Castor Bean Meal as a Protein Source for Chickens: Detoxification and Determination of Limiting Amino Acids ' LAUFEY VILHJALMSDOTTIR AND HANS FISHER Department of Nutrition, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 ABSTRACT A series of studies were carried out with commercially available castor bean meal (CBM), providing approximately 40% protein, to determine its usefulness as a protein source for growing chickens. It was found that hot water extraction was the best procedure, among several tried, for removal of most, if not all, of the growth-depressing components of CBM. Following hot water extraction, it was determined that lysine was the first, and tryptophan the second limiting amino acid. Supplementing CBM with both lysine and trypto Downloaded from jn.nutrition.org by guest on May 6, 2011 phan gave growth rates of chicks as good as those obtained with methionine- supplemented isolated soy protein and markedly improved the net protein util ization value (NPU), but the NPU value was still inferior to that obtained with methionine-supplemented isolated soy protein. It is concluded that hot water- extracted CBM, properly supplemented with the limiting amino acids lysine and tryptophan is an acceptable protein source for chick diets. J. Nutr. 101: 1185-1192, 1971. The world demand for additional protein effects 3 but when it was used as a protein supplies has encouraged studies and exploi supplement for dairy cattle at the same tation of various inedible protein-rich by level, butter made from the milk of these products. One of these is castor bean meal cows increased slightly in viscosity and the (CBM) which contains about 40% crude iodine value was reduced.4 When CBM was protein (N X 6.25) but has found only lim included at a level of 10% in rations for ited use as a feedstuff or food because of growing cattle, food intake was lower than the presence of three potent toxicants: for cattle fed cottonseed meal and their ricin, castor allergen and ricinine (1). growth response was correspondingly re The castor plant, Ricinus communiÂ«, is duced. It was concluded that incorporation widely found as a perennial in tropical and of 10% castor bean meal in cattle rations subtropical regions and is cultivated for was not economically sound.5 its oil as an annual in temperate zones. Limited information is available from a Production by Brazil and India accounts for Japanese study with chickens reported by over one-half of the world supply of castor Okamoto et al.' These workers detoxified beans (837,000 metric tons in 1969 )2 and, CBM by washing it with water followed by provided that reliable methods of detoxica- Received for publication January 19, 1971. tion and deallerginization are devised, the 1 Paper of the Journal Series, N. J. Agriculture Ex defatted castor bean meal could become a periment Station. 2 Oil Seeds and Industrial Crops Research Branch, potentially useful source of protein in these USDA. Beltsville, Maryland. 3 Bris. E. J.. and J. W. Algee 1970 Castor bean by and other developing countries (2). Al products for cattle rations. Feedstuffs, May 16. p. 26. though a great deal of information is avail 4 Popvic, M. P. 1967 Effect of castor oil meal on feed utilization, yield and quality of meat and milk in able on the nature of the toxic factors pres cattle. Acta Vet., Belgrade, 27: 253. Cited in Nutr. ent in CBM (3), relatively little appears to Abstr. Rev. 38: 643, 1968. 5 See footnote 3. have been done to prepare an acceptable * Okamoto, S., O. Koga, I. Goto, T. Aramaki, M. Funatsu, T. Takahashi, C. Yamaguchi, S. Kusakawa product for animal or human consumption. and K. Murase 1965 Evaluation of castor seed resi CBM has been used at a level of 10% in dues as cattle fodder. III. Detoxification and availabil ity as a poultry feed. Nippan Kakin Gakkaishl 2: 1. fattening rations for cattle without ill Cited in Chem. Abstr. 65: 2914, 1966. J. NOTKITION,107: 1185-1192. 