Fighting Fruit Flies Regionally in Sub-Saharan Africa

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					                                                            Fighting Fruit Flies
                                                      Regionally in Sub-Saharan
                                                                                                              Information Letter 2010

                                                                                                                                   N°1, January 2010

                                                       This month’s editorial presents an opportu-      Trade Facilitation Facility. As a result of this
                                                       nity to update readers on the latest deve-       meeting, ECOWAS now intends to submit a
Summary:                                               lopments in the aftermath of the Bamako          proposal to the Trade Facilitation Facility to
                                                       meeting held on September 29-30, 2009,           request initial seed-funding for 2010 to
                                                       which revolved around the presentation, to       kick start the ECOWAS action plan to con-
• Editorial                                            an audience of ECOWAS stakeholders and           trol fruit fly in the region.
• Fruit flies in Mauritius
                                                       a selection of bilateral and multilateral         Finally the Spanish-funded and World-Bank
                                                       donors, of the main output of EU-financed        managed forthcoming GAFSP (Global Agri-
• The situation of Mediterranean Fruit
                                                       series of in-depth studies on the damages        culture and Food Security Program) trust
 Fly and its management In Turkey
                                                       inflicted by fruit flies to West African fruit   fund has also shown interest in earmarking
• Question…..Answer….                                  productions, i.e. the West African Regional      funding for the regional activities of the
                                                       Action Plan to Control Fruit Flies.              Ecowas-adopted Regional Fruit Fly Action
                                                       Since then, a number of meetings have            Plan to Control Fruit Flies. However the ac-
                                                       taken place with donors and, although the        tual implementation of this TF will probably
                                                       issue of fruit flies has now clearly gained      not take place before the beginning of
                                                       increased visibility within donor circles,       2011.
You can look up all the editions of the
information letter on
                                                       their commitment to share into the funding
                                                       of the Regional program has been rather
                                                       slow to emerge. However a couple of posi-                                    Christophe Ravry
                                                       tive developments are worth mentioning at                       Senior Agribusiness Specialist
                                                       this stage.                                                                      Africa Region
                                                       First the ECOWAS Aid for Trade Review,                                        The World Bank
                                                       held in Abuja on January 27-28 2010,
                                                       showcased programmes developed by the
                                                       ECOWAS Commission to address supply-                                     Panos Antonakakis
                                                       side constraints and trade-related infra-                            Economic Affairs Officer
                                                       structure needs in the West African re-                            World Trade Organization
                                                       gion. The Aid for Trade conference proved                       Development/Agriculture and
                                                       to be an ideal platform to help donors fo-                             Commodities Division
                                                       cus on priorities outlined in ECOWAS' agri-
                                                       cultural policy (ECOWAP). In that context,
                                                       a dedicated session on agriculture pro-
                                                       vided an opportunity for ECOWAS and the
                                                       STDF to highlight the work conducted on
  This letter published by COLEACP and                 fruit fly control.
  CIRAD intends to inform all the public and           Second, a meeting hosted by the World
  private operators concerned by the problem
  of phytophagous flies in Africa. Through             Bank two days prior to the Aid for Trade
  facilitating the coordination of initiatives, its    review on trade facilitation allowed the
  aim is to provide the agricultural sector with
  technically sound and economically sustain-          STDF to present possible synergies with
  able solutions. This letter is sponsored by          the newly established, US$ 40 million
  WTO/STDF.   .
     Page 2                                                                       Fighting Fruit Flies Regionally in Sub-Saharan Africa
                                                                                                                       N°1, January
                                                                                                                  N°1, January 2010

