Docstoc

final_draft_sa_scoping_report_vb_6.7.07-3

Document Sample
final_draft_sa_scoping_report_vb_6.7.07-3 Powered By Docstoc
					Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study
Scoping Report (Version B)

Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council
July 2007
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)




                 Table of Contents


                 NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY


                 1   Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 1

                 2   The Study Area ...................................................................................................................... 9

                 3   Review of Relevant Plans, Programmes, Policies and Sustainability Objectives ....... 11

                 4   Sustainability Appraisal Objectives .................................................................................. 13

                 5   Baseline................................................................................................................................ 17

                 6   Key Sustainability Issues: Social, Economic and Environmental ................................. 19

                 7   Sustainability Appraisal Framework ................................................................................. 27

                 8   Consultation ........................................................................................................................ 36

                 9   Next Steps: Sustainability Appraisal Report .................................................................... 39




                 Appendix A – Figures
                 Appendix B – Sub-Stage A1 Relevant Plans and Programmes
                 Appendix C – Sub-Stage A2 Baseline Information
                 Appendix D – Sub-Stage A3 Consultation Responses
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)
                             Non-Technical Summary
      )
Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council is progressing with its Local Development Framework (LDF), (a
new approach to spatial planning which is a portfolio of Local Development Documents (LDDs)
prepared by the authority) initiated by the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004. The LDF will
eventually replace the Walsall Unitary Development Plan (UDP) and will set out the strategy with
regard to the way in which land is utilised and new developments are progressed. The policies in the
adopted UPD (April 2005) have been ‘saved‘ until such time as it is replaced with new-style plans
which will provide the policy framework for the borough. However, as none of these documents is
likely to be adopted before 2009, the UDP will remain the main basis for decision-making in Walsall for
some time to come. This is why the Council has decided to prepare a limited number of
Supplementary Planning Documents (SPDs) to support policies in the UDP and the policy guidance
contained within them will relate to the whole of the area covered by Walsall Borough. The SPDs to
be developed by Walsall Council include:


         Designing a Better Walsall SPD                   Natural Environment SPD


Most of the documents contained within the LDF (including SPDs) must be subject to Sustainability
Appraisal (SA) and Strategic Environment Assessment (SEA) in line with the European SEA Directive
and UK legislation. The appraisal process aims to minimise adverse impacts and resolve, as far as
possible, conflicting impacts the SPD outputs may have on sustainable development. The first stage
of this process sets the scope of the appraisal by reviewing the existing policy framework in which the
SPD sits and identifying the social, economic and environmental characteristics of the borough. The
key output of this process is the SA Scoping Report which includes the SA framework. This is a tool
that will be used to appraise the emerging proposals and policies in each SPD prepared by Walsall
Council. This is underpinned by SA objectives that reflect the policy framework and the key
sustainability issues within the district. They also cover issues relating to equality and diversity,
reflecting the need to undertake an Equality Impact Assessment (EqIA), under separate legislation, to
assess the impact of key local authority functions and policies in relation to race, disability and gender
and ensure that they are compliant with the Council‟s legal duties and are not likely to have
disproportionate adverse impacts on particular interests.


Walsall Borough lies to the north-west of Birmingham and covers an area of approximately
           2
103.6km with a population of approximately 253,500. It is one of four authorities which make up the
Black Country (the other authorities being Wolverhampton, Dudley and Sandwell). It is located in a
prime position within the West Midlands, close to the heart of the national road and rail networks. The
settlements in Walsall and the associated canal, rail and road network grew and developed as a result
                                                th      th
of the expansion of various industries in the 19 and 20 centuries.


Almost one third of the Borough is open countryside, most of which is designated as Green Belt. The
Green Belt area covers the northern and eastern parts of the Borough, with the central, southern and
western parts being largely urban and suburban in character. The Green Belt has and will, for the
foreseeable future, continue to prevent the outward expansion of the West Midlands conurbation into
Staffordshire. Much of Walsall‟s open countryside is still used for agriculture or horticulture, but
significant areas are now given over to typical “urban fringe” activities such as riding stables and other
outdoor sports and recreation facilities. Walsall has a strongly defined network and hierarchy of
centres, which are generally well-served by public transport and linked by a Strategic Highway
Network of main roads. Areas surrounding some of the main centres are significant employment
areas, which are the main focus for industrial and commercial activities.
Housing quality, pollution, overall environmental quality and other specific environmental objectives
such as biodiversity and geodiversity and historic environment are some of the most important issues
to be addressed. The development of guidance on Designing a Better Walsall and the Natural
Environment will seek to address these sustainability issues within the Walsall Council area.


The SA objectives that have been developed are presented below:
                                    Sustainability Appraisal Objectives
1       Health and Well Being – Improve community health, well-being, and reduce health inequalities.

2       Community Safety – To create safe environments that will help reduce crime, the fear of crime and anti-
        social behaviour.

3       Access to Key Facilities – Ensure easy and equitable access to services, facilities and opportunities
        (e.g. employment, training, local services and recreation).

4       Quality of Life – Improve quality of life for all by creating communities that are cohesive, diverse,
        accessible, empowered and sustainable.

5       Housing Quality – Provide decent, environmentally sound housing of the right quantity, type and tenure
        to meet local needs.

6       Equality and Diversity – Ensure that land use and development is inclusive and is sensitive to the needs
        of the whole community.

7       Economic Investment – Promote appropriate use of land and high quality development that will
        encourage investment to support, sustain and grow the local and sub-regional economy.

8       Biodiversity & Geodiversity – Promote land use and management that protects and enhances the
        quality and distinctiveness of the areas‟ biodiversity (the range of native trees, plants and animals) and
        geodiversity (geological features of interest).

9       Landscape, Townscape and Visual Amenity – Protect, enhance and manage the quality and
        distinctiveness of the area‟s townscapes and landscapes.

10      Historic Environment – Protect, enhance and manage the rich diversity of cultural, historical and
        archaeological assets.

11      Pollution – Avoid or minimise air, water, soil, light and noise pollution, and create good quality air, water
        and soils.

12      Natural Resources – Promote prudent and efficient use of natural resources (e.g. land, soil, minerals
        and water), and avoid unnecessary sterilisation or overexploitation.

13      Energy – Minimise dependency on non-renewable energy sources through energy efficient and
        sustainable design.

14      Climate Change – Positively plan for, and minimise the effects of, climate change.

15      Land Use – Encourage the appropriate re-use of land and buildings and remediation of derelict or
        contaminated land to reflect regeneration priorities.




The SA framework in which the objectives will sit will be used to test the emerging proposals and
policies in each SPD to ensure they are developed in line with sustainability principles. The SA
Scoping Report has been published for a 5-week consultation period, in accordance with the current
UK regulations. Comments on any aspect of the draft SA Scoping Report are welcome and should be
                                         th
received by the Council not later than 13 August 2007.



Comments should be sent by email to HarrisDawn@walsall.gov.uk or by post to:
Dawn Harris
Principal Regeneration Officer – Strategy
Walsall Council
The Civic Centre
Walsall
West Midlands
WS1 1DG

Telephone: 01922 652482
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)                                         1




1                      Introduction


         Chapter 1:
                       Chapter 2:      Chapter 3: SA   Chapter 4: SA   Chapter 5: SA   Chapter 6: SA   Chapter 7: SA   Chapter 8: SA   Chapter 9: SA
        Introduction   The Study         Stage A1        Stage A1        Stage A2        Stage A3        Stage A4        Stage A5       Next Steps
                         Area




                       Overview
1.1                    Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council, the statutory Local Planning Authority for the district, is
                       beginning the preparation of the Walsall Council Local Development Framework (LDF).
1.2                    As part of this process, Walsall Council has commissioned Faber Maunsell to undertake a
                       Sustainability Appraisal (SA) and provide an independent view of two emerging Supplementary
                       Planning Documents (SPDs).
                             Designing a Better Walsall SPD
                             Natural Environment SPD

1.3                    In line with Government Guidance, the SA also aims to meet the requirements of Strategic
                       Environmental Assessment (SEA) and will ensure that social, economic and environmental
                       considerations are taken into account in an integrated way.         Integrating sustainable
                       development in development plans is a key Government objective reflected in Planning Policy
                       Statement 1: Delivering Sustainable Communities:
                            „Planning authorities should ensure that sustainable development is treated in an integrated
                                way in their development plans. In particular, they should carefully consider the inter-
                           relationship between social inclusion, protecting and enhancing the environment, the prudent
                                                                                                       1
                                                use of natural resources and economic development.‟

1.4                    This report presents the findings of the SA process so far and is part of a broader consultation
                       on the Supplementary Planning Documents.
1.5                    To try and aid clarity, this report has been colour coded as set out below.
                             Chapters (and other important information) that provide background and context to the SA
                              process are highlighted in grey
                             Chapters (and other important information) directly relevant to the Sustainability Appraisal
                              process (stage A only) are highlighted in shades of blue
                             Information within chapters that refers directly to Strategic Environmental Assessment are
                              highlighted in purple.
                       Walsall Council’s Local Development Framework
1.6                    Under the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act, which came into force in September 2004,
                       Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council is required to produce a Local Development Framework
                       (LDF). The LDF is a portfolio of Local Development Documents (LDDs) prepared by the
                       authority and will include the following:
                             Statement of Community Involvement (SCI)
                             Local Development Scheme (LDS)
                             Development Plan Documents (DPD) – including Core Strategy & Site Specific Allocations
                             Saved Proposals Map



                       1
                           Planning Policy Statement 1: Delivering Sustainable Development (paragraph 24)
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)                       2




                       Annual Monitoring Report (AMR)
                       Supplementary Planning Documents (SPD) (optional)
                       Local Development Orders and Simplified Planning Zones (optional)

                 Walsall Council‟s Development Plan Documents and Supplementary Planning Documents must
                  be subject to Sustainability Appraisal throughout the preparation of the Local Development
                                                           Framework
1.7              Under the new system, the statutory development plan may be made up of several DPDs plus
                 the Proposals Map. This multiple-plan system has now replaced the previous system of
                 preparing a single statutory development plan, the Unitary Development Plan (UDP), in
                 metropolitan areas such as Walsall. Regional planning guidance, now referred to as the
                 Regional Spatial Strategy (RSS) is also part of the statutory development plan for each
                                                                      2
                 authority in the region, but is not part of the LDF.
1.8              There is provision within the system for old-style plans to be “saved” for a limited period of time.
                 This means that for a transitional period, the adopted Walsall UDP will remain as part of the
                 Council‟s development plan and will sit within the Walsall Local Development Framework until
                 such time as it has been replaced with new-style plans. The development plan for Walsall
                 therefore currently comprises:
                       The West Midlands Regional Spatial Strategy (RSS), published in June 2004
                       The existing Walsall UDP, adopted in April 2005.

1.9              The SPDs relate to the following saved UDP policies:
                       The Designing a Better Walsall SPD – this SPD will mainly support the policies towards
                        urban and landscape design and visual amenity, i.e. Policies ENV32 – ENV36. It will also
                        indirectly support other UDP policies that relate to visual impact of development, such as
                        the policies towards Green Belt and countryside/ landscape character (ENV2 – ENV3,
                        ENV7), conservation of the built and natural environment (ENV17 – ENV30), energy
                        (ENV39), water (ENV40).
                       The Natural Environment SPD – this SPD will support the policies towards trees and
                        woodland, biodiversity, geodiversity and the natural environment, i.e. Policies ENV17 –
                        ENV24). Other key policies and guidance of particular relevance to this SPD include
                        policies towards environmental protection (GP2), the Green Belt and countryside (ENV2 –
                        ENV3, ENV6 – ENV7), landscape design (ENV33) and water (ENV40).


1.10             In due course, the UDP will be replaced by new DPDs, including the joint Black Country Core
                 Strategy (in preparation). However, as none of these documents is likely to be adopted before
                 2009, the UDP will remain the main basis for decision-making in Walsall for some time to come.
                 This is why the Council has decided to prepare a limited number of SPDs to support policies in
                 the UDP and the policy guidance contained within them, will relate to the whole of the area
                 covered by Walsall Borough.
1.11             Walsall Council has already prepared its LDS that sets out a 'project plan' to show which LDDs
                 will be produced, in what order and when (http://www.walsall.gov.uk/microsoft_word_-
                 _lds_december_2006.pdf). The Council has also prepared its SCI that sets out how the
                 Council will involve the public, groups and organisations in consultation on the different
                 documents contained within the LDF. The SCI was adopted in June 2006 and can be found at
                                                                                                        3
                 the following location http://www.walsall.gov.uk/statement_community_involvement.pdf.
1.12             The intention behind the planning reforms is to deliver more effective planning and sustainable
                 development, through better community involvement / engagement, basing policies on sound
                 evidence, and more rigorous review processes, involving regular monitoring of the
                 implementation of plans and policies. More transparent and auditable decision making is


                 2
                     See Figure 1.1, PPS12: Local Development Frameworks (2004), ODPM
                 3
                  A revised LDS (with amended timetables for the Designing a Better Walsall SPD and Natural Environment SPD) has
                 been submitted to the Government Office for approval.
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)                                3




                 integral to this process, hence the requirement for plans to be appraised at each key stage in
                 the preparation process.
1.13             You can read more about Local Development Frameworks at the following interactive webpage:
                       http://www.planningportal.gov.uk/uploads/ldf/ldfguide.html.
                 Sustainability Appraisal
                 What is SA and what will it cover?
1.14             The purpose of the Sustainability Appraisal (SA) is to promote sustainable development.
                 Sustainable development is recognised internationally as:
                     'Development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future
                                               generations to meet their own needs'


1.15             It is proposed that the SA of the Designing a Better Walsall SPD and Natural Environment SPD
                 will incorporate two other types of appraisal, which the Council considers are required for both
                 documents: a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and an Equalities Impact
                 Assessment (EqIA), see Table 1.1 below.
1.16             Each type of assessment has different objectives. Whereas the purpose of the Sustainability
                 Appraisal is to ensure that the SPDs will contribute towards sustainable development, the
                 purpose of the SEA is to assess potentially significant environmental effects, and the purpose of
                 the EqIA is to assess potential impacts on the Council‟s statutory duties towards equalities and
                 ensure that particular groups are not disadvantaged. By integrating the three types of
                 assessment into a single appraisal, we can ensure that all of the relevant social, economic and
                 environmental considerations are taken into account and as far as possible, addressed.
                                                                         4
                 Table 1.1: Comparison SA, SEA (based on ) and EqIA
                                             Appraisal process 1            Appraisal process 2              Appraisal process 3
                                                      SA                             SEA                            EqIA
                     Aim of the         Promote sustainable             Provide for a high level of     Ensure equality, social
                     process is to...   development by                  protection of the environment   inclusion and community
                                        understanding the effects of,   by assessing and mitigating     cohesion issues are
                                        and improving policies,         negative environmental          considered within policies or
                                        strategies to deliver more      impacts.                        proposals.
                                        sustainable outcomes.
                     Emphasis of        Consideration (and where        Providing information on        Identifying any effects or
                     the process is     necessary balancing) of         environmental impacts,          likely effects on different
                     on...              social, economic and            consultation, documenting       groups within the community.
                                        environmental impacts.          decisions.

1.17             The SA is an essential part of the Local Development Framework process, and should be
                 undertaken in stages, as the plan develops. The main objectives of the appraisal are to identify
                 potential adverse impacts early on and minimise or resolve, as far as possible, any conflicting
                 impacts a plan or strategy may have on sustainable development, with a particular focus on
                 ensuring that detrimental environmental impacts are minimised and mitigated in line with the
                 SEA Directive.
                  The appraisal process will meet the requirements of the Environmental Assessment of
                 Plans and Programmes Regulations 2004 (which transposed the SEA Directive into law).
                  This is a distinct process that is concerned with providing a high level of protection to
                   the environment through the integration of environmental considerations during the
                                              development of SPDs and DPDs.

1.18             You can read more about Sustainability Appraisal, Strategic Environmental Assessment and
                 Equality Impact Assessment at the following websites:
                       http://www.communities.gov.uk/pub/346/SustainabilityAppraisalofRegionalSpatialStrategies
                        andLocalDevelopmentDocuments_id1161346.pdf
                       http://www.sea-info.net
                       http://www.london.gov.uk/gla/equalities-framework/docs/eqia/eqia-proj-guide.pdf

                 4
                  Scott Wilson, Levett-Therivel Sustainability Consultants, Treweek Environmental Consultants and Land Use
                 Consultants (2006): Approproate Assessment of Plans; and Therivel, R. (2006) „Appropriate assessment of land use
                 plans – Preparing for the coming storm‟, Town and Country Planning, June.
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)                      4




                 Why is it necessary?
1.19             All DPDs and SPDs must be subject to Sustainability Appraisal (SA) and most will also require
                 a Strategic Environment Assessment (SEA) in line with the following legislation:
                       European Directive 2001/42/EC on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and
                        programmes on the environment (SEA Directive)
                       Statutory Instrument 2004 No. 1633: The Environmental Assessment of Plans and
                        Programmes Regulations 2004 (SEA Regulations)
                       The Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004
                       Statutory Instrument 2004 No. 2204: The Town and Country Planning (Local Development)
                        (England) Regulations 2004 (Local Development Regulations)

1.20             The requirements for SA and SEA are set out in separate legislation. Although there are few
                 statutory requirements with regard to a SA, there are a number of specific requirements for
                 SEA, which are set out in the SEA Directive and SEA Regulations. The current Government
                                                                                            5
                 guidance on Sustainability Appraisal of Local Development Frameworks and Strategic
                                             6
                 Environmental Assessment advises that it is possible to satisfy the requirements of both
                 through a single appraisal process, and this is the approach recommended.
1.21             In addition, there is a legal requirement under the Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000,
                 Disability Discrimination Act 2005 and Equalities Act 2006 to assess the impact of key local
                 authority functions and policies in relation to race, disability and gender, to ensure that they are
                 compliant with the Council‟s legal duties and are not likely to have disproportionate adverse
                 impacts on particular interests. This type of assessment is called an Equality Impact
                 Assessment (EqIA). Impacts on age, religion, and sexual orientation are also often assessed
                 through an EqIA, as best practice. As with SEA, the need for an EqIA is first of all determined
                 through a “screening” process, involving an assessment of the likely impacts.
1.22             For the purpose of this scoping report, the term “Sustainability Appraisal” or “SA” will be used to
                 refer to the single appraisal process we are undertaking, which is intended to meet the
                 requirements of the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004, SEA Directive and SEA
                 Regulations, and the requirement for EqIA.
                 Guidance on Appraising Plans
1.23             This Sustainability Appraisal has been carried out in accordance with the guidance set out in
                 the following documents:
                       ODPM (2005): Sustainability Appraisal of Regional Spatial Strategies and Local
                        Development Frameworks
                       ODPM (2005): A Practical Guide to the Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive
                       Walsall Council (2005): Equalities Impact Assessment Toolkit
                       Greater London Authority (2006): Equality Impact Assessments - Policies and Projects:
                        Guidance Notes
                 What is the process?
1.24             SA is an integral part of the LDF process and will be undertaken in five stages as the SPDs are
                 developed (see Figure 1.1 Appendix A). SA stages A to E are summarised in Table 1.2. Stage
                 A, which relates to this report, is highlighted blue.
1.25             You can read more about the SA process at the following website:
                       www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1161341




                 5
                     ODPM (2005): Sustainability Appraisal of Regional Spatial Strategies and Local Development Frameworks.
                 6
                     ODPM (2005): A Practical Guide to the Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive.
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)                                 5




                 Table 1.2: Summary of the SA process (stages A to E)
                                            SA Stage                                                  Summary
                     SA Stage A: Setting the context and objectives,          The framework for appraisal is developed for
                     establishing the baseline and deciding on the scope      consultation through review of relevant plans &
                     (Scoping)                                                programmes, identification of key sustainability issues,
                                                                              collation of baseline information and development of
                                                                              SA objectives. The outputs are presented in a SA
                                                                              Scoping Report (this document).

                     SA Stage B: Developing and refining options and          Appraisals of alternative and preferred options
                     assessing effects                                        associated with each SPD.

                     SA Stage C: Preparing the Sustainability Appraisal       Preparation of the SA Report for consultation
                     Report                                                   (documents the findings of SA stages A and B).

                     SA Stage D: Consulting on the preferred options of       Consultation of SA Report (and SPD) and review and
                     the Development Plan Document and the                    account taken of responses received.
                     Sustainability Appraisal Report

                     SA Stage E: Monitoring the significant effects of        Finalise the monitoring arrangements to highlight
                     implementing the Development Plan Document               specific performance issues, significant effects and
                                                                              lead to more informed decision making.



1.26             The SA process will aim to:
                       Take a long term view of how Walsall Borough is expected to develop
                       Reflect global, national, regional and local issues and concerns
                       Integrate the sustainability objectives of the SPDs with the planning policies
                       Provide transparent and robust outputs that clearly demonstrate how the appraisal process
                        has influenced the development of the SPDs
1.27             The SA process is meant to be a continuous, iterative process, which should inform and
                 influence the development of the SPDs at each stage. The information collected and outputs
                 produced as part of the SA process will therefore be regularly reviewed and updated throughout
                 the production of each SPD.
                 Sustainability Appraisal Stage A: Scoping – Background
1.28             In April 2007, Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council commissioned Faber Maunsell to
                 undertake the Sustainability Appraisal for two SPDs:
                  Designing a Better Walsall SPD
                  Natural Environment SPD
1.29             The first stage of the appraisal – Stage A – is now almost complete, and this draft Scoping
                 Report has been prepared for consultation.
1.30             The Sustainability Appraisal project team comprises representatives from Walsall Council‟s
                 Regeneration Strategy Team and Environmental Regeneration Team, and Faber Maunsell‟s
                 Environment Team. The scoping stage was undertaken by Faber Maunsell in close liaison with
                 Walsall Council representatives. Faber Maunsell undertook all Sustainability Appraisal and
                 Strategic Environmental Assessment work whilst representatives from the Walsall Metropolitan
                 Borough Council undertook the Equality Impact Assessment (EqIA) Screening and relevant
                 contributions to the Sustainability Appraisal.
1.31             A wide range of consultees is being invited to contribute to the scoping study including both
                 statutory and non-statutory organisations. Further details of the scoping consultation process
                 are presented in Chapter 8.
1.32             Scoping (Stage A) is a key element of Sustainability Appraisal. This Scoping Report sets out
                 the background to the Sustainability Appraisal of each SPD, including the policy context, the
                 baseline information available, the scope and level of detail of the appraisal, and the draft
                 framework that we propose to use to carry out the appraisal.
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)                             6




1.33             Prior to any appraisal work being undertaken, the Scoping Report will be reviewed and revised
                 to reflect the outcome of the scoping consultation, and to ensure that only relevant information
                 is presented and used (as appropriate) for the appraisal of each SPD. This will be undertaken
                 at the beginning of Sustainability Appraisal Stage B. All sustainability issues “scoped out”
                 through this will be clearly documented with reasons for their removal (see Figure 1.2). Stage B
                 scoping review updates will therefore include re-evaluation of:
                       The Sustainability Appraisal Objectives
                       The key sustainability issue topics, issues, effects and opportunities
                       The Sustainability Appraisal Framework
1.34             The Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Report will remain a “live”‟ document and will be updated
                 (as appropriate) throughout the preparation and development of the SPDs.
                 Sustainability Appraisal Stage A: Scoping – Detail
1.35             Stage A of the SA process consists of five subsidiary stages as set out in Table 1.3. Whilst
                 each stage should be completed in turn, some tasks are closely linked and need to be
                 undertaken simultaneously – in this case, stages A1 to A4 (area within red dashed line). The
                 links between stages A1 and A5 are shown in Figure 1.2, Appendix A).
                 Table 1.3: Scoping Stage A – Sub-stages, key work elements and chapter reference
                                                                                                              Relevant Chapter
                      Sub-Stages and Tasks                                Description
                                                                                                              of Scoping Report
                     Stage A: Setting the Context and Objectives, Establishing the Baseline and Deciding on the Scope


                           Identification of
                                                    Identification and review of plans, programmes and SA
                           relevant policies,                                                                        Chapter 3 and
                     A1                              objectives relevant Walsall‟s LDF
                           plans, programmes                                                                          Chapter 4
                                                    Identification of Walsall Council‟s sustainability objectives
                           and sustainability
                           objectives
                           Collection of
                                                    Identification, collection and review of relevant baseline
                     A2    baseline                                                                                   Chapter 5
                                                     data and information
                           information
                           Identification of
                           sustainability           Identification of the key sustainability issues within
                     A3                                                                                               Chapter 6
                           issues and                Walsall Council
                           problems
                           Development of SA
                     A4    framework                Development of the appraisal framework                           Chapter 7


                                                    Informal consultation with Walsall Council representatives
                                                    Opinion survey and other consultation undertaken by the
                           Consultation on the
                     A5                              Council                                                          Chapter 8
                           scope of the SA
                                                    Preparation of the Scoping Report (this document) for
                                                     formal consultation




                 Scoping Approach and Timeline
1.36             The scoping stage was undertaken between April 2007 and July 2007. A brief history of the
                 work undertaken to date is presented below.
                 11 April 2007 to 11 June 2007
1.37             An initial inception meeting between representatives from Walsall Council and Faber Maunsell
                 was held on 11 April 2007 to discuss the project approach and the key elements to be included
                 in the scoping study and to collect baseline information.
1.38             A detailed discussion with regard to both SPDs was undertaken that discussed:
                       The key tasks and outputs to be completed for each SPD (including the requirement to
                        undertake Strategic Environmental Assessment for the Designing a Better Walsall SPD,
                        which the Council did not at first consider to be necessary)
                       Timescales for production of draft and final outputs
                       Consultation
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)           7




1.39             Walsall Council had already completed SA Stage A1 (review of plans, programmes, policies
                 and sustainability objectives) for the Designing a Better Walsall SPD, which was provided to
                 Faber Maunsell for use within the Scoping Report. Walsall Council also provided a detailed list
                 of baseline information sources; all were collated and reviewed as part of SA Stage A2. These
                 were further refined to incorporate plans, policies and programmes and baseline information
                 relating to the Natural Environment SPD.
1.40             Outputs from stages A1 and A2 were used to develop and identify:
                    Stage A1 – Sustainability Appraisal objectives for the SPDs
                    Stage A3 – Sustainability Appraisal issues, problems and opportunities for the SPDs
                    Stage A4 – The Sustainability Appraisal Framework
1.41             These outputs formed the basis of the draft Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Report (Version A)
                 that was provided to Walsall Council for comment on 11 June 2007.
1.42             The approach to completing each SA stage (stages A1 to A5) of the Sustainability Appraisal
                 scoping process has been provided within each relevant chapter.
                 11 June 2007 to 21 June 2007
1.43             Representatives from Walsall Council reviewed the draft Sustainability Appraisal Scoping
                 Report (version A) and provided comments. The key revisions included:
                    Amendments to Chapter 1, to clarify the relationship of the Designing a Better Walsall SPD
                     and Natural Environment SPD to the overall LDF
                    Amendments to Chapter 2, to expand on the summary of the character and urban form of
                     Walsall
                    Revision and expansion of sustainability objectives to reflect the full range of sustainability
                     issues likely to be covered in the SPDs
                    Minor editing to correct Figure reference numbers / make more consistent use of
                     abbreviations

1.44             The outputs formed the basis of the final Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Report (Version B),
                 which was been sent out to the relevant bodies on 6 July 2007 as part of the statutory scoping
                 consultation.
                 Scoping Report Aims and Structure
1.45             This report aims to provide relevant information to aid the reader to understand how the SA
                 framework has been developed. It is aimed primarily at local and regional authorities, national
                 agencies, other competent authorities, and the public.
1.46             Further details setting out the structure and content of this scoping report are presented in
                 Table 1.4.
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)                             8




                 Table 1.4: Scoping Report Structure and Content
                    Scoping                           Scoping Report Chapter                                Related Information
                   sub-stage
                  -              Chapter 1 „Introduction‟: provides project background and an           Figure 1.1 and 1.2 – SA
                                 overview of the Sustainability Appraisal process                       process diagrams (Appendix
                                                                                                        A)
                  -              Chapter 2 „The Study Area‟: provides a summary of the study
                                 area; the Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council area

                  A1             Chapter 3 „Other Relevant Plans, Programmes and Objectives‟:           Table B1 (Appendix B)
                                 a summary of other relevant plans, programmes and objectives
                                 relevant to the Sustainability Appraisal is given

                  -              Chapter 4 „Sustainability Appraisal Objectives‟: contains the          Table 4.1 and 4.2
                                 sustainability objectives developed for the Sustainability Appraisal
                                 including decision making criteria

                  A2             Chapter 5 „Baseline Information‟: presents an overview of the key      Table C1 (Appendix C)
                                 social, economic and environmental baselines features within the
                                 Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council area

                  A3             Chapter 6 „Key Sustainability Issues – Social, Economic and
                                 Environmental‟: provides detail on the key sustainability issues
                                 relevant to the Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council area

                  A4             Chapter 7 „The Sustainability Appraisal Framework‟: sets out the       Table 7.1
                                 Sustainability Appraisal framework that will be applicable to each
                                 Local Development Framework document subject to Sustainability
                                 Appraisal

                  A5             Chapter 8 „Scoping Consultation‟: provides detail on all               Consultation responses –
                                 consultation undertaken (or to be undertaken) at this stage of the     (Appendix D)
                                 Sustainability Appraisal

                  -              Chapter 9 „Sustainability Appraisal Report‟: this chapter
                                 describes the next steps in the Sustainability Appraisal process and
                                 summarises the structure and content of the Sustainability Report(s)

                  -              Glossary: this provides definitions of key terms (including            -
                                 technical terms)
Faber Maunsell            Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)                                           9




2                         The Study Area


                       Chapter 2:
         Chapter 1:                    Chapter 3: SA   Chapter 4: SA   Chapter 5: SA        Chapter 6: SA   Chapter 7: SA   Chapter 8: SA   Chapter 9: SA
        Introduction
                       The Study         Stage A1        Stage A1        Stage A2             Stage A3        Stage A4        Stage A5       Next Steps
                         Area



                          Chapter Overview and Structure
2.1                       This chapter provides an outline of Walsall Borough; the area covered by both of the SPDs to
                          be appraised, and therefore the area covered by this Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Report.
                          The Chapter includes the following sections:
                                Walsall Borough – An Overview
                          Walsall Borough – An Overview
2.2                       Walsall Borough lies to the north-west of Birmingham and covers an area of approximately
                                  2
                          103.6km . It is one of four authorities which make up the Black Country (the other authorities
                          being Wolverhampton, Dudley and Sandwell).
2.3                       Walsall is located in a prime position within the West Midlands, close to the heart of the national
                          road and rail networks. This can, however, cause traffic congestion problems for the area. The
                          Walsall Borough area combines a number of distinct settlements whose combined population is
                                                  7
                          approximately 253,500 .
2.4                       These settlements, and the associated canal, rail and road network grew and developed as a
                          result of the expansion of various industries (in particular, mining, quarrying, metal working and
                                                          th         th
                          the leather industry) in the 19 and 20 centuries. The Borough‟s most important historic
                          townscape and landscape areas have been designated as conservation areas. There are 18
                          conservation areas in Walsall, covering historic town and village centres, important parks and
                          gardens and parts of the canal network. Historic / landmark buildings and a variety of
                          landscape, geological and archaeological features also help define the character of the
                          Borough.
2.5                       With regard to land use, almost one third of the Borough is open countryside, most of which is
                          designated as Green Belt. The Green Belt area covers the northern and eastern parts of the
                          Borough, with the central, southern and western parts being largely urban and suburban in
                          character. The Green Belt has and will, for the foreseeable future, continue to prevent the
                          outward expansion of the West Midlands conurbation into Staffordshire. Much of Walsall‟s
                          open countryside is still used for agriculture or horticulture, but significant areas are now given
                          over to typical “urban fringe” activities such as riding stables and other outdoor sports and
                          recreation facilities. There are also active quarries in Stubbers Green, Stonnall and Aldridge.
2.6                       Within the urban areas of the Borough, the principal use is housing. Walsall has a wide range
                          of housing areas, including:
                                                                  th                   th
                                Areas of high density 19 and early 20 century terraced housing close to the main centres,
                                 such as Chuckery, Pleck and Caldmore
                                Areas of medium density housing developed during the 1920s, 1930s and 1950s - including
                                 private housing such as Mellish Road and the Broadway and former Council estates such
                                 as Ryecroft and Blakenall




                          7
                              Walsall Council (2006) Annual Monitoring Report – (mid 2005 figure)
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)        10




                    Large post-War estates such as Bentley – however, there is relatively little high-rise
                     housing in Walsall compared to the surrounding Boroughs
                    Areas of high quality, low density suburban housing on the fringes of the built-up area, such
                     as Aldridge and Streetly.