1185 1186 LAUFEY VILHJALMSDOTTIR AND HANS FISHER extraction with ethanol, or further washing The composition of the basal diet used with dilute HC1. Although no detrimental throughout these experiments is shown in effects were found in laying hens fed CBM- table 1. Except where otherwise stated, all containing diets, retardation in growth of experimental diets that contained CBM 2- to 7-week-old chicks was observed even provided it at 40% of the diet and were when as little as 5 or 10% was incorporated supplemented with 5% fish meal to provide into their diet. essential amino acids found (by chemical Because of its toxicity, no proper bio analysis, see table 2) to be limiting in CBM. logical evaluation of CBM appears to have These diets provided 19% crude protein. been carried out to date. In the present A similar diet, but one containing isolated study, an attempt was made a) to detoxify soy protein (18.8% of the diet to provide commercial CBM, b) to determine its nu 17% protein), supplemented with 0.2% tritive properties as a protein supplement DL-methionine served as the positive con in diets for growing chickens and c) to trol diet in all experiments; it has long improve its protein quality through judi been recognized that isolated soy protein cious supplementation with the limiting plus methionine supports excellent chick amino acids. growth and has a high net protein utiliza tion value (NPU) (4). The negative con EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE trol diet was identical to the other CBM- Downloaded from jn.nutrition.org by guest on May 6, 2011 Castor bean meal. The CBM under containing diets except that untreated CBM study was a commercially prepared de (also supplemented with 5% fish meal) fatted product.' It had been partially de was used. Glucose was used to bring the toxified by hydraulic pressing and crushing diet to 100% after all other additions had of the castor beans, followed by four to five been made. solvent extractions with heptane. The ex The birds were housed in heated bat tracted material was then steamed at teries during experimental periods which approximately 5.4 kg/cm1 for approxi varied between 14 and 21 days. Feed was mately 4 hours and finally dried and supplied ad libitum and water and artificial ground. lights were provided continuously. Several treatments of this meal were The feeding experiments fell into four designed to improve its quality by removing groups: a) an evaluation of the differently substances present which are deleterious to treated castor meal, b ) attempts to simulate proper growth of monogastric animals (chickens). CBM was extracted 4 or 8 TABLEi times with boiling water in a large coffee Composition of basal diet percolator. Each extraction lasted 10 min utes and 1000-ml quantities of distilled Ingredient Amount water were used for each 200 g CBM. The extracted CBM was dried at 105Â°. Cornstarch 28.0 Corn dextrin 5.0 Other treatments such as autoclaving, Corn oil 3.0 or extracting the meal with dilute HC1 (pH Choline chloride (70% concentrate) 0.3 4) or with organic solvents (ethanol and Mineral mix ' 4.9 acetone) did not enhance the growth- Vitamin mix * 0.2 promoting potential of CBM beyond that Protein (castor bean meal or isolated soy) variable obtained from hot water extraction. The Glucose monohydrate to 100.0 results of these treatments have, therefore, ' In grams per 100kg diet: Ca3(PO<), 850; KHjPO4, been omitted from the tables of results. 1050; NaCl, 8OO; CaCO3, 1900; Fe gluconate, 52; Feeding trials. Day-old male or female MgS04, 250; MnSO4-H2O, 20; KI, 1; CuSO<, 1.28; ZnCOa, 10; NajMoCv2H2O, 1. crossbred (New Hampshire male X Colum 'In milligrams per kilogram diet: thiamin-HCl, 25; riboflavin, 16; Ca pantothenate, 20; pyridoxine-HCl, 6; bian female) chicks were used for the bio biotin, 0.6; folie acid, 4; 2-methyl-l,4-naphthoquinone, logical evaluation of CBM. The initial body 5; cobalamine, 0.02; ascorbic acid, 250; niacin, 150; vitamin A (100IU/mg), 100; vitamin Ds (250IU/mg), weights of the birds used ranged between 2.4; DL-a-tocopheryl acetate (0.5 lU/mg), 20. 