC
                       ARACY Board Chair

                                                 www.aracy.org.au
                            Report Card Domains
                                                               • material wellbeing
                                                               • health and safety
                                                               • education, training &
                                                                 employment
                                                               • peer and family
                                                                 relationships
                                                               • behaviours and risks
                                                               • subjective wellbeing
                                                               • participation
                                                               • environment
Source ACG 2008 - adapted from Brofenbrenner & Morris (1998)
                   Report Card Domains
Australia doing well:                         Australia doing poorly:
• material wellbeing                          • aboriginal wellbeing overall
     – joblessness                            • material wellbeing:
• school achievement                               – households with income below 50% of
• some behaviours / risks:                              median
     – smoking, illicit drug use              • health & safety:
• subjective wellbeing                             – infant mortality, immunisation,
• participation                                         intentional self injury death rate,
                                                        accidental injury 0-4 years, non-
                                                        accidental deaths under 19
                                              • transition to employment
                                              • family / peer relationships
                                              • some behaviours and risks:
                                                   – teenage fertility, road deaths, justice
                                                        supervision
                                              • environment


                               Australia not leading any domain
                                     16/30 OECD overall
Percentage of jobless households
         with children
Intentional self-injury death rate for young people aged
         15-24 years (rate per 100,000 children)

Australia: 13/23 Indigenous Australia: 23/24
                         Low Birthweight rate
                        (rate per 1,000 live births)

•   Australia: 7/18 Indigenous Australia: 19/19
Birth Prevalence of NWS
                     Cost of doing nothing
Cost of
problems
Child abuse and
neglect
Obesity
Mental illness
Human capital
Crime and
delinquency
Bullying
Adolescent
pregnancy
Binge drinking                                                           risk factors

       Relationship between risk factors and protective factors. Shaded area: cost of doing nothing.
CIVIL SOCIETY                                                                 UNCIVIL SOCIETY


Focus on:                                                                     Accepting of:

Equality/diversity                                                            Inequalities
                                                         Workplace
                               Social                                         Fear, violence
Trust, care

Collective good                                                               Priority for material wealth

Valuing parents                   Community              School               Parents not valued

Valuing                                       CHILD                           Fast tracking childhoods
childhoods
                                                                              Cures more than
Prevention more than                                                          prevention
cures                                                             Political
                           Economic
                                                                              Environmental
Protected environments                         Family                         degradation

Safe places for all                                                           Safe places for the few

Effective use of helpful                      Cultural                        Excessive use of
technologies                                                                  damaging technologies

Child needs as well as                                                        Adults needs more than
adults                                                                        children’s
                      ARACY Annual Forum
        Community attitudes to children: helpful or harmful?



What’s wrong with how society values children
            and young people?

            Speaker – Dr Don Edgar
        Director of the Australian Institute of Family Studies


                                                   www.aracy.org.au
Dominant values about childhood?
• Individualism & hedonism vs public good
• Privatisation vs community responsibility
• Competition & success vs cooperation &
  shared destiny
• Consumerism & status vs sustainability & self-
  sufficiency
• Worklife priority vs family life
• Presentism vs future impacts
• Fatalism vs sense of purpose
    How do values affect childhood &
              parenting?
• Delays mean fewer (and more precious) children
• Dividing lines between adult & child blurred
• Lack of confidence in raising children
• Burden & costs of children resented
• New media give children earlier access to ‘adult’
  knowledge
• Market targets a ‘segmented’ childhood
         Archetypes of childhood
 Children   as a private - not public - good
 Children   as innocents in need of protection
 Children   as passive victims, or as a dangerous
  threat
 Children   as incompetents – train for productivity

New Child?
 as real people with real human needs
 as competent, powerful citizens, with rights and
  responsibilities
 in need of firm guidelines for future challenges
                          ARACY Annual Forum
            Community attitudes to children: helpful or harmful?



“Child friendly” jobs? National and international
                    differences.

           Speaker – Dr Lyndall Strazdins
    Fellow at the National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health


                                                     www.aracy.org.au
    Lyndall Strazdins and Sharryn Sims
NATIONAL CENTRE FOR EPIDEMIOLOGY AND POPULATION HEALTH
             What about children?

Linked lives
   • Children’s wellbeing depends on family

     resources: especially parent’s mental health,
     income and time ZUBRICK ET AL 2000.