2.7              Walsall has a strongly defined network and hierarchy of centres, which are generally well-
                 served by public transport and linked by a Strategic Highway Network of main roads. The main
                 centre is Walsall Town Centre which is identified as a sub-regional centre in the West Midlands
                 RSS, with smaller outlying District Centres of Bloxwich, Brownhills, Aldridge, Willenhall and
                 Darlaston. In addition to these there are a large number of Local Centres, which have a role in
                 providing for the day-to-day convenience shopping and local service needs of local
                 communities.
2.8              Surrounding some of the main centres are significant employment areas, which are the main
                 focus for industrial and commercial activities. The Walsall economy still retains a significant
                 manufacturing sector, and the output from manufacturing is nearly twice the proportion in the
                 UK as a whole. Although service industries are becoming increasingly important, these are at
                 least in part dependent on local consumer expenditure, which is itself dependent to a degree
                 upon manufacturing businesses. The main employment areas are located to the south west of
                 Walsall Town Centre, North Darlaston, Bloxwich and the Green Lane (A34) Corridor, and
                 Aldridge, which are defined as Core Employment Areas in the Walsall UDP.
2.9              Walsall also has an extensive open space network which extends throughout the built-up area,
                 providing important amenity space as well as space for recreation and biodiversity /
                 geodiversity. These areas are protected from development by being designated in the UDP as
                 Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs), Sites of Importance for Nature Conservation
                 (SINCs), or as Urban Open Space. However, it is acknowledged that linkages between these
                 areas are not as good as they could be and need to be improved.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)                                     11




3                      Review of Relevant Plans,
                       Programmes, Policies and
                       Sustainability Objectives
       Chapter 1:    Chapter 2: The
                                      Chapter 3:   Chapter 4: SA   Chapter 5: SA   Chapter 6: SA   Chapter 7: SA   Chapter 8: SA   Chapter 9: SA
      Introduction    Study Area      SA Stage       Stage A1        Stage A2        Stage A3        Stage A4        Stage A5       Next Steps
                                         A1



                       Chapter Overview and Structure
3.1                    This chapter presents a review of all relevant plans, programmes, policies and sustainability
                       objectives that have been produced for the council area, the Black Country (West Midlands),
                       the UK and internationally in accordance with both the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act
                       2004 and the Environmental Assessment of Plans and Programmes Regulations 2004. The
                       following sections are included:
                            Review of plans, programmes, policies and sustainability objectives (SA sub-stage A1)
                            Review Approach
                            Links with other scoping tasks
                            Limitations
                       Review of plans, programmes, policies and sustainability objectives (SA sub-stage A1)
3.2                    The main purpose of the Designing a Better Walsall SPD and Natural Environment SPD will be
                       to support and expand upon the existing urban and landscape design and nature conservation
                       policies in the adopted Walsall UDP. They will therefore form part of the Walsall LDF, sitting
                       alongside the UDP.
3.3                    As well as supporting policies in the UDP, both SPDs will also be influenced by (and may have
                       some influence over) other plans and policies, such as the RSS, national policy guidance and
                       good practice guidance. It is important to understand how the SPDs relate to the wider policy
                       framework and identify any potential inconsistencies and conflicts so that these can be
                       addressed at the earliest available opportunity. The SEA Directive and SEA Regulations also
                       require information on plans, programmes and other environmental protection objectives to be
                       taken into consideration.
                       The Environmental Report should provide information on [inter alia]:
                        The “relationship [of the SPD or DPD] with other relevant plans and programmes”
                          (SEA Directive, Annex I(a))
                        “the environmental protection objectives, established at international, [European]
                          Community or [national] level, which are relevant to the SPD or DPD and the way
                          those objectives and environmental considerations have been taken into account
                          during its preparation” (SEA Directive, Annex I (e))
                       Review Approach
3.4                    The initial collation and review of relevant plans, programmes, policies and sustainability
                       objectives was undertaken by Walsall Council. The documents were identified as being of
                       relevance to the Designing a Better Walsall SPD. However, the review was extremely
                       comprehensive and for this reason, much of the information collated was also considered to be
                       relevant to the Natural Environment SPD. For each plan or policy reviewed, the key objectives,
                       indicators and targets were recorded; information regarding the implications for the SPD and for
                       the Sustainability Appraisal has also been documented (as appropriate).
3.5                    The SA Stage A1 output supplied by the Council was reviewed by Faber Maunsell to identify
                       any additional plans, programmes, policies and sustainability objectives, taking into
                       consideration the need to cover both SPDs. The results from this process can be found in
                       Table B1, Appendix B.
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)          12




                 Links with Other Scoping Tasks
                 SA Stage A1 - Sustainability Appraisal Objectives
                 The relevant policy objectives from the review have been used to develop (in part) the
                 Sustainability Appraisal objectives (see Chapter 4 for further detail) to ensure consistency within
                 the wider policy framework. These objectives have been incorporated within the Sustainability
                 Appraisal framework. This “linked process” for developing Sustainability Appraisal objectives is
                 important as the sustainability objectives will ultimately be used to assess the SPD or DPD
                 documents.

3.6              Figure 1.2 in Appendix A shows the links between Stage A1 and all other stages of the
                 Sustainability Appraisal scoping process.
                 Limitations
3.7              The information provided in Table B1 (Appendix B) was initially prepared by Walsall Council
                 and although this is very extensive and has been reviewed and updated (as appropriate) by
                 Faber Maunsell, it may not be exhaustive. However, the documents displayed are considered
                 to be the plans, programmes, policies and objectives, which hold the most relevance to the
                 Sustainability Appraisal and the SPDs at this stage. The scoping consultation also provides an
                 opportunity for the statutory bodies and other key stakeholders to highlight any other plans,
                 policies and programmes that they feel are relevant.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)                                     13




4                      Sustainability Appraisal Objectives


                                                      Chapter 4:
       Chapter 1:    Chapter 2: The   Chapter 3: SA                Chapter 5: SA   Chapter 6: SA   Chapter 7: SA   Chapter 8: SA   Chapter 9: SA
      Introduction    Study Area        Stage A1
                                                      SA Stage       Stage A2        Stage A3        Stage A4        Stage A5       Next Steps
                                                       A1 (A4)




                       Chapter Overview and Structure
4.1                    This chapter presents the Sustainability Appraisal objectives that will be integrated within the
                       Sustainability Appraisal framework. It includes the following sections:
                            Development of Sustainability Appraisal objectives
                            Approach
                            Links with other scoping tasks
                            Stage A1 Limitations

                       Development of Sustainability Appraisal Objectives
4.2                    For the purpose of this Scoping Report and to aid clarity, the development of Sustainability
                       Appraisal objectives has been considered as an additional task, forming part of SA sub-stage
                       A1. However, it is recognised that objective development cuts across other scoping sub-stages
                       e.g. sub-stage A3 and A4.
4.3                    The Sustainability Appraisal Framework in which the objectives will sit will be used to test the
                       emerging policies in each of the SPDs prepared by Walsall Council. The Sustainability
                       Appraisal objectives are particularly important, as they will influence the formulation of
                       objectives and other information within the two SPDs.
4.4                    Sustainability Appraisal objectives are either measurable or non-measurable statements that
                       define what is to be achieved in terms of sustainable development. Although objectives are not
                       a specific requirement of the SEA Regulations, they are a recognised way in which the effects
                       of implementing the Local Development Framework documents, in this case the SPDs, can be
                       measured, evaluated, compared and monitored.
4.5                    Although the Sustainability Appraisal objectives are developed separately to those within the
                       SPDs, both sets of objectives may influence each other and overlap.
                       Approach
                       Sustainability Appraisal Objectives
4.6                    The Sustainability Appraisal objectives presented in Table 4.1 have been developed to assess
                       the social, economic and environmental acceptability of the Designing a Better Walsall SPD
                       and Natural Environment SPD. The development of objectives took place as follows:
                            The Sustainability Objectives developed as part of the Sustainability Appraisal of the Black
                                                         8
                             Country Joint Core Strategy were utilised (in part) to develop the Sustainability Appraisal
                             objectives




                       8
                        Sustainability Appraisal and Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Black Country Joint Core Strategy: Scoping
                       Report (draft) (March 2007), Tesserae for the Black Country Authorities
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)                       14




                    The Sustainable Development Objectives for the West Midlands set out in the Regional
                                                             9
                     Sustainable Development Framework were also used to develop the Sustainability
                     Appraisal objectives for the SPDs
                    The review of plans, programmes and policies and the key sustainability topics and issues
                     identified as part of the scoping study were also utilised to provide direction for objective
                     development (see Chapters 3 and 6)
                    Consultation comments from Walsall Council representatives have also been taken into
                     account

4.7              A total of fifteen objectives were developed.                  These have been tested to identify any
                 incompatibilities between them (see Table 4.2).
4.8              Most objectives appear to be compatible or show no apparent links.                           Some possible
                 incompatibilities between objectives are evident. These include:
                    Housing – there are incompatibilities between the housing objective and the environment
                     objectives (biodiversity and geodiversity, landscape / townscape, historic environment,
                     natural resources, energy and climate change). These may include loss of natural habitat,
                     intrusion of landscape and townscape vistas, increased use of natural resources, rise in the
                     amount of waste and adverse effects on climate change.
                    Pollution – this has potential incompatibilities with health & well-being, quality of life,
                     biodiversity and geodiversity, landscape & townscape, historic environment, natural
                     resources and climate change. It is highlighted in the Annual Monitoring Report that
                     contaminated / derelict land is also identified as a potential issue for health as well as the
                     effects of pollution e.g. air pollution. Other issues may include loss of habitats and species
                     due to pollution events and the pollution of natural resources i.e. air and water.
                    Land Use – potential incompatibilities between the re-use of land and buildings and
                     economic investment, biodiversity and geodiversity, landscape / townscape and historic
                     environment. These may include loss of brownfield habitats, and visual / design impacts
                     associated with inappropriate re-development of historic buildings.
                    Historic Environment – potential incompatibilities with pollution, energy and land use.
                     These may include use of unsustainable materials for appropriate design and poor
                     environmental performance of historic buildings with regard to energy efficiency.

4.9              At this stage, the objectives are in draft format and are set out within this report as a basis for
                 formal consultation with the statutory bodies and other relevant organisations.
                 Links with Other Scoping Tasks
                 SA Sub-Stage A1 - Review of Plans, Programmes and Sustainability Objectives
                 As previously mentioned, the Sustainability Appraisal objectives need to take into account
                 information obtained during the other tasks undertaken to complete this Scoping Report.
                 Information obtained during the review of other plans and programmes (Chapter 3 and
                 Appendix B), should ensure as far as possible that the Sustainability Appraisal objectives are in
                 line with international, national, regional and local plans, programmes and polices.
                 SA Stage A3 - Key Sustainability Issue Topics (Social, Economic and Environmental)
                 The key sustainability issue topics for the Walsall Council area (Chapter 6) were utilised during
                 objective setting to ensure that the Sustainability Appraisal objectives were focused on
                 addressing issues that the Supplementary Planning Documents could have influence over.

4.10             Figure 1.2 in Appendix A shows the links between Stage A1 and all other stages of the
                 Sustainability Appraisal scoping process.
                 Stage A1 Limitations
4.11             During the development of the Sustainability Appraisal objectives, it was important to consider
                 their relevance in terms of the overall deliverables of the SPDs and realistically, the influence
                 that the Sustainability Appraisal may have. This is an important aspect of the Sustainability
                 Appraisal process as it is inappropriate and can be misleading to set objectives that cannot be
                 directly achieved e.g. a design guide is unlikely to be able to influence economic diversification.

                 9
                   A Sustainable Future for the West Midlands – Regional Sustainable Development Framework: Version Two (July
                 2006), Sustainability West Midlands, Advantage West Midlands, West Midlands Regional Assembly, Government Office
                 for the West Midlands
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)                                   15




                 Table 4.1: Sustainability Appraisal Objectives

                                    Sustainability Appraisal Objective                                      SEA Topics

                          Health and Well Being – Improve community health, well-
                  1                                                                                Population and Human Health
                          being, and reduce health inequalities.
                          Community Safety – To create safe environments that will
                  2                                                                                Population and Human Health
                          help reduce crime, the fear of crime and anti-social behaviour.
                          Access to Key Facilities – Ensure easy and equitable access
                                                                                               Population, Human Health and Material
                  3       to services, facilities and opportunities (e.g. employment,
                                                                                                              Assets
                          training, local services and recreation).
                          Quality of Life – Improve quality of life for all by creating
                  4       communities that are cohesive, diverse, accessible,                      Population and Human Health
                          empowered and sustainable.
                          Housing Quality – Provide decent, environmentally sound
                                                                                                 Population, Human Health, Material
                  5       housing of the right quantity, type and tenure to meet local
                                                                                                    Assets and Cultural Heritage
                          needs.
                          Equality and Diversity – Ensure that land use and
                  6       development is inclusive and is sensitive to the needs of the            Population and Human Health
                          whole community.
                          Economic Investment – Promote appropriate use of land and
                  7       high quality development that will encourage investment to               Population and Material Assets
                          support, sustain and grow the local and sub-regional economy.
                          Biodiversity & Geodiversity – Promote land use and
                          management that protects and enhances the quality and
                  8       distinctiveness of the areas‟ biodiversity (the range of native           Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity
                          trees, plants and animals) and geodiversity (geological
                          features of interest).
                          Landscape, Townscape and Visual Amenity – Protect,
                  9       enhance and manage the quality and distinctiveness of the               Cultural Heritage and Landscape
                          area‟s townscapes and landscapes.
                          Historic Environment – Protect, enhance and manage the
                  10                                                                                      Cultural Heritage
                          rich diversity of cultural, historical and archaeological assets.
                          Pollution – Avoid or minimise air, water, soil, light and noise     Human Health, Soil, Water, Air, Climatic
                  11
                          pollution, and create good quality air, water and soils.                Factors and Material Assets
                          Natural Resources – Promote prudent and efficient use of            Biodiversity, Human Health, Fauna, Flora,
                  12      natural resources (e.g. land, soil, minerals and water), and          Soil, Water, Air, Climatic Factors and
                          avoid unnecessary sterilisation or overexploitation.                              Material Assets
                          Energy – Minimise dependency on non-renewable energy                 Population, Human Health and Material
                  13
                          sources through energy efficient and sustainable design.                            Assets
                                                                                              Population, Material Assets, Air, Climatic
                          Climate Change – Positively plan for, and minimise the effects          Factors, Water, Flora, Fauna and
                  14
                          of, climate change.                                                 Biodiversity, Cultural Heritage and Human
                                                                                                                 Health
                          Land Use – Encourage the appropriate re-use of land and
                  15      buildings and remediation of derelict or contaminated land to         Cultural Heritage and Material Assets
                          reflect regeneration priorities.
Faber Maunsell           Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     16




Table 4.2: Internal Compatibility of Sustainability Appraisal Objectives




                                                1. Health and Well-being




                                                                                                  3. Access to Key Facilities
                                                                            2. Community Safety
 1. Health and Well-being




                                                                                                                                4. Quality of Life




                                                                                                                                                                          6. Equality and Diversity
                                                                                                                                                     5. Housing Quality




                                                                                                                                                                                                                               8. Biodiversity and Geodiversity
 2. Community Safety                           




                                                                                                                                                                                                      7. Economic Investment
 3. Access to Key Facilities                                              

                                                                                                




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9. Landscape / Townscape
 4. Quality of Life

 5. Housing Quality                                                       /?                                                     




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             10. Historic Environment
 6. Equality and Diversity                                                                                                   /?                     

 7. Economic Investment                                                                                                                                                     

 8. Biodiversity and Geodiversity                                                                                                                    /




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        12 Natural Resources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11. Pollution
 9. Landscape / Townscape                                                                                                                            /                                                                      /?

 10. Historic Environment                                                                                                                            /                                                                                                              




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            14. Climate Change
 11. Pollution                                 /?                                                                              /?                                                                                                                              /?                        /?




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               13. Energy
 12 Natural Resources                                                                                                                             /                                                                                                                                                                  




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 15. Land Use
 13. Energy                                                                                                                                          /                                                                                                                                   /?                                            

 14. Climate Change                                                                                                                                 /                                                                                                                                                               /?                                    

 15. Land Use                                                                                                                                                                                        /                      /                                /                        /
 = likely compatibility or positive links
 = likely incompatibility or negative links
? = degree of uncertainty re link
Blank cells = no clear links identified
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)                                     17




5                      Baseline


       Chapter 1:    Chapter 2: The   Chapter 3: SA   Chapter 4: SA
                                                                      Chapter 5:   Chapter 6: SA   Chapter 7: SA   Chapter 8: SA   Chapter 9: SA
      Introduction    Study Area        Stage A1        Stage A1      SA Stage       Stage A3        Stage A4        Stage A5       Next Steps
                                                                         A2



                       Chapter Overview and Structure
5.1                    This chapter presents an overview of all the baseline information that has been collated as part
                       of the scoping study. It includes the following sections:
                            Baseline (sub-stage A2)
                            SA Sub-Stage A2 Methodology
                            Links with other scoping tasks
                            Limitations
                       Baseline (sub-stage A2)
5.2                    Baseline information provides a description of the existing features of a particular geographical
                       area; in this instance the social, economic and environmental characteristics of Walsall
                       Borough. The information collected will ultimately be used to provide a standard against which
                       future predications can be made prior to the implementation of the Designing a Better Walsall
                       and Natural Environment SPDs. An understanding of the current situation within Walsall
                       Borough is essential to undertaking a robust Sustainability Appraisal and to ensure that the
                       SPDs will achieve the objectives of sustainable development. The “initial” baseline information
                       will feed into most other stages of the scoping study e.g. Sub-stage A1 - Sustainability
                       Appraisal objectives; Sub-Stage A3 - the development of Sustainability Appraisal issues; Sub-
                       stage A4 - Sustainability Appraisal Framework.
5.3                    Collation of baseline data will be undertaken throughout the development of each SPD, and as
                       previously mentioned, will be used to update this Scoping Report at future stages in the
                       Sustainability Appraisal process (as appropriate).
                       The Environmental Report should provide information on [inter alia]:
                          “relevant aspects of the current state of the environment and the likely evolution
                          thereof without implementation of the SPD or DPD” and “the environmental
                          characteristics of the areas likely to be significantly affected“ (SEA Directive, Annex
                          1 (b), (c))
                       SA Sub-Stage A2 Methodology
5.4                    A literature search has been undertaken whereby baseline information has been collated for
                       social, economic and environmental characteristics of Walsall Borough. The type of baseline
                       information collated was focused on the draft Sustainability Appraisal objectives identified
                       during the initial stages of the scoping study. The development of objectives and collation of
                       baseline data is closely linked and is considered to be an iterative process.
5.5                    The baseline information has been collected from a variety of sources, all of which are
                       documented in Table C1 (Appendix C). This also includes the relevant plans, programmes and
                       policies identified in Chapter 3 (SA sub-stage 1), and information obtained directly from Walsall
                       Council.
                       Links with Other Scoping Tasks
                       SA Sub-Stage A1 - Sustainability Appraisal Objectives
                       The „sustainability‟ of the two SPDs will be measured by assessing how predicted future
                       changes in the baseline situation might affect the Sustainability Appraisal objectives; the
                       development of the Sustainability Appraisal objectives is therefore linked to and related with
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)          18




                 collation of baseline information. Issues highlighted within the baseline can also be used to
                 determine whether the Sustainability Appraisal objectives are appropriate to assess the SPDs.
                 SA Stage A3 - Key Sustainability Appraisal Issue Topics (social, economic and environmental)
                 The collection of baseline information is intrinsically linked to understanding and identifying the
                 key sustainability issues (social, economic and environmental), which exist within Walsall
                 Borough i.e. baseline should provide supporting evidence for each sustainability issue
                 identified.
                 SA Sub-Stage A4 - Sustainability Appraisal Framework
                 The baseline will ultimately feed into the development of the Sustainability Appraisal framework
                 i.e. it will help inform the proposed monitoring measures that the Sustainability Appraisal will
                 need to incorporate in its production. The baseline data will need periodic review and updating
                 in order to carry out this process effectively.

5.6              Figure 1.2 in Appendix A shows the links between Stage A2 and all other stages of the
                 Sustainability Appraisal scoping process.
                 Limitations
5.7              The baseline information collated is only as accurate as its source. Much of the baseline has
                 been derived from the Annual Monitoring Report produced by Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                 Council in 2006, in addition to other plans and programmes. The Council considers that this is
                 the best and most up-to-date information available for most topics. However, in many
                 instances, it was not possible to verify the contemporariness of information.
5.8              Much of the baseline information is generic to both the Designing a Better Walsall and Natural
                 Environment SPDs and particular emphasis will need to be given, during the production of the
                 Sustainability Appraisal Report, to ensuring that specific and relevant information is utilised
                 when concentrating on each of these Local Development Documents.
5.9              Gaps and limitations in the baseline information have been highlighted in Table C1 (Appendix
                 C).
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)                                     19




6                      Key Sustainability Issues: Social,
                       Economic and Environmental

       Chapter 1:    Chapter 2: The   Chapter 3: SA   Chapter 4: SA   Chapter 5: SA
                                                                                      Chapter 6:   Chapter 7: SA   Chapter 8: SA   Chapter 9: SA
      Introduction    Study Area        Stage A1        Stage A1        Stage A2      SA Stage       Stage A4        Stage A5       Next Steps
                                                                                         A3


                       Chapter Overview and Structure
6.1                    This chapter presents the key sustainability considerations that have been identified for the
                       Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council area. It includes the following sections:
                            What is a sustainability issue?
                            How have sustainability issues been identified?
                            Links with other scoping tasks
                            Key policy issues for Designing a Better Walsall SPD
                            The key sustainability issues
                       What is a Sustainability Issue?
6.2                    Identifying and understanding the key sustainability issues within Walsall Borough is an
                       important part of the Sustainability Appraisal process; it is these issues that the SPDs will have
                       to take into consideration and address throughout their development.

                       The Environmental Report should provide information on [inter alia]:
                            “any existing environmental problems which are relevant to the SPD or DPD
                            including in particular, those relating to any areas of a particular environmental
                            importance, such as areas designated pursuant to Directives 79/409/EEC and
                            92/42/EEC” SEA Directive Annex I (d))

6.3                    For the purpose of this scoping study, the key sustainability issues are considered to be ones
                       where:
                            There is broad agreement that an issue is important within Walsall Borough based on
                             baseline data, monitoring reports and consultation responses (internal representatives)
                            Future issues that can be influenced by the SPDs in preparation
                            The Council is underperforming compared to targets (e.g. at a national, regional or local
                             level)
                       How have Sustainability Issues been identified?
6.4                    Sustainability issues have been identified by:
                            Review and analysis of a range of documents (various levels) and baseline monitoring
                             reports
                            Direct liaison with internal representatives from Walsall Council who have been involved
                             with preparing the Designing a Better Walsall and Natural Environment SPDs.

6.5                    It is important to note that data and information from all sources has been assumed to be
                       correct at the time of review (April to June 2007).
                       Links with Other Scoping Tasks
                       SA Sub-Stage A1 - Sustainability Appraisal Objectives
                       The identification of the key Sustainability Appraisal issues has been closely linked to the
                       process used to develop the Sustainability Appraisal objectives. This is particularly important
                       as this will ensure that Walsall‟s „key issues‟ are appropriately addressed during the production
                       and appraisal of each SPD.
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)          20




                 SA Sub-Stage A2 - Baseline
                 The key sustainability issues are also closely linked with the baseline information collated
                 (Chapter 5) and have been partly derived from information collated for the council area. This
                 should ensure a robust approach throughout all subsequent stages of the Sustainability
                 Appraisal process.

6.6              Figure 1.2 in Appendix A shows the links between Stage A3 and all other stages of the
                 Sustainability Appraisal scoping process.
                 Key Policy Issues for Designing a Better Walsall
6.7              The following issues are the key policy issues supplied by the Walsall Council representatives,
                 which the Designing a Better Walsall SPD needs to address:
                      New development should contribute towards the positive transformation of the Black
                       Country environment and where relevant, towards the implementation of the “Urban Park”
                       initiative
                      New development should create high quality, attractive places and spaces that will make
                       Walsall a place where people want to live, work and visit, and will encourage investment in
                       the Borough
                      New development should be safe, healthy, inclusive and sensitive to the needs and
                       aspirations of local communities
                      New development should be easy for people to move around on foot, accessible by a
                       choice of transport modes and should maintain / improve access to key services such as
                       workplaces, shops, schools, health centres and sports and recreation facilities
                      Designs and layouts should make efficient use of land and buildings and promote higher
                       density housing in appropriate locations
                      Guidance should be based on a clear understanding of the special character of Walsall and
                       promote designs and layouts that reinforce local distinctiveness and sense of place
                      Guidance should promote sustainable buildings and designs that are flexible and
                       adaptable, make prudent and efficient use of resources, and seek to address the causes
                       and effects of climate change such as minimising carbon emissions and managing flood
                       risk
                      Guidance should clearly explain to architects, designers, developers and the public how the
                       UDP design policies will be implemented and how the Council will assess the quality of
                       development proposals.
                 Key Policy Issues for Natural Environment
6.8              The following issues are the key policy issues supplied by the Walsall Council representatives,
                 which the Natural Environment SPD needs to address:
                      New development should relate positively to the natural environment and should wherever
                       possible enhance biodiversity and geodiversity, reinforce the positive aspects of local
                       landscape character, and contribute towards the objective of transforming the Black
                       Country environment
                      New development should create high quality, attractive places and spaces that will make
                       Walsall a place where people want to live, work and visit, and will encourage investment in
                       the Borough
                      There is a need for further guidance on how the Council expects nature conservation and
                       arboriculture to be taken into account in development schemes, and how developers can
                       demonstrate compliance with UDP policy
                      There is a need for clear guidance to developers and agents on statutory requirements
                       relating to the natural environment, e.g. addressing potential impacts on protected species,
                       and the importance of undertaking essential survey work at the earliest possible stage in
                       the design of a scheme.
                 The Key Sustainability Issues
6.9              The key sustainability issues that face the borough are highlighted below and have been linked
                 with the relevant Sustainability Appraisal objectives. It is acknowledged that many issues
                 highlighted cut across one or more themes and the grouping of sustainability issues should be
                 considered primarily as a presentation tool to aid clarity.
                     Health and Well-Being:
                     In terms of the health of the population, Walsall‟s life expectancy is slightly lower than the
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)            21




                  national average (although does vary across the borough). Obesity, cancer and coronary
                  heat disease is higher than average for both the West Midlands region and for England.
                  Since 2001 there has been a decrease of 15% of those who perceive they are in good health
                  and an increase of 3% for those who say they are in bad health.