35 and 43 g, and 5 to 16 chicks were as signed to each treatment group, usually 'We are grateful to Mr. D. Bolley of the Baker Castor Oil Company, Bayonne, New Jersey for provid in duplicate lots of five or eight. ing the castor bean meal used in these studies. EVALUATION OF CASTOR BEAN PROTEIN 1187 TABLE 2 Protein and amino acid supplementation Amino acid composition of castor bean studies c) were carried out after we were meal protein ' satisfied that little further improvement Amino could be achieved from washing or extract acidValineIsoleucineLeucineThreonineMethioninePhenylalanineLysineHistidineArginineTryptophanTyrosineCystine/2GlycineAlanineProlineSerineH g ing CBM. Chemical analysis of CBM (table N5.444.686.423.441.514.022.681.258.610.312.820.684.314.263.745.440.289.6718.87 2) suggested deficiencies in the essential amino acids lysine, tryptophan and methio nine. Experiments were designed to ascer tain the effect of supplementing water- extracted CBM (four times) with good quality proteins including fish meal, iso lated soy protein and egg albumin, and later by supplementing the extracted CBM diet directly with amino acids to establish the order in which they were limiting for chick growth. For the protein evaluation studies d), the carcass nitrogen retention method of Ben Downloaded from jn.nutrition.org by guest on May 6, 2011 der (5) as modified for use with the chick acidGlutamic by Summers and Fisher (4) was carried acidAmountg/16 out to determine NPU for extracted, sup 1Unextracted, 42.5% protein (N x 6.25); this analy plemented and unsupplemented CBM. The sis was typical of several carried out at different times. Unextracted meal differed from water-extracted meal procedure, with minor modifications (the by 0.2% protein (Nx 6.25); there was no discernible experimental feeding period was 10 and 12 difference in amino acid composition between the two types of meal. days, instead of the 14 days originally described), was the same as previously the growth-depressing properties of CBM in described (4). soy protein-containing (control) diets, c) RESULTS AND DISCUSSION evaluation of protein and amino acid sup plementation of detoxified (hot water-ex a) Treatment of CBM â€”Experiment 1. tracted) CBM, and d) net protein utilization In experiment 1 (table 3) untreated CBM, studies of extracted CBM with or without although supplemented with 5% fish meal, amino acid supplementation. did not support satisfactory chick growth, The extraction treatments a) have al suggesting that the original commercial processing had not removed all toxicity. ready been listed (under castor bean meal). Three methods for detoxification of CBM The studies under b ) were as follows : Since were tested and compared to a positive con CBM is high in fiber, lignin, and ash it trol diet containing methionine-supple- was also considered of interest to increase mented isolated soy protein. Extraction of the caloric density of a diet containing CBM four times with percolating boiling water-extracted CBM by adding more fat water gave promising results, and growth (3% ) to see if that measure would enhance of chicks with this material was far supe CBM utilization. rior to that obtained with untreated CBM. CBM has an ash content of about 8% The average food intake for birds fed the compared with only 2.5% in isolated soy extracted CBM diet was 263 g compared protein. It was of interest to study whether to an average of 268 g for birds fed the the amount or the composition of CBM ash methionine-supplemented isolated soy pro might be harmful. CBM was therefore tein diet. However, the feed efficiency ashed and added to the control diet contain ratio was much lower on the water- ing isolated soy protein + methionine. extracted CBM diet than for the isolated Also, the fiber level of the isolated soy pro soy protein diet (0.39 vs. 0.50). The con tein control diet was increased by adding siderable difference in body weight between pure cellulose to match (quantitatively, but the chicks fed the control and the extracted not qualitatively) that of a CBM-containing CBM diets was not significant due to the diet. large