Name _________________________________________ Teacher ___________________________ Electric Charges and Static Electricity Electric Charges and Atoms For example, if you rub a balloon on your hair, some electrons rub off your hair onto the balloon. The Electricity is a form of energy that is made when balloon has gained electrons, so it now has a negative electrons move. What makes electrons move? The charge. Your hair has lost electrons, so it has a electric charges of different particles in atoms. positive charge. Atoms are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Protons have a positive charge (+). The balloon has more negative Her hair has more positive charges than positive charges. charges than negative charges. Electrons have a negative charge (-). Neutrons have no charge. Electron - (negative charge) + + Proton (positive charge) Neutron - (no charge) Charges that are alike repel, or push against, each If you hold the balloon near your head, your positively other. Unlike charges attract, or pull toward, each charged hair will be attracted to the negatively other. charged balloon. You may hear a crackling sound and - - Two electrons have like see a tiny spark. The crackling sound and spark are charges. They repel, or push against, each other. produced as the electrons jump from from the balloon to your hair. + + Two protons have like charges. If you rub two balloons They repel, or push against, each other. on your head or a piece of wool, both balloons will be negatively charged. If you try to + - A proton and an electron have unlike charges. They attract, or touch the two balloons pull toward, each other. together, they will repel each other. A negatively charged object will attract a positively charged object and repel another negatively charged Balloons that have been one. Two positively charged objects will also repel “charged” in this way may each other. also pick up tiny bits of paper! Static Electricity Lightning is another Have you ever gotten a shock or made a spark by product of static shuffling your feet on the carpet? If so, you've electricity. Lightning is a experienced static electricity. huge electric spark that Static electricity is produced by a buildup of jumps from a negatively electric charges on an object. This happens when charged cloud to a electrons move from one object to another. If positively charged object electrons rub off one object and stick onto another, on the ground. that object becomes negatively charged. GRADE SHOW WHAT YOU KNOW! Electric Charges & Static Electricity 5 DIRECTIONS: Answer these questions without looking at the information page. Check your answers using the key. If any of your answers are incorrect, go back and reread the information about this topic before you take the test again. 1 A balloon has a negative charge. A glass rod has 4 Two positively charged objects will __. a positive charge. A attract each other B repel each other C not affect each other balloon glass D become a neutrally charged object rod 5 Which of the following is not an effect of static electricity? What will happen when the glass rod is brought near the balloon? A A student shuffles his feet on a carpet, then gets a shock as he touches a doorknob. A The balloon will be attracted to the rod. B Lightning strikes the ground during a storm. B The balloon will be repelled by the rod. C A student rubs a balloon on her head, then C The balloon will remain in place. finds that she can pick up tiny pieces of paper with the balloon. D The balloon will spin in circles. D A student rubs a balloon on her head, then finds that she can see electrons on the balloon. 2 A negatively charged object will __. A repel a positively charged object 6 The pictures below show three atoms. Which B repel a neutron choice correctly shows the charges of the C not affect a positively charged object particles. D attract a positively charged object A B C - - + + + + + - - 3 This image shows 2 balloons repelling. + + - - + A B C D Both A and C are correct. 7 If electrons rub off one object and stick onto What causes them to repel? another, that object becomes __. A An equal number of protons. A positively charged B An unequal number of neutrons. B negatively charged C An unequal number of electrons. C neutrally charged D An equal number of electrons. D Both A and C are correct. Use the picture below to answer questions 8-11. 13 Static electricity is associated with __. A the gain of negative charges (electrons) - Z B the gain or loss of neutral charges (neutrons) C the loss of negative charges (electrons) X + + D Both A and C are correct. Y 14 Static electricity is produced by a buildup of - electric charges on an object. This happens when __. 8 Which particle is shown at X? A electrons move from one object to another A A proton. B protons move from one object to another B A neutron. C neutrons move from one object to another C An electron. D Both A and B are correct. D A carbon. 15 Which diagram correctly shows what will happen if two electrically charged particles are 9 Which particle is shown at Y? near each other? A A proton. B A neutron. A + + C An electron. D A carbon. B + - 10 Which particle is shown at Z? A A proton. C - - B A neutron. A A only. C An electron. B B only. D A carbon. C A and C are correct. D A, B, and C are correct. 11 What is the charge of the particle shown at Z? A Positive. 16 What is the electric charge of this teacher's hair? B Negative. C Neutral. D Repelled. 12 Which statement about electricity is correct? A Electricity is a form of energy that is made when electrons move. B Electricity is a form of energy that is made when protons move. C Electricity is a form of heat that is made when A positively charged protons move. B negatively charged D Electricity is a form of energy that is made C neutrally charged when neutrons move. D Both A and C are correct.