          FAMILY         CHILD
        RESOURCES      WELLBEING
               Linked workplaces

Jobs affect 3 of these resources:
•   Income
•   Time
•   Parent (employee) health & wellbeing


                   FAMILY         CHILD
      JOBS
                 RESOURCES      WELLBEING
                       Claim 1

                     FAMILY        CHILD
      JOBS
                   RESOURCES     WELLBEING




A Really Family-Friendly Job
 does not compromise family resources
 •   Adequate pay
 •   Adequate time
 •   Adequate conditions
                           = Child-Friendly
               Children’s views


3 wishes for working
  parents, Ellen Galinsky,
  1999
                             Mothers   %   Fathers
Make more money
                               23            23
Spend more time
                               10            16
Less stressed & tired
                               34            28
      Child-friendly nations?


•   UNICEF 2007 AN OVERVIEW OF CHILD
    WELLBEING IN RICH COUNTRIES
•   ARACY 2008 Report card: The wellbeing of
    young Australians
•   ARACY Encouragement grant 2008-2009

•   Do nations also vary in the extent jobs are
    family (child) friendly?
                 Child-friendly jobs?

Work-in-progress: Compared OECD countries on:
• Time – 2 dimensions
   – Paid family-friendly leave
   – Work time flexibility

• Wellbeing – 3 dimensions
   – Job control
   – Job security
   – Workload intensity

• Pay (in progress)
   – Average wage per capita (include part-time, casual)
   – Wage disparity measure (average to median wage ratio)
Ranking of Time-related Family Friendly Work Conditions :
                   19 OECD Countries
                    Child-friendly jobs?

Work-in-progress: Compared OECD countries on:
• Time – 2 dimensions
   – Paid family-friendly leave
   – Work time flexibility

• Wellbeing – 3 dimensions
   – Job control
   – Job security
   – Workload intensity

• Pay (in progress)
   – Average wage per capita (include part-time, casual)
   – Wage disparity measure (average to median wage ratio)
Ranking of Wellbeing-Related Family Friendly Work
         Conditions : 19 OECD Countries
Comparison Table of Cross-National Ranking of Child
Wellbeing, Family Friendly Work Conditions & Gross
                 Domestic Product
Recreation Rest
       Work
Care
                 Acknowledgements
       ARACY Encouragement Grant 2008-2009
                                  also
Parent and child wellbeing and the influence of work
  and family arrangements: a three cohort study.
 Strazdins with Nina Lucas, Bec Mathews, Helen Berry,
            Bryan Rodgers & Anna Davies.
      This project was funded by FaHCSIA under the Social Policy
        Research Services Agreement (SPRS) with the Australian
National University. Kim Wisener, Tamara Blakemore, Ruth Ragless, Jean
     Gifford, Justine Gibbings, Susan Garner and Jonette McDonnell
(FaHCSIA) all contributed to the report. We also thank Moira Smith for her
                 help liaising permission and publication.
                           Disclaimer


Note: The views expressed in this presentation are the views of the
presenters only. They do not reflect the views of any other person or
organisation, including the ANU, FaHCSIA or the Australian Government.




          Lyndall.Strazdins@anu.edu.au

             Sharryn.Sims@anu.edu.au
Appendices
Ranking of Family Friendly Work Conditions
       Across 19 OECD Countries
              Mothers’ strains & gains

Children’s wellbeing
                                                    SDQ
                                                       β
         Depressive symptoms (-)                      .22**
         Work-Family Gain (+)                        -.04*
         Work-Family Strain (-)                       .09**

•   Note: All measures entered together, adjusted coefficients shown
•   Data from LSAC WAVE 1 (4-5 year old children) N = 2083
•   Adjusted for income, workhours, mother education & age, childcare, gender
                   Fathers’ strains & gains

  Children’s wellbeing

                                             SDQ
                                                β
         Depressive symptoms (-)               .06**
         Work-Family Gain (+)                 -.04 ns
         Work-Family Strain (-)                .09**

Note: All measures entered together, adjusted coefficients shown
Data from LSAC WAVE 1 (4-5 year old children) N= 2633
Adjusted for income, workhours, father education and age, childcare, gender
                       ARACY Annual Forum
         Community attitudes to children: helpful or harmful?



What role for social marketing in putting children
     at the centre of all decision making?