variation in weight within the group 1188 LAUFEY VILHJALMSDOTTIR AND HANS FISHER TABLE 3 Body weight and food intake of day-old female chicks fed castor bean meal-containing diets for 3 weeks Dietary treatment iNo. chickensBody wt0Food utilizationg intakeg/birdFeed feedExperiment gain/g 1ISP Â» 0.2% + DL-methionineCBM, untreatedCBM, 5b138 xCBM,extracted 4 Â±19Â«145 xCBM,extracted 8 Â±12Â«67Â± cooked666106170Â±103>94Â± 5C2681792632931520.500.330.390.370.21Experiment 2ISP + 0.2% DL-methionineCBM, 6Â«112Â± untreatedCBM, 8b107Â±13b155 cookedISP + CBM extract910510162Â± Â± 8-2732142182570.450.350.320.45 1Castoi bean meal (CBM), where used, was provided at 40% of the diet and was supplemented with 5% fish meal to provide 19% protein (16 + 3 (Nx 6.25)). 'Isolated soy protein, 18.8% (17% protein (Nx 6.25)). Assay Protein C-l, Skidmore Enterprises, Downloaded from jn.nutrition.org by guest on May 6, 2011 Cincinnati, Ohio. 3Mean Â± SE;means within an experiment not followed by the same letter are significantly different. fed the extracted CBM. Apparently some b) Attempt to simulate CBM growth de chicks were more sensitive to the growth pression in isolated soy dietsâ€”Experiment depressant(s) in water-extracted CBM than 3. Table 4 gives the results of an experi others; it also suggested that the extracted ment in which CBM ash and cellulose (fi material was not entirely satisfactory ber) were tested as possible contributing despite a significant (P<0.01) improve factors to the low biological value of CBM. ment in body weight and increased food Two diets were prepared: one a CBM- intake when compared with the results of containing diet with increased caloric den the group fed untreated CBM. sity (more fat) to attempt to counteract The eight hot water extractions of CBM the high level of fiber in CBM; the other (table 3) were no more effective than the diet corresponded to the positive control four as seen from the similar growth re but 16% glucose was replaced by 2.7% sponse. CBM ash and 13.3% cellulose. No im The third method of detoxification evalu provement in growth or food utilization ated in experiment 1 involved boiling CBM was observed by increasing the level of fat in water without extraction. This led to from 3 to 6% ; by the end of the second even poorer growth and food consumption week the values for both body weight and than observed with the negative control food intake were actually lower for the group (P<0.01), and suggested some high fat group than for the low fat group. change or release of a growth-depressing The addition of the fiber and CBM ash did substance in the CBM. not impair growth or feed utilization of Experiment 2. The effect of boiling the positive control diet (isolated soy pro CBM in water without extraction was tested tein + methionine). again; this time boiling neither increased c) Protein and amino acid supplementa growth depression nor improved the growth tion of extracted castor bean mealâ€”Ex rate. periment 4. In this experiment water- The other objective of this study was to extracted (four times) CBM was supple ascertain whether the material removed mented with three relatively good quality from CBM by hot water extraction, when proteins, fish meal, isolated soy protein added to the positive control diet, would and egg albumin, and also with the amino depress growth; the average weights (table acids lysine plus methionine, plus trypto- 3) of the chicks were slightly, but non- phan (table 5). The growth response was significantly, lower than for the birds on greatest in the chicks fed the diet supple the positive control diet. mented with the three amino acids. Fish EVALUATION OF CASTOR BEAN PROTEIN 1189 TABLE 4 Body weight and food intake of chickens fed castor bean meal or isolated soy protein diets for 14 days Dietary treatment i Body wtgExperiment utilizationg intakeg/bird151112145130162Feed feed0.530.350.390.370.51 gain/g 3ISP1 + 0.2% Â±4''CBM, DL-methionine 118 Â«CBM, untreated 5 79 Â± bCBM,extracted 4 x 5 97 Â± extracted 4 x +3% corn ou4 89ÃŒ6"0ISP + 0.2% ui.