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Master's project Costa Rica

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					                                                                                       2007
                              Sjors Bolleboom, Jeremy Nijk, Kees Otto, Nick Waterman
Master’s project Costa Rica




                                                                                        Plan of work -




                                                                                                         Making a structural design for the bearing structure of a 57 stories
                                                                                                         high building complex




    TUDelft – Faculty of Civil Engineering and
                                  Geosciences
               Delft University of Technology
                                         Costa Rica 2007




Authors:
C. Otto BSc
J. Nijk Bsc
J.A.N. Bolleboom Bsc
N. Waterman Bsc

Redaction address:
Neo Architects and Oikos Constructions
Building Plaza loreto Suite #4
San José, Costa Rica
Tel: 506 231 0650
Fax: 506 231 0738
www.neoarchitects.com

Masterproject2007@gmail.com
www.ProjectCostaRica2007.nl




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II                                   August 2007
                                                                                          Costa Rica 2007




Preface
This report covers the preliminary process towards the actual project, which will be done in San
Jose (Costa Rica), during the period from September to December 2007. The report is made by four
master students Civil Engineering from the Delft University of Technology.

This project is part of the course CT4061 – Multidisciplinary Project, which forms an essential course
for the masters degree in Civil Engineering. The goal of this course is to solve an actual and recent
civil engineering problem in a multidisciplinary team. Specification of several design aspects and
integration of these aspects, based on the acquired skills from preceding years, form an important
part. First of all a problem is defined, which will be analyzed and translated into a problem
formulation and objective. The next step is to develop several design alternatives, which will lead
to the final design.

The main objective of this project is to make a structural design for a 57 story high building in the
capitol city of Costa Rica. All activities of the group will also take place in San Jose.

The duration of the project will be approximately eight weeks. In the time before departure also a
preliminary study into high-rise buildings in general will be executed in the Netherlands.

The group would like to take this opportunity to thank a number of people for their help on this
project. First of all our supervisors and mentors Ing. O.S.M. van Pinxteren and Prof. Dipl. Ing.
J.N.J.A. Vambersky. Furthermore we always want to thank our coach in Costa Rica, sir Bryan
Mendieta.


Delft, 19-08-2007


Project group Costa Rica 2007

Sjors Bolleboom Bsc
Jeremy Nijk Bsc
Kees Otto Bsc
Nick Waterman Bsc




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                                                                                                           Costa Rica 2007




Table of content

1. Introduction .........................................................................................................2
2. Costa Rica............................................................................................................4
   2.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................4
   2.2 History ...........................................................................................................4
   2.3 Provinces ........................................................................................................5
   2.4 Geography ......................................................................................................5
   2.5 Volcano’s ........................................................................................................5
   2.6 Nature ...........................................................................................................5
   2.7 Politics...........................................................................................................5
   2.8 Climate ..........................................................................................................5
3. San José ..............................................................................................................7
   3.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................7
   3.2 History ...........................................................................................................7
   3.3 Present buildings ..............................................................................................7
   3.4 Climate ..........................................................................................................7
4. Project approach ...................................................................................................8
   4.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................8
   4.2 Problem definition ............................................................................................8
   4.3 Preliminary research ..........................................................................................8
   4.4 Project in Costa Rica..........................................................................................9
5. Working schedule................................................................................................. 10
   5.1 Different phases ............................................................................................. 10
   5.2 Disciplines..................................................................................................... 10
6. Organizational structure ........................................................................................ 12
   6.1 Neo Architects ............................................................................................... 12
   6.2 Oikos Constructions ......................................................................................... 12
   6.3 Supervisors.................................................................................................... 12
7. Reference projects............................................................................................... 14
   7.1 Project in the Netherlands................................................................................. 14
   7.2 Projects in Asia .............................................................................................. 14
8. Earthquake design................................................................................................ 16
   8.1 Seismic zones................................................................................................. 16
   8.2 Design in seismic areas ..................................................................................... 16
9. References......................................................................................................... 18
   9.1 Internet........................................................................................................ 18
   9.2 Literature ..................................................................................................... 18
   9.3 Other........................................................................................................... 18
Annex A; Planning ................................................................................................... 20
Annex B; Analysis .................................................................................................... 22
Annex C: Budget ..................................................................................................... 25




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              Costa Rica 2007




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1. Introduction
This report describes the preliminary process towards the structural design of a 57 storey high
building in the capitol city of Costa Rica, San José.