Fruit flies in Mauritius
                          Fruit flies infesting economically important
                          fleshy fruits in Mauritius are, in order of impor-
                          tance, the peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata
                          (Saunders), the natal fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch,
                          the Mediterranean fly C. capitata (Wiedemann)
                          and the ber fly Carpomya vesuviana Costa. The
                          latter has a single host, jujube (Ziziphus mau-
« … a free bait           ritiana Lam.). B. zonata, C. rosa and C. capitata
distribution service is   are the key pests of mango Mangifera indica L.,
                          guava Psidium guajava L., peach Prunus per-
provided at various
                          sica and jujube Ziziphus jujube, among others.
distribution points. ”
                          These fruits are mostly grown in backyards              fly infestation has also decreased from over
                          mainly for self-consumption. Most fruit tree            50% to less than 15% when control measures
                          growers do not apply any method for fruit fly           are implemented. However, these methods
                          control hence leading to heavy losses. Fruit            have to be implemented on a continuous and
                          flies constitute a limiting factor to the expan-        permanent basis.
                          sion and development of a profitable and diver-
                                                                                  To encourage backyard fruit growers to do their
                          sified fruit industry in Mauritius.                     own fruit fly control, a free bait distribution ser-
                          The national fruit fly control programme set up         vice is provided at various distribution points.
                          in 1994 aims at controlling fruit flies in back-        Growers are also advised to practice sanitation
                          yards. The techniques being used include                by properly disposing of fallen and infested
                          ground application of protein bait sprays and           fruits. Fruit bagging as a physical method of
                          the male annihilation technique. The fruit fly          fruit fly control is also recommended to grow-
                          population is regularly monitored by phero-             ers.
                          mone lured traps. Fruits are collected from the
                          field, weighed and incubated in the laboratory          A programme to integrate the use of the Sterile
                          to determine the infestation level. This pro-           Insect Technique is being implemented in the
                          gramme has greatly reduced the fruit fly popu-          northern part of the island. Trials have been
                          lation over the years with a mean daily fly trap        carried out on the dispersal and survival of
                          of less than one in the treated regions as com-         irradiated B. zonata flies in the field. Pilot re-
                          pared to about eight in untreated regions. Fruit        leases will be done during this year.

                                                                                                                               P. Sookar

                                                                                   mmmmmmmmmmmmmmEntomology Division
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                          Encouragement from our reader in Cote d’Ivoire:

 Thanks for your
                          For this New Year 2010 I would like to send my best wishes to you, and to all your nearest and dearest.
          wishes          May the fruit fly studies achieve satisfactory results, in order to safeguard African crops.

                          Thanks once more to you and all the team at CIRAD and COLEACP.

                          Monique Beugré TANOH
                          Plant Protection Service
            Fighting Fruit Flies Regionally in Sub-Saharan
     Fighting Fruit Flies Regionally in Sub-Saharan Africa Africa                                                               Page 3
           N°1, January 2010

                     The situation of Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Ceratitis capitata) and its
                     Management In Turkey
                     Citrus growing in the Mediterranean and Aegean Regions           Management: Cultural Precautions
                     covers 14,2% part of total fruit production in Turkey. In the
                     world, Turkey situates in the first ten countries through the    Unmarketable fruits on the trees must be collected and
                     annual production of 2,600,000 tonnes, and in the first          destructed in every harvest. Infested fruits on the ground
                     five countries of the Mediterranean. Turkey is the second        also must be destructed immediately after economic
                     in the Mediterranean Basin after Spain by almost 950,000         harvest. Fruits which are intermediary hosts for the pest
                     tonnes of citrus exportation.                                    should not be planted in citrus orchards.
                                                                                      Cold treatment:
                     Definition and Biology of the Pest:
                                                                                      Cold treatment is used in storehouses after harvest or
                     Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly) (Diptera: Tephritidae,          during the transportation of products. It has been
                     Ceratitis capitata Wied.) is a polyphagous insect pest.          determined that cold treatment under 1ºC for 13-16 days
                     It overwinters as pupa burrowing into the soil or at the last    results in 100% mortality in all stages of the pest.
An example for       larval stage in the fruits remaining on trees after harvest of   Experiments on cold treatment against Medfly have been
 management of       marketable fruits. Adults emerge in May; lay their eggs          conducted in Bornova Plant Protection Research
                     when daily average temperatures exceed 16 °C after               Institute. All outcomes have been audited by Japanese
    Bactrocera       copulation. Females deposit 1-9 eggs under mature fruit          Quarantine Experts and Authorities of the Ministry of
      invadens       skin. Larval growth lasts 9-18 days according to the             Agriculture in situ. The scientific results have been
                     temperature. They pupate in the soil at 2-3 cm-depth.            confirmed and approved. Accordingly, legal issues that
                     Averagely, each female will deposit 300-400 eggs. It             block the export due to quarantine measures in Japan
                     produces 6-8 generations per year.                               have been arranged in favor of Turkey.