-methionine-f13.3% fiber5 + 2.7% CBM ash 121Â±4'Food 1Castor bean meal (CBM), where used, was provided at 40% of the diet and was supplemented with 5% fish meal to provide 19% protein (16 + 3 (Nx6.25)). * Isolated soy protein, 18.8% (17% protein (Nx6.25)). 3Mean Â± SEfor duplicate groups of eight female, day-old chicks; means followed by the same letter are not significantly different. 4 In addition to 3% com oil in the basal diet. 9In addition to 3% fiber normally added to the ISP diet. Downloaded from jn.nutrition.org by guest on May 6, 2011 TABLE 5 Body weight and food intake of chicks fed castor bean meal-containing diets supplemented s nini â€¢with I quantities of other proteins or with amino acids for 16 days iISP Dietary treatment wt0 intakeg/bird201 utilizationg feed0.55 gain/g Experiment 4 ' + 0.2% DL-methionine 152Â± 7Â»Â« CBM* + 5% fish meal 120Â± 9" 210 0.38 CBM + 3.7% ISP 68Â± 6" 123 0.22 CBM + 3.7% egg albumin Â»Body 76Â± 4Â«=Food 110Feed 0.32 CBM+ 0.8% L-lysine-HCl + 0.2% L-methionine + 0.2% L-tryptophan 155Â±10Â» 251 0.45 1The three protein supplements were added to provide 3% additional protein (N x 6.25). soy â€¢Isolated protein, 18.8% (17% protein (Nx6.25)). 3Mean + SEfor duplicate groups of five female, day-old chicks; means followed by the same letter are not significantly different. Â«40%Water-extracted (4 times) castor bean meal (17% protein (N x 6.25) before addition of supplement). Â»Spray-dried, Henningsen Foods, White Plains, N. Y. meal supplementation (5% ) was signifi- with additional essential amino acids (be- cantly inferior (P < 0.001) to the amino yond lysine, tryptophan and methionine) acid supplementation. However, fish meal would further improve the biological value was superior to either isolated soy protein of water-extracted CBM. (There was a or egg albumin. The amino acid supple- difference of 0.2% protein (N X 6.25) be- mentation of CBM produced body weights tween extracted and unextracted CBM; the in close agreement with those observed on amino acid composition given in table 2 is the positive control diet (155 vs. 152 g). representative of both extracted and un- The feed utilization for the birds fed the extracted meal. ) amino acid-supplemented, water-extracted The results (table 6) showed that lysine CBM diet, although better than for the was the first limiting amino acid in water- group which received the fish meal-supple- extracted CBM. Half of the chicks died mented diet, was not as good as that of within 2 weeks on the CBM diet supple- birds fed the positive control diet (isolated mented only with methionine and trypto- soy protein + methionine). phan. Tryptophan was the second limiting Experiment 5. This experiment was amino acid. All 10 birds fed the extracted undertaken to ascertain the order of the CBM-containing diet, supplemented with limiting amino acids in water-extracted lysine and methionine, survived the 3-week CBM and also to test if supplementation experimental period, but their final body 1190 LAUFEY VILHJALMSDOTTIR AND HANS FISHER TABLE 6 Body weight and food intake of chicks fed castor bean meal supplemented with amino acids for 17 days Dietary amino proteinISP'CBM acid supplementExperiment0.2% wt95125 intakeg/bird18521821217122680Feed utilizationg feed0.450.420.410.420.410.11 gain/ g DL-methionine0.8% Â± 62Â«132Â± 3CBMCBMCBMCBMDietary L-lysine-HCl+ 0.2% L-methionine+ 0.2% L-tryptophan0.8% 6Â«129Â± L-lysine-HCl+ 0.2% L-methionine+ 0.2% L-tryptophan+ 0.1% L-phenylalanine+ 0.3% L-serine+ 0.2% L-arginine-HCl+ 0.15% L-valine+ L-histidine-HCl-H2O0.8% 0.15% 8*108Â± L-lysine-HCl+ L-methionine0.8% 0.2% 6b135Â±10Â»50Â± Downloaded from jn.nutrition.org by guest on May 6, 2011 L-lysine-HCl+ 0.2% L-tryptophan0.2% L-methionine+ 0.2% L-tryptophanBody 2*Food 'Isolated soy protein, 18.8% (17% protein (Nx6.25)). *Mean Â± SEfor duplicate groups of five female, day-old chicks; means followed by the same letter are not significantly different. 