The report will cover several aspects, which will be discussed in the next chapters. The structure of
the report is as follows. The second chapter describes the current situation in Costa Rica, like
history, soil conditions and climate followed by the chapter on San José. The fourth chapter
discusses the Project approach, consisting of the problem definition, the preliminary process in the
Netherlands, the description of the project in Costa Rica. The Working schedule is described in the
fifth chapter. The next chapter describes the Organizational structure of this project. The two most
important companies will be briefly defined. Several Reference projects in the Netherlands and Asia
will be covered in the seventh chapter. Their structural system and behavior will be discussed. The
eight chapter will gives a brief overview on Earthquake design. The final chapter will contain
Conclusions and recommendations.

The goal of this report is to have a clear overview of the project and to gain most of the information
needed to accomplish a good structural design, during our period in San José, Costa Rica.




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              Costa Rica 2007




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2. Costa Rica
This chapter will give general information about Costa Rica. History, geography and provinces are
described. Furthermore nature, climate and politics are discussed.


2.1 Introduction
Costa Rica – rich coast - is a country between Panama and Nicaragua in Central America with a size
of 51.000 km2. The native language is Spanish and the capital city is San José.




Figure 1; San José, Costa Rica


2.2 History
For the arrival of the Europeans Costa Rica was populated by Chibcha- Indians. Costa Rica was
submitted in the 16th century by the Spanish people. In 1821, it became a part of the independent
Mexican realm, of which it broke away from himself 2 years later with other Central American
countries to form the United States of Central America. In 1840, this federation broke apart. In
1899, the first really democratic elections took place. Since then the country is two times been
teased politically by violence. From 1917 up to 1919 the dictator Federico Tinoco Granados
governed and in 1948, there was a small civil war after a controversial election result. That war
was won by the left winged José Figueres Ferrer, who abolished the army and who established a
new constitution. It has become one of the most prosperous countries of Latin America and is for
this reason also confessed as "a Switzerland of Central America




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2.3 Provinces
Costa Rica has been subdivided in seven provinces, of which the governors are designated by the
president. The provinces have generally the same name as their capital and have been subdivided in
cantons.The provinces are:
San José - Alajuela - Cartago - Heredia - Puntarenas - Guanacaste - Limón


2.4 Geography
Costa Rica lies on the isthmus of Central America. At the west of Costa Rica the North Pacific Ocean
is located and at the east the Caribbean Sea located. The area is mainly flat, but in the middle
there is a mount chain, which is part of the Central American cordilleras.
The highest point is the Cerro Chirripo (3810 meters). In the country there are extended national
parks and reservations (a fourth of the country have been protected). Much of it exists from tropical
rain forest. Besides tropical rainforest there are lots of types of flora in Costa Rica.


2.5 Volcano’s
Costa Rica has nine volcano’s namely Arenal, Poás, Irazú, Turrialba, Tenorio, Orosi, Rincon the
drawer Vieja, Miravalles and Barva. Two of them are still active now a day.


2.6 Nature
The animal world of Costa Rica is very rich and contains components of North American, South
American and Central American.
To the first group is for example the raccoon and the prairie wolf to count, among other things the
monkeys and the ant-eaters belong to the second group and finally are among others the quetzal
and the strawberry poison frog part of the third group.
Most of the land animals live in the rain forests, whereas coral reefs have the largest amount of
different kinds of the marine biotopes.
In total there live thousands of types invertebrate animals , approximately 150 types amphibians,
215 types of reptiles and 865 types of birds in Costa Rica.


2.7 Politics
Costa Rica has a long democratic tradition, in contrast to many other Central American countries,
which were banana republic’s for a long time.
No large scale violence outbursts have taken place since a small civil war in the fourties. In 1949,
president José Figueres Ferrer has abolished the army. This makes Costa Rica one of the few
countries without an army.
Costa Rica is a democratic republic. To the head a president stands (at present Oscar Arias Sanchez
is the president), which will be chosen for four years. Costa Rica has two vice presidents. The
country has a one chamber parliament. The parliament counts 57 members.


2.8 Climate
Costa Rica is a tropical country,
quite close to the equator. Although
in the mountains, who are above
2000 meters, you get much cooler
temperatures. The average annual
temperature for most of the country
lies between 21.7°C and 27°C. The
coolest months are from November
through January, and the warmest
from March through May.