                  Community Safety:
                  Overall crime figures within the Borough are higher than national, regional and local figures,
                  but this disparity is decreasing. Vehicle crimes per 1000 population were 15.3 for 2005, this
                  was below the Metropolitan Authority average but is still an issue in the area and
                  development must be designed to minimise opportunities for car theft in addition to crime
                  against property. Crime and community safety in some areas of the Borough is a key issue
                  and consideration should be given to design principles that positively reduce crime and
                  antisocial behaviour in addition to safe streets and public places. This is likely to be most
                  relevant in the larger conurbations, for example Walsall Town Centre, Bloxwich and
                  Darlaston.

                  Opinion surveys from the 2004 BVPI General Survey have shown that people feel that their
                  neighbourhoods are not safe (26%) and that crime has increased in their neighbourhoods
                  (29%). As a comparison the opinion survey undertaken in 2006 highlighted that 66% of
                  respondents did not feel safe within their local area, that 53% did not feel safe within the
                  town centre and local centre 51% did not feel safe within the countryside. This is intrinsically
                  linked to anti-social behaviour, environmental degradation (i.e. the increase in litter, graffiti
                  etc) and burglary within their communities. There has also been a significant increase
                  (3.5%) in the number of racial crimes from 2004/5 to 2005/6.

                  Access to Key Facilities:
                  Walsall offers a good distribution of facilities within easy reach of its residents; however,
                  problems do exist with regard to access to key services (e.g. sport, recreation, leisure,
                  entertainment, arts, education, health) and include:

                         residents with no car having to rely on inconvenient public transport to services, which is
                          becoming increasingly expensive
                         services and activities located in inaccessible places
                         lack of public transport during evening hours

                  Improving access to green spaces and the natural environment is also identified as a key
                  issue in the Walsall Community Plan. The Borough does have a range of green
                  infrastructure assets although not all areas of the Borough are well provided for and some
                  have poor proximity to unrestricted open spaces. Improvements are required regarding
                  quality and value of open spaces. In addition, the provision for children and young people is
                  well below the standard required.

                  In 2001 the census data showed that a higher than average proportion of people travel to
                  work on foot or by cycle than those in the rest of the region and nationally. This trend has
                  continued as there was an increase in the number of cycle trips between 2004/05 and
                  2005/06, which was significantly higher than the West Midlands but only slightly below that of
                  the rest of the UK. This is a growing trend, which should be embraced in any new or re-
                  developed areas within the Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council. Movement of people
                  other than by car (such as on foot or by cycle) should be supported and encouraged by a
                  greater provision of public transport, which should aim to be less expensive and more
                  convenient than at present. The above should also provide linkages to town centre activities,
                  in addition to locations and activities out of town, i.e. smaller villages, open spaces and
                  nature conservation sites.

                  There is also an issue within the Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council area of lack of car
                  parking, this was an issue identified during the 2006 opinion surveys where approximately
                  80% of respondents highlighted car parking as a problem. A study undertaken in 2006
                  highlighted that „demand was consistently high for short stay parking throughout the year; on
                                                                                            10
                  a Saturday car parks in and around Walsall Town centre are virtually full‟ (also a problem in
                  Darlaston and Bloxwich). If the town centre is to expand and remain attractive to visitors,

                 10
                      Walsall Council (2006) Annual Monitoring Report
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)         22




                                                                                                           10
                  there needs to be an increase in the amount and quality of short stay parking .

                  Quality of Life:
                  The value placed on Green Infrastructure (GI) within the Borough cannot be
                  overemphasised. Examples of GI include nature conservation sites, parks and gardens,
                  historic assets, allotments, public rights of way, public recreation and community facilities,
                  and areas of Important Open Space. All are important features that add to healthy lifestyles,
                  quality of life, social well-being and nature conservation. The maintenance, enhancement
                  and creation of new Green Infrastructure assets should be given consideration at the
                  borough scale and take account of quality of access to these sites and how these sites might
                  be linked (to other sites and also to areas of population). Opportunities to increase access to
                  these areas and meet these objectives should also be considered as part of new
                  developments, particularly larger scale ones by ensuring the Designing a Better Walsall SPD
                  make provision for this.

                  There are however, areas of deprivation in the Boroug,h with Walsall Council ranking 51 in
                  the overall Indices of Deprivation (51 out of 354 with 1 being the most deprived). Deprivation
                  is primarily associated with the centre and west of the Borough and is characterised by poor
                  housing, high unemployment, high concentration of social deprivation and a poor
                  environment. In contrast, the eastern part of the Borough is relatively wealthy with better
                  housing and social conditions. Results from opinion surveys undertaken during August and
                  September 2006 highlight that there are a lack of facilities for young people within the
                  Borough, in addition the surveys highlighted issues with young people in large concentrations
                  „hanging around‟ areas of the Borough. This can therefore cause residents to feel
                  intimidated in their own communities.

                  Housing Quality:
                  There is a significant requirement for additional affordable housing to be provided in Walsall,
                  with an additional 622 affordable dwellings per annum if all housing needs are to be met (for
                  the next five years). This shortfall is most acute for smaller properties; however, the
                  shortage relative to supply is greatest for four bedroom properties. During the last 5 years,
                  the affordable dwellings per annum completed were below the UDP target. Thus, the
                  Council will need to maximise the availability of affordable housing from all available sources.
                  It is suggested that the Council‟s current policy of a 25% affordable housing target is
                  reasonable. In any future review of the Unitary Development Plan, the Council (on the basis
                  of this evidence) would have justification for considering an increase in the 25% target.

                  Walsall‟s UDP includes a local output indicator with a target to achieve an overall average
                  density of new development of at least 30 dwellings per hectare. In 2006 over 60% of
                  completions were at a density of 50 dwellings per hectare and 17% below 30 per hectare;
                  there remains a need for some relatively low density development to support the economic
                  development of the borough.

                  Although data on the types and sizes of dwellings was not collected before 2005/06, in
                  recent years there has been an increase in the number of smaller dwellings being completed,
                  particularly apartment schemes in the Town Centre and in affluent suburban areas within the
                  Borough. Land Registry data sources suggest that property prices in the Borough are low
                  when compared with both national and regional figures. The percentage change in property
                  prices in Walsall have been above national (but below regional) equivalents over the past
                  five years. Differences in housing costs between different tenures shows the highest costs in
                  the owner-occupied (with mortgage) sector, and the lowest in the social rented sector.

                  The Housing needs and demand study estimated that more households are currently owner-
                  occupiers than the social rented sector. The data also shows a shortfall of owner-occupied
                  housing and a large surplus in the private rented sector. In terms of size requirements, the
                  information suggests that in the owner-occupied sector the main shortfalls are for one and
                  two bedroom homes with a surplus of three bedroom accommodation. The results also
                  suggest a small surplus of four bedroom homes in the owner-occupied sector. In interpreting
                  this latter result it should be remembered that this takes no account of the condition of
                  existing accommodation or the large losses from the social rented stock to owner-occupation
                  through right-to-buy in recent years. In the light of these points it is possible that there are
                  shortages of good quality larger accommodation in some areas of the Borough. The study
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)           23




                  estimated that around two-fifths of households lived in semi-detached houses and that
                  around a quarter of all households were solely comprised of pensioners (some 24.3% of
                  households in Walsall contain older persons only). The study also shows that there is a high
                  degree of difference between households in the West and East, both in terms of indicators of
                  wealth, and in terms of housing needs.

                  Overcrowding in households has been shown as the second most important reason for
                  households to be living in unsuitable housing. The study suggested that 3.9% of all
                  households are overcrowded and 34.8% under occupy their dwelling.

                  An over-riding issue for many of the objectives is to ensure that developers take
                  responsibility for their impact on the environment, e.g. waste, water, energy management,
                  impact on biodiversity/ geodiversity and the historic environment and other environmental
                  interests. This can be assessed by their waste management performance, loss of wildlife
                  habitat to development (i.e. loss of 109.71ha of SLINC sites and 36.15ha of SINC sites due
                  to development and poor management), loss of historic buildings to development, instances
                  of breaches of planning and pollution control. Both of the SPDs will have a role to play in
                  developers taking responsibility:

                      Designing a Better Walsall should encourage designs and layouts that are sensitive to
                       these issues
                      Natural Environment SPD should encourage developments to retain/ incorporate areas
                       important for biodiversity and geodiversity and also to create new habitats where
                       possible.

                  Equality and Diversity:
                  Walsall Borough has a vibrant, multi-ethnic and multi-cultural population, which is expected
                  to remain relatively stable (the overall population of the Borough is expected to decline very
                  slightly over the next 10 years) with the exception of those aged 0-24, predicted to decrease
                  slightly by 3.8% and those aged 50+ to increase by approximately 6.7%; populations from
                  ethnic minorities are also expected to increase. It is therefore essential to design an
                  appropriate mix of development to support a range of cultural, spiritual and recreational
                  needs in addition to ensuring that all facilities visited by the general public (including private
                  premises and public housing) are accessible to all, including parents with pushchairs and
                  people with disabilities.

                  Economic Investment:
                  Walsall suffers from a lack of economic demand, resulting in a low wealth creating cycle and
                  lack of economic investment in the area; creating the need to stimulate interest in the
                  Borough. This problem means fewer job opportunities, lower incomes; in turn reducing
                  household expenditure, leading to high and continuing deprivation. Walsall‟s UDP aims “to
                  boost jobs and prosperity in the borough by providing enough land of the right quality to meet
                  the full range of employment needs and by promoting the enhancement of existing
                  employment areas”. Certain policies now allocate land for employment, whilst others seek to
                  protect and enhance employment land and employment areas and to reserve them for
                  development with employment uses (i.e. uses within Classes B1 b/c, B2 and B8).

                  Monitoring shows that at 31 March 2006, there was 155.5 hectares of derelict land in Walsall.
                  The main aim of the UDP strategy towards centres is to “promote established town, district
                  and local centres as the main focus for shopping, services, leisure and other aspects of
                  community life, and to make sure that these centres are easily accessible to everyone”.

                  There has however been some significant retail investment in the main centres e.g. between
                  2005 and 2006, planning permission was given for a total of 3.7ha of land for core
                  employment purposes (i.e. industry and distribution).          During 2004–2005, TKMaxx
                  distribution warehouse (6.43ha) was developed, creating 850 jobs. Only a very limited
                  amount of office investment has been secured for the borough in recent years. However,
                  planning permission has been approved for several businesses. Office development for the
                  future, include the „Business and Learning Campus‟ initiative and emerging plans for „Walsall
                  Waterfront‟ are intended to pursue office investment for the town centre. Similarly, there
                  have been only three relatively small leisure developments completed in the Borough. There
                  remain some commitments for leisure and hotel developments in out-of-centre locations.
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)           24




                  However, it is hoped that the „Walsall Waterfront‟ development will help to develop a critical
                  mass of leisure investment in the town centre in the future.

                  In addition, in 2005/06 there were two applications for renewable energy, and both were
                  approved and have been implemented. The Vigo Utopia scheme (landfill gas utilisation
                  plant) is the most important scheme implemented so far in Walsall and will generate around
                  16,000MWh of energy per year, enough to power up to 5,000 homes. Since April 2006,
                  there has been a further proposal involving renewable energy generation at Walsall
                  Waterfront.

                  Biodiversity and Geodiversity:
                  Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council has important ecological and biodiversity resources in
                  terms of Special Areas of Conservation (SAC), Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI),
                  Sites Important for Nature Conservation (SINC), Sites of Local Importance for Nature
                  Conservation (SLINC) and Local Nature Reserves (LNR). There has been no net loss of
                  SAC, SSSI or SINC since 1995 but there has been a net loss of SLINC, primarily as a result
                  of development and poor management (e.g. 109.71ha of SLINC).

                  Walsall‟s SSSIs are below standard compared to SSSIs nationally i.e. 50.3% of sites
                  monitored are in favourable or unfavourable recovering condition, compared with 73.49%
                  nationally and 92.94% for the West Midlands Region.

                  A review is currently underway of all of the SLINC sites which will provide a better
                                                  11
                  understanding of the resource ; this baseline data should be taken into account as part of
                  the Natural Environment SPD as it becomes available. Consideration should be given to
                  steering development away from sensitive areas, and where this is not possible, habitat
                  enhancement schemes should be integrated into proposed developments and be integral in
                  their design. Priority Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) habitats should be given due
                  consideration as part of this process.

                  Many sites of nature conservation value are also geographically isolated or fragmented. A
                  key issue for the Borough is to ensure future opportunities to link sites i.e. at the local and
                  landscape scale in the medium to long term are not compromised as a result of inappropriate
                  land use change. Habitat corridors linking fragmented sites should be considered, as should
                  the creation of new habitats.

                  Trees are a valuable resource in the Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council area; street trees
                  as well as woodland contribute to the Black Country Urban Forest. This initiative saw
                  thousands of new trees planted, hundreds of young woodlands taking root and much-loved
                  existing woodlands being cared for, which has made a real contribution to the regeneration of
                  the region's environment. The planting of trees helps to improve air quality, provide shade,
                  reduce water run-off and provide locations for recreational activities. Hedgerows are also an
                  important resource and act as habitat corridors linking fragmented areas of nature
                  conservation. It is important that the number of trees and length of hedgerow within the
                  Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council area is increased in order to provide environmental
                  benefits for habitats and species. Retention and management of these features should also
                  be a priority.

                  Retaining the nature conservation sites with the Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council area
                  will also ensure that the population does not have to travel far in order to visit such sites,
                  which in turn will lead to a small reduction in the need to travel to green infrastructure assets.

                  Landscape, Townscape and Visual Amenity:
                  The landscape and townscape of the Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council area is distinct
                  with one third of the area rural and the towns and larger villages separated by greenbelt in
                  order to retain their distinctiveness. It is recognised that landscapes will be subject to
                  change in the longer term; the key issue for the Council area is the appropriateness and
                  scale of such changes and how such changes reflect existing character descriptions.

                  Historic Environment:

                 11
                      Walsall Council Website
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)         25




                  In April 2007 Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council had 155 listed buildings, only one of
                  which was classified as being at risk (Great Barr Hall). The Council have also listed 283
                  buildings of local importance which have local historic and architectural value, but that are
                  not Statutory Listed. Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council has a low proportion (0.004%) of
                  the total number of Listed Buildings within the West Midlands as a whole as well as only a
                  small number of local listed buildings. As this resource is so low within the borough the
                  demolition and unsympathetic restoration of unlisted buildings of local significance is a key
                  issue. The topic of restoration of historic buildings also raises the issue of sustainable
                  development i.e. retention of historic building character and integration of energy efficient
                  design and technologies. There is also an issue of damage to historic buildings resulting
                  from graffiti, which may be linked with areas of deprivation.

                  Pollution:
                  There is an issue of water quality within the Council area. Rivers and streams within the
                  Council area have complied with Environment Agency targets for nutrient, chemical and
                  biological status. However, the canals within the Council area have deteriorated and results
                  are either marginal or failing to meet the targets (which are more strict than those for rivers
                  and streams). This is an environmental resource that could be improved to the benefit of
                  habitats and species within the Borough. The Water Framework Directive sets targets for all
                  water bodies to achieve „good ecological status‟ by 2015. The watercourses listed on the
                  Environment Agency‟s website for the borough (e.g. the River Tame and the Sneyd Brook)
                  are identified as being „at risk‟ of failing to meet the requirements of the directive. This has
                  important implications for existing land use management and potential future land use
                  change e.g. increased quantities of pollutants from point source discharges or diffuse
                  sources may impede further water quality improvements. This issue is also directly related to
                  water abstraction as increased demand for water increases the quantity of water abstracted,
                  which in turn decreases the quantity of river water, resulting in increased concentrations of
                  pollutants.

                  Natural Resources:
                  A main issue in Walsall is that there are is not enough municipal waste management sites to
                  deal with current requirements which in turn leads to greater issues regarding future
                  requirements (e.g. stricter targets in revised National Waste Strategy). Commercial and
                  industrial waste infrastructure is heavily based around metal recycling and car dismantling.
                  The only area where the Borough does have enough provision is within the hazardous waste
                  treatment sector as Walsall Borough is an importer of hazardous waste for management and
                  treatment.

                  New developments should adopt the “waste hierarchy” principle through the design,
                  construction and completion stages. For example, new homes can be designed with point of
                  use re-cycling within the kitchen that is linked to external receptacles. New homes should
                  also allow for space within the house and externally for appropriate recycling facilities.

                  New developments need to take steps to ensure that developments are appropriately
                  designed to reduce adverse impacts on existing water resources and flood risk (from both
                  fluvial and infrastructure sources); these may include lack of sewage infrastructure and
                  sewage treatment work capacity, lack of water available to supply households and increased
                  discharges from developments and associated implications for receiving waters. New
                  developments will need to take account of the existing infrastructure available, as well and
                  the quantity of water that can be supplied and the quality of discharges. Initiatives to
                  encourage Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) on all developments, and water
                  saving technologies, (e.g. grey water recycling) should be positively encouraged, particularly
                                                                    12
                  on larger scales where they may be more viable . There are conflicting reports with regard
                  to savings that can be made and financial payback. However, such technology may be
                  particularly important in affordable housing schemes where residents may potentially be
                  earning low incomes. In terms of flood risk, development should be located out of the
                  floodplain, especially in those areas considered to be most at risk of flooding (i.e. the River
                  Tame, Full Brook, Sneyd Brook and Ford Brook floodplains).

                  The over reliance on less sustainable forms of transport around the Borough is evident from

                 12
                      Hills, S. et al (no date): An evaluation of single-house greywater recycling systems.
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)                    26




                  the poorer air quality along the major transport corridors (a result of emissions of nitrogen
                  oxide from traffic); it should be noted that the remainder of the borough is also affected by
                  poor air quality.

                  Energy Efficiency:
                  The incorporation of efficient energy in homes may improve the fuel poverty issue, which is
                  key in the Borough as 16-25% were considered to fall into this category in 2006.

                  It is noted that there has been a poor take up of renewable or low energy technologies within
                  the borough to date.

                  In 2005/06 there were two applications for renewable energy, and both were approved and
                  have been implemented. The Vigo Utopia scheme (landfill gas utilisation plant) is the most
                  important scheme implemented so far in Walsall, will generate around 16,000MWh of energy
                  per year, enough to power up to 5,000 homes. Since April 2006, there has been a further
                  proposal involving renewable energy generation at Walsall Waterfront.
                  Climate Change:
                  Climate change is a global, national and local challenge. The implications for the Walsall
                  Metropolitan Borough Council area will reflect those in most other areas of the UK.
                  Sustainability issues related to climate change cut across all objectives. Some of the key
                  challenges for the Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council area are outlined. It should be
                  noted that these are numerous and only the key issues relevant to the area that the Local
                  Development Framework may be able to influence and those relating to the two SPDs have
                  been discussed.

                  Current predictions of the size and speed of climate change suggest that the 21st century is
                                               13
                  likely to see major impacts ; hotter and drier summers, drier springs and autumns and
                                                                                                           14
                  wetter warmer winters with more intense precipitation lasting for shorter periods of time .
                  Such weather patterns may have implications for environmental features including wildlife
                  and habitats, agriculture and cropping patterns, water abstraction and water quality.

                  Promotion and realisation of energy production technologies locally such as wind farms
                  should be given consideration at strategic locations across the council area, although there
                  has been a lack of take up for the renewable or low energy technologies to date. The
                  development of all sites should take account of sustainable design principles such as those
                  incorporated into the design of „eco-homes‟ (e.g. energy and water saving efficiency
                  measures). Consideration of sustainable communities should be at the forefront of new
                  development designs ensuring that community facilities are within close proximity thereby
                  reducing the need to travel.

                  Land Use:
                  Within the Walsall Council area 99.996% of housing and 100% of all new employment sites
                  were on brownfield sites / previously developed land (PDL). This clearly exceeds the
                  government target of 60% of new development on PDL. This however, can not be sustained
                  as the number of brownfield sites available for development decreases. It is therefore
                  essential that Greenfield sites are protected from development in order to maintain the rural
                  nature of the area and prevent the outward expansion of conurbation from the larger centres
                  within the council area.

                  Contaminated / derelict land is a key issue within the Borough, particularly with regard to
                  health. It is recognised that there are still significant pockets of derelict and contaminated
                  land in the Black Country, a legacy of its industrial past. The remediation of derelict and
                  contaminated land is a key priority for the Council and for the Walsall Regeneration
                  Company (WRC). Monitoring shows that at 31 March 2006, there was about 155.5 hectares
                  of derelict land in Walsall. This is a reduction from 205 ha in 2005; however most of this
                  appears to be due to the reclassification of the figures. 1.63ha of derelict land was reclaimed
                  and another 11ha added in 2005/6.


                 13
                   Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Webpage
                 14
                   Jonathon Newman, ADA presentation 2006 – Impacts of predicted climate change for management of aquatic
                 vegetation.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)                                     27




7                      Sustainability Appraisal Framework



       Chapter 1:    Chapter 2: The   Chapter 3: SA   Chapter 4: SA   Chapter 5: SA   Chapter 6: SA
                                                                                                      Chapter 7:   Chapter 8: SA   Chapter 9: SA
      Introduction    Study Area        Stage A1        Stage A1        Stage A2        Stage A3      SA Stage       Stage A5       Next Steps
                                                                                                         A4


                       Chapter Overview and Structure
7.1                    This chapter presents the approach utilised to develop and complete the Sustainability
                       Appraisal framework. It includes the following sections:
                             The Sustainability Appraisal framework (SA sub-stage A4)
                             Approach
                             Links with other scoping tasks
                       The Sustainability Appraisal framework (SA sub-stage A4)
7.2                    The Sustainability Appraisal framework is central to the appraisal process; it provides a way in
                                                                                                  15
                       which sustainability effects can be described, analysed and compared . The framework
                       includes the following elements:
                             Sustainability Appraisal objectives and Sustainability Appraisal questions
                             Sustainability Appraisal indicators to measure / monitor achievement of targets and
                              therefore the performance of the plan (where practicable)
                             Sustainability Appraisal targets to express objectives (where practicable)

7.3                    The Sustainability Appraisal framework is a tool that will be used to assess the sustainability of
                       each Supplementary Planning Document (as appropriate); it will be used to cross-examine the
                       contents of each Supplementary Planning Document to help understand how specific
                       sustainability issues have been, or need to be, addressed and also to identify the key social,
                       economic and environmental implications. The Sustainability Appraisal framework will be
                       based on information collated and reviewed throughout the scoping study period; namely:
                             Existing relevant plans, programmes and objectives at the national, regional and local level
                              (also used to develop Sustainability Appraisal objectives)
                             The present social, economic and environmental baseline situation for the district
                             The key sustainability issues within the council area identified from the baseline and
                              through consultation with Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council representatives

7.4                    The Sustainability Appraisal framework links the Sustainability Appraisal objectives and
                       Sustainability Appraisal questions, developed to assess Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council‟s
                       Supplementary Planning Document, and the key indicators. These indicators will be used to
                       measure the direction of change from the baseline situation and to monitor the performance of
                       the plan/programme. The relevant baseline information is tabulated in Appendix C.
                       Approach
7.5                    The Sustainability Appraisal framework (Table 7.1) was developed based on the sustainability
                       objectives, the indicators and targets from relevant plans, programmes and policies, and the
                       key sustainability issues for the district.
7.6                    It provides an overview of the Sustainability Appraisal questions, indicators and targets relevant
                       to the situation in Walsall; an evolving evidence base against which the Supplementary
                       Planning Documents will be appraised. The Sustainability Appraisal framework will be
                       reviewed and updated for each Supplementary Planning Document to ensure that it is relevant



                       15
                            ODPM (2005): „Sustainability Appraisal of Regional Spatial Strategies (RSSs) and Local Development Documents‟.
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)         28




                 to the document and concentrates on the key issues and problems that the document is trying
                 to address.
                 Sustainability Appraisal Questions
7.7              In addition to the overall Sustainability Appraisal objectives, Sustainability Appraisal questions
                 for each objective have been developed. Their primary purpose is to make specific the
                 overarching Sustainability Appraisal objective to both the Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council
                 area and the Supplementary Planning Document being appraised. The questions can be
                 tailored for each plan, and will also aid transparency in the assessment process. They clearly
                 lay out key considerations, which need to be made by the assessor to enable a Local
                 Development Document to be appraised.
7.8              Sustainability questions have been developed to:
                    Make each overarching objective distinctive to the council area
                    Ensure relevant sustainability issues within the council area are considered as part of the
                     framework and therefore the appraisal process
                 Indicators and Targets
7.9              An initial set of indicators and targets (where possible) have been identified for each of the
                 Sustainability Appraisal objective and question(s). The indicators and targets show change to
                 be adverse and / or beneficial and ensure that where possible, the appraisal is linked to
                 quantified measures of performance.
7.10             The indicators and targets relate, where possible, to the baseline information collected so
                 comparisons between the present situation in the Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council area
                 and that predicted for the future can be made. This approach ensures that the indicators and
                 targets are relevant to Walsall and the Sustainability Appraisal objectives.
7.11             It is important that indicators and targets are SMART:
                    Specific
                    Measurable
                    Achievable
                    Relevant
                    Time bound

7.12             Further development of indicators and targets is likely to be necessary during the appraisal
                 process.
                 Links with Other Scoping Tasks
7.13             The Sustainability Appraisal framework links to all tasks undertaken as part of the scoping study
                 and is based on the review of relevant plans and programmes, the Sustainability Appraisal
                 objectives, the evolving baseline where indicators and targets are used to assess the progress
                 of the council area, and the key issues identified in the Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council
                 area.
7.14             Figure 1.2 in Appendix A shows the links between Stage A4 and all other stages of the
                 Sustainability Appraisal scoping process.
Faber Maunsell        Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)                                                                                              29




Table 7.1: Sustainability Appraisal Framework
                                            Sustainability Appraisal Questions
      SA Objective                                                                                                 Indicator                                                 Targets
                                                Will the option / proposal:
 1. Health and             Q1a       Reduce health inequalities across the Borough?          -   Mortality rates.
 Wellbeing – improve                                                                         -   Life expectancy.
 community health,                                                                           -   % Living in deprivation
 well-being, and reduce
 health inequalities       Q1b       Encourage healthy and active lifestyles?                -   Mortality rates.
                                                                                             -   Life expectancy.
                                                                                             -   Ease of access to services, facilities, green
                                                                                                 infrastructure.

                           Q1c       Help to reduce obesity?                                 -   % of obese children and adults.

 2. Community Safety -     Q2a       Promote and encourage design principles that            -   Number of reported crimes.                           -   Reduce crime by 15%, and further in high crime
 To create safe                      positively minimise opportunities for crime and         -   High-level worry about car / burglary crime.             areas, by 2007-08.
 environments that will              antisocial behaviour?                                   -   Number of public disorder incidents per 1000         -   Reduce the number of residents that consider
 help reduce crime, the                                                                          population.                                              local crime to be a problem to 2% higher than
 fear of crime and anti-                                                                     -   The number of new developments incorporating             the national average by 2007.
 social behaviour                                                                                Secure by Design principles.                         -   Reduce the burglary rate to 20% higher than
                                                                                                                                                          the national average by 2007.
                                                                                                                                                      -   Reduce the violent crime rate to 50% higher
                                                                                                                                                          than the national average by 2007.
                                                                                                                                                      -   Increase detection rate to 4% lower than the
                                                                                                                                                          national average by 2007.

                           Q2b       Create environments that feel inclusive and safe?       -   Percentage of residents who feel safe after dark.
                                                                                             -   Percentage of residents who feel safe in the day.

 3. Access to Key          Q3a       Improve availability and accessibility for all to key   -   Percentage of households within 5 km of food         -   95% of the Metropolitan built up area within
 Facilities - Ensure                 local services and facilities, including health,            shops, post offices, cash points, child nurseries,       250m of a bus stop with a weekday daytime
 easy and equitable                  education and leisure (shops, post offices etc.)            primary schools, GP surgeries.                           service.
 access to services,                 whilst prioritising the needs of pedestrians and        -   Number of households in rural areas with access
 facilities and                      cyclists?                                                   difficulties to key services etc.
                                                                                             -   Number of households in urban areas with
 opportunities (e.g.
                                                                                                 access difficulties to key services etc.
 employment, training,                                                                       -   Proportion of rural households within 30 minutes
 local services and                                                                              walking and/or bus access of a hospital.
 recreation)                                                                                 -   Changes in accessibility to key services etc
                                                                                                 across the district.
                                                                                             -   Amount of completed retail, office and leisure
                                                                                                 development including that within town centres.
                                                                                             -   Total number of applications/ percentage vetted
                                                                                                 by the Proving Group/ number of applications
                                                                                                 changed as a result of this

                           Q3b       Support and encourage access to green                   -   The length of greenways constructed.                 -   An urban resident should be able to enter a
                                     infrastructure assets (rural and urban) for the         -   Area of green space per 1000 population.                 natural greenspace of at least one 2 hectare site
                                     whole community?                                        -   Number of new sport and recreational facilities          within 0.5 kilometres of their home; at least one
                                                                                                 provided per population served.                          20 hectare site within 2 kilometres of all
                                                                                             -   Satisfaction with green infrastructure assets e.g.       residents; at least one 100 hectare site within 5
                                                                                                 sports and leisure, parks and open spaces.               kilometres of all residents; and at least one 500
Faber Maunsell        Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)                                                                                                 30


                                           Sustainability Appraisal Questions
      SA Objective                                                                                              Indicator                                                  Targets
                                               Will the option / proposal:
                                                                                         -   Accessible green space                                     hectare site within 10 kilometres of all residents.
                                                                                         -   Parks and open spaces reaching green flag              -   National Playing Fields Association standard:
                                                                                             status                                                     2.4ha per 1000 population.
                                                                                         -   Provision of new urban open spaces.                    -   10 miles of greenway constructed by 2011.
                                                                                                                                                    -   Creation of 24 hectares of new urban open
                                                                                                                                                        space by 2011.