       Speaker – Professor Rob Donovan
           Director of the Social Marketing Research Unit


                                                  www.aracy.org.au
           Marketing for Social Change

• Now everybody’s doing
  it …



•   Initially . . . .Consumer packaged goods;
    Consumer durables Industrial equipment
    Service industry Airlines         Banking
    Government Non profit sector Health and social
    issues: Social Marketing Professional services
    Event marketing Sports Mktg,
          Social Marketing is…
• The application of the principles and
  methods of marketing to the achievements of
  socially desirable goals (Kotler & Zaltman 1971)
 But … there‟s more … to Social
          Marketing …
• The application of the principles and methods of marketing to
  the achievements of socially desirable goals (Kotler & Zaltman
  1971)
• Use of marketing principles and methods to achieve changes in
  the social determinants of health & wellbeing (Donovan &
  Henley 2003)
• UN Declaration of Human Rights defines „socially desirable‟
  and
• Social Determinants of Health define targets for change
  (Donovan & Henley 2003)


Seeks substantive changes in societal institutions to remove
  disparities
   Marketing
        +
 Public Health
        +
Health promotion
        =
Social Marketing
                        Health Promotion:
                       The Ottawa Charter
• 1986 First Int Conf Health promotion




Build Healthy Public Policy Create Supportive Environments Strengthen Community Actions Develop Personal
     Skills Reorient Health Services
The public health approach

Preserve, promote and improve health

Emphasis on prevention – occurring &
reoccurring

Interventions

     * universal - primary prevention
     * selective – secondary prevention
     * indicated – tertiary prevention
The public health approach
     Marketing Mindset:

Focus on individuals who make the
  relevant decisions – and asks:


  “What‟s in it for them?”
       Social Marketing‟s “4 Ps” …
          targets individuals ...
        to achieve changes in …
Populations in prevalence of risky/undesirable behaviours
Products that harm wellbeing (& enhance wellbeing)
Places – to facilitate adoption & maintenance of desirable behaviours and
inhibit undesirable behaviours
Political allocation of resources that impact on health and well being
Modify individuals healthy /
  unhealthy behaviours
                          Modify products




Traffic lights on food products For hot chips, size
does matter* NZ in deep frying practices could have
significant impact on fat intake + changes in chip
thickness. 89% of chain outlets used thin chips (6-
10mm), while 83% of independent outlets used thicker
chips (12mm or more). Morley-John, Swinburn,
Metcalf, and Raza 2002 CARS
          Modify products:
Barbie gets a credit card … and never
         runs out of money
Modify places
      Modify society …

Target individuals
with power to make
structural changes
for the equitable
distribution of
resources impacts
on health and
wellbeing
           Social Marketing …
Targets those in power to make
structural changes that:
        remove barriers;
        give individuals the capacity
        and resources for change;
        and
        facilitate the adoption of
        desired behaviours.
   A national strategy
           for
improving the wellbeing of
    children & youth
What do we want to achieve?

  Optimal development for children & youth

  An environment that maximises potential    and
  minimises harm
  Target Audiences: Who do we need to
  reach and what do we want them to do

• Individuals – to change the way they personally behave
  with respect to the wellbeing of children & youth
  (Population changes)
• Individuals –to make decisions about products &
  services that may enhance or hinder the wellbeing of
  children & youth (Changes in Products)
• Individuals – to make decisions about physical
  environmental factors that may enhance or hinder the
  wellbeing of children & youth (Changes in
  Places/Settings)
• Individuals – to make decisions about the allocation of
  the nations‟s resources that may enhance or hinder the
  wellbeing of children & youth (Political changes)
  Target Audiences for a National stratgey



   General                                                               Public
   Public                                  Politicians
                                                                    Servants
                    Parents/Carers




    Producers                                                 Planners
     Writers                          Corporates
                  Media/
                Journalists

                                                      Tertiary
                                 Educationists      Institutions
Primary Care                                                       Local Govt
                Coaching
                Institutes
                                Marketing:

                             Capitalist Tool


                       Social Marketing:

                     Social Capitalist Tool


Social marketing: a bag of tools or technologies from commercial marketing applied to issues of
social importance: a way of approaching an issue that emphasises the perspective of the target
audience: goal of contributing to achieving a socially just society.
          ARACY Annual Forum

Community attitudes to children: helpful or
                harmful?




            www.aracy.org.au

				
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