The climate is divided into two
                                         Figure 2; climate overview



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major seasons: rain season and dry season. The dry season runs from January through May and the
rainy season from May through December.




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3. San José
This chapter describes the capitol city in particular. History, present buildings and their
specifications and the climate will be discussed.


3.1 Introduction
The largest and capital city of Costa Rica is San José. The city is located in the centre of the
country and lies on an altitude of approximately 1170 meters above sea level. It has a surface area
of 44km2 and a population of 440.000 inhabitants.


3.2 History
Before 1824 San José was a very small city. In 1824, it was Juan Mora Fernández, the heads of state
who brought the government form Cartago (old Spanish colonial capital) to San José.
At the end of the 1990’s the city had a population of 330.000 inhabitants. At the second half of the
20th century the city has rapidly grown: in 1950, there were 87.000 inhabitants. Now a day the
capital city of Costa Rica is one of the largest and most cosmopolitan in Central America.


3.3 Present buildings
In San José most of the buildings are not higher than 15
meter. The most important reasons are: there is no need to
                              build high buildings (there is
                              enough space), another is that
                              it requires a lot of knowledge
                              to build in the height if the
                              changes of earthquakes are
                              relative high and off course it
                              will cost a lot of money.

                               In the centre are a few “high
                               buildings”. The tallest building     Figure 4; Banco Nacional
                               is the Banco Nacional building.
                               It’s has 20 floors. The building is located in the centre of San José. The
                               second tallest building is the Banco BICSA building. This building, which
                               is also located in the city centre, has 16 floors. The Holiday Inn Aurola
                               hotel has just like the Banco BICSA building 16 floors. All of the three
Figure 3; Holiday Inn Aurola
                               buildings described above have a bearing structure made of concrete.


3.4 Climate
Because of the high altitude San José has a mild climate. The temperatures lie between the 15°C
and 30 °C. The rain season is from April till late November. The mean temperature of the capital
city is 20.6°C.




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4. Project approach
4.1 Introduction
The main part of the project contains the design of the structure of a building, counting 57 floors.
The building will be situated in the center of San Jose, the capital city of Costa Rica. The building
will be used for different purposes, including apartments, shops and offices. The design of the
building will be done in cooperation with Neo Architects and Oikos Constructions. Both companies
have sustainable practices in the field of architecture and construction.


4.2 Problem definition
Because of the height of the building, containing 57 floors, transport in vertical direction is a very
important aspect within this design. The main concept of this building is to be designed in a real
sustainable and ecological way. This latter demand and the future functions have to be taken into
account during a study of concepts. The common building material often used is concrete.
Reference projects show that the construction material steel or a combination of steel and concrete
are often applied within projects of these heights. The use of these ‘new materials’ will also be
investigated. An important aspect in this is whether the ecological impact of such a structure is at
the same level (or better) as a concrete structure.
The tallest building in Costa Rica at the moment is (only) 22 stories high. The design of the building
in San Jose requires another method of approach, because this structure will be more than two
times higher. The development of a protocol of sustainable design for this new type of structure will
be also part of the project. All findings and conclusions founded during the time of the project will
be collected in a clear report and can be used as a guide for future projects.
Costa Rica is a country, which contains a lot of volcano’s. Because of this fact the seismic activity in
this country should also be taken into account within the design of the building. This is also one of
the reasons why no other buildings, higher than 22 stories, are known, because the knowledge and
finances were very limited. Now the country goes through an economical growth, more money can
be invested into seismic activity. This will also enlarge the knowledge on this subject. The
sensitivity and the frequency of the seismic activity will be investigated and applied on the final
design.

A preliminary concept of the building exists, but no definite design has been made yet. During this
project, four different concepts will be created and compared by looking mainly at the following
aspects:

          Costs
          Ecological impact
          Erection speed
          Sustainability towards seismic activity


4.3 Preliminary research
The time preliminary to the project, will be used to carry out a little research to become more
familiar with the country and the specific building technologies. The research is based on the
following aspects:

          The most important requirements and demands for high-rise buildings
          The design aspects in areas with seismic activity
          An overview of the current high-rise buildings, situated in the Netherlands and Asia

This specific information will be used in the process of creating a good structural design for the
high-rise building in San Jose.