                     Damage:                                                          Chemical Control:
                     The pest is active along the coasts of the Aegean and            Pheromone traps are installed in citrus orchards in
                     Mediterranean Regions of Turkey. Damage rate of the pest         August to define first captures and to monitor adults. On
                     varies between 5.2 and 78.9%.                                    condition that first adult is captured and fruits are at
                                                                                      maturation suitable for infestation, sprayings begin.
                     The factors that affects damage rate mostly are climatic         Chemical applications are repeated every 7-10 days until
                     conditions and biology of the pest. For example, extremely       harvest if capturing of adults continue in pheromone
                     low and high temperatures shorten life span of the pest.         traps and average temperatures are higher than 16 °C.
                     Death of pupae increases in extremely humid soils.
                                                                                      Chemical control is applied as foliage baiting. Insecticide
                     Medfly is obliged to spend its annual life-cycle in a food       is mixed with proteinaceous liquid attractant. The mixture
                     chain including different fruit hosts. Consequently, if its      is sprayed to 1-2 m2 foliage on the south part of trees.
                     mature hosts are unavailable during its active periods, it
                     cannot survive in that location whatever happens.
                     Hosts                                                                                                     Dr. Türkan Koçlu
                     It damages on citrus such as tangerine, orange, sour                                              Bornova Plant Protection
                     orange and grapefruit. It cannot be harmful on sour lemon                                               Research Institute
                     varieties because of its eggs cannot hatch due to ether oils                                 Genclik Caddesi No.6, 35040
                     on fruit skin. Apricot, quince, peach, fig, persimmon,                                                Bornova Izmir-Turkey
                     pomegranate, pear, avocado, nectarine and apple are also
                                                                                                                 Tel. 00 90 232 3880030, 160
                     its hosts.
                                                                                                                       Fax.00 90 232 3741653

                                                              Example of fly and damage
                                                                   on mandarins
         Fighting Fruit Flies Regionally in Sub-Saharan Africa                                                                                  Page 4
         N°1, January 2010

I have just read the editorial by Mr. Panos Antonokakis figuring in
information letter No.6 of December 2009, where I learned that:
"phase II of the pilot project is completed, and that a third phase             We would like to thank N’Guessan Konan for the very relevant
is to start [...] pending the establishment of the regional and na-             points he raises. His concern is shared by many players in the
tional structures necessary to begin implementation of the re-                  horticultural industry, and not only those in the Mango sector.
gional fruit fly management action plan in West Africa".                        Nor has it escaped the attention of the experts, who in 2007
                                                                                listed the extent of damage inflicted by plant-feeding flies on fruit
I am an agronomist living in Côte d’Ivoire; my observation is that
                                                                                and vegetable production in West Africa; nor of those who in
the fruit fly is not the only problem on mango trees; mealybugs
                                                                                2009 formulated their recommendations for coordinated re-
can also be seen on all mango trees. Will another programme be
                                                                                gional pest management. Their recommendations, validated at
set up for this other pest, or are we choosing to ignore it?
                                                                                the Bamako Workshop (see Letter no.4/2009), comprise setting
In addition, Bactrocera not only attacks mangoes! What systems                  up a regional pest management system, with national compo-
are planned for these other crops?                                              nents enabling adaptations to local conditions.

If systems are to be installed at national and regional level, I                More specifically, the report emphasises:
would like them to be able to cover all pests, as stipulated by the
International Plant Protection Convention.                                      “The most visible phytosanitary problem of the fruit and vegeta-
                                                                                ble sector in West Africa is that of fruit flies, since it directly af-
                                                                                fects mango exports to developed countries, especially to the
                                                           N’GUESSAN Konan      European Union, as well as trade in citruses and other horticul-
                                                                 Agronomist     tural products at regional and local level.
                                                                Cote d’Ivoire   There are however other pests affecting fruit & vegetable produc-
                                                                                tion and export. As regards mango exports, fungal diseases, in
                                                                                particular anthracnose, are a very big problem in certain regions
                                                                                (Senegal, Cote d’Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Mali). Fruit producers also
                                                                                complain of termites destroying their orchards (Senegal).
                                                                                Although the damage caused by these other pests must not be
                                                                                minimised, the Programme will focus its action on fruit flies,
                                                                                which are recognised as the priority by studies, in order to en-
                                                                                sure efficient action and prevent dispersion of its resources.
                                                                                Other Programmes could focus on these other issues”.

                                                                                                                     COLEACP – CIRAD editorial team.

                                                                                      This document was produced with the financial assistance of

                                                                                              STDF Secretary / World Trade Organization
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