338% Water-extracted (four times) castor bean meal (16% protein (Nx6.25)). *Five out of ten died. weight was below that of the positive con valine, phenylalanine, arginine and histi- trol (108 vs. 132 g) and that of the group dine (44.9 vs. 45.8% ). receiving lysine as well as tryptophan. Experiment 7. The results of experi Methionine appeared not to be limiting ment 5 had suggested that methionine was in extracted CBM. The chicks receiving not limiting in extracted CBM diets which the CBM diet supplemented only with ly supplied 17% protein (N X 6.25). The last sine and tryptophan grew as well as those experiment (table 7) was carried out to receiving methionine in addition to lysine evaluate again the importance of methio and tryptophan (133 vs. 132 g). nine supplementation with dietary protein No further improvement in growth was reduced to 13%, the level ordinarily used obtained by adding other essential amino in chick NPU studies (4). Although the acids (calculated to be borderline from the growth rate for the chicks given the methi- chemical analysis, table 2) to the extracted onine-supplemented diet was slightly (but CBM. nonsignificantly) higher than for those on d) NPU studies -with castor bean mealâ€” the diet from which methionine was Experiment 6. The NPU value for unsup- omitted, the NPU value for the latter group plemented, water-extracted CBM was 25% was considerably better than for the for (table 7). This low value was not unex mer. In this experiment (with a lower pected since we had earlier shown that dietary protein content), the body weights extracted CBM was deficient in both lysine of the chicks receiving CBM were signifi and tryptophan. Supplementation with cantly lower than for the control birds these amino acids (plus methionine) (P<0.05). greatly improved the NPU value of ex tracted CBM although its utilization was GENERAL COMMENTS still inferior to that of isolated soy protein The results of these studies indicate that plus methionine (44.9 vs. 53.1%). The presently available commercial CBM can NPU value was not improved by further be further processed so as to provide a supplementation of CBM with serine, much improved source of protein for grow- EVALUATION OF CASTOR BEAN PROTEIN 1191 TABLE 7 Net protein utilization studies with chicks fed castor bean meal supplemented with amino acids Dietary Dietary amino Feed protein acid supplement Body wt Food intake utilization NPU 9 g/bird g gain/g feed Experiment 6 Â» ISP 2 0.2% DL-methionine 140 Â±4Â»â€¢ 169 0.44 53.1 CBMÂ« 0.8% L-lysine-HCl + 0.2% L-methionine + 0.2% L-tryptophan 145Â±3Â« 214 0.37 44.9 CBM 0.8% L-lysine-HCl + 0.2% L-methionine + 0.2% L-tryptophan + 0.3% L-serine + 0.2% L-arginine-HCl + 0.1% L-phenylalanine + 0.15% L-valine L-histidine-HClNo 0.05% 140Â±4Â«67Â±2b46Â±1 supplement(N-f CBMNoneISPÂ«CBMCBMNone+ ree diet)0.2% *Experiment Downloaded from jn.nutrition.org by guest on May 6, 2011 7 5156Â±5-142Â±4Â»132Â±3"50Â±1 DL-methionineT L-lysine-HCl+ 0.8% 0.2% L-methionine+ 0.2% L-tryptophan0.8% L-lysine-HCl+ 0.2% L-tryptophan(N-freediet)H20 Â«2037650210245221580.300.030.420.300.2945.825.367.045.650.3 1Triplicate groups of five male, 7-day-old chicks were fed the experimental diets for 10 days; mean starting weight was 66 g. 2Isolated soy protein, 18.8% (17% protein (Nx6.25)). SE; means within an experiment not followed by the same letter are significantly different. 3Mean â€¢+â€¢ Water-extracted (four times) castor bean meal (17% protein (Nx6.25)). â€¢â€¢40% 9Triplicate groups of 5 male, 7-day-old chicks were fed the experimental diets for 12 days; mean starting weight was 67 g. Â«Isolatedsoy protein, 16% (13% protein (Nx6.25)). 