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                                                                                           Costa Rica 2007




4.4 Project in Costa Rica
From September to November the group will work on their structural plan for the high-rise building
in San Jose. After arrival, the construction site will be visited and investigated to get a good idea of
the present situation. Also the use of materials, the use of labor and the present building methods
will be looked at.
With the use of this information the different concepts for the building will be created and
adjusted.
The final design will be chosen in cooperation with the organizations of Neo Architects and Oikos
Constructions.




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5. Working schedule
This chapter describes the division of the project in different phases. The duration of the project in
Costa Rica takes about eight weeks. This time will be split up in 6 phases, from which the first and
the last phase will take place in the Netherlands and contain the preliminary research and the
making of the final report.
Furthermore the several tasks and disciplines will be described per person.


5.1 Different phases

Phase 1
The first phase will be done in August 2007 in Delft, the Netherlands. The points listed below will be
dealt with:

          Researching the current way of structural design in high-rise buildings
          Research of the Costa Rican building industry
          Evaluating the existing preliminary architectural design of the building
          Evaluation of the boundary conditions
          Making an analysis of reference projects in the Netherlands and Asia
          Gaining useful literature and software
          Arranging project related things

Phase 2
This phase takes place in San José, Costa Rica, starting in the first week of September 2007. In this
period the following subjects will be dealt with:

          Further research in the Costa Rican building industry
          Updating and completing our preliminary research

Phase 3
Before starting with this phase most preliminary studies are finished. In phase 3 designing of the
alternatives for the structural concept can commence.

Phase 4
After completing the different alternatives comparison will take place via a multi criteria
evaluation. The result will be a complete overview of positive and negative properties of the
different alternatives gathered in the previous phase.

Phase 5
Using the outcome of phase 4 the definite alternative will be determined. Then the final design will
be made including our recommendation and will then be presented to Neo Architects and Oikos
Constructions.

Phase 6
In this last phase the final report will be constructed and our work will be presented in Delft to the
people of the technological University of Delft.


5.2 Disciplines
During the time of the project, several tasks have to be performed to come to a successful result.
To be able to use the different specialisms of the group members in the best way, the several tasks
and responsibilities will be divided. This chapter will deal with the division of these tasks.

The project can be divided in two separate parts, each with it’s own aspects:

          High-rise project, Costa Rica
              - Structural design



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                                                                                         Costa Rica 2007



              -   Facades
              -   Building services
              -   building management

The team of TU Delft consists of four members in total. The specific tasks per person are listed
below:

Team Member                                        Specific task
Sjors Bolleboom                                            facades
                                                           building services
                                                           building management
Jeremy Nijk                                                structural design of the high-rise
                                                           building
                                                           seismic design
Kees Otto                                                  facades
                                                           building services
                                                           building management
Nick Waterman                                              structural design of the high-rise
                                                           building
                                                           seismic design

An overview of all phases and their activities can be found in Appendix A.




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6. Organizational structure
The organizations which the project is executed are Neo Architects and Oikos Constructions. The
two companies have a good working relationship together. In this chapter a short description of the
two companies is given. Furthermore the supervisors in the Netherlands and Costa Rica are
mentioned.


6.1 Neo Architects
Neo Architects is a design firm dedicated to developing beach and urban projects for people who
wish to live or invest in the country: Costa Rica.
The name, Neo, stands for a new Costa Rican architecture based on the diversity and uniqueness of
the country and landscape.

6.2 Oikos Constructions
Oikos Constructions is a construction company that has a main focus to build in an ecological way.


6.3 Supervisors
During our time in Costa Rica we will be supported and advised by the following people:

Supervisor
        Guillermo Castro, Project coordinator

Coaches
TU Delft, the Netherlands
        Prof. dipl. Ing. J.N.J.A. Vambersky
        Ing. O.S.M. van Pinxteren

San José, Costa Rica
        Bryan Mendieta, ECO/CEO of Neo Architects and Oikos Constructions




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                                                                                     Costa Rica 2007




Figure 5: The International                                        Figure 9: Petronas Towers (Kuala
Finance Centre II (Hongkong,                                       Lumpur, 1998)
2003)


                               Figure 7: Taipei Financial Centre
                               (Taipei, 2004)




                                                                   Figure 10: Montevideo Tower
                                                                   (Rotterdam, 2005)




Figure 6: Di Wang Commercial
Centre (Shenzen, 1996)




                               Figure 8: Highcliff (Hongkong,
                               2003)




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7. Reference projects
This chapter covers the names of the most impressive high-rise projects built in the Netherlands and
Asia. Their structural system and behavior will be discussed and explained by the added illustrations
which can be found in the preliminary report.