                           Q3c       Provide safe and useable routes, connections        -   Proportion of households in rural areas within
                                     streets and public spaces to meet the needs of          about 10 minutes walk of at least hourly bus
                                     pedestrians and cyclists and encourage the use of       service.
                                     public transport?                                   -   Numbers of green travel plans submitted with
                                                                                             residential development.
                                                                                         -   Number of existing and new cycleways /
                                                                                             pedestrian links etc.
 4.Quality of Life –       Q4a       Support community and cultural diversity, social
 Improve quality of life             interaction and cohesive communities?
 for all by creating
 communities that are      Q4b       Enable communities to be actively involved in       -   Percentage of adults who feel included and able
 cohesive, diverse,                  decisions that affect their quality of life?            to take part in decisions / voluntary work that
 accessible,                                                                                 affects their local area i.e. active community
 empowered and                                                                               participation.
 sustainable
                           Q4c       Promote more diverse and cohesive                   -   Housing mix within a given locality
                                     communities?                                        -   Population structure within a given locality
                                                                                         -   Interaction and opportunities for interaction within
                                                                                             communities

 5. Housing Quality –      Q5a       Maximise choice and opportunity of house types      -   Numbers, types, tenures and locations of new           -   To ensure that at least 320 dwellings per annum
 Provide decent,                     and sizes, including affordable housing, to meet        houses.                                                    are completed until 2016.
 environmentally sound               the identified needs of all sectors of the          -   Proportion of affordable housing as a percentage       -   To ensure that at least 50 affordable dwelling
 housing of the right                community?                                              of all completions.                                        units are brought forward annually by the
 quantity, type and                                                                      -   Average house price                                        planning system.
 tenure to meet local                                                                    -   Average house price versus income.
 needs
                           Q5b       Allow for future adaptation of new and existing     -   Number of sustainable homes with „very good‟ or
                                     buildings to meet changing needs?                       „excellent‟ ratings in line with the code for
                                                                                             Sustainable Homes.

                           Q5c       Ensure that developer supports local sourcing of    -   Percentage of materials sourced within the local
                                     goods and materials and mitigates for social and        area.
                                     environmental responsibility?                       -   Number of breaches of planning permission
                                                                                         -   % loss of habitat to development
                                                                                         -   Number of listed buildings lost to development
                                                                                         -   Waste management performance
                                                                                         -   Breaches of pollution control

 6. Equality and           Q6a       Ensure that the design and mix of development
 Diversity – ensure that             supports a range of cultural, spiritual and
 land use and                        recreational needs and ensures that nobody is
 development is                      disadvantaged with regard to ethnicity, gender,
 inclusive and is                    age, disability, faith, sexuality, background of
 sensitive to the needs              location.
Faber Maunsell        Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)                                                                                              31


                                           Sustainability Appraisal Questions
      SA Objective                                                                                                Indicator                                                 Targets
                                               Will the option / proposal:
 of the whole
 community
                            Q6b      Ensure that all facilities (both public and private   -   Total number of applications/ percentage vetted
                                     including housing) are accessible to all, including       by the Proving Group/ number of applications
                                     parents with pushchairs and people with                   changed as a result of this
                                     disabilities?

 7. Economic                Q7a      Promote sustainable economic growth that              -   Number of VAT registered businesses.
 Investment – promote                reflects the needs of local communities and the       -   Annual growth rate of GVA per capita.
 appropriate use of                  local economy and respects the local                  -   Net growth in business.
 land and high quality               environment?                                          -   Percentage of workforce who work within /
 development that will                                                                         outside the district.
 encourage investment
 to support, sustain        Q7b      Encourage high quality new developments that          -   Number of sole traders/registrations.
 and grow the local and              are likely to stimulate further investment in the     -   Number of new business start ups.
 sub-regional economy                local and sub-regional economy?                       -   Vacancy levels (shops / Offices / Commercial /
                                                                                               Industrial).
                                                                                           -   Proportion of units in retail use.

 8. Biodiversity and        Q8a      Protect and provide opportunities for improving /     -   Percentage of internationally and nationally          -   Establish a biodiversity survey and monitoring
 Geodiversity –                      enhancing sites designated for their nature               designated sites in „favourable‟ or „unfavourable         programme by 2010 to fill identified gaps in
 promote land use and                conservation value / geodiversity value (local and        recovering‟ condition.                                    knowledge.
 management that                     national levels) and help achieve Local               -   Area (ha)/% of SSSI‟s, SINCs and SLINCs lost to       -   Collate existing information on BAP habitats and
 protects and enhances               Biodiversity Action Plan (LBAP) targets?                  development requiring planning permission.                species – producing an audit by 2010.
 the quality and                                                                           -   Area (ha)/% of SINCs and SLINCs surveyed              -   Guidance within the Natural Environment SPD
 distinctiveness of the                                                                        every 5 years / every 10 years.                           that promotes net gain for biodiversity and
 areas‟ biodiversity (the                                                                  -   Percentage of geological SINCs changed due to             sufficiently robust Local Wildlife Site policies by
 range of native trees,                                                                        new development.                                          2008.
 plants and animals)                                                                       -   Changes in area of BAP habitats.
 and geodiversity                                                                          -   Percentage of local BAP targets met.
 (geological features of
 interest)                  Q8b      Protect the habitats and species protected by         -   Number of new developments requiring planning
                                     International and UK law?                                 permission that involving protected species
                                                                                               mitigation schemes.

                            Q8c      Conserve species and protect the districts overall    -   Change in countryside quality including               -   Necessary support for local conservation
                                     biodiversity in particular trees and hedgerows?           biodiversity, tranquillity, heritage, and landscape       projects and community groups in place by 2010.
                                                                                               character.
                                                                                           -   % of hedgerow lost or gained through
                                                                                               development.
                                                                                           -   Number of tree planting initiatives within the
                                                                                               Borough.

                            Q8d      Help to avoid / reduce the loss of / decline in       -   Number of planning proposals affecting
                                     semi-natural habitats, agricultural habitats, urban       designated biodiversity/ geodiversity sites that
                                     habitats / geological resources?                          include long-term management plans

 9. Landscape,              Q9a      Protect and provide opportunities to enhance the      -   Percentage of Joint Character Areas showing no
 Townscape and Visual                character and distinctiveness of buildings,               change or showing change consistent with
 Amenity – protect,                  townscapes and landscapes within the borough?             character area descriptions.
 enhance and manage                                                                        -   Percentage of Conservation Areas with up to
 the quality and                                                                               date character appraisals and management
 distinctiveness of the                                                                        strategies.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)                                                                                               32


                                             Sustainability Appraisal Questions
      SA Objective                                                                                                   Indicator                                                Targets
                                                 Will the option / proposal:
 area‟s townscapes and                                                                         -   Number of historic buildings conserved and
 landscapes.                                                                                       repaired.

                            Q9b       Ensure developments are aesthetically pleasing           -   Number of applications refused on design
                                      and enhance their surroundings without                       grounds
                                      compromising visual aspects / amenity?                   -   Percentage of appeals against refusal
                                                                                                   dismissed?

                            Q9c       Will it maintain and, where possible, increase the       -   Area of green space per 1000 population.            -   An urban resident should be able to enter a
                                      area of high-quality green infrastructure within the     -   Number of new green infrastructure projects             natural greenspace of at least one 2 hectare site
                                      district – e.g. woodlands, public rights of way etc?         associated with new developments.                       within 0.5 kilometres of their home; at least one
                                                                                                                                                           20 hectare site within 2 kilometres of all
                                                                                                                                                           residents; at least one 100 hectare site within 5
                                                                                                                                                           kilometres of all residents; and at least one 500
                                                                                                                                                           hectare site within 10 kilometres of all residents.
                                                                                                                                                       -   National Playing Fields Association standard:
                                                                                                                                                           2.4ha per 1000 population.

 10. Historic               Q10a      Protect or enhance known features or areas of            -   Number of buildings on the statutory list and       -   There should be no loss of statutorily listed
 Environment - protect,               historical, archaeological, or cultural interest (e.g.       number of Scheduled Ancient Monuments (SAM)             buildings
 enhance and manage                   Scheduled Ancient Monuments, listed buildings,           -   Number of Conservation Areas
 the rich diversity of                local buildings, historic parks and gardens etc)?        -   Number of buildings and other historic structures
 cultural, historical and                                                                          on the Council‟s Local List
 archaeological assets,                                                                        -   Number of entries on the Council‟s Historic
 including the built                                                                               Environment Register (HER)
 environment                                                                                   -   Number of Grade I and II* buildings and
                                                                                                   Scheduled Ancient Monuments (SAMs) on
                                                                                                   English Heritage‟s Buildings at Risk Register and
                                                                                                   % of all such buildings and monuments at risk.
                                                                                               -   Number of Listed Buildings on the Listed
                                                                                                   Buildings at Risk Register (LBAR).

                            Q10b      Encourage good management and stewardship of             -   Number of historic buildings conserved and
                                      the historic environment, such as securing the               repaired.
                                      long term future of historic buildings?                  -   Number and % of Conservation Areas having an
                                                                                                   up-to-date character appraisal and management
                                                                                                   strategy.

                            Q10c      Protect areas associated with a known high risk          -   Percentage of planning applications for which
                                      archaeological resource where actual and / or                archaeological surveys are required prior to
                                      quality / quantity of finds is not known e.g.                approval.
                                      features associated with buried archaeology?             -   Percentage of planning applications where
                                                                                                   archaeological mitigation strategies were
                                                                                                   developed and implemented.

 11. Pollution – avoid or   Q11a      Reduce air pollutant levels to (and beyond)              -   Improve air quality by meeting the Air Quality
 minimise air, water,                 acceptable thresholds, particularly in more urban            Strategy targets.
 soil, light and noise                areas.
 pollution and create
 good quality air, water    Q11b      Reduce diffuse and point source water pollution          -   Number of pollution incidents reported to and       -   Biological and chemical targets for rivers as
 and soils                            (e.g. from STWs, commercial, industrial and                  dealt with by the Environment Agency.                   defined by the Environment Agency.
                                      agricultural sources) and therefore contribute to        -   Annual biological and chemical water quality        -   Requires all inland water bodies to reach “good
Faber Maunsell        Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)                                                                                               33


                                            Sustainability Appraisal Questions
      SA Objective                                                                                                  Indicator                                                Targets
                                                Will the option / proposal:
                                     „good ecological status‟ for all water bodies.               data from the Environment Agency.                       status” by 2015.
                                                                                              -   Water Framework status updates for all water        -   To reduce the levels of nitrate and phosphate in
                                                                                                  bodies.                                                 river water from agricultural sources to contribute
                                                                                                                                                          to meeting the environmental objectives of the
                                                                                                                                                          Water Framework Directive by 2015.


                            Q11c     Avoid an increase in light pollutants, particularly in   -   Number of development schemes with sensitive
                                     more rural areas?                                            lighting scheme and lighting mitigation plans.

                            Q11d     Reduce the level of air pollution through avoiding       -   Number of development application with green
                                     layouts, which contribute to traffic congestion and          travel plans.
                                     incorporating planting and green spaces into
                                     urban areas?

 12. Natural Resources      Q12a     Contribute to effective management of water              -   Changes in demand for potable water for all
 – promote prudent and               resources (surface and ground waters) via a                  purposes.
 efficient use of natural            reduction in water consumption (domestic,                -   Take up of domestic grey water recycling
 resources (e.g. land,               commercial, industrial, agricultural) and via                technology (residential, commercial etc).
 soil, minerals and                  storage of excess precipitation?                         -   Number of water abstraction applications agreed
 water) and avoid                                                                                 / rejected by the Environment Agency.
 unnecessary                                                                                  -   Quantitative water abstraction data from the
 sterilisation or                                                                                 Environment Agency.
 overexploitation                                                                             -   Number of new flood storage reservoirs and / or
                                                                                                  water irrigation reservoir constructed.
                                                                                              -   Number of water conservation measures
                                                                                                  associated with new developments.

                            Q12b     Protect the habitats and species reliant on the          -   Changes in number and quality of habitats reliant
                                     water environment e.g. in rivers, canals, lakes,             on freshwater input and associated species.
                                     ponds and adjacent areas of wetland habitats?

                            Q12c     Protect the best and most versatile agricultural         -   Total area of Grade 1 to 3a agricultural land.
                                     land, open spaces and designated greenbelt
                                     areas?

                            Q12d     Encourage appropriate use of finite resources,           -   Proportion of construction waste to landfill        -   Waste Strategy 2007 national targets to recycle
                                     waste reduction and re-use and recycling of              -   Proportion of construction waste reused and/or          or compost at least 40% of household waste by
                                     material for all new developments (construction              recycled.                                               2010, 45% by 2015 and 50% by 2020.
                                     and operational phases)?
 13. Energy – Minimise      Q13a     Contribute to a reduction in energy/resource             -   Percentage of renewable energy utilised in new
 dependency on non-                  consumption (e.g. domestic, commercial, and                  developments.
 renewable energy                    industrial).                                             -   Number of developments incorporating SUDS
 sources through                                                                                  (Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems).
 energy efficient and                                                                         -   Take up of domestic grey water recycling
 sustainable design                                                                               technology (residential, commercial etc).

                            Q13b     Lead to an increased proportion of energy needs          -   Percentage of renewable energy utilised in new      -   10% of UK electricity consumption by renewable
                                     being met from renewable sources e.g. at                     developments.                                           sources by 2010.
                                     domestic and commercial scales?                                                                                  -   By 2010 12% of energy consumption, on
                                                                                                                                                          average, and 21% of electricity consumption, as
                                                                                                                                                          a common but differentiated target, should be
Faber Maunsell        Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)                                                                                           34


                                           Sustainability Appraisal Questions
      SA Objective                                                                                              Indicator                                               Targets
                                               Will the option / proposal:
                                                                                                                                                      met by renewable sources, considering raising
                                                                                                                                                      their share to 15% by 2015.

                            Q13c     Ensure all new development incorporates              -   Number of new developments integrating              -   Renewables to supply 10% of UK electricity in
                                     sustainable measures e.g. energy saving                  renewable energy techniques.                            2010, subject to the costs being acceptable to
                                     measures, measure to minimise waste generation       -   Percentage of renewable energy utilised in new          the consumer. Moving to 20% by 2020. To hit
                                     and is built to a high standard of sustainable           developments.                                           the 10% target the UK will need to install
                                     design?                                              -   Proportion of construction waste to landfill.           approximately 10,000MW of renewables by
                                                                                          -   Proportion of construction waste reused and/or          2010.
                                                                                              recycled.                                           -   Waste Strategy 2007 national targets to recycle
                                                                                          -   Amount of secondary/ recycled aggregates used           or compost at least 40% of household waste by
                                                                                              compared with virgin aggregates.                        2010, 45% by 2015 and 50% by 2020.
                                                                                          -   Number of waste sites and capacity.
                                                                                          -   Amount of household and business waste and
                                                                                              recycling effort.
                                                                                          -   Number of waste sites and capacity.
                                                                                          -   Percentage of materials sourced within the local
                                                                                              area.
                                                                                          -   Gaining and maintaining a competitive
                                                                                              advantage by improving resource efficiency, inter
                                                                                              alia through the promotion of eco-efficient
                                                                                              innovations.

 14. Climate Change -       Q14a     Minimise flood risk to people, property,             -   Number of properties at risk of flooding.           -   Ensuring through effective flood awareness
 Positively plan for, and            agricultural land and other assets rivers and from   -   Number of new development within the                    campaigns that 75% of residents in flood risk
 minimise the effects                surface water drainage infrastructure?                   floodplain.                                             areas will take effective action to protect
 of, climate change.                                                                      -   Number of planning permissions granted                  themselves from the risk of flooding.
                                                                                              contrary to the Environment Agency‟s advice.
                                                                                          -   Number of new developments incorporating
                                                                                              sustainable urban drainage systems.

                            Q14b     Promote appropriate energy production                -   Number of new energy project e.g. wind farms        -   Renewables to supply 10% of UK electricity in
                                     technologies at the district scale?                      etc.                                                    2010, subject to the costs being acceptable to
                                                                                          -   Percentage of renewable electricity.                    the consumer. Moving to 20% by 2020. To hit
                                                                                                                                                      the 10% target the UK will need to install
                                                                                                                                                      approximately 10,000MW of renewables by
                                                                                                                                                      2010.
                                                                                                                                                  -   By 2010 12% of energy consumption, on
                                                                                                                                                      average, and 21% of electricity consumption, as
                                                                                                                                                      a common but differentiated target, should be
                                                                                                                                                      met by renewable sources, considering raising
                                                                                                                                                      their share to 15% by 2015.

                            Q14c     Contribute to a reduction in emissions of            -   Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.              -   Reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 12.5%
                                     greenhouse gases within the district?                -   Reduction of CO2 emissions by the end user.             below 1990 levels by 2008-2012.
                                                                                                                                                  -   To reduce UK‟s CO2 emissions by some 60%
                                                                                                                                                      from current levels by about 2050.
Faber Maunsell       Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)                                                                                        35


                                          Sustainability Appraisal Questions
      SA Objective                                                                                             Indicator                                              Targets
                                              Will the option / proposal:
 15. Land Use –            Q15a     Promote the efficient re-use of land and buildings   -   Number of ha of brownfield land used for new       -   To ensure that the percentage of new housing
 Encourage the                      for new developments and ensure that more                housing and employment developments.                   development on previously developed land
 appropriate re-use of              dense developments are associated with good          -   Number of ha of other land types used for new          meets the national target of 60%, the RSS target
 land and buildings and             public transport systems to help achieve the most        housing employment developments.                       of 79% (2004 figure) and the local target of 95%.
 remediation of derelict            sustainable pattern and types of development?
 or contaminated land      Q15b     Ensure thorough and appropriate remediation of       -   Amount of derelict land/ amount of derelict land
 to reflect regeneration            derelict and/or contaminated land?                       reclaimed
 priorities
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)                                     36




8                      Consultation


       Chapter 1:    Chapter 2: The   Chapter 3: SA   Chapter 4: SA   Chapter 5: SA   Chapter 6: SA   Chapter 7: SA
                                                                                                                      Chapter 8:   Chapter 9: SA
      Introduction    Study Area        Stage A1        Stage A1        Stage A2        Stage A3        Stage A4      SA Stage      Next Steps
                                                                                                                         A5


                       Chapter Overview and Structure
8.1                    The following text sets out the approach for undertaking all consultation during the scoping
                       stage of the Sustainability Appraisal. This approach has been developed and agreed in liaison
                       with Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council. To aid clarity, the chapter has been split into the
                       following sections:
                            Consultation
                            Approach
                            Links with other scoping tasks
                            Consultation outputs
                       Consultation
8.2                    Consultation is a legislative requirement of the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004
                       and the Environmental Assessment of Plans and Programmes Regulations 2004. A five week
                       period of formal consultation on the scope of the Sustainability Appraisal is required whereby
                       the relevant statutory environmental bodies must be consulted. In addition, social and
                       economic bodies should also be consulted as deemed appropriate by the local planning
                       authority; consideration should also be given to community groups.
8.3                    The three designated bodies to be consulted under the Environmental Assessment of Plans
                       and Programmes Regulations 2004 are:
                            English Heritage
                            Environment Agency
                            Natural England*
                       * It should be noted that the landscape, access and recreation elements of the Countryside Agency, English Nature and
                       the environmental land management functions of the Rural Development Service were combined to form Natural
                       England, which was inaugurated on 1 October 2006. Natural England will help conserve and enhance the natural
                       environment, for its intrinsic value, the wellbeing and enjoyment of people including economic prosperity. To this end,
                       Natural England will be consulted in place of English Nature and the Countryside Agency.

                       The Environmental Report should provide information on [inter alia]:
                            “…the authorities… which, by reason of their specific environmental
                            responsibilities, are likely to be concerned by the environmental effects of
                            implementing plans and programmes… shall be consulted when deciding on the
                            scope and level of detail of the information which must be included in the
                            environmental report” (Article 5.4 and 6.3)

8.4                    Effective consultation is an extremely important element of the Sustainability Appraisal scoping
                       (and Local Development Framework) process. Its key purpose is to ensure that organisations
                       with statutory responsibilities, organisations with a specific interest in the Local Development
                       Framework and the general public are all given ample opportunity to review and comment on
                       the findings of the Sustainability Appraisal (and Local Development Framework); in this
                       instance, those within the Scoping Report (this document).
8.5                    It is important that the approach adopted for consultation is effective so that responses received
                       will add value to the final Scoping Report; the approach and methodology for consulting with
                       each type of consultee has been carefully thought out, planned and developed accordingly.
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)       37




                 Approach
                 Key Aims and Objectives
8.6              The overarching objective of all consultation associated with this Sustainability Appraisal
                 scoping study is to ensure that:
                    All those with an interest in the Sustainability Appraisal process and the Local Development
                     Document being assessed have ample opportunity to provide input and to review key
                     outputs and provide comments, which will be addressed and incorporated as appropriate
                     within the Scoping Report.

8.7              All consultation will aim to:
                    Be inclusive, clear, transparent and auditable
                    Proactively inform all stakeholders of the findings of the scoping study
                    Encourage review of and invite comments from all stakeholders on the quality of the
                     baseline information, sustainability objectives, key sustainability issues (social, economic
                     and environmental) and the Sustainability Appraisal framework
                    Collate additional baseline information or additional sources / references to baseline
                     information that may compliment the existing study outputs
                    Identify potential information / data gaps and potential needs for future monitoring
                    Identify any other key stakeholders
                 Consultation Methods
8.8              There is a broad spectrum of consultation techniques that could be utilised to ensure that the
                 above aims and objectives are met. For the purpose of this present scoping study, the
                 following consultation approaches have been or will be adopted:
                    Informal direct consultation with representatives from Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council
                    Information drawn from opinion surveys and other consultation undertaken by the council
                    Formal consultation of the Scoping Report
                 Informal Direct Consultation with Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council
8.9              Representatives from Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council have been consulted throughout
                 the scoping stage. This included collating all available baseline information and data and
                 discussions regarding key issues in the Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council area relating to
                 design and the natural environment.
                 Information from Opinion Surveys and Other Consultation
                 Opinion Surveys – Designing a Better Walsall SPD
8.10             Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council has undertaken an opinion survey of Walsall Borough
                 residents in order to establish views of the communities on how homes, other buildings, places
                 and spaces should be designed. The questionnaire was placed in local council offices and
                 libraries for the public to complete. A total of 57 questionnaires were returned, the results of
                 these questionnaires can be found in Appendix D.
                 Other Consultation – Designing a Better Walsall SPD
8.11             Representatives of the regeneration department conducted presentations to the nine
                 Community Action Groups to outline the proposal for undertaking a Designing a Better Walsall
                 SPD.
8.12             Internal consultation has been undertaken with Council representatives from other departments
                 to gain their views on the SPD and its draft policies.
                 Other Consultation – Natural Environment SPD
8.13             The Natural Environment Team Leader gave a presentation to the Walsall Environment Forum
                 on 14 November 2006. The Wildlife trust for Birmingham and the Black Country and the
                 Countryside Services within Walsall Council welcomed the proposal for undertaking a Natural
                 Environment SPD but there were few other comments on the presentation.
8.14             The Team Leader has also organised a meeting with colleagues from Wolverhampton,
                 Sandwell and Dudley Councils to discuss the approach to the Natural Environment SPD. It was
                 agreed that the format of the SPD would follow that of the existing Dudley Council SPD to
                 ensure consistency across the Black Country and Birmingham areas and that close liaison
                 would be undertaken during the formulation of the SPD.
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)      38




8.15             Additional consultation is continuing which will include engagement with other relevant bodies
                 (e.g. Natural England) and with the LNPs. This will be completed in order to inform the final
                 SPD and SA.
                 Formal Consultation of the Scoping Report
8.16             In accordance with the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004 and the Environmental
                 Assessment of Plans and Programmes Regulations 2004, the final draft Scoping Report will be
                 sent to all statutory consultees and will also be published on the Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                 Council website. The timescale for this is envisaged to be sometime during July 2007.
                 Links with other scoping tasks
8.17             Figure 1.2 in Appendix A shows the links between Stage A5 and all other stages of the
                 Sustainability Appraisal scoping process.
                 Consultation outputs
                 Informal Consultation outputs
8.18             Outputs from the discussion with Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council representatives and
                 information from the Opinion Surveys and other consultations have, where appropriate, been
                 incorporated within this report.
                 Formal Consultation outputs
8.19             The responses from the formal consultation period will be collated and documented within the
                 final Scoping Report.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)                                         39




9                      Next Steps: Sustainability Appraisal
                       Report

       Chapter 1:    Chapter 2: The     Chapter 3: SA    Chapter 4: SA     Chapter 5: SA      Chapter 6: SA   Chapter 7: SA
                                                                                                                                          Chapter 9:
                                                                                                                              Chapter 8: SA
      Introduction    Study Area          Stage A1         Stage A1          Stage A2           Stage A3        Stage A4        Stage A5 Next Steps



                       Chapter Overview and Structure
9.1                    This chapter presents a brief summary of the next steps to be undertaken in the SA process. It
                       includes information on the following themes:
                        Background to Stages B to E
                        SA Reports
                       Background to Stages B to E
9.2                    The SA Report will incorporate the findings of this Scoping Report (SA stage A), and the
                       findings of SA stages B to E of the SA process. Table 9.1 presents the tasks involved in
                       completing the SA. Stage B and C are the next work elements that will be undertaken for
                       Walsall Council‟s SPDs.
9.3                    The SA Report will build upon the Scoping Report and include details of impact prediction,
                       evaluation, mitigation and monitoring of the sustainability effects of emerging proposals and
                       policies for each SPD. The report will build on the key sustainability issues identified in Chapter
                       6 and the SA framework detailed in Chapter 7. All comments received during the formal
                       consultation process will be included and addressed as appropriate.
                       Table 9.1: The Remaining Stages (B to E) of the Sustainability Appraisal
                                                                                           Tasks

                         Stage B: Developing and refining options and assessing effects

                            B1        Testing the objectives against the SA framework
                            B2        Developing options
                            B3        Predicting the effects of the plan
                            B4        Evaluating the effects of the plan
                            B5        Considering ways of mitigating adverse effects and maximising beneficial effects
                            B6        Proposing measures to monitor the significant effects
                         Stage C: Preparing the sustainability Appraisal Report
                            C1        Preparing the SA report
                         Stage D: Consulting on the Draft LDF Document and the SA Report
                            D1        Public participation on the preferred option of the SPD and the SA report
                            D2        Appraising significant changes
                            D3        Making decisions and providing information
                         Stage E: Monitoring the significant effects of implementing the LDD
                            E1        Finalising aims and methods of monitoring
                            E2        Responding to adverse effects

                       The Approach to Reporting
9.4                    It is envisaged that one SA report will be produced which will appraise both the Designing a
                       Better Walsall SPD and the Natural Environment SPD.
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)   40
Glossary
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)




                 Adoption
                 The final confirmation of a development plan or Local Development Document as having
                 statutory status by a Local Planning Authority.
                 Affordable Housing
                 Dwellings at a rent or price that can be afforded by people who are in housing need and would
                 otherwise be accommodated by the City Council.
                 Annual Monitoring Report                                                                     AMR
                 Part of the Local Development Framework, the Annual Monitoring Report will assess the
                 implementation of the Local Development Scheme and the extent to which policies in Local
                 Development Documents are being successfully implemented.
                 Area Action Plan                                                                             AAP
                 A Development Plan Document that focuses on a specific location or area subject to significant
                 change or conservation.
                 Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty                                                         AONB
                 Conservation designation which protects areas of acknowledged special landscape value,
                 comparable in scope and purpose to National Parks. The designation limits the conditions in
                 which planning permission for new development would be granted, and ensures there is
                 effective mitigation of any impacts (visual effect in the landscape; air quality; road traffic
                 generated; etc.).
                 Baseline information
                 This is information gathered to described current conditions, and which future changes can be
                 measured against.
                 Best Value Performance Indictor                                                              BVPI
                 One of a set of indicators established by ODPM and defined by individual councils which
                 measure performance against statutory obligations such as housing, social care provision,
                 waste collection, etc. Some, but not all BVPIs measure the economic efficiency of a council's
                 activities.
                 Biodiversity Action Plan                                                                     BAP
                 There is a UK Biodiversity Action Plan containing many targets for biodiversity. Action
                 required at a more local level to contribute towards these national targets is set down in the
                 Lincolnshire BAP.
                 Biodiversity
                 The variety of life on earth or in a region, measurable as the variety within species and
                 between species, and the variety of ecosystems.
                 Brownfield Land
                 Land that has been previously developed.
                 Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method                          BREEAM
                 This is an industry measure of energy and environmental performance of commercial
                 buildings.
                 Conservation Area
                 An area given statutory protection under the Planning Acts because of special architectural or
                 historic interest, the character or appearance of which it is desirable to preserve or enhance.
                 Consultation Body
                 An authority, which because of its environmental responsibilities is likely to be concerned by
                 the effects of implementing plans and programmes, must be consulted under the SEA
                 Directive. The Consultation Bodies, designated in the SEA Regulations are the Countryside
                 Agency*, English Heritage, English Nature*, and the Environment Agency.
                 * It should be noted that the landscape, access and recreation elements of the Countryside Agency, English Nature
                 and the environmental land management functions of the Rural Development Service were combined to form Natural
                 England, which was inaugurated on 1 October 2006. Natural England will help conserve and enhance the natural
                 environment, for its intrinsic value, the wellbeing and enjoyment of people including economic prosperity. To this end,
                 Natural England will be consulted in place of English Nature and the Countryside Agency.
                 Core Strategy
                 A Development Plan Document that sets out the long-term spatial vision for the local planning
                 authority‟s area, with objectives and policies to deliver that vision.
                 Department for the Environment Food and Rural Affairs                                   Defra
                 The government department responsible for (among other things) environmental protection
                 and conservation.
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)