730% Water extracted (four times) castor bean meal (13% protein (N x 6.25)). ing chickens (and presumably other mono- protein or egg white was not as effective gastric animals as well). as when the right amount of the limiting Of the several treatments applied to amino acids was added. CBM, hot water extraction was the most Lysine was found to be the first limiting successful. It appears to remove most, if amino acid in CBM and tryptophan the not all, of the toxic factors present in CBM. second. According to the chemical analy The pattern and concentration of the sis (table 2) CBM provides only 60% of essential amino acids in CBM (table 2) the National Research Council-recom suggested that the major reason for the mended methionine requirement (6). The low biological value of CBM, as found by feeding studies, however, indicated that feeding tests with chicks, was a deficiency CBM provided adequate sulfur amino acids, of lysine, tryptophan and the sulfur amino thus confirming the findings of Scott and acids. When water-extracted CBM was co-workers (7) who reported the NRC supplemented with lysine, methionine and figure as too high. tryptophan, it promoted equally good An interesting observation was noted growth in chicks as obtained with isolated relative to the variation in body weight soy protein + methionine ( a good standard among chicks. When water-extracted CBM for chickens). No further improvement was supplemented with fish meal, chick was observed with additional supplementa weight varied greatly within each group; tion (table 6) of amino acids that appeared however, when it was supplemented with of borderline adequacy, based upon the the limiting amino acids only, variation chemical analysis. Supplementation with dropped markedly (coefficients of varia small amounts of fish meal, isolated soy tion 25 vs. 15% ). This phenomenon 1192 LAUFEY VILHJALMSDOTTIR AND HANS FISHER might be related to individual differences LITERATURE CITED in amino acid requirements for growth on 1. Jaffe, W. G. 1969 Hemagglutinins. In: an amino acid-deficient diet. Such differ Toxic Constituents of Plant Foodstuffs, ed., ences have been shown previously in our I. E. Liener. Academic Press, New York, p. 69. 2. Bolley, D. S., and R. L. Holmes 1958 In laboratories on diets limiting in either edible oilseed meals. In: Processed Plant arginine or lysine for the breed of chickens Protein Foodstuffs, ed., A. M. Altschul. Aca used in the present studies (8). demic Press, New York, p. 829. Despite the very marked improvement 3. Jenkins, F. P. 1963 Allergenic and toxic components of castor bean meal: Review of in NPU achieved with amino acid supple literature and studies of the inactivation of mentation of extracted CBM, this value these components. J. Sci. Food Agr. 14: 773. is still low in comparison to the value ob 4. Summer, J. D., and H. Fisher 1961 Net tained for methionine-supplemented iso protein values for the growing chicken as determined by carcass analysis: exploration lated soy protein. The difference is possibly of the method. J. Nutr. 75: 435. due to the high level of fiber (including 5. Bender, A. E., and D. S. Miller 1952 A lignin) in CBM (38% ), in contrast to near new method of estimating net protein value. zero fiber provided by isolated soy protein. Biochem. J. 53; vii. The CBM-containing diets supplied about 6. National Research Council, Committee on Animal Nutrition and Subcommittee on 15% fiber, and this relatively high level Poultry Nutrition 1966 Nutrient Require Downloaded from jn.nutrition.org by guest on May 6, 2011 caused an approximately 20% increase ments of Poultry, pub. 1345, National Aca in food intake above that observed on the demy of Sciences-National Research Council, isolated soy protein diet. The increased Washington, D.C. 7. Klain, G. J., H. M. Scott and B. C. Johnson protein intake associated with the greater 1960 The amino acid requirement of the food intake might well explain part of the growing chick fed a crystalline amino acid lower NPU value of CBM, since NPU diet. Poultry Sci. 39: 39. values are inversely proportional to protein 8. Griminger, P., and H. Fisher 1962 Genetic intake (5). If part or all of the fiber were differences in growth potential on amino acid-deficient diets. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. removed from castor bean meal it would Ill: 754. further increase its potential as a source 8 According to commercial sources, removal of con of protein for monogastric animals.8 siderable portions of the castor bean hulls is feasible.
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