7.1 Project in the Netherlands
          Montevideo Tower, Rotterdam 2005


7.2 Projects in Asia
          The International Finance Centre II, Hong Kong 2003
          Di Wang Commercial Centre, Shenzen 1996
          Taipei Financial Centre, Taipei 2004
          Highcliff, Hong Kong 2003
          Petronas Towers, Kuala Lumpur 1998




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Figure 11: GSHAP global seismic hazard map (GSHAP 1999)




Figure 12: Tectonic plate boundaries




                                                          Figure 14: principle of base isolation using a friction
                                                          pendulum bearing



Figure 13: A rigid internal core and a flexible
perimeter in the First interstate World Centre, Los
Angeles




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8. Earthquake design
This chapter covers the basic principles on earthquake design. Several aspects will be dealt with,
like building methods in seismic regions and prevention against progressive collapse. A more
detailed report on earthquake design in general can be found in the preliminary report.


8.1 Seismic zones
On the earth several seismic zones can be found. The most important zones are: the circum-Pacific
belt, which includes Costa Rica, the trans-Asiatic belt and the belt situated in the centre of the
Atlantic Ocean.
The structure that has to be designed is situated in the capital of Costa Rica, San Jose. This is an
area with an high seismic activity, this can be seen in figure 11. In the design of the structure care
should be taken to make the structure earthquake proof.


8.2 Design in seismic areas
The main focus in the design of a structure in a zone with a high seismic activity will be on avoiding
a building to collapse during high-intensity earthquakes. During earthquakes with a low intensity
damage should be avoided.
In most of the established countries besides the demands of avoiding collapse the demands of
avoiding damage are very important, this tends to add to construction costs.
There are several possibilities to realize an earthquake proof building. The first one is by the
structural design (bigger columns, shock absorbing elements). The second one is placing the building
on a shock-absorbing cushion. A third one is by using dempers inside the structure, like in the Taipei
Financial Centre.

If a structure is designed in an area with a high earthquake risk, the design should include ductile
elements to absorb seismic movements. The framework needs to have a certain flexibility,
nevertheless the design should also have a certain rigidity (windloading). This are two conflicting
demands, which should be combined in the designed structure.
A solution for reaching both the goals for flexibility and rigidity can be seen in the ‘First interstate
World Centre, Los Angeles’ (1034 ft.) building. In this structure the two systems are combined. A
rigid internal core and a flexible perimeter. The base of the core is reinforced with a two storey
high bracing.

To resist earthquakes another possibility is to use an isolator between the foundation and the
building. When using an isolator care should be taken on the type of isolator to be used and the
placing of the isolators. This method is used in the ‘Court of Appeals, San Fransisco’ and the
‘International terminal, San Francisco’. The structures in which isolation is used are mostly low, or
medium high buildings. Isolation in high rise buildings is never used, because of the high building
weight and the minimal effect on the building response to earthquakes.




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              Costa Rica 2007




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9. References
9.1 Internet
          www.lonelyplanet.nl
          www.wikipedia.com
          www.googleearth.com
          www.emporis.com


9.2 Literature
          Asensio P., Earthquake architecture: New construction techniques for earthquake disaster
          prevention. New York: Loft publications S.L., 2000
          Booth, E., and Key, D., Earthquake design practice for buildings. London: Thomas Telford
          Publishing, 2006
          Wells, M., Wolkenkrabbers: Constructie en ontwerp. Rijswijk: Elmar b.v., 2005


9.3 Other
          Project definition Neo Architects and Oikos Constructions
          Artist impressions Neo Architects and Oikos Constructions




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Annex A; Planning


Phase      Activity                                                                                Date   1-jul – 4-aug   10-sep   17-sep   24-sep   1-okt   8-okt   15-okt   22-okt   29-okt   5-dec   12-dec
1
          1             Researching the current way of structural design in high rise buildings

          2             Researching Costa Rican building industry

          3             Evaluating the existing preliminary architectural design of the building

          4             Evaluating boundary conditions mentioned above

          5             Making an analysis of reference projects

          6             Gaining useful literature and software

          7             Arranging project related things
2
          8             Further research in the Costa Rican building industry