                 Development Plan Document                                                                       DPD
                 Spatial planning documents that form part of the LDF. They are subject to independent
                 examination and, together with the relevant Regional Spatial Strategy, forms the Development
                 Plan for the local authority area.
                 Environment Agency                                                                                EA
                 Established in 1996, combining the functions of former local waste regulation authorities, the
                 National Rivers Authority and Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution. Intended to promote a
                 more integrated approach to waste management and consistency in waste regulation. The
                 Agency also conducts national surveys of waste arising and waste facilities.
                 Environmental Report
                 Document required by the SEA Directive as part of an environmental assessment, which
                 identifies, describes and appraises the likely significant effects on the environment of
                 implementing a plan or programme. See SA Report.
                 Floodplain / Flood Zones
                 The natural overspill area where a river may rise above its banks or when high tides or stormy
                 seas may cause flooding of low lying coastal areas. Flood zones show the flooding that will
                 occur without the presence of flood defences.
                 Greenfield Site
                 A site previously unaffected by built development.
                 Greenhouse Gases
                 Atmospheric gases that slow the passage of re-radiated heat through the Earth's atmosphere
                 by absorbing infrared radiation. While they occur naturally in the environment, their release
                 can be accelerated by human activity, including emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels.
                 Key gases are carbon dioxide (produced by combustion), water vapour and methane (often
                 produced by anaerobic digestion such as occurs in landfill sites, and from the guts of cattle),
                 but also Nitrous Oxide (in vehicle exhaust fumes), PFCs (perfluorocarbons), SF6 (sulphur
                 hexafluoride) and HFC (hydrofluorocarbons) (in refrigerants)
                 Hazardous Waste
                 Any wastes which require special handling, storage or disposal, and which may present
                 difficulties in treatment as a result of their content or toxicity. These wastes include chemical
                 residues and flammable wastes from industrial processes, clinical wastes, etc.
                 Household waste
                 All waste generated by domestic premises, including compostable and recyclable materials.
                 Household waste is the main component of municipal waste, which also includes material
                 from litter collections, material deposited at recycling centres and some commercial and
                 industrial (C&I) or trade waste collected from small businesses.
                 Indicators
                 A measure of variables over time which can be used to measure achievement of objectives
                 Landfill
                 The deposit of waste onto and into land in such a way that pollution or harm to the
                 environment is prevented and, through restoration, to provide land which may be used for
                 another purpose.
                 Listed Building
                 Building or other structure held to be of special architectural, historical or cultural significance
                 included on a statutory list and assigned a grade (I, II* or II). A listed building may not be
                 demolished, extended or altered without special permission being granted by the local
                 planning authority.
                 Local Development Document                                                                      LDD
                 Any document making up part of the Local Development Framework (LDF).
                 Local Development Framework                                                                      LDF
                 Introduced by the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act (2004) as the replacement for Local
                 Plans. It is the term to describe the whole portfolio of planning policy documents (Local
                 Development Documents) setting out the planning strategy and policies for the area.
                 Local Plan
                 A Local Plan sets out planning policies and allocations of land for development. It sets out
                 where different types of development, from housing to shops and offices, could be built during
                 the plan period. Following the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act (2004) they have been
                 superseded by Local Development Frameworks.
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)




                 Local Transport Plan                                                                          LPT
                 A statutory plan produced by the local highways authority setting out the plans for transport for
                 the next 5 years.
                 Mitigation
                 Measures that will avoid, reduce or offset adverse significant effects of a plan, proposal or
                 strategy.
                 Municipal Waste
                 All of the waste that a Waste Disposal Authority is responsible for managing, including
                 household waste (waste collected from households), waste deposited at household waste
                 recycling sites, and small amounts of trade waste collected from local businesses.
                 Nature Conservation
                 Policies and programmes for the long-term retention, management and enhancement of
                 natural plant and animal communities, and occasionally modified vegetation, as representative
                 samples of their kind.
                 Objective
                 A statement of what is aimed for, specifying the desired direction of change.
                 Office of the Deputy Prime Minister                                                        ODPM
                 Government department responsible for housing, local government, regeneration, planning
                 and urban and regional issues. *Please note that the Department for Communities and Local
                 Government (DCLG) on the 5th May 2006 took over the planning remit of the ODPM.
                 Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act (2004)
                 This Act introduced significant changes to the plan making process at all levels.
                 Planning Policy Guidance                                                                     PPG
                 These are prepared by the government after public consultation to explain statutory provisions
                 and provide guidance to local authorities and others on planning policy and the operation of
                 the planning system. They cover a range of topics such as sustainable development, noise,
                 waste, rural development, coastal planning, etc.
                 Planning Policy Statement                                                                    PPS
                 A range of documents superseding and updating PPGs, and generally placing more emphasis
                 on sustainable development principles.
                 Plans, Policies and Programmes                                                              PPPs
                 Documents that have identified implications for the production of Local Development
                 Documents.
                 Previously Developed Land                                                                    PDL
                 Land which has been previously developed, excluding mineral workings, agricultural and
                 forestry buildings or other temporary uses, and also buildings that have decayed to an extent
                 that they are not visible in the landscape. Also known as Brownfield Land.
                 Regional Spatial Strategy                                                                    RSS
                 A strategy for how a region should look in 15 to 20 years time and possibly longer. It identifies
                 the scale and distribution of new housing in the region, indicates areas for regeneration,
                 expansion or sub-regional planning and specifies priorities for the environment, transport,
                 infrastructure, economic development, agriculture, minerals and waste treatment and disposal.
                 Most former Regional Planning Guidance is now considered RSS and forms part of the
                 development plan.
                 Special Area of Conservation / candidate Special Area of Conservation                  SAC/cSAC
                 Areas of priority for conservation of the natural environment, usually containing scarce or
                 valuable habitats for wildlife which require extensive protection measures to limit adverse
                 impacts of development in the vicinity.
                 Scoping
                 The process of deciding the scope and level of detail of a sustainability appraisal, including the
                 sustainability effects and options which need to be considered, the assessment methods to be
                 used, and the structure and contents of the SA report
                 SEA Directive
                 European Directive 2001/42/EC „on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and
                 programmes on the environment‟.
                 SEA Regulations
                 The Environmental Assessment of Plans and Programmes Regulations 2004 which
                 transposes the SEA Directive into UK Law.
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)




                 Site of Special Scientific Interest                                                         SSSI
                 SSSIs are identified by English Nature. They are areas considered to be of special interest
                 because of their flora, fauna, geological or geographical features.
                 Sites and Monuments Record                                                                  SMR
                 List of archaeological finds, ranging from structural remains to individual artefacts, which is
                 maintained by each county council.
                 Stakeholder
                 Any person, group or business that has an interest or will be affected by a particular activity,
                 plan or project.
                 Statement of Community Involvement                                                           SCI
                 Sets out the standards which authorities will achieve with regard to involving local communities
                 in the preparation of Local Development Documents and development control decisions. The
                 Statement of Community Involvement is not a Development Plan Document but is subject to
                 independent examination.
                 Strategic Environmental Assessment                                                          SEA
                 Internationally used term to describe environmental assessment as applied to policies, plans
                 and programmes.          The European „SEA Directive‟ (2001/42/EC) requires a formal
                 „environmental assessment of certain plans and programmes, including those in the field of
                 planning and land use‟.
                 Structure Plan
                 An old-style development plan, which sets out strategic planning policies and forms the basis
                 for detailed policies in local plans and Development Plan Documents. These plans will
                 continue to operate for a time after the commencement of the new development plan system,
                 due to transitional provisions under planning reform.
                 Supplementary Planning Documents                                                           SPDs
                 Provide additional information and explanation of policies and proposals within the Local Plan
                 or Local Development Framework. It does not form part of the Development Plan and is not
                 subject to independent examination.
                 Sustainability Appraisal                                                                      SA
                 A tool for appraising policies to ensure they reflect sustainable development objectives (i.e.
                 social, environmental and economic factors) and required in the Act to be undertaken for all
                 Local Development Documents. Sustainability Appraisal will be undertaken alongside
                 Strategic Environmental Assessment.
                 Sustainability Appraisal Report
                 Term used in this guidance to describe a document required to be produced as part of the SA
                 process to describe and appraise the likely significant effects on sustainability of implementing
                 a plan, which also meets the requirement for the Environmental Report under the SEA
                 Directive.
                 Sustainable Development
                 The most common definition is from the Brundtland Commission (1987) – “Development which
                 meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future
                 generations to meet their own needs”.
                 Sustainable Drainage System / Sustainable Urban Drainage System                            SUDS
                 These are designed to limit or reduce the existing rate of run-off. Impermeable surfaces are
                 created in most built development, and if water is allowed to run-off rather than percolate into
                 the ground this can increase flooding as well as creating pollution, damaging watercourse
                 habitats and causing bank erosion.
                 Waste Hierarchy
                 A “sequential approach” towards the management of waste proposed in the Waste Strategy
                 2000 and retained in the revised national waste strategy (2007). The hierarchy is shown as an
                 inverted pyramid, with waste minimisation at the top as the preferred option, followed by re-
                 use, recycling and recovery, and disposal to landfill (the last resort) at the bottom.
                 Waste Minimisation
                 Reducing the volume of waste that is produced.
                 Waste Collection Authority                                                                  WCA
                 The section of the council that is responsible for organising the collection of wastes from
                 homes and businesses, and for the collection of wastes from public sites such as streets, litter
                 bins, etc. Collection may be undertaken by a subsidiary of the council or by private
                 contractors.
Appendices
Appendix A - Figures
Faber Maunsell       Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)




      Figure 1.1: Integration of the Sustainability Appraisal and Local Development Framework
                 Error! Bookmark not defined.Error! Bookmark not defined.
      processes            Development of SPDs                            Sustainability Appraisal (SA) Process



               Production of Draft                                           Collate baseline, sustainability issues, SA framework
         SPDs: e.g. Natural Environment




                                                                                                                                     SA Process Stage A
        SPD and Designing a Better Walsall
                     SPD                                                        Consultation: Collation of existing consultation
                                                                             undertaken by Walsall Council and incorporating their
                                                                                       internal consultation comments


                                        Produce Scoping Report for consultation



                                                                                  Confirm Sustainability Appraisal Framework



                                                                             Testing the SPD objectives against the SA framework




                                                                                                                                     SA Process Stage B
                                                                                    Development/appraisal of SPD options




               Production of Draft                                            Appraise SPD: prediction and evaluation of effects,
         SPDs: e.g. Natural Environment                                              mitigation and monitoring measures
        SPD and Designing a Better Walsall
                     SPD




                                                                                                                                     SA Process
                                                                                                                                      Stage C
                                                                                                Produce Draft
                                                                                       Sustainability Appraisal Report(s)




                  Public Consultation on the draft Sustainability Report(s) (SA Process Stages A and B)




                                                                                                                                     SA Process Stage D
                                                           and
                        SPDs: e.g. Natural Environment SPD and Designing a Better Walsall SPD



                 Produce Final                                                    Appraisal of representations, review of Draft
         SPDs: e.g. Natural Environment                                                     Sustainability Report(s)
        SPD and Designing a Better Walsall
                     SPD
                                                                                     Produce Final Sustainability Report(s)
                                                                                                                                     SA Process
                                                                                                                                      Stage E




         Monitor Implementation of SPDs:                                            Monitor significant effects of the DPD/SPD
        e.g. Natural Environment SPD and
         Designing a Better Walsall SPD
Faber Maunsell                                                         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)




                                                                                                                                (after16)
                                                                       Figure 1.2: Links between Stages A1 to A5                            and overall scoping process

                                                                                  SA Stage A - Scoping Stages A1 to A5                                           SA Stages B to E



                                                                              Stage A1:                                          Stage A2:
                                                                            Review plans,                                        Baseline:
                                                                            programmes                                             social,
                                                                             etc, develop                                      economic and
                                                                               draft SA                                        environmental
                                                                              objectives                                                                            Retention of
                                                                                                                                                                         key
                                                                                                                                                                    sustainability
                                                                                                                                                                      issues for
          Stage A5: Review and consultation throughout scoping study




                                                                                                                                                                     appraisal of
                                                                                                                                                                    DPD/SPD etc

                                                                                                                                                                   Elimination of
                                                                                                                                                                   non-significant
                                                                                                                                                                    sustainability




                                                                                                                                                                                         SA Stage Scoping Review
                                                                                                                                                                      issues for
                                                                                                                                                                     appraisal of
                                                                                                                                                                   DPD/SPD etc



                                                                               Stage A3:                                        Stage A4:
                                                                            Identification of                                 Development of
                                                                                   key                                         SA framework
                                                                              sustainability
                                                                             topics / issues




                                                                                                                                                                      Stage B
                                                                                                                                                                      Review
                                                                                                                                                                   Scoping Report
                                                                                                                                                                      outputs

                                                                                                        Stage A5:
                                                                                                      Scoping Report
                                                                                                           („live
                                                                                                        document‟)



                                                                                                                                                       SA Stages B to E for:
                                                                                                                                                       The Walsall Council DPDs / SPDs etc




                                                                       16
                                                                            Sustainability Appraisal of Regional Spatial Strategies (RSSs) and Local Development Documents (LDDs) 2005
Appendix B: Sub-Stage A1 Relevant Plans
                       and Programmes
Faber Maunsell          Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



Table B1: Requirements of other plans, programmes and policies (objectives, targets and indicators)
 INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION
 Directive 92/43/EEC (Habitats Directive)
 http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/nature_conservation/eu_nature_legislation/habitats_directive/index_en.htm
 Directive aimed at protecting biodiversity through the conservation of natural habitats and plant and animal species. Provides for a network of protected areas across the European Union, known as “Natura
 2000” or European Sites. This network includes Special Areas of Protection (SACs), which are normally also protected by being designated as SSSIs. “Appropriate assessment” must be carried out for any
 project that may affect a SAC. Land use planning and development policies should seek to manage features of the landscape which are of major importance for wild fauna and flora, such as linear features and
 other features that are essential for the migration, dispersal and genetic exchange of wild species. Key elements of the Directive have been transposed into UK legislation through Habitats Regulations – see
 below.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
    All SACs to be maintained in a “favourable” condition.                                  One site in Walsall – the Cannock Extension Canal – has been designated as a SAC. As the Design SPD will provide
    Landscape features of major importance for wild flora and fauna, and which              general design guidance only, it will have no effect on the SAC in Walsall or any other European Sites and an
     enable movement and migration of species (e.g. rivers, streams, field boundaries        “appropriate assessment” is not required for this, although this is likely to be required for the Natural Environment SPD,
     and ponds) to be protected and managed.                                                 given that this will include guidance relating to designated sites, including the Cannock Extension Canal SAC. The main
                                                                                             implication for the Design SPD is that it should be seeking to promote designs and layouts that support biodiversity, and
                                                                                             maintain or restore important wildlife habitats such as designated sites (including the SAC) and the linear features
                                                                                             referred to in the Directive. The UDP includes policies (ENV19 – ENV24) aimed at protecting important habitats and
                                                                                             species, and the Natural Environment SPD will expand on these by providing guidance on how development proposals
                                                                                             should address statutory requirements to protect and manage existing wildlife habitats, particularly those that are
                                                                                             designated for their international and national importance. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on
                                                                                             biodiversity, protected species and wildlife habitats.
 The EC Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds 79/409/EEC 1979
 http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/consleg/pdf/1979/en_1979L0409_do_001.pdf
 This Directive relates to the conservation of all species of naturally occurring birds in the wild state in the European territory of the Member States to which the Treaty applies. It covers the protection,
 management and control of these species and lays down rules for their exploitation. The Directive applies to birds, their eggs, nests and habitats.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
    To protect all birds naturally occurring in the European territory; applies to birds,   Both SPDs should consider impacts on wild bird populations and should support overall objectives and requirements of
      eggs, nests and habitats.                                                              the Directive. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on biodiversity, protected species and wildlife habitats.
    Preserve, maintain or re-establish a sufficient diversity and area of habitats.
    Maintain populations of species taking into account ecological, scientific,
      economic and cultural requirements.
    Pay particular attention to wetlands, especially those of international importance.

 No targets and indicators found.
 Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change
 http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php
 A total of 38 countries, including those in the EU, have signed up to the Protocol, which involves a commitment towards individual, legally-binding targets to limit or reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. In
 total, the reductions that have been agreed add up to a 5% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels between 1998 and 2012.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
    UK to achieve 8% reduction in CO2 emissions from 1990 rate by 2012.                     Design SPD should promote designs and layouts that facilitate energy efficiency/ reduction in energy consumption and
                                                                                             thereby reduction in carbon footprint of buildings. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on climate change,
                                                                                             air quality and energy consumption.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 Directive 2000/60/EC (Water Framework Directive)
 http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-framework/index_en.html
 Sets a framework for the long-term, sustainable management of all waters, including surface water and groundwaters. Aims to manage waters in a “holistic” way in order to protect water resources, water quality
 and manage the risk of flooding. Establishes a river basin district structure within which demanding environmental objectives will be set, including ecological targets for surface waters.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                       Implications for SPD and SA
    All inland waters to reach "good” ecological status by 2015.                         The design of new development can have impacts on water quality (although it can also be affected by many other
    Groundwater abstraction to be limited to that not needed by ecology.                 factors outside the control of the local planning authority). The UDP includes a policy (ENV40) aimed at addressing flood
                                                                                          risk, sustainable drainage and the protection and conservation of water resources. The main implication for the Design
                                                                                          SPD is that it should encourage developers to regard water consumption, impact on water quality, and flood risk as key
                                                                                          issues that must be considered as part of the design of any scheme. Natural Environment SPD will need to address
                                                                                          impact of development on wildlife habitats based on water features such as rivers, canals and lakes. SA will need to
                                                                                          assess potential impact of guidance on water resources and flooding.
 Directive 2001/77/EEC (Renewables Directive)
 http://ec.europa.eu/energy/res/legislation/electricity_en.htm
 Directive aimed at encouraging greater consumption of electricity produced from renewable sources. Each Member State is expected to meet specified targets.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                       Implications for SPD and SA
    Renewable sources to account for 10% of UK electricity consumption by                Design SPD is a general design guide and can only indirectly influence energy consumption and the use of renewable
     2010.                                                                                sources. As it is a SPD, it also cannot go further than the current UDP energy policy ENV39, which only encourages
                                                                                          developers of major schemes to explain how they have addressed energy efficiency, and does not include requirements
                                                                                          for on-site renewable energy generation. However, given the importance of this issue, the SPD should at least encourage
                                                                                          developers to regard energy consumption as a key factor that must be considered as part of the design of any scheme.
                                                                                          SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on energy consumption.
 The Renewed E.U Sustainable Development Strategy, June 2006
 http://register.consilium.europa.eu/pdf/en/06/st10/st10117.en06.pdf
 The overall aim of the renewed E.U SDS is to identify and develop actions to enable the EU to achieve continuous improvement of quality of life both for current and for future generations, through the creation of
 sustainable communities able to manage and use resources efficiently and to tap the ecological and social innovation potential of the economy, ensuring prosperity, environmental protection and social cohesion.
 The main objectives are:
 a. To limit climate change and its costs and negative effects to society and the environment:
 b. To ensure that our transport systems meet society‟s economic, social and environmental needs whilst minimising their undesirable impacts on the economy, society and the environment.
 c. To promote sustainable consumption and production patterns.
 d. To improve management and avoid overexploitation of natural resources, recognising the value of ecosystem services.
 e. To promote good public health on equal conditions and improve protection against health threats.
 f. To create a socially inclusive society by taking into account solidarity between and within generations and to secure and increase the quality of life of citizens as a precondition for lasting individual well-
    being.
 g. To actively promote sustainable development worldwide and ensure that the European Union‟s internal and external policies are consistent with global sustainable development and its international
    commitments.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                       Implications for SPD and SA
 Key Indicators & Targets (in relation to the objectives above):                          SPD policies should provide a sustainable vision for the future. SA will assess the extent to which the guidance will
 a. See Kyoto Protocol targets and indicators. By 2010 12% of energy                      contribute towards sustainable development.
    consumption, on average, and 21% of electricity consumption, as a common
    but differentiated target, should be met by renewable sources, considering
    raising their share to 15% by 2015.
 b. In line with the EU strategy on CO2 emissions from light duty vehicles, the
    average new car fleet should achieve CO2 emissions of 140g/km (2008/09)
Faber Maunsell           Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



      and 120g/km (2012). Halving road transport deaths by 2010 compared to
      2000.
          Achieving sustainable levels of transport energy use and reducing
           transport greenhouse gas emissions.
          Reducing pollutant emissions from transport to levels that minimise
           effects on human health and/or the environment.
 c.   Improving the environmental and social performance for products and processes
      and encouraging their uptake by business and consumers.
 d.   Improving resource efficiency to reduce the overall use of non renewable natural
      resources and the related environmental impacts of raw materials use, thereby
      using renewable natural resources at a rate that does not exceed their
      regeneration capacity.
          Gaining and maintaining a competitive advantage by improving resource
           efficiency, inter alia through the promotion of eco-efficient innovations.
          Improving management and avoiding overexploitation of renewable natural
           resources such as fisheries, biodiversity, water, air, soil and atmosphere,
           restoring degraded marine ecosystems by 2015 in line with the
           Johannesburg Plan (2002) including achievement of the Maximum Yield in
           Fisheries by 2015.
          Halting the loss of biodiversity and contributing to a significant reduction in
           the worldwide rate of biodiversity loss by 2010.
          Contributing effectively to achieving the four United Nations global objectives
           on forests by 2015.
          Avoiding the generation of waste and enhancing efficient use of natural
           resources by applying the concept of life-cycle thinking and promoting reuse
           and recycling.
 e.   Improving information on environmental pollution and adverse health impacts.
      Improving mental health and tackling suicide risks.
 f.   Intensifying efforts to reduce early school leaving to 10% and to ensure that at
      least 85% of 22 year olds should have completed upper secondary education. By
      the end of 2007 every young person who has left school and is unemployed
      should be offered a job, apprenticeship, additional training or other employability
      measure within six months, and within no more than 4 months by 2010.
 g.   Raise the volume of aid to 0.7% of Gross National Income (GNI) by 2015 with an
      intermediate target of 0.56% in 2010.
 Directive 1996/62/EC on ambient air quality and management
 http://europa.eu.int/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexapi!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=EN&numdoc=31996L0062&model=guichett
 This Directive lays down basic principles to maintain and improve air quality within the Community.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
 The general aim of this Directive is to define the basic principles of a common             The Design SPD should include/ refer to objectives for air quality given that air quality is an important issue in Walsall,
 strategy to:                                                                                since the whole of the Borough has been declared as an Air Quality Management Area (AQMA) in relation to nitrogen
  Define and establish objectives for ambient air quality in the Community designed         dioxide. The Natural Environment SPD might also usefully refer to the role of trees and other vegetation in helping to
       to avoid, prevent or reduce harmful effects on human health and the                   improve and maintain air quality as well as being important wildlife habitats. SA will need to assess potential impact of
       environment as a whole.                                                               guidance on air quality.
  Assess the ambient air quality in Member States on the basis of common methods
       and criteria.
  Obtain adequate information on ambient air quality and ensure that it is made
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



     available to the public, inter alia by means of alert thresholds.
  Maintain ambient air quality where it is good and improve it in other cases.
 Preserve best ambient air quality compatible with sustainable development.

 No measurable targets and indicators.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)




 UK LEGISLATION
 Crime and Disorder Act 1998
 http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1998/19980037.htm
 Section 17 – Local authorities required to exercise functions with due regard to likely effect on crime and disorder.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                      Design SPD should address community safety and security issues. Its preparation should be informed by current
                                                                                            guidance on the use of design to deter crime, as set out in Safer Places: The Planning System and Crime Prevention
                                                                                            (see below). See also UDP Policies GP7 and ENV32. Natural Environment SPD will need to address safety issues if it
                                                                                            includes guidance on nature reserves or other natural habitats that are to be publicly accessible. SA will need to assess
                                                                                            potential impact of guidance on community safety.
 Town and Country Planning Act 1990
 http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1990/Ukpga_19900008_en_1.htm
 Sections 69, 71 and 72 – Local planning authorities required to regularly review extent of conservation area designation within their areas, to draw up and publish proposals for the preservation and enhancement
 of conservation areas and consult the public on these, and in exercising their planning powers, to pay special attention to the desirability of preserving or enhancing the character or appearance of conservation
 areas.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                      Design SPD should explain the approach to be adopted towards the design of new development in or near to
                                                                                            conservation areas. This should be informed by current guidance on design issues in historically sensitive areas, as set
                                                                                            out in Building in Context (2001), Using Historic Landscape Characterisation (2004), and Guidance on
                                                                                            Conservation Area Appraisals/ Guidance on the Management of Conservation Areas (2006) (see below). See also
                                                                                            UDP Policy ENV32. Natural Environment SPD may need to include guidance on addressing impacts on trees, hedges
                                                                                            and other natural features in conservation areas. All trees within conservation areas are protected and together with
                                                                                            hedges and other natural features they often make an important positive contribution towards the area‟s character and
                                                                                            appearance, as well as contributing towards local biodiversity. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on the
                                                                                            historic environment.
 Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000
 http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2000/20000034.htm
 Section 2 (which amends Section 71 of 1976 Act) – In carrying out their functions, local authorities must have due regard to the need:
  Eliminate unlawful racial discrimination;
  Promote equality of opportunity and good relations between persons of different racial groups.
 Associated secondary legislation (Statutory Instrument 2004 No. 3125: The Race Relations Act 1976 (Statutory Duties) Order 2004) also requires local authorities to prepare and publish Race Equality Scheme
 setting out how they propose to assess whether key functions and policies (including land use plans) are relevant to race equality, likely impact on statutory duty, and proposals for monitoring impacts.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 Monitoring of impact of key functions and policies on general duty/ race equality is an    In line with the requirements of the legislation and with UDP Policy GP5, the Design SPD should promote inclusive
 essential requirement under secondary legislation – each authority is required to set      designs and layouts that do not unlawfully discriminate against any particular racial group, and are sensitive to the needs
 out its proposals for monitoring in Race Equality Scheme (see below).                      of all. SPD will also be subject to Equalities Impact Assessment (EQIA) in accordance with the legislation and the
                                                                                            Council‟s Race Equality Scheme (see below). It is proposed that this will be undertaken as part of the sustainability
                                                                                            appraisal, in line with the latest Government advice. Natural Environment SPD will need to address such issues if it
                                                                                            includes guidance on nature reserves or other natural habitats that are to be publicly accessible. SA will need to assess
                                                                                            potential impact of guidance on equality and diversity, social inclusion and community cohesiveness.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004
 http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2004/20040005.htm
 Section 19 – When preparing local development documents, local planning authorities must have regard to national policies and advice contained in guidance issued by the Secretary of State, the RSS, the local
 community strategy, any other adopted local development documents, and the resources likely to be available for implementing the proposals in the document. Preparation must also comply with the SCI.
 Section 39 – Local planning authorities must prepare development documents with the objective of contributing to the achievement of sustainable development. Section 42 - (amendment to Section 62 of the
 Town & Country Planning Act 1990) - Requirement for certain planning applications (to be specified in secondary legislation) to be accompanied by a statement about the design principles and concepts that
 have been applied to the development, and about how issues relating to access to the development have been dealt with. This provision came into effect on 10 August 2006, through Statutory Instrument 2006
 No. 1062 and Statutory Instrument 2006 No. 1063 – see below.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                        Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                     Both SPDs will be prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Walsall Statement of Community Involvement
                                                                                           (SCI) (see below), adopted in June 2006. Implications for the other documents referred to in Section 19 are considered
                                                                                           separately below. In line with Section 39 of the Act and PPS1 (see below), SPDs should demonstrate the relationship
                                                                                           between good design and sustainable development. Design SPD should also explain the Council‟s requirements with
                                                                                           regard to design and access statements. Both SPDs should also provide clear guidance on how to demonstrate
                                                                                           compliance with the relevant UDP policies, and explain how planning applications will be assessed by the Council. SA will
                                                                                           assess the extent to which the guidance will address these requirements.
 Disability Discrimination Act 2005
 http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2005/20050013.htm
 Section 3 (inserts new Sections 49A - 49D into 1995 Act) - in carrying out their functions, local authorities must have due regard to:
  The need to eliminate unlawful discrimination;
  The need to eliminate harassment of disabled persons that is related to their disabilities;
  The need to promote equality of opportunity between disabled persons and other persons;
  The need to take steps to take account of disabled persons‟ disabilities, even where that involves treating disabled persons more favourably than other persons;
  The need to promote positive attitudes towards disabled persons; and
  The need to encourage participation by disabled persons in public life.
 Associated secondary legislation (Statutory Instrument 2005 No. 2966: The Disability Discrimination (Public Authorities) (Statutory Duties) Regulations 2005) also requires local authorities to prepare and publish
 Disability Equality Scheme setting out how they propose to assess whether key functions and policies (including land use plans) are relevant to disability equality and likely impact on statutory duty, and
 proposals for monitoring impacts.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                        Implications for SPD and SA
 Monitoring of impact of key functions and policies on general duty/ disability equality   Design SPD should promote inclusive designs and layouts that that do not unlawfully discriminate against people with
 is an essential requirement under secondary legislation – each authority is required to   disabilities and are sensitive to the needs of all. This SPD is also likely to be subject to a full Equalities Impact
 set out its proposals for monitoring in a Disability Equality Scheme (see below).         Assessment (EqIA) in accordance with the legislation and the Council‟s Disability Equality Scheme (see below). It is
                                                                                           proposed that this will be undertaken as part of the sustainability appraisal, in line with the latest Government advice. See
                                                                                           also UDP Policies GP5 and GP6. Natural Environment SPD will also need to address similar issues if it includes
                                                                                           guidance on nature reserves or other natural habitats that are to be publicly accessible. SA will need to assess potential
                                                                                           impact of guidance on equality and diversity, social inclusion and community cohesiveness.
 Equality Act 2006 (effective from 6 April 2007)
 http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2006/20060003.htm
 Section 83 (inserts new Sections 21A and 76A into Sex Discrimination Act 1973) – in carrying out functions, it is unlawful for public authorities to do any act that constitutes discrimination or harassment, and they
 must have regard to the need:
  To eliminate unlawful discrimination and harassment, and
  To promote equality of opportunity between men and women.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                        Implications for SPD and SA
 Monitoring of impact of key functions and policies on general duty/ gender equality is    Design SPD should promote inclusive designs and layouts that that do not unlawfully discriminate against men or women,
 a key requirement. The Council has produced a draft Gender Equality Scheme (see           and are sensitive to the needs of all. SPD will also be subject to an Equalities Impact Assessment (EQIA) in accordance
 below).                                                                                   with the legislation and the Council‟s draft Gender Equality Scheme (see below). It is proposed that this will be
                                                                                           undertaken as part of the sustainability appraisal, in line with the latest Government advice. See also UDP Policy GP5.
                                                                                           Natural Environment SPD will also need to address similar issues if it includes guidance on nature reserves or other
                                                                                           natural habitats that are to be publicly accessible. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on equality and
                                                                                           diversity, social inclusion and community cohesiveness.
 Climate Change and Sustainable Energy Act 2006
 http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2006/20060019.htm
 Sections 1 – 4 & 10 – 11 - All public authorities required to have regard to climate change, desirability of alleviating fuel poverty, and desirability of securing a diverse and viable long-term energy supply and to
 have regard to most recently published “energy measures report” published by Secretary of State (see The Energy Challenge, July 2006). Secretary of State to review GPDO and Building Regulations to facilitate
 domestic installation of equipment relating to Microgeneration.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                        Implications for SPD and SA
 Increase in generation of renewable energy through new proposals per annum is a           Accompanied by Parliamentary Statement indicating that local planning authorities are now expected to set targets for
 Core Output Indicator for the LDF. However, this will not necessarily be directly         on-site generation of energy from renewable or low-carbon sources. However, given the requirement for conformity with
 applicable to the SPD, which can only have an indirect influence on such matters.         the UDP, the SPDs cannot be prescriptive about climate change and energy, but will be expected to include general
                                                                                           guidance on the implications of climate change, sustainable energy and fuel poverty in terms of design of new schemes/
                                                                                           impacts on the natural environment. For example, the Design SPD could provide guidance on designs and layouts that
                                                                                           address the causes and mitigate the effects of climate change, make efficient use of existing energy and other natural
                                                                                           resources, and incorporate/ promote the use of renewable and other low carbon energy technologies, particularly in
                                                                                           affordable housing schemes, where this would also help to address fuel poverty. The Natural Environment SPD will need
                                                                                           to weigh the potential impacts of renewable and low carbon energy schemes on the natural environment and biodiversity
                                                                                           against the benefits in terms of reducing carbon emissions and also consider possible impacts of climate change on
                                                                                           biodiversity (e.g. changing weather patterns, drought). SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on climate
                                                                                           change, air quality and energy consumption.
 Habitats Regulations – The Conservation (Natural Habitats &c.) Regulations 1994
 http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si1994/Uksi_19942716_en_1.htm
 Regulations 37, 48 – Planning policies should encourage the management of features of the landscape which are of major importance for wild fauna and flora. Before giving permission for any plan or project that
 is likely to have a significant effect upon a European Site, authorities must also make an “appropriate assessment” of the implications. Consultation Paper on amendments to the Habitats Regulations, May 2006,
 proposes new Regulations 85A, 85B and 85C – Requirement for “appropriate assessment” to apply to local development documents.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                        Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                     As the Design SPD is a general design guide, it will have no specific impact on any of the sites, habitats or species
                                                                                           referred to. An “appropriate assessment” is therefore not required although this is likely to be required for the Natural
                                                                                           Environment SPD, given that this will include guidance relating to designated sites in Walsall, including the Cannock
                                                                                           Extension Canal SAC. Key requirements of the legislation are already addressed by UDP policies ENV19, ENV21,
                                                                                           ENV22, ENV23 and ENV24. Natural Environment SPD will expand on these by providing guidance on how development
                                                                                           proposals should address statutory requirements to protect and manage existing wildlife habitats, particularly those that
                                                                                           are designated for their international and national importance. In support of these UDP policies, the Design SPD could
                                                                                           also include guidance on the preferred approach towards design, layout and landscaping in situations where new
                                                                                           developments may affect the sites, habitats or species referred to. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on
                                                                                           biodiversity, protected species and wildlife habitats.
 Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (as amended)
 http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3614#download
 The Act consolidates and amends existing national legislation to implement the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention) and Council Directive 79/409/EEC
 on the Conservation of Wild Birds (Birds Directive) in Great Britain.
Faber Maunsell           Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                        Implications for SPD and SA
 Protection of wildlife (birds, animals and plants), countryside, national parks, public   Policies within both SPDs, but in particular, the Natural Environment SPD, will have to consider the potential impact of
 rights of way and the designation of protected areas such as Sites of Special             any new development on protected wildlife species and habitats. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on
 Scientific Interest or limestone pavement orders.                                         biodiversity, protected species and wildlife habitats.

 No measurable targets and indicators.
 Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000 (CroW)
 http://www.opsi.gov.uk/Acts/acts2000/20000037.htm
 The Act provides for public access on foot to certain types of land, amends the law relating to public rights of way, increases protection for Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) and strengthens wildlife
 enforcement legislation, and provides for better management of Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB).
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                        Implications for SPD and SA
   Provides new rights of public access to areas of open land and provisions for          Policies in the LDF should ensure that access to the countryside and rights of way are protected and enhanced. Design
    extending the right to coastal land.                                                   SPD should therefore provide guidance on maintaining existing rights of way and footpaths within designs and layouts,
  Improves rights of way legislation, by encouraging the creation of new routes and       and providing safe and attractive pedestrian access routes through sites to key facilities. This will also be of relevance to
    clarifying existing routes.                                                            Natural Environment SPD if it includes guidance on nature reserves or other natural habitats that are to be publicly
                                                                                           accessible. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on social inclusion and access to key facilities.
  Increases protection for Sites of Special Scientific Interest.
  Strengthens wildlife enforcement legislation.
  Provides for better management of Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty.
 No measurable targets and indicators.
 Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act, 1979
 http://www.culture.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/02D66156-A8A6-4889-888A-497C95FE6F55/0/AncientMonumentsAct1979forCase3276.pdf
 The Act is the major piece of legislation concerned with the protection of archaeological sites / ancient monuments. The act supports a formal system of Scheduled Monument Consent for any work to a
 designated monument. Scheduling is the only legal protection specifically for archaeological sites. However, Heritage White Paper (see below) proposes reforms that will streamline the existing designation and
 consent regimes.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                        Implications for SPD and SA
   To consolidate law relating to ancient monuments and to provide for the                Although development affecting scheduled ancient monuments is controlled by legislation outside the mainstream
    inspection and recording of matters of archaeological interest and to regulate such    planning system, archaeological remains of all kinds may be affected by development proposals that require planning
    activities.                                                                            permission, and it is appropriate for LDF policies to address potential impacts. The policies in both SPDs should therefore
  Provides for nationally important archaeological sites to be statutorily protected as   seek to preserve and enhance scheduled ancient monuments and other above- and below-ground archaeological
    Scheduled Ancient Monuments.                                                           remains, including earthworks and other historic landscape features. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance
                                                                                           on the historic environment, including archaeology.
 No measurable targets and indicators.
 Planning (Listed buildings and Conservation Areas) Act, 1990
 http://www.opsi.gov.uk/ACTS/acts1990/Ukpga_19900009_en_1.htm
 This Act set out the legal requirements for the control of development and alterations which affect buildings, including those which are listed or in conservation areas, and the framework by which control is
 maintained. However, Heritage White Paper (see below) proposes reforms that will streamline the existing designation and consent regimes.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                        Implications for SPD and SA
    Listing of buildings of special architectural or historic interest.                   Although alterations to/ demolition of listed buildings and demolition of buildings in conservation areas is subject to
    „Building preservation notice‟ Temporary listing.                                     planning control, the designation and management of these assets is controlled by separate legislation. However,
                                                                                           guidance can be helpful in explaining the implications of legislative requirements and how the Council expects developers
    Restriction on work affecting listed buildings.
                                                                                           and applicants for planning permission to address these in their proposals. The policies in both SPDs should therefore
    Authorisation of works listed building consent.                                       seek to maintain the special architectural or historic interest of listed buildings and preserve and enhance the special
    Applications for listed building consent.                                             character and appearance of conservation areas. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on the historic
Faber Maunsell          Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



    Power to impose conditions on grant of listed building consent.                         environment.
    Revocation and modification of listed building consent.
    Rights of owner‟s compensation.
    Prevention of deterioration and damage.
    Conservation Areas designation.
    Preservation and enhancement of conservation areas.

 No measurable targets and indicators.
 Town and Country Planning (Local Development) (England) Regulations 2004
 http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2004/20042204.htm
 Regulation 15 – When preparing local development documents, local planning authorities must have regard to the regional economic strategy (RES), local transport plan (LTP), the objectives of preventing major
 accidents and limiting the consequences of such accidents, the need in the long term to maintain appropriate distances between establishments and residential areas, buildings and areas of public use, major
 transport routes as far as possible, recreational areas and areas of particular natural sensitivity or interest, the need for additional technical measures in relation to notifiable installations, and the national waste
 strategy.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                       Both SPDs should include guidance on the importance of design and environmental quality in supporting the local
                                                                                             economy, the local transport network, and the need to address important environmental and amenity issues through good
                                                                                             design. The implications of the plans and strategies referred to in Regulation 15 are considered separately below (see
                                                                                             Regional Economic Strategy, Delivering Advantage and West Midlands Local Transport Plan 2). SA will need to
                                                                                             assess potential impact of guidance on the quality of the environment and economic investment.


 Statutory Instrument 2006 No. 1062: The Town and Country Planning (General Development Procedure) (Amendment) (England) Order 2006 http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2006/20061062.htm,
 Statutory Instrument 2006 No. 1063: The Planning (Applications for Planning Permission, Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) (Amendment) (England) Regulations 2006
 http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2006/20061063.htm, and
 DCLG Circular 1/2006: Guidance on Changes to the Development Control System
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1500620
 Statutory Instruments came into force on 10 August 2006 and brought into effect the requirement for design and access statements to be submitted with certain types of planning applications, in Section 42 of the
 Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004 (see above). Such applications must now be accompanied by a statement about the design principles and concepts that have been applied to the development,
 and about how issues relating to access to the development have been dealt with. Local planning authorities must not register such applications if they do not include a design and access statement. Information
 that statements are expected to include is explained in more detail in Circular 1/2006 (12 June 2006), and in a practical guide produced by CABE entitled, Design and Access Statements: How to Write, Read
 and Use Them (June 2006) (see below).
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
 Indicator – number of applications submitted per annum of a type that are required to       Design SPD will be expected to make reference to legal requirement for design and access statements with planning
 include a design and access statement, and percentage of such applications not              applications for certain types of development, and explain the Council‟s approach towards assessing these when making
 registered because they do not include a design and access statement.                       decisions on planning applications. However, recently-published CABE guidance, Design and Access Statements:
                                                                                             How to Write, Read and Use Them (see below) is comprehensive and there is no need to repeat this in the SPD. SA
                                                                                             will need to assess potential impact of guidance on visual amenity, accessibility and the quality of the environment.
 Air Quality Limit Values Regulations 2003
 http://www.opsi.gov.uk/SI/si2003/20032121.htm
 These Regulations transpose into national legislation the requirements of Directive 2002/3/EC. They determine the duty to ensure compliance with limit values of relevant pollutants in ambient air; set target
 values and long-term objectives for levels of ozone in ambient air; require the assessment of ambient air quality and the production of action plans where there is a risk of exceeding limit values for any of the
 relevant pollutants.
Faber Maunsell          Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
 Limit values and dates by which these are to be achieved are listed for:                    There is a limit to what can be achieved through the SPDs. However, air quality is an important issue in Walsall, since the
 Sulphur Dioxide, Nitrogen Dioxide and Oxides of Nitrogen, Particulate Matter, Lead          whole of the Borough has been declared as an Air Quality Management Area (AQMA) for nitrogen dioxide. The Design
 Benzene, Carbon Monoxide and Ozone.                                                         SPD policies should therefore encourage designs that are likely to lead to a reduction in air pollution in line with particular
                                                                                             limit values within the regulations, such as low carbon buildings, tree planting and layouts that encourage use of less
 Please see the Regulations for these limits.
                                                                                             polluting transport modes such as walking and cycling. The Natural Environment SPD might also usefully refer to the role
                                                                                             of trees and other vegetation in helping to improve and maintain air quality as well as being important wildlife habitats. SA
                                                                                             will need to assess potential impact of guidance on air quality.
 The Water Environment (England and Wales) Regulations 2003
 http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2003/20033242.htm
 The Regulations define river basin districts and require an analysis of their character, the impact of human activity on the basin, an economic analysis of water and the identification of the use of water for
 abstraction intended for human consumption. They also require the production of a register of protected areas lying within the river basin district; establish a monitoring programme for determining water status;
 set objectives and targets to improve water quality; and require the production of river basin management plans.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
 The Agency (by Dec 2004) should have (a) carried out an analysis of the                     Walsall lies within the Humber river basin management district but is also immediately adjacent to the Severn river basin
 characteristics of each river basin district; and (b) conducted a review of the impact of   district. River basin management planning in England is at a relatively early stage. Following an initial consultation
 human activity on the status of surface water and groundwater in each river basin           exercise at the beginning of 2007, significant issues are being identified for each river basin district and these are due to
 district.                                                                                   be published for consultation in late July 2007. Water quality varies across the Borough but monitoring by the
 These must be periodically updated by the Agency, initially by 22nd December 2013           Environment Agency has shown that the quality of the water in some urban watercourses in Walsall is very poor. Both
 and thereafter by each sixth anniversary of that date.                                      SPDs will need to address these issues and SPD policies should reflect the need to protect the water environment and
                                                                                             maintain/ improve water quality. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on pollution and water resources.
 All monitoring programmes should have been made operational by 22nd Dec 2006.
 The appropriate authority must ensure that river basin management plans are
 published by 22nd Dec 2009; and periodically reviewed and where appropriate
 updated, initially by 22nd Dec 2015 and thereafter by each 6th anniversary of that
 date.


 Transport Act, 2000
 http://www.opsi.gov.uk/ACTS/acts2000/20000038.htm
 The Act contains provision about transport, including:
  Air travel – navigation, charges and competition.
  Local transport – Production of local transport plans, bus strategies, (quality bus partnerships and contracts, ticketing, provision of information and pollution reduction).
  Travel concessions.
  Road user charges.
  Railways.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
 No measurable targets and indicators.                                                       The main relevance of this to the SPDs is in relation to the need for new development to support sustainable transport
                                                                                             and maintain or improve public access to key facilities, including natural greenspace. The SPDs should therefore promote
                                                                                             designs and layouts/ urban greenspace networks that are aimed at reducing the need to travel and support more
                                                                                             sustainable and less polluting forms of transport, (in particular walking and cycling). SA will need to assess potential
                                                                                             impact of guidance on accessibility, social inclusion and air quality.
 Part IV (Air Quality) Environment Act, 1995 (England and Wales)
 http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1995/Ukpga_19950025_en_1.htm
 Part IV of the Environment Act is related to Air Quality. It requires the preparation of a national air quality strategy for assessment and management of air quality. It sets out the requirements for local authority air
 quality reviews; the designation of air quality management areas and reserves powers of the secretary of state.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 No measurable targets and indicators.                                                      There is a limit to what can be achieved through the SPDs. However, air quality is an important issue in Walsall, since the
                                                                                            whole of the Borough has been declared as an Air Quality Management Area (AQMA) for nitrogen dioxide. The Design
                                                                                            SPD policies should therefore encourage designs that are likely to lead to a reduction in air pollution, such as low carbon
                                                                                            buildings, tree planting and layouts that encourage use of less polluting transport modes such as walking and cycling.
                                                                                            The Natural Environment SPD might also usefully refer to the role of trees and other vegetation in helping to improve and
                                                                                            maintain air quality as well as being important wildlife habitats. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on air
                                                                                            quality.
 Household (previously Municipal) Waste Recycling Act (2003)
 http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2003/20030029.htm
 The Act aims to increase the amount of household waste recycling and makes further provision regarding the collection, composting and recycling of household waste.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 Requires WCA‟s waste collection authorities to collect at least two separate               Design SPD should include guidance on addressing waste management in the design of new housing developments, for
 recyclables as well as residual waste by 2010.                                             example, by minimising the waste arising from construction and demolition, using reclaimed materials on site where
 The implementation of the Act will assist Local Authorities in achieving their statutory   possible, and making provision for sustainable waste management within housing developments, such as providing
 recycling targets which underpin the Waste Strategy 2000 national targets to recycle       adequate storage space for segregated waste for recycling and ensuring that layouts are designed to allow access for
 or compost at least 25% of household waste by 2005, 30% by 2010 and 33% by                 waste collection vehicles. SA will need to address potential impact of guidance on use of resources including buildings
 2015.                                                                                      and building materials.

 The Pollution Prevention and Control (England and Wales) Regulations, 2000
 http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2000/20001973.htm
 The Regulations aims to control pollution from industrial sources. It requires the prevention or reduction of emissions from installations and promotes techniques that reduce the amount of waste and releases
 overall.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 No measurable targets and indicators.                                                      Planning and pollution control regimes are quite separate and it is not appropriate for planning policies to seek to
                                                                                            influence matters that are the responsibility of other authorities. However, SPD policies should encourage and promote
                                                                                            developments that will help to reduce or prevent pollution and enhance land, air, and water quality. SA will need to
                                                                                            assess potential impact of guidance on pollution and natural resources.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)




 UK GOVERNMENT STRATEGIES AND POLICIES
 Building a Better Quality of Life: A Strategy for More Sustainable Construction (April 2000)
 http://www.dti.gov.uk/files/file13547.pdf and
 Review Documents
 http://www.dti.gov.uk/files/file21329.pdf http://www.dti.gov.uk/files/file21332.pdf
 Strategy aims to provide a catalyst for change in construction, and encourage the construction industry to adopt a more sustainable approach towards development. It identifies ten Themes for Action which the
 construction industry is urged to adopt. These embrace the principles of sustainable development, such as re-using existing built assets, designing for minimum waste, minimising energy in construction and use,
 avoiding pollution, preserving and enhancing biodiversity, conserving water resources and respecting people and their local environment. The Strategy is currently under review. Consultation paper Sustainable
 Construction Strategy Report (2006) embraces broad themes of the existing strategy but highlights need for urgent action. Built environment identified as major consumer of natural resources, and as
 responsible for serious environmental change. Construction industry advised to “embrace more sustainable forms of building and make better use of resources.” Six areas for improvement identified, one of
 which is that the design of new buildings should be based on “whole life value,” involving investment of more time and resources in design phase of the construction process, subjection of proposals to
 independent challenge, business cases that consider the running costs throughout the life of the building, and assessment of wider economic, social and environmental impacts. Identifies Code for Sustainable
 Homes (CSH), Design Quality Indicators (DQI), Environmental Performance Indicators (EPI) and Sustainability Checklists as potential tools that can be used at the design stage to assess the sustainability of
 buildings, but acknowledges the difficulty of identifying indicators for measuring design quality.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
 None directly applicable to a design guide such as the SPD, which can only have an          Underlying principles of Design SPD should include promotion of sustainable design and construction. For example, it
 indirect influence on such matters. Review document includes mostly very detailed           should promote the re-use of existing buildings, use of building materials that are durable and low-maintenance, designs
 targets relating to the construction of buildings, therefore not applicable to a design     that minimise running costs, and building types that are flexible and adaptable to new uses. SPD should also encourage
 guide. Review document acknowledges difficulty of identifying indicators for                developers to use appropriate techniques for assessing the relative sustainability of new buildings, such as the Code for
 measuring design quality. The Design Quality Indicators (DQI) referred to are for           Sustainable Homes (see below), BREEAM and the recently-developed West Midlands Sustainability Planning
 assessing the quality of an individual development scheme at different stages during        Checklist (see below), which has been developed from DQI and other similar tools. As these include detailed standards
 the design process, and they are far too detailed to be of use in assessing the             relating to the construction and performance of buildings, it would not be appropriate for the SPD itself to adopt such
 performance of a general design guide. The only practical measure would be the              standards, although it should provide guidance on how the use of such techniques can help to demonstrate compliance
 extent to which the SPD is encouraging such tools to be used in the design of new           with UDP policy (e.g. Policies GP1, GP2, ENV32, ENV39 and ENV40). Natural Environment SPD may also include
 developments. However, collecting information on this is likely to be difficult, as the     appropriate guidance on making provision for biodiversity in and around buildings. SA will need to assess impact of
 resources currently available for monitoring planning applications are very limited, and    guidance on natural resources and land use.
 applicants may not necessarily always state that they have used such techniques.
 Code for Sustainable Homes: A Step Change in Sustainable Home Building Practice (December 2006)
 http://www.planningportal.gov.uk/england/professionals/en/1115314116927.html
 Consultation on the Code for Sustainable Homes took place during 2004-05 and the final version was published in December 2006 alongside consultation papers on a proposed Planning Policy Statement on
 Climate Change, Building a Greener Future: Towards Zero Carbon Development (see below), and Water Efficiency in New Buildings. The Code for Sustainable Homes will complement the requirement for
 all new homes (and subsequently, all homes that are sold or leased) to have an Energy Performance Certificate, which is due to be introduced in July 2007. The Code relates to new homes only, and measures
 the sustainability of the homes according to a set of criteria which have been developed from the Building Research Establishment (BRE) EcoHomes Standard. The new Code has six levels, which are set by a
 scoring system, whereby points are given for achieving certain levels of sustainability. Compliance with the Code requires meeting minimum standards for energy efficiency and water efficiency, with additional
 points awarded for meeting standards relating to materials, surface water run-off, waste, pollution, health and well being, management and ecology. The levels range from Level 1, which requires slight
 improvements in energy efficiency over and above compliance with Part L of the Building Regulations, through to Level 6, which would be a “zero carbon home” and would also achieve significant water
 efficiency savings as well as scoring high points for meeting other sustainability standards. Compliance with the Code is at present voluntary but the Government announced in the 2007 Budget that it would
 eventually become mandatory through progressive changes to the Building Regulations.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
 None that can be specifically related to planning policy. In theory, it would be possible   The Code is currently only voluntary, and it is not possible for the Council to require home builders to comply with it
 to monitor the number of housing developments complying with the Code, if the               through the Design SPD, as the SPD must be in conformity with UDP policy, which was prepared before the Code came
 resources could be made available to monitor this. However, in practice it would only       into existence and therefore does not require compliance. The Code also relates to detailed standards of building
 be appropriate to do so if adherence to the Code was made a requirement in the LDF.         construction rather than the design and layout of buildings. However, they are related, given that the design and layout of
                                                                                             a scheme is likely to have a bearing on the standards achieved under the Code, and that compliance with the Code can
                                                                                             help home builders to demonstrate compliance with UDP policy, in particular, Policies GP2, ENV32, ENV39, ENV40, H1,
                                                                                             H10 and WM4. The SPD should at least express support for developments that comply with the Code and confirm that
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



                                                                                          this will be a material consideration that will be taken into account in the determination of planning applications. N.B. The
                                                                                          Code for Sustainable Homes should not be confused with “design codes,” which are a separate design tool – see
                                                                                          Preparing Design Codes: A Practice Manual below. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on the quality
                                                                                          of new housing, resources and energy.
 Building a Greener Future: Towards Zero Carbon Development – Consultation (December 2006)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1505157
 Consultation on a package of measures to tackle climate change, through proposed Planning Policy Statement on Climate Change (see below), amendments to Building Regulations and Code for
 Sustainable Homes (see above). Overall aim is to achieve zero carbon housing by 2016, i.e. that by 2016, net carbon emissions from domestic energy consumption will be zero.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                       Implications for SPD and SA
 Proposes the following stepped targets towards zero carbon housing by 2016:              As changes to Building Regulations are outside the scope of the planning system, the main implications for the Design
  25% improvement by 2010;                                                               SPD are in relation to Code for Sustainable Homes (see above) and draft Planning Policy Statement on Climate
                                                                                          Change (see below). However, the scope for addressing these issues in the SPD is limited, given it must be in conformity
  44% improvement by 2013;
                                                                                          with UDP policy, which was prepared before climate change was recognised as such a pressing issue and therefore does
  Zero carbon by 2016.                                                                   not include a specific requirement to reduce carbon emissions in new developments. In due course, the UDP polices will
 However, as it is proposed that these targets be set through the Building Regulations    be replaced by a new Core Strategy for the Black Country, but in the meantime, the SPD can draw attention to the issue
 rather than through planning policy, it would not be appropriate to do more than refer   and provide guidance on ways of reducing carbon emissions in all types of development (not just housing). SA will need
 to these targets in the SPD.                                                             to assess potential impact of guidance on the quality of new housing, resources, energy and climate change.
 Urban White Paper – Our Towns and Cities: the Future - Delivering an Urban Renaissance (November 2000)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1503232
 Followed Urban Task Force led by Lord Rogers, which recognised that the quality of the environment is crucial to the achievement of urban renaissance, and the creation of places where people want to live,
 work, bring up children, spend their leisure time, and set up businesses. White Paper identifies three ways in which urban areas could be made “places for people:” better planning and design, bringing derelict
 land and property back into beneficial use, and better management. Better planning and design is seen as making the best use of land, and building in a sustainable way that is sensitive to the needs of people
 and the impact urban living has on the environment.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                       Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                    The main aim of the Design SPD is to improve the quality of the design of new buildings and spaces in Walsall. By
                                                                                          ensuring that the natural environment and biodiversity are given due consideration in the development process, the
                                                                                          guidance in the Natural Environment SPD will also have the effect of protecting and improving the overall quality of the
                                                                                          environment. As such, both SPDs will also support the objectives of the White Paper, as well as the urban renaissance
                                                                                          policies in the RSS, and a wide range of policies in the UDP, in particular, those relating to local area regeneration (GP4),
                                                                                          environmental improvement (ENV9) and urban and landscape design (ENV32 and ENV33). SA will need to assess
                                                                                          impact of guidance on the overall quality of the environment, the local economy and quality of life for local communities.
 Sustainable Communities Plan: Building for the Future (February 2003)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1139868
 Long-term action plan for delivering sustainable communities; quality of environment seen as integral to delivery. Investment being targeted towards a range of measures, including the regeneration of deprived
 areas, protecting the Green Belt, and improvements to parks and other public spaces. Most important requirements for sustainable communities considered to include:
  Safe and healthy local environment with well-designed public and green space;
  Sufficient size, scale and density, and the right layout to support basic amenities in the neighbourhood and minimise use of resources (including land);
  Buildings – both individually and collectively – that can meet different needs over time and minimise use of resources;
  Well-integrated mix of decent homes of different types and tenures to support a range of household sizes, ages and incomes; and
  Sense of place.