          9             Updating and completing our preliminary research
3
          10            Design the alternatives
4
          11            Multi criteria evaluation
5
          12            Determine definitive alternative

          13            Make final design

          14            Recommend and present results to Neo Architects and Oikos constructions
6
          15            Construct final report

          16            Present results in Delft




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              Costa Rica 2007




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Annex B; Analysis
Analysis:
Location:                    San José (Costa Rica)
Functions:                   Apartments
                             Offices
                             Stores

Construction material: Concrete
                       Steel (as an alternative possible)
Dimensions
     -   Height:             197 m
     -   Surface:                      15 x 40 m2

     -   Number of floors:    55
     -   Storey height: 3,5 m

Foundation
     -   Foundation type:              strip foundation (no basement)
     -   Soil type:                    silt and volcano rock




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                                                Costa Rica 2007




Figure 15; sections of the preliminary design




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Figure 16; artist impressions




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                                                                                          Costa Rica 2007




Annex C: Budget

Budget Master project Costa Rica 2007
    Expenses                                                                  Incomes
      Costs             Kind of expenses          Amount                   Kind of incomes          Amount
      Travel                                                             Personal contribution     € 1.500,00
                          Flight tickets        € 2.840,00                      Funds              € 1.360,00
                          Departure tax           € 80,00                     Sponsors
                                                                              promised              € 600,00
  Accomodation                                                                foreseen             € 3.018,50
                                rent               o.v.v
                            livelihood          € 1.800,00
                       local transportation      € 450,00



     Residual           Communication            € 100,00
                       Purchase material         € 60,00
                          Vaccinates              € 0,00
                     Purchase malaria- pills     € 840,00

   Unforeseen                                    € 308,50

 Total expenses                                 € 6.478,50                    Total income         € 6.478,50

Explanation Budget Costa Rica 2007

Costs
Traveling costs

Flight tickets
The costs of the flight tickets are based on the average price of the flights in the period from
September till December. Because of the difference between the different flying companies we
have decided to take the average price of these companies. The average price is approximately 710
euro p.p. The total price for four tickets will be 2840 euro.

Visa
For a stay in Costa Rica, if less then 90 days, no visa is needed. Since our stay will take between two
and three months no visa will be needed.

Departure tax
Every international flight leaving Costa Rica will charge a departure tax. This tax amounts 26 dollar
p.p. (approximately 20 euro) and will need to be paid at the check in desk in dollars.


Accommodation costs

Rent accomodation
The rental costs for the accommodation will be paid by Neo Architects. We will not have any rental
costs, this is not completedly sure so the post will be with proviso.

Livelyhood
Each month an amount of 150 euro p.p. is reserved to spend on food and drinks. For a stay of three
months and four persons this leads to a total post of 1800 euro.



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Local transportation
In this post the costs for petrol for 2-3 months, or the costs for public transport if no car is
available. Based on a amount of 5 euro per trip inside the city and a stay of 90 days, the total
amount will be 450 euro.


Residual costs

Communication
This post includes the costs for telephone, postal services and internet. The total amount reserved
for this post will be 100 euro.

Purchase material
This post includes the costs for the purchase of local maps and two specimen of Lonely Planet. Also
the costs for paper and other office materials, like pens, etc. are included in this post. The total
amount reserved for this post is approximated on 80 euro.

Vaccination
The costs of vaccination are paid by the TU.

Purchase malaria pills
After the period in Costa Rica, we will also pay a visit to Guatamala for a week. For this period we
will need to take precaution measures against malaria. The costs for these pills will be 210 euro
p.p. (70 pills p.p. costing 3 euro). The summation of these costs will be 840 euro.


Unforeseen
This post will be 5% of all the costs above.

INCOME

Personal contribution:
The personal contribution will be 375 euro p.p. This amount consists of:
Residual amount monthly costs minus fixed costs (200 euro)
Extro personal contribution (100 euro)
Compensation OV (75 euro)
For four persons the total amount will be 1500 euro.

Contribution fundings
The TU-Funds will pay half of the costs for the tickets with a maximum of 340 euro p.p. In total this
will be 1360 euro for four persons

Sponsors
The contribution of sponsors will be divided in an fixed amount (already promised by sponsors) and
an amount which needs to be acquired. The last part we still hope to acquire to get the budget
right.




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language:Dutch
pages:36