 Sustainable Communities Plan for the West Midlands sets out a number of policies for the region, building on the RSS. Key issues to be addressed through planning include:
  Making more efficient use of land and better use of previously developed land and buildings;
  Improving urban design, with increased accessibility and reduced crime; and
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



  Provision of well designed and safe open spaces, close to communities, for formal and informal recreation.
 Also aims to tackle health inequalities by improving access to exercise facilities, including leisure and sport. Subsequent report Delivering Sustainable Communities: The Role of Local Authorities in the
 Delivery of New Quality Housing (2005) was launched at Sustainable Communities Summit in Manchester in February 2005, this document sets out how Government expects local authorities to deliver high
 quality new housing to support the Sustainable Communities Plan. Emphasises the need for effective planning services, and the need for quality as well as meeting supply and demand for new homes. Highlights
 the need for efficient development control services, including the need for access to design advice, and for staff to have the right skills to focus on the delivery of strategic outcomes and “high quality, well-
 designed residential environments.” Use of “design champions” is recommended.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                        Implications for SPD and SA
 Although need for monitoring of housing delivery is given particular emphasis in the      As the main aim of the Design SPD is to improve the quality of the design of new buildings and spaces in Walsall, and the
 Delivering Sustainable Communities document, no indicators are identified that            main aim of the Natural Environment SPD is to ensure that nature conservation and biodiversity issues are given due
 could be used to measure quality of schemes.                                              consideration in the development process, both SPDs will support the broad objectives of the Sustainable Communities
                                                                                           Plan, as well as the related objectives of the RSS and UDP such as local area regeneration (Policy GP4) and
                                                                                           environmental improvement (Policy ENV9). Although the Sustainable Communities Plan is primarily aimed at authorities
                                                                                           within the growth areas, there is clearly an expectation that all development control services should focus on the quality of
                                                                                           residential schemes, and should have access to design advice. When preparing the SPDs, the Council will therefore
                                                                                           need to consider how they will be implemented, and how the quality of new development proposals will be assessed. The
                                                                                           SPDs will also need to cover the essential requirements of sustainable communities in terms of the design and layout of
                                                                                           schemes, such as local character and identity, community safety, public health and open space as well as the design of
                                                                                           buildings, infrastructure and spaces. SA will need to assess impact of guidance on health and well being, quality of life,
                                                                                           community safety, access to key facilities, housing quality, land use and use of resources.
 UK Fuel Poverty Strategy (November 2001)
 http://www.dti.gov.uk/energy/fuel-poverty/strategy/index.html
 Pre-dates Energy White Paper: Meeting the Energy Challenge (see below), whose goals include ensuring that every home is affordably and adequately heated. Fuel poverty is defined as the need to spend
 more than 10% of income on fuel to maintain a satisfactory level of heat in the home. Identifies poor energy efficiency of homes and under-occupation of large dwellings as important factors contributing towards
 fuel poverty. Older people, families with children, and people with a disability or long-term illness are identified as the most vulnerable households. Main implications for design - notes potential of renewables in
 addressing fuel poverty, and local authority responsibilities under the Home Energy Efficiency Act (HECA) 1995 (see below) to identify measures to improve energy efficiency of all housing in their area.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                        Implications for SPD and SA
 Increase in generation of renewable energy through new proposals per annum is a           Fuel poverty is an important issue in Walsall, since in 2006 it was estimated that between 16% and 25% of the population
 Core Output Indicator for the LDF. However, this is will not necessarily be directly      fell within this category (depending on the definition used). Although the Design SPD can only indirectly influence fuel
 applicable to the SPD, which can only have an indirect influence on such matters.         poverty, it should encourage social landlords and other providers of affordable homes to consider the longer-term running
                                                                                           costs of new homes as well as their impact on the environment, and wherever possible to design schemes to incorporate
                                                                                           community heating systems and/ or renewable energy technologies. SPD should also highlight the importance of good
                                                                                           standards of insulation and energy efficiency in affordable homes, and provide guidance on how this can be achieved
                                                                                           through good design (see also Sustainable Energy by Design below). SA will need to assess impact of guidance on
                                                                                           energy and the quality of new housing.
 Home Energy Conservation Act 1995, 5th to 9th Progress Report
 http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/energy/heca95/index.htm
 The Home Energy Conservation Act 1995 (HECA) required every UK local authority with housing responsibilities - "energy conservation authorities" - to prepare, publish and submit to the Secretary of State an
 energy conservation report identifying practicable and cost-effective measures to significantly improve the energy efficiency of all residential accommodation in their area; and to report on progress made in
 implementing the measures.
 HECA has served to focus the attention of local authorities more closely on the energy efficiency of all residential accommodation, and on developing an integrated approach to their housing and energy
 efficiency strategies. Improvements achieved through HECA will contribute to meeting the UK's Climate Change commitments.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                        Implications for SPD and SA
 It is the responsibility of the authority to set out energy conservation measures that    The Design SPD policies need to address home energy consumption in new developments (including refurbishment and
 the authority considers practicable, cost-effective and likely to result in significant   conversion schemes) but is unlikely to be able to influence improvements to the energy efficiency of existing homes. SA
 improvement in the energy efficiency of residential accommodation in its area             will need to assess impact of guidance on energy and the quality of housing.
 (measures can include information, advice, education and promotion as well as
 making grants or loans and carrying out works). Also to include an assessment of the
Faber Maunsell          Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 cost of the measures, an assessment of the extent to which emissions of carbon
 dioxide will be reduced as a result of the measures and include a statement of any
 policy the authority has for taking into account the personal circumstances of any
 person.

 No specific targets.
 Microgeneration Strategy: Our Energy Future – Power From the People (May 2006)
 http://www.dti.gov.uk/energy/sources/sustainable/microgeneration/strategy/page27594.html
 Main objective - to create the conditions under which renewable energy generation becomes a realistic alternative or supplementary source of energy supply for householders, community groups and small
 businesses. Estimates that these technologies could provide up to 40% of the UK‟s energy needs by 2050. Acknowledges that local authorities can be more pro-active in promoting this through “sensible use of
 planning policies,” but main emphasis is on the barriers created by the regulatory constraints of the planning system, which is unfortunate. Energy Review (see below) indicates that the Strategy is to be
 implemented “aggressively” by the Government.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                      Implications for SPD and SA
 Increase in generation of renewable energy through new proposals per annum is a         See also below – Energy White Paper: Meeting the Energy Challenge and The Energy Challenge – Energy Review
 Core Output Indicator for the LDF. However, the proposed removal of domestic            Report. As well as stressing the need for energy requirements to be considered at the design stage of developments, the
 Microgeneration from planning control will make it impossible to monitor the amount     SPD could help to support the aims of the Microgeneration Strategy by focusing attention on the potential of renewable
 of renewable energy generated from such sources. Core Output Indicator will also not    energy technologies that can be applied to smaller developments. It could also include general advice on the
 necessarily be directly applicable to the SPD, which can only have an indirect          technologies currently available and sources of further information and support. Such guidance would be in line with
 influence on such matters.                                                              existing UDP energy policy ENV39. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on energy.
 Energy White Paper: Meeting the Energy Challenge (May 2007)
 http://www.dti.gov.uk/energy/whitepaper/page39534.html and
 Review Documents
 http://www.dti.gov.uk/energy/review/page31995.html
 Supersedes 2002 Energy White Paper, and follows on from major review of national energy policy. Main aims of new White Paper are to address the key challenges of:
  Tackling climate change by reducing carbon dioxide emissions both within the UK and abroad; and
  Ensuring secure, clean and affordable energy as we become increasingly dependent upon imported fuel.

 Main elements of strategy/ proposals relevant to planning are:
  Legally binding carbon targets for the whole UK economy aimed at cutting the UK‟s carbon dioxide emissions by at least 60% by 2050 and by 26 – 32% by 2020 against a 1990 baseline;
  Promoting energy saving, through better information among other things - something that good practice guidance on building design could assist with;
  Key goal of tackling fuel poverty, by ensuring that every home is affordably and adequately heated – some
  Implementation of Code for Sustainable Homes (see above) through progressive changes to Building Regulations, which may also have implications for design of new housing;
  Local planning authorities expected to help develop communities with lower carbon emissions, focusing on reducing the need for travel and making best use of low carbon and renewable energy, which is
    likely to have implications for the design, layout and landscaping of major regeneration and development schemes;
  Public sector expected to take lead in promoting distributed energy technologies, including biomass – UK Biomass Strategy is proposed, to maximise supply and use of biomass such as wood, energy
    crops and other materials to generate renewable energy, which may have implications for agricultural land and woodlands;
  Proposal to remove many Microgeneration projects from planning control – this is likely to affect the appearance of buildings and have cumulative impacts on the local townscape and landscape, which
    the SPDs will not be able to influence at all other than in areas of special control such as conservation areas;
  Proposal to streamline decision making on major energy infrastructure by improving planning inquiry procedures and transferring responsibility for making decisions on nationally significant projects from
    local planning authorities to a planning commission, who will base their decisions mainly on national policy statements - this suggests that more weight will be given to the need for energy than to any other
    considerations, and that the UDP and SPDs will have little influence over where such developments take place or even what they will look like.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                      Implications for SPD and SA
 Increase in generation of renewable energy through new proposals per annum is a         SPDs can only have an indirect effect on the shift towards a low carbon economy. However, it is clear from Energy
 Core Output Indicator for the LDF. However, this will not necessarily be directly       Review report, Microgeneration Strategy (see below) and the Parliamentary Statement issued in June 2006 alongside
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 applicable to the SPD, which can only have an indirect influence on such matters.       Climate Change and Sustainable Energy Act 2006 (see above), that the Design SPD will be expected to be as
                                                                                         ambitious as possible, subject to the limitations of the type of document that it will be, and the constraint that it must be in
                                                                                         conformity with the UDP. For example, it could make reference to the proposals to impose minimum standards, and
                                                                                         explain that it will be easier to meet them if the development‟s long-term energy requirements are considered at the
                                                                                         outset. The SPD could also advise on orientations and layouts that are likely to maximise solar gain, as well as
                                                                                         encourage walking, cycling and other more environmentally-friendly modes of transport. The SPD will also need to
                                                                                         include guidance on the design issues that will be taken into consideration when considering proposals for energy
                                                                                         generation, both large scale projects and smaller “distributed energy” schemes (assuming that at least some of the latter
                                                                                         will remain subject to planning control). The possible implications of the proposed changes to the GPDO are discussed
                                                                                         above. The proposed PPS on Climate Change is also expected to be published later in the year but it is not clear whether
                                                                                         it will be available in time to influence the SPD. Such an approach would also be in conformity with UDP Policies GP1,
                                                                                         ENV10, ENV39 and T8 – T12. This issue may also be relevant to the Natural Environment SPD, which will need to weigh
                                                                                         the potential impacts of renewable and low carbon energy schemes on the natural environment and biodiversity against
                                                                                         the benefits in terms of reducing carbon emissions. SA will need to assess impact of guidance on energy, air quality, the
                                                                                         quality of new housing and climate change.
 Health White Paper - Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier (November 2004)
 http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_4094550
 Acknowledges links between good health, the quality of the environment in which people live, and the choices open to them. Recognises that to encourage people to take healthy exercise, they need access to
 high quality green spaces, streets where they can walk safely, and more routes that are designed with cyclists and pedestrians in mind. Regional response to Health White Paper: Choosing Health for the West
 Midlands was published in 2006 (see below, Regional Strategies and Policies).
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                      Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                   UDP leisure and community policies (in particular, LC1, LC3 and LC5) already address these issues, but links to health
                                                                                         are not explicitly made. Although there is no direct relationship to the Health White Paper, by promoting well-designed
                                                                                         urban open spaces and other places that are attractive to walkers and cyclists, both SPDs could indirectly support its
                                                                                         aims. SPDs could also highlight links between good health, the quality of the environment where people live and the
                                                                                         choices open to them, such as access to green spaces and other places that encourage physical activity, and how good
                                                                                         design can improve access to these facilities and help address health inequalities. SA will need to assess impact of
                                                                                         guidance on health and well being.
 Equality and Diversity in Planning: A Good Practice Guide (January 2005)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1505969
 General guidance on equality and diversity. Key messages relevant to preparation of SPD:
  Need to understand equality and diversity – ensure that use and development of land recognises, respects, values and harnesses different needs;
  Equality is not possible without proper understanding of issues – policies and plans that do not address different needs may discriminate even if this was not the intention;
  Planning for diversity means being inclusive – need to engage with all relevant parts of the community, and be aware of “barriers” that may prevent some people from participating;
  Diversity and equality are integral to sustainable communities – should not be regarded as “add on” but should be embedded in planning process;
  Need to recognise that some forms of discrimination are more subtle than others – any disability or racial discrimination is unlawful whether intentional or not;
  Main aim of mainstreaming diversity issues is to improve quality of results – outcome is more likely to benefit the community if the process is right.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                      Implications for SPD and SA
 Monitoring essential to ensuring that the new planning system is working – including    One of the key priorities of the Design SPD will be to promote designs and layouts that are inclusive and sensitive to the
 assessing benefits of planning on different people within the community. Comments       needs of all those who will live, work or visit the new places created. SPD must therefore reflect the needs and values of
 on the emerging SPD will be monitored to ensure that they are broadly representative    different people within the local community, and must not inadvertently discriminate against anyone on the grounds of
 of the community as a whole, and if necessary, efforts will be made to engage with      race, disability or gender. Understanding of equality and diversity issues should be developed through consultation and
 groups not represented to ensure that their views are taken into account. Monitoring    community engagement during the preparation of the SPD, in accordance with the adopted Walsall Statement of
 systems are already in place for assessing gender, age, race and disability of those    Community Involvement (SCI) (see below). SPD will also be subject to Equalities Impact Assessment (EQIA) in
 submitting planning applications. Impacts of UDP design policies and SPD on these       accordance with the Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000 and Disability Discrimination Act 2005 (see above) and
 groups could therefore be measured in theory if measurable indicators relating to       the Council‟s Race, Gender and Disability Equality Schemes (see below). It is proposed that this will be undertaken as
 design and layout of new developments could be identified.                              part of the sustainability appraisal, in line with the latest Government advice. Implications for Natural Environment SPD
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



                                                                                           are less obvious, although it may have some if it includes guidance on nature reserves or other natural habitats that are
                                                                                           to be publicly accessible. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on social inclusion, access to key facilities,
                                                                                           equality and diversity and community cohesiveness.
 UK Sustainable Development Strategy – Securing the Future (March 2005)
 http://www.sustainable-development.gov.uk/publications/uk-strategy/index.htm
 Has replaced previous 1999 UK Sustainable Development Strategy: A Better Quality of Life. Relevant to all plans. New goal for sustainable development – to enable all people throughout the world to satisfy
 their basic needs and enjoy a better quality of life, without compromising the quality of life of future generations. Strategy underpinned by five guiding principles:
  Living within environmental limits;
  Ensuring a strong, healthy and just society;
  Achieving a sustainable economy;
  Promoting good governance; and
  Using sound science responsibly.
 And four shared priority issues:
  Sustainable consumption and production;
  Climate change and energy;
  Natural resource protection and environmental enhancement; and
  Sustainable communities.

 Strategy also includes definition of “sustainable communities” which differs from list of requirements set out in Sustainable Communities Plan (see above). Two of the eight components identified relate directly to
 the quality of the environment and urban design: Environmentally sensitive communities, which:
  Actively seek to minimise climate change, including through energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy;
  Protect the environment, by minimising pollution on land, in water and in the air;
  Minimise waste and dispose of it in accordance with current good practice;
  Make efficient use of natural resources, encouraging sustainable consumption and production;
  Protect and improve biodiversity (e.g. wildlife habitats);
  Enable a lifestyle that minimises negative environmental impact and enhances positive impacts (e.g. by creating opportunities for walking and cycling, and reducing noise pollution and dependence on cars);
     and
  Create cleaner, safer and greener neighbourhoods (e.g. by reducing litter and graffiti, and maintaining pleasant public spaces).

 And Well designed and built communities, which have:
  Sense of place (e.g. place with positive “feeling” for people & local distinctiveness;
  User-friendly public and green spaces with facilities for everyone including children and older people;
  Sufficient range, diversity, affordability and accessibility of housing within a balanced housing market;
  Appropriate size, scale density, design and layout, including mixed-use development, that complements the distinctive character of the community;
  High quality, mixed-use, durable, flexible and adaptable buildings, using sustainable construction materials;
  Buildings and public spaces which promote health and are designed to reduce crime and make people safe; and
  Accessibility of jobs, key services and facilities by public transport, walking and cycling.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                        Implications for SPD and SA
 Although the Strategy includes a number of indicators, none of these is directly          One of the key strategies that will inform both the SA framework and both SPDs. To achieve sustainable development
 applicable to a design guide such as the SPD, which can only have an indirect             within Walsall, it is crucial that all those who are involved in the development process consider all of the relevant issues
 influence on the issues to which the indicators apply.                                    before they design a new scheme. The SPDs must therefore highlight the importance of considering these issues, and
                                                                                           explain how sustainable development and sustainable communities can become a reality, through careful attention to the
                                                                                           design and layout of a development, and consideration of issues relating to the natural environment at the outset. Such
                                                                                           an approach would be consistent with UDP natural environment policies ENV2 – 3, ENV7 and ENV17 – 24, and design
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



                                                                                            policies ENV32 and ENV33 as well as various other policies in the UDP relating to sustainable development, for example,
                                                                                            GP2, ENV10, ENV39 and ENV40. To ensure that the SPD addresses all of the relevant issues, the SA framework will
                                                                                            also need to embrace the revised national sustainable development goals, principles and shared priority issues, as is
                                                                                            advocated in the Regional Sustainable Development Framework, A Sustainable Future for the West Midlands (see
                                                                                            below).
 UK Climate Change Programme 2006 (March 2006)
 http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/climatechange/uk/ukccp/index.htm
 Sets out the Government‟s proposals for tackling climate change. Chapter 8, paragraph 15 acknowledges that the planning system has an important role to play in this, given that “the location, design,
 construction and siting of built development and economic and social activity can significantly affect the level of greenhouse gas emissions.”
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 None directly applicable to a design guide such as the SPD, which can only have an         Although the SPDs cannot influence the location of development, it will influence the design, construction and detailed
 indirect influence on such matters.                                                        siting of new buildings and places. It would therefore be appropriate for it to describe the main causes of climate change
                                                                                            affecting the Black Country and the likely impacts, and to provide guidance on how careful attention to design and layout
                                                                                            can help minimise contributions to the causes, and manage or mitigate the unavoidable effects. Such guidance would be
                                                                                            in line with existing UDP policies towards landscape (ENV7), trees and woodland (ENV17 - 18), energy (ENV39), water
                                                                                            (ENV40) and design (ENV32 and ENV33), the sustainable location of new development (GP1) and environmental
                                                                                            protection (GP2). SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on climate change.
 The UK Government Rural Strategy (2004)
 http://www.defra.gov.uk/rural/pdfs/strategy/rural_strategy_2004.pdf
 The Rural Strategy 2004 identifies three key priorities for rural policy. These are:
  Economic and Social Regeneration – supporting enterprises across rural England, but targeting greater resources at areas of greatest needs.
  Social Justice for All – tackling rural social exclusion whenever it occurs and providing fair access to services and opportunities for all rural people.
  Enhancing the Value of our Countryside – protecting the natural environment for this and future generations.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 The main objectives identified within each key priority are as follows:                    SPD policy and strategy to contribute to the fundamental objectives of the UK Rural Strategy, by including appropriate
  Economic and social regeneration.                                                        guidance on development within the Green Belt/ open countryside areas of the Borough. This will need to be sensitive to
                                                                                            the needs of people who live in and visit those areas as well as protecting valuable areas of landscape, historical assets
       Building on the economic success of the majority of rural areas.
                                                                                            and wildlife habitats. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on quality of life, equality and diversity,
       Tackling the structural economic weaknesses and the accompanying poor               landscape and land use.
        social conditions that exist in a minority of rural areas.
  Social justice for all.
       Fair access to public services and affordable housing.
       Tackle social exclusion wherever it occurs.
  Enhancing the value of our countryside.
       Protect and enhance the rural and urban environments.
       Enhance the value and natural beauty of the countryside for rural
        communities and for the benefit of society in general.

 There are key government indicators and targets within the Rural Strategy, including
 a number of PSA targets. Those measurable PSA targets are listed below:
  PSA3 - Care for our natural heritage, make the countryside attractive and
    enjoyable for all, and preserve biological diversity by:
        reversing the long-term decline in the number of farmland birds by 2020, as
         measured annually against underlying trends; and
        bringing into favourable condition by 2010 95% of all nationally important
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



           wildlife sites.
    PSA4 - Reduce the gap in productivity between the least well performing quartile
     of rural areas and the English median by 2008, demonstrating progress by 2006,
     and improve the accessibility of services for people in rural areas.
 The UK Government Rural White Paper: Our Countryside: the Future – a Fair deal for Rural England (2000)
 http://www.defra.gov.uk/rural/pdfs/ruralwp/rural.pdf
 The visions is of:
  a living countryside, with thriving rural communities and access to high quality public services;
  a working countryside, with a diverse economy giving high and stable levels of employment;
  a protected countryside in which the environment is sustained and enhanced, and which all can enjoy;
  a vibrant countryside which can shape its own future and with its voice heard by Government at all levels.
 The aim is to sustain and enhance the distinctive environment, economy and social fabric of the English countryside for the benefit of all.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                        Implications for SPD and SA
 There are a number of key government indicators and action points included within         SPD policy and strategy to contribute to the rural objectives of the White Paper, by including appropriate guidance on
 the White Paper, relating to:                                                             development within the Green Belt/ open countryside areas of the Borough. This will need to be sensitive to the needs of
  Living Countryside (supporting vital village services, modernising rural services,      people who live in and visit those areas as well as protecting valuable areas of landscape, historical assets and wildlife
     providing affordable homes and delivering local transport solutions)                  habitats. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on quality of life, economic investment, landscape and land
                                                                                           use.
  Working Countryside (rejuvenating market towns and helping to ensure a thriving
     economy and setting a new direction for farming)
  Protected Countryside (preserving what makes rural England special and
     ensuring everyone can enjoy an accessible countryside)
  Vibrant Countryside (giving local power to country towns and villages and thinking
     rural)
 Indicators include:
  % of households within x km of food shops, post offices, cash points, child
     nurseries, primary schools, GP surgeries
  % of people in rural wards in low income bands
  Proportion of rural population disadvantaged in access to housing
  Proportion of households in rural areas within about 10 minutes walk of at least
     hourly bus service
  new business start ups and turnover of businesses in rural areas
  Change in countryside quality including biodiversity, tranquillity, heritage, and
     landscape character
  % of parishes in four categories (vibrant, active, barely active, sleeping) assessed
     on numbers of meeting places, voluntary and cultural activities, contested parish
     elections
 UK Biodiversity Action Plan (1994)
 http://www.ukbap.org.uk/
 The UK BAP is the UK Government‟s response to the Convention of Biological Diversity 9CBD0 signed in 1992. It describes the UK biological resources and commits a detail plan for the protection of these
 resources. The UK BAP has 391 Species Action Plans, 45 Habitat Action Plans and 162 Local Biodiversity Action Plans with targeted actions
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                        Implications for SPD and SA
    To conserve and enhance biological diversity within the UK and to contribute to       See also Biodiversity Action Plan for Birmingham and the Black Country below. This is of particular relevance to
     the conservation of global biodiversity through all appropriate mechanisms.           Natural Environment SPD. SPD polices should allow the greatest of gains for both Biodiversity Action Plans (BAPs), by
    To develop national strategies for the conservation of biological diversity and the   promoting development that is likely to enhance local and national biodiversity, by maintaining and managing existing
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



    sustainable use of biological resources.                                             priority habitats and where possible creating new habitats within developments that will support priority species. SA will
                                                                                         need to assess potential impact of guidance on biodiversity.
 Working with the grain of nature: A Biodiversity Strategy for England (2002)
 http://www.defra.gov.uk/wildlife-countryside/biodiversity/biostrat/index.htm
 The Strategy seeks to ensure biodiversity considerations become embedded in all main sectors of public policy and sets out a programme for the next five years to make the changes necessary to conserve,
 enhance and work with the grain of nature and ecosystems rather than against them.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                      Implications for SPD and SA
 The key objective is:                                                                   This is of particular relevance to Natural Environment SPD, but is also relevant to Design SPD given that the design and
  to protect and improve the rural, urban, marine and global environment and lead       layout of new development can contribute towards biodiversity for example by helping to maintain or create linkages
    on the integration of these with other policies across Government and                between habitats. SPD policies will need to ensure that development does not have a detrimental impact on biodiversity,
    internationally.                                                                     and that it will make a positive contribution wherever possible. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on
                                                                                         biodiversity.
 Under this objective the key target is:
  to care for our natural heritage, make the countryside attractive and enjoyable for
    all and preserve biological diversity.
 This is undertaken through:
  Agriculture – encouraging the management of farming and agricultural land so as
    to conserve and enhance biodiversity as part of the Government‟s Sustainable
    Food and Farming Strategy.
  Water – aiming for a whole catchment approach to the wise, sustainable use of
    water and wetlands.
  Woodland – with the management and extension of woodland so as to promote
    enhanced biodiversity and quality of life.
  Urban areas – where biodiversity needs to become a part of the development of
    policy on sustainable communities, urban green space and the built environment.

 Key target is to care for our natural heritage, make the countryside attractive and
 enjoyable for all and preserve biological diversity by:
  reversing the long-term decline in the number of farmland birds by 2020, as
    measured annually against underlying trends
  bringing into favourable condition by 2010 95% of all nationally important wildlife
    sites

 Headline indicators include:
  populations of wild birds
  condition of SSSIs
  progress with Biodiversity Action Plans
  area of land under agri-environment agreement
  biological quality of rivers
  fish stocks around the UK fished within safe limits
  progress with Local Biodiversity Action Plans
  public attitudes to biodiversity
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 The Stern Report (October 2006) – The Economics of Climate Change
 http://www.hmtreasury.gov.uk/independent_reviews/stern_review_economics_climate_change/stern_review_report.cfm
 The Review assesses a wide range of evidence on the impacts of climate change and on the economic costs, and use a number of different techniques to assess costs and risks. From all of these perspectives
 the evidence gather by the review leads to a simple conclusion: the benefits of strong and early action far outweigh the economic costs of not acting.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 Three elements of policy are required for an effective response.                           Although SPDs can only have an indirect effect on climate change, the SPD policies will need to address climate change
  carbon pricing, through taxation, emissions trading or regulation, so that people        and encourage developments that minimise emissions to the extent that is possible within the constraints of the UDP
     are faced with the full social costs of their actions. The aim should be to build a    policies that they support. For example, Design SPD should include guidance on climate change mitigation and
     common global carbon price across countries and sectors.                               adaptation through design. This issue may also be relevant to the Natural Environment SPD, which will need to weigh the
                                                                                            potential impacts of renewable and low carbon energy schemes on the natural environment and biodiversity against the
  technology policy, to drive the development and deployment at scale of a range of
                                                                                            benefits in terms of reducing carbon emissions. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on climate change.
     low-carbon and high-efficiency products.
  action to remove barriers to energy efficiency, and to inform, educate and
     persuade individuals about what they can do to respond to climate change.
 Fostering a shared understanding of the nature of climate change, and its
 consequences, is critical in shaping behaviour, as well as in underpinning both
 national and international action.

 This report does not outline any specific measurable targets.
 Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland: Working Together for Clean Air (2000)
 http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/airquality/strategy/pdf/foreword.pdf
 The Strategy sets out plans to improve and protect ambient air quality in the UK, to protect people‟s health and the environment without unacceptable economic or social costs. It also details national air quality
 standards and objectives for ten pollutants.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 The Strategy sets targets for eight main air pollutants to protect health. Performance     There is a limit to what can be achieved through the SPDs. However, air quality is an important issue in Walsall, since the
 against these are monitored where people are regularly present and might be                whole of the Borough has been declared as an Air Quality Management Area (AQMA) for nitrogen dioxide. The Design
 exposed to air pollution. There are also two new pollutant targets to protect              SPD policies should therefore encourage designs that are likely to lead to improve air quality and reduce air pollution,
 vegetation and ecosystems. These are monitored away from urban and industrial              such as low carbon buildings, tree planting and layouts that encourage use of less polluting transport modes such as
 areas and motorways. The table of concentrations can be found within the summary           walking and cycling. The Natural Environment SPD might also usefully refer to the role of trees and other vegetation in
 of the strategy.                                                                           helping to improve and maintain air quality as well as being important wildlife habitats. SA will need to assess potential
                                                                                            impact of guidance on air quality.


 The countryside in and around towns. A vision for connecting town and country in the pursuit of sustainable development (2005)
 http://naturalengland.twoten.com/naturalenglandshop/docs/CA207.pdf
 The vision presents ten key functions for the countryside in and around towns and suggests their potential contribution if fully realised.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 The main objectives are:                                                                   The SPD policies should encompass all the objectives outlined by this Plan as it is in pursuit of sustainable development.
  To make the countryside in and around towns readily accessible to most people.           Where relevant, the design of new development should reflect the objectives of the plan and should promote access to
                                                                                            open spaces, nature reserves, open countryside and other opportunities for recreation. SA will need to assess potential
  Contribute to the health, wealth and well being of urban and rural communities.
                                                                                            impact of guidance on access to key facilities, landscape and land use.
  Underpin more sustainable living.
  Strengthen biodiversity in both town and country.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 Ten Key Functions:
 1 A bridge to the country                        6 A productive landscape
 2 A gateway to the town                          7 A cultural legacy
 3 A health centre                                8 A place for sustainable living
 4 A classroom                                    9 An engine for regeneration
 5 A recycling & renewable energy centre          10 A nature reserve

 No measurable targets or specific indicators.
 Power of Place. The Future of the Historic Environment (2000)
 http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/server/show/nav.1447
 Power of Place is about the future of England‟s historic environment, its role in people‟s lives, and its contribution to the well-being of the nation. It demonstrates that with proper understanding and sensitive and
 open management, there can be desirable change without losing the places we value.

 The document makes recommendations to ensure the protection of the historic environment:
 1. Put conservation at the heart of renewal and regeneration                 10. Remove barriers to access
 2. Encourage the repair and use of neglected buildings                       11. Support the voluntary sector
 3. Clear the back log of repairs                                             12. Make more use of character appraisal
 4. Provide more support for rural, coastal and marine environments           13. Make the regulatory system work better
 5. Promote good design that enhances its context                             14. Encourage research and scholarship to underpin conservation
 6. Encourage better maintenance                                              15. Publish regular ‟State of the Historic Environment „reports
 7. Promote conservation training and craft skills                            16. Create an historic environment information network
 8. Place the historic environment at the heart of education                  17. Support local leaders
 9. Enable more people to participate                                         18. The government should lead by example
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 There are a number of targets for:                                                         Designing a Better Walsall SPD will need to include guidance on how a well-designed scheme can help to protect and
  Government                                                                               secure the long-term management of the historic environment, including important local buildings and features that do not
                                                                                            enjoy statutory protection but contribute towards local character. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on
  Regional Development Agency‟s
                                                                                            landscape and townscape and the historic environment.
  Regional Cultural Consortiums
  Local Government
  Education Sector
  Heritage Sector
  Owners & Developers
 There are no specific indicators or measurable targets.
 Accessible Natural Green-Space Standards, English Nature
 http://www.english-nature.org.uk/pubs/publication/PDF/153_1.pdf and
 http://www.english-nature.org.uk/pubs/publication/PDF/153_2.pdf and
 http://www.english-nature.org.uk/pubs/publication/PDF/153_3.pdf
 The purpose of this report is to help Local Authorities develop policies which acknowledge, protect and enhance the contribution natural spaces make to local sustainability. Three aspects of natural spaces in
 cities and towns are discussed:
  their biodiversity;
  their ability to cope with urban pollution;
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



    ensuring natural spaces are accessible to everyone.



 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                        Implications for SPD and SA
 The report aims to show how size and distance criteria can be used to identify the        Parks and public open spaces are identified in UDP Policies ENV32 and ENV33 as areas where the need to take proper
 natural spaces which contribute most to local sustainability. The implications of these   account of the context and surroundings will be particularly significant. Chapter 8 of the UDP includes policies relating to
 findings for planners in central and local government, and people in private practice     open space, playing fields and other outdoor recreational facilities. The Council has also adopted a SPD on Urban Open
 who design the main elements of urban areas are discussed.                                Space, which explains in more detail how the policies will be applied, and in particular, how requirements for new open
                                                                                           space provision as part of residential developments will be assessed. The Natural Environment SPD could also provide
                                                                                           guidance on how open spaces may contribute towards biodiversity, whilst acknowledging that in the case of playing
 This paper suggested two minimum targets:
                                                                                           fields, this is not their primary function. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on access to health and well
  An urban resident should be able to enter a natural greenspace of at least 2            being, quality of life, and access to key facilities.
    hectares within 0.5 kilometres of their home.
  Provision should be made for Local Nature Reserves in every urban area at the
    minimum level of 1 hectare per thousand population.

 In addition to these targets, guidelines were suggested for:
  at least one 20 hectare site within 2 kilometres of all residents;
  at least one 100 hectare site within 5 kilometres of all residents; and
  at least one 500 hectare site within 10 kilometres of all residents.
 Strategy for Sustainable Farming and Foods, DEFRA, 2002 and Sustainable Farming and Food Strategy A Forward Look (2006)
 http://www.defra.gov.uk/farm/policy/sustain/pdf/sffs.pdf and
 http://www.defra.gov.uk/farm/policy/sustain/pdf/sffs-fwd-060718.pdf and
 http://www.defra.gov.uk/farm/policy/sustain/index.htm
 The Sustainable Farming and Food Strategy sets out how industry, Government and consumers can work together to secure a sustainable future for our farming and food industries, as viable industries
 contributing to a better environment and healthy and prosperous communities
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                        Implications for SPD and SA
 Key objectives include:                                                                   The Natural Environment SPD needs to recognise the issues which are faced by the farming community within the rural
  Produce safe, healthy products in response to market demands, and ensure that           and urban fringe areas of the Borough. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on quality of life, equality and
    all consumers have access to nutritious food, and to accurate information about        diversity, economic investment, landscape and land use.
    food products.
  Support the viability and diversity of rural and urban economies and communities.
  Enable viable livelihoods to be made from sustainable land management, both
    through the market and through payments for public benefits.
  Respect and operate within the biological limits of natural resources (especially
    soil, water and biodiversity).
  Achieve consistently high standards of environmental performance by reducing
    energy consumption, by minimising resource inputs, and use renewable energy
    wherever possible.
  Ensure a safe and hygienic working environment and high social welfare and
    training for all employees involved in the food chain.
  Achieve consistently high standards of animal health and welfare.
  Sustain the resource available for growing food and supplying other public
    benefits over time, except where alternative land uses are essential to meet other
    needs of society.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)




 There are 11 headline indicators covering the 9 strategic outcomes below:
 Economic Indicators
  Market focussed farming
  Competitiveness of the food chain
  Burden on the taxpayer
 Environmental Indicators
  Environmental cost of the food chain
  Better use of natural resources
  Landscape & biodiversity
 Social Indicators
  Public health
  Animal health & welfare
  Rural productivity

 Each indicator has a target set and a trajectory showing the path by which it is
 expected to achieve that target.                 The indicators can be found at:
 http://statistics.defra.gov.uk/esg/indicators/
 And include:
  To reduce the levels of nitrate and phosphate in river water from agricultural
     sources to contribute to meeting the environmental objectives of the Water
     Framework Directive by 2015
  To halt the decline of soil organic matter caused by agricultural practices in
     vulnerable soils by 2025, whilst maintaining, as a minimum, the soil organic matter
     of other agricultural soils, taking into account the impacts of climate change
  The target is for 95% of all sites that are under agricultural management to be in a
     favourable or recovering condition by 2010
  The aim is to reverse the long term decline in farmland bird populations, that the
     decline in the index will continue to slow by 2009 and remain stable up to 2014,
     after which the decline reverses and the index rises through to 2020
 The Historic Environment: A Force for Our Future
 http://www.culture.gov.uk/Reference_library/Publications/archive_2001/his_force_future.htm
 This report is the Giverment‟s statement in on the historic environment. It sets out how the historic environment hold the key to:
  An inspiring education resource
  More attractive towns and cities
  A prosperous and sustainable countryside
  World class tourist attractions
  New jobs
 The report contains a number of recommendations for the Government itself, for the heritage sector and for local authorities.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 The key objectives are:                                                                    The SPD policies should provide protection of the historic environment in order to preserve it for future generations.
  public interest in the historic environment is matched by firm leadership, effective
    partnerships, and the development of a sound knowledge base from which to
    develop policies;
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



    the full potential of the historic environment as a learning resource is realised;
    the historic environment is accessible to everybody and is seen as something with
     which the whole of society can identify and engage;
    the historic environment is protected and sustained for the benefit of our own and
     future generations;
    the historic environment‟s importance as an economic asset is skilfully harnessed.

 No indicators or measurable targets. The document sets out a detailed programme of
 action in support of the Government‟s vision.
 Tackling Health Inequalities: A Programme for Action (2003)
 http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_4008268
 This Programme for Action sets out plans to tackle health inequalities over a period of three years. It establishes the foundations required to achieve the challenging national target for 2010 to reduce the gap in
 infant mortality across social groups, and raise life expectancy in the most disadvantaged areas faster than elsewhere.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                        Implications for SPD and SA
 Strategy Themes:                                                                          Both SPDs can support the guidance by promoting development that encourages healthy lifestyles such as providing
  supporting families, mothers and children – reflecting the high priority given to       access to walking, cycling and other active recreation. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on health and
     them in the Acheson inquiry report                                                    well being.
  engaging communities and individuals – strengthening capacity to tackle local
     problems and pools of deprivation, alongside national programmes to address the
     needs of local communities and socially excluded groups
  preventing illness and providing effective treatment and care – by tobacco
     policies, improving primary care and tackling the “big killers” of coronary heart
     disease (CHD) and cancer. The NHS has a key part to play in contributing to the
     national health inequalities targets at the local as well as the national level
  addressing the underlying determinants of health – emphasising the need for
     concerted action across Government at national and local level up to and beyond
     the 2010 target date

 Strategy Principles
 The themes of the strategy are underpinned by five principles:
  preventing health inequalities worsening
  working through the mainstream
  targeting specific interventions
  supporting action from the centre and through the regions
  delivering at local level

 National PSA Target - By 2010 to reduce inequalities in health outcomes by 10 per
 cent as measured by infant mortality and life expectancy at birth.

 Two underpinning targets are
  starting with children under one year, by 2010 to reduce by at least 10 per cent
   the gap in mortality between routine and manual groups and the population as a
   whole
  starting with local authorities, by 2010 to reduce by at least 10 per cent the gap
   between the fifth of areas with the lowest life expectancy at birth and the
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



    population as a whole

 National Headline Indicators
  Access to Primary care
  Accidents
  Child poverty
  Diet – 5-a-day
  Education
  Homelessness
  Housing
  Influenza Vaccinations
  PE & School Sport
  Smoking Prevalence (manual groups & in pregnancy)
  Teenage Conceptions
  Mortality from the Major Killer Diseases
 Directing the flow – Priorities for Future Water Policy
 http://www.defra.gov.uk/ENVIRONMENT/water/strategy/pdf/directing_the_flow.pdf
 This document sets out the priorities for government policy on water in England over the longer term. Its scope is primarily the use of freshwater and the inland water environment, but it also covers estuaries and
 many aspects of the coastal water.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                        Implications for SPD and SA
 The aims of this document are:                                                            The existing UDP water policy ENV40 already addresses most of these issues. The SPDs will need to expand on this and
  to define the Government‟s strategic vision for the direction of water policy and its   provide guidance on the potential impact of new development on the water environment, such as water quality, drainage,
     place among broader Government objectives in England; and                             flooding, and water as a resource for human consumption, wildlife and recreation. SA will need to assess potential impact
                                                                                           of guidance on pollution and water resources.
  to identify the main future priorities and direction over the longer term for the
     inland and coastal water environment, for water resources and for the water and
     sewerage industry.
 Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive will provide the most important
 single means of taking forward the aims of this document.
 No specific measurable targets or indicators. This policy aims to help reach targets
 set by the Water Framework Directive. The document sets out a number of priorities
 for water but these mainly outline future actions and strategies rather than targets.




 Making Space for Water – taking forward a new Government strategy for flood and coastal erosion risk management in England - First Government response to the autumn 2004 consultation
 exercise (2005)
 http://www.defra.gov.uk/environ/fcd/policy/strategy/1stres.pdf
 The intention is that the new strategy:
  builds upon work to take account of sustainable development and the Government‟s strategic priorities;
  addresses the messages from the Foresight Future Flooding report and reflects lessons learned from the flood events in the recent past;
  addresses the challenges and pressures we will face in the 21st century such as climate change, development pressures and rising levels of risk and cost; and
  develops a more integrated and holistic approach to the management of flood and coastal erosion risk using a portfolio of measures.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                       Implications for SPD and SA
 Aim                                                                                      Flood risk assessment is becoming a more important part of planning policies. Although the UDP was not subject to a
 To manage the risks from flooding and coastal erosion by employing an integrated         Strategic Flood Risk Assessment (SFRA), it does identify the areas in Walsall that are considered to be most at risk (i.e.
 portfolio of approaches which reflect both national and local priorities, so as:         Flood Zones 2 and 3). It is not appropriate to carry out a SFRA to inform the preparation of these SPDs, given that they
                                                                                          will support policies in the UDP, which will in due course be superseded by new LDDs that will be subject to SFRA. In the
  to reduce the threat to people and their property; and
                                                                                          meantime, the SPDs should highlight the need for early discussions with the Council and the Environment Agency, when
  to deliver the greatest environmental, social and economic benefit, consistent with    contemplating development in areas of flood risk, given that the Council now has a statutory obligation to consult the
     the Government‟s sustainable development principles.                                 Environment Agency on all major applications within flood risk areas, and that in such cases, developers and applicants
 To secure efficient and reliable funding mechanisms that deliver the levels of           are expected to undertake a Flood Risk Assessment (FRA). In line with the PPS and the UDP policy, the SPDs should
 investment required to achieve the vision of this strategy.                              also provide appropriate guidance on the approach towards designs and layouts in locations that are within or near to
                                                                                          floodplains or groundwater protection areas, as well as advice on the incorporation of integrated systems to conserve
                                                                                          water and sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) and how these can fit around existing natural habitats and help to
 Working towards relevant PSA targets (covered in other documents i.e. SSSI               create new ones. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on quality of life, natural resources and climate
 condition).                                                                              change.
 National Cycling Strategy (1996)
 http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/sustainable/cycling/deliveryofthenationalcycling5738
 The National Cycling Strategy aims to establish a culture favorable to the increased use of bicycles for all age groups; to develop sound policies and good practice; and seek out effective and innovative means of
 fostering accessibility by bike.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                       Implications for SPD and SA
 The key objectives are as follows:                                                       The Designing a Better Walsall SPD should promote designs and layouts that are likely to encourage cycling in support of
  To increase cycle use.                                                                 the key objectives of the national strategy as well as the Walsall Cycling Strategy (see below), such as plans that make
                                                                                          use of existing cycle routes or link in with the existing cycle route network/ greenways. SA will need to assess impact of
  To achieve convenient cycle access to key destinations.
                                                                                          guidance on health and well being and access to key facilities.
  Improve cycle safety.
  Provide for increased cycle use within all local highways and traffic managed
    schemes.
  Cycle parking facilities to be available at all major destinations, including town
    centres, shopping developments, education establishments, hospitals, and leisure
    facilities.
  Reduce cycle theft – by improving cycle safety.
  Raise awareness and expertise amongst transport providers, service providers
    and employees.
  Unlock financial resources to meet strategy objectives.
  Progress to National Cycling Strategy.

 A review of the delivery mechanisms that are in place to support cycling (the National
 Cycling Strategy 1996) was undertaken and the review believes that the original 1996
 targets will not be achieved. (Targets re-addressed in The Future of Transport White
 Paper 2004 see below).

 Headline target related to the number of trips it is hoped that this will be:
  Doubled by 2002
  Quadrupled by 2012
 In addition a number of subsidiary targets concerning related issues such as land-use
 planning, safety and security.
Faber Maunsell          Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 Transport 2010: the 10 Year Plan (2000)
 http://www.dft.gov.uk/162259/165259/tenyearplan
 The vision is that by 2010 we will have a transport system that provides:
  Modern, high quality public transport, both locally and nationally. People will have more choice about how they travel, and more will use public transport
  more light rail systems and attractive bus services that are fully accessible and integrated with other types of transport
  high quality park and ride schemes so that people do not have to drive into congested town centres
  easier access to jobs and services through improved transport links to regeneration areas and better land use planning
  a modern train fleet, with reliable and more frequent services, and faster trains cutting inter-city journey times
  a well-maintained road network with real-time driver information for strategic routes and reduced congestion
  fully integrated public transport information, booking and ticketing systems, with a single ticket or card covering the whole journey
  safer and more secure transport accessible to all
  a transport system that makes less impact on the environment.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                            Implications for SPD and SA
 Overarching objective is to promote modern and integrated transport for the public            The Designing a Better Walsall SPD will need to incorporate policies aimed at addressing transport and accessibility
 and industry and to reduce the impact of transport on the environment.                        issues, such as encouraging designs and layouts that demonstrate good connectivity with surrounding areas, maintain or
                                                                                               improve access to key facilities that people need, and are likely to encourage walking, cycling and use of the existing
                                                                                               public transport network. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on access to key facilities.
 Indicators and targets include the DETRs PSA targets and indicators. Additional
 measurable targets for the 10 Year Plan include:
  By 2010, to triple the number of cycling trips compared with a 2000 base
  To achieve a one-third increase in the proportion of households in rural areas
     within about 10 minutes walk of an hourly or better bus service by 2010
 The Future of Transport – a network for 2030 (2004)
 http://www.dft.gov.uk/about/strategy/whitepapers/fot/thefutureoftransportwhitepap5710
 The Government Strategy is built around three central themes.
  sustained investment over the long term.
  improvements in transport management.
  planning ahead.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                            Implications for SPD and SA
 Main Objectives                                                                               The Designing a Better Walsall SPD should encourage designs that are aimed at supporting the existing transport
 Roads - a road network that provides a more reliable and freer-flowing system for             network for example, designs and layouts that demonstrate good connectivity with surrounding areas and will support use
 motorists, other road users and businesses, where travellers can make informed                of existing pedestrian access routes, cycle routes, the bus and rail network and park and ride facilities. SA will need to
 choices about how and when they travel, and so minimise the adverse impact of road            assess potential impact of guidance on access to key facilities.
 traffic on the environment and other people.
 Rail - a reliable, safe and efficient rail industry fit for the next 30 years. Supported by
 light rail, where it offers best value, underground and metro services, our rail networks
 will continue to play a central role in meeting travellers‟ and businesses‟ needs.
 Bus - bus networks that provide flexible and convenient services tailored to local
 needs, offering a reliable way to travel to and from jobs, schools, shops and other
 services. This is crucial for people without access to a car and providing genuine
 choice for those who do.
 Walking & Cycling - offering a healthy and enjoyable alternative, particularly for short
 trips. Need to encourage more people to choose to walk and cycle more often.
 Freight, Aviation & Shipping - support the continued success of the UK and global
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 economy by facilitating the free movement of people and goods around, in and out of
 the country improving international and domestic links, while minimising the effects on
 the communities around our major ports and airports and on the environment.

 The objectives and targets listed within the white Paper are those covered by the
 departmental Public Service Agreements (PSA) targets. E.g.
  By 2010, increase the use of public transport (bus and light rail) by more than 12
    per cent in England compared with 2000 levels, with growth in every region.
  Reduce the number of people killed or seriously injured in Great Britain in road
    accidents by 40 per cent and the number of children killed or seriously injured by
    50 per cent, by 2010 compared with the average for 1994-98, tackling the
    significantly higher incidence in disadvantaged communities.
  Improve air quality by meeting the Air Quality Strategy targets.
  Reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 12.5 per cent below 1990 levels in line with
    our Kyoto commitment.
 Heritage White Paper – Heritage Protection for the 21st Century (March 2007)
 Proposes reforms to heritage protection regime. Main aims are to develop a more unified approach towards the historic environment, to maximise opportunities for inclusion and involvement, and putting the
 historic environment at the heart of the planning system. Key proposals:
     Unified approach towards legislation, designation and consents, e.g. single register with details of all historic assets, propose to merge Listed Building Consent and Scheduled Monument Consent, and to
      consult on merging Conservation Area Consent with Planning Permission
     Opening up designation system to greater scrutiny, providing more information to the public and opportunities for engagement, and allowing owners of assets the opportunity to comment before they are
      designated
     Speed up designation and consent process, with “new tools” available to address heritage in major developments (e.g. protecting locally designated buildings - but giving greater responsibilities to local
      authorities to address management of the historic environment, e.g. through agreements)
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                        Implications for SPD and SA
 Heritage Counts indicators may be relevant.                                               Main proposals are to do with the way that historic assets are protected and that development is controlled – but
                                                                                           Designing a Better Walsall SPD will need to take on board proposals relating to management of historic environment and
                                                                                           how proposals are dealt with/ importance of pre-application discussions and minimising uncertainty. Proposals regarding
                                                                                           management agreements may also be relevant in helping to secure the long-term future of completed refurbishment
                                                                                           schemes, and the proposals to allow demolition of locally listed buildings to be controlled via Article 4 (1) Direction may
                                                                                           be relevant if the Council wishes to implement this. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on the historic
                                                                                           environment.
 Planning White Paper – Planning for a Sustainable Future (May 2007)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1510503
 Proposes further reforms to the planning system in an effort to address problems (many of which were created by the 2004 reforms). Wants to see a more responsive, streamlined, efficient and predictable
 system, but with full opportunities for public consultation and community engagement, transparency and accountability and with decisions being made at the right level. Key proposals:
          Produce national policy statements for key infrastructure sectors, setting out the national need for development and how this relates to other policies
          Remove many minor householder developments from planning control and streamline decision-making process for “significant” infrastructure projects
          Greater flexibility over consultation and engagement at early stages in plan-making/ greater integration between Core Strategies and Sustainable Community Strategies
          Improve delivery of nationally important infrastructure projects by taking them out of the control of local planning authorities, to be determined by a Planning Commission, having regard to national
           policy statements
 Recommendations also include one relating to high design standards (Recommendation 24) – suggests that this should be given a higher priority by decision makers with greater use of design coding, pre-
 application discussions, design champions, and design review panels. Consultation papers also published on proposed reforms to householder applications/ permitted development.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                       Designing a Better Walsall SPD will need to take on board recommendation relating to high quality design and how this
                                                                                             should be implemented by the Council, but will also need to recognise that some minor applications and very large
                                                                                             nationally significant major infrastructure projects are likely to be taken out of planning control – any guidance on
                                                                                             householder applications/ extensions or on major infrastructure projects needs to bear this in mind. SA will need to
                                                                                             assess potential impact of guidance on a wide range of sustainability objectives.
 National Waste Strategy – Waste Strategy for England 2007 (May 2007)
 http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/waste/strategy/index.htm
 Supersedes Waste Strategy 2000. Overall objectives – decouple waste growth from economic growth with more emphasis on waste prevention and re-use, meet and exceed Landfill Directive diversion targets,
 increase diversion from non-municipal waste, secure investment in infrastructure, realise economic benefits of recycling of resources and recovery of energy from waste. Maintains support for “waste hierarchy”
 concept (from Waste Strategy 2000), with reduction, re-use and recovery at the top, and disposal at the bottom, but pyramid is inverted, to emphasise that disposal should be significantly reduced/ a last resort.
 Sets more challenging national targets for the recycling and composting of household waste: 40% by 2010, 45% by 2015, and 50% by 2020, and for the recovery of municipal waste: 53% by 2010, 67% by 2015
 and 75% by 2020. Indicates that there is an “expectation” that the level of commercial and industrial waste sent to landfill will reduce by 20% of 2004 levels by 2020, and that this will be set as a target (but this is
 not entirely clear). Also hints that Government is considering setting a target to halve the amount of construction and demolition waste sent to landfill by 2012.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
 Amount of new waste management capacity coming forward through new proposals                All local development documents must have regard to the national waste strategy, in accordance with Regulation 15 of
 per annum is a Core Output Indicator for the LDF. However, this will not necessarily        the Town and Country Planning (Local Development) (England) Regulations 2004 (see above). Designing a Better
 be directly applicable to the SPD, which can only have an indirect influence on such        Walsall SPD should therefore encourage developers to consider the implications of proposals for waste at the earliest
 matters.                                                                                    possible stage, and to move towards more sustainable methods of managing waste, both during the construction process
                                                                                             and once the new buildings are in use, for example, encouraging applicants to submit Site Waste Management Plans
                                                                                             (SWMP)* with major applications in line with the advice in PPS10 (although it cannot insist on this). SPD should also
                                                                                             explain the Council‟s approach towards the sustainable use of mineral resources and advise on designs and layouts that
                                                                                             allow for sustainable waste management, such as access for refuse collection vehicles and space for storage of
                                                                                             segregated waste materials for recycling. However, any such guidance must be in conformity with UDP Policies GP1,
                                                                                             GP2, WM4 and UDP Strategic Policy Statement on Minerals. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on
                                                                                             resources.

                                                                                             *Defra has recently consulted on proposals to implement SWMP (http://www.defra.gov.uk/corporate/consult/construction-
                                                                                             sitewaste/index.htm), which will become mandatory for all construction projects with a value of more than £250,000 from
                                                                                             April 2008, but these are not tied into the planning process, and will only provide details of waste generated during the
                                                                                             demolition and construction process.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)




 NATIONAL PLANNING POLICY GUIDANCE
 Policy Statement 1 (PPS1): Delivering Sustainable Development (February 2005)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1143805
 Establishes sustainable development as “core principle underpinning planning.” Design is seen as key element of achieving sustainable development, and good design is regarded as “indivisible from good
 planning.” Supports the incorporation of design policies into local development documents. Advises that design policies should:
  Be robust;
  Be based on stated objectives for the future of the area;
  Be based on an understanding and evaluation of defining characteristics of the area;
  Promote high quality design that contributes positively to making places better for people;
  Promote inclusive design that addresses the needs of all in society;
  Cover all types of development, addressing function as well as impact;
  Promote design that is sustainable, adaptable and durable, and addresses all of the relevant social, environmental and economic issues;
  Provide clear, comprehensive and inclusive access policies which address both location and external physical access to buildings and places;
  Promote design that responds to its local context and creates or reinforces local distinctiveness;
  Address safety and security issues; and
  Promote design that makes efficient use of land, sustains an appropriate mix of uses, and supports existing local facilities and transport networks.
 (PPS1, paragraphs 13, 34 and 36).
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                       Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                    PPS1 is the most important national policy statement relating to design, therefore essential for SPD to reflect design and
                                                                                          accessibility issues referred to in it. Although the UDP design policies ENV32 and ENV33 pre-date PPS1, when read
                                                                                          alongside other policies in the UDP (such as policy GP1 which relates to the sustainable location of development, and
                                                                                          GP5 and GP6 which relate to equal opportunities and access for disabled people), they are broadly consistent with it.
                                                                                          Both SPDs will need to reflect the requirements of the guidance with regard to good quality design and impact on the
                                                                                          environment. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on a wide range of sustainability objectives.
 Consultation – Planning Policy Statement: Planning and Climate Change – Supplement to Planning Policy Statement 1 (December 2006)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1505140
 Consultation paper on a new Planning Policy Statement on Climate Change, which is intended to supplement the guidance in PPS1 (see above). Draft PPS includes guidance on LDFs, such as the criteria to be
 used for the identification of new site allocations, guidance on policies towards renewable energy, and interim guidance on the issues that should be taken into account when considering new development
 proposals.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                       Implications for SPD and SA
 None specified, although the draft PPS advises that local monitoring should focus on     The draft as it stands does not include any specific guidance on the content of SPDs, although there is a suggestion that
 the “key actions and outcomes that underpin delivery.”                                   the practice guide to accompany the final guidance will include such advice. However the draft PPS does include
                                                                                          guidance that is relevant to the SPDs. For example, it states that authorities should “avoid policies that set stringent
                                                                                          requirements for minimising impact on landscape and townscape if these effectively preclude the supply of certain types
                                                                                          of renewable energy.” It also includes guidance on “designing for environmental performance,” whereby applicants can
                                                                                          be expected (among other things) to use design and layout to minimise energy consumption, and to incorporate
                                                                                          measures designed to generate energy on-site from renewable or low-carbon energy sources and to provide sustainable
                                                                                          water management and drainage. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on climate change.
 Planning Policy Guidance Note 2 (PPG2): Green Belts (January 1995)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1143928
 Advises that visual amenities of the Green Belt should not be injured by proposals that “might be detrimental by reason of their siting, materials or design” (paragraph 3.15). Also includes guidance on assessing
 proposals for the retention and re-use of existing buildings, whose form, bulk and general design are expected to be in keeping with their surroundings (paragraph 3.8).
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                       The Green Belt/ open countryside is identified in Policies ENV32 and ENV33 as one of the areas where the need to take
                                                                                             proper account of the context and surroundings will be particularly significant. UDP Policies ENV2 and ENV3 already
                                                                                             include a requirement for developments that are considered appropriate in the Green Belt to be compatible with the
                                                                                             character of the surrounding area, and assessment criteria relating to layout and design. The SPDs should include
                                                                                             guidance on the character of the local landscape, based on the completed Countryside Area Profiles (see below)
                                                                                             referred to in Policy ENV7 and more recent research, how “appropriate” developments can be successfully
                                                                                             accommodated without harming visual amenity, and building types that are considered suitable for conversion. SA will
                                                                                             need to assess potential impact of guidance on landscape and land use.
 Planning Policy Statement 3 (PPS3): Housing (November 2006)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1504592
 Recognises that “good design is essential for creating high quality new housing, which contributes to the creation of sustainable, mixed communities,” and advises that in line with PPS1 (see above), “good
 design should contribute positively to making places better for people (PPS3, paragraph 1).” Also advises that “design which is inappropriate in its context, or which fails to take the opportunities available for
 improving the character and quality of an area or the way it functions, should not be accepted” (PPS3, paragraph 2). Recommends that local planning authorities develop a “shared vision” with local communities
 of the types of residential environments they wish to see, and that they encourage applicants to bring forward sustainable and environmentally friendly developments, reflecting Code for Sustainable Homes
 (see above). Key issues to consider when assessing design quality include:
  Accessibility to public transport and community facilities;
  Provision of/ accessibility to open space and private amenity space;
  Integration with local area/ buildings in terms of scale, density, layout and access;
  Efficient use of resources during construction and in use, seeking to adapt to/ reduce impact on climate change;
  Design-led approach towards provision of parking, with high quality public realm and streets that are pedestrian, cycle and vehicle friendly;
  Creation of or enhancement of character of surroundings, supporting sense of pride and civic identity;
  Provision for retention or re-instatement of biodiversity within residential environment.
 Also advises that needs of children should be addressed where family housing is proposed, including provision for children‟s play, and advocates use of tools and techniques such as design coding (PPS3,
 paragraphs 17 – 18 – see also below, Preparing Design Codes: A Practice Manual). Advocates effective and efficient use of land, recommending targets for development of new housing on previously-
 developed land (aimed at meeting national target of 60%), and recommends use of housing density policies based on “national indicative minimum” of 30 dwellings per hectare – good design is seen as
 “fundamental to using land efficiently,” and is particularly important where strategy involves intensification of existing urban fabric. Advises that local planning authorities should facilitate this by identifying the
 distinctive features that define the character of a particular local area (PPS3, paragraphs 45 – 51).
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
 The only specific targets are in relation to the proportion of new development to be        UDP design policies ENV32, ENV33 and H10 generally reflect the key issues identified in the PPS, and these should also
 built on previously-developed land and density of housing – the PPS includes national       therefore be reflected in the Design SPD. The UDP also includes a target for 95% of new housing completions to be on
 minimum targets of 60% of housing development on previously-developed land, and             previously-developed land, which is in excess of the current RSS target for Walsall (UDP, paragraph 6.28). The UDP also
 density of 30 dwellings per hectare. As these are LDF Core Output Indicators,               includes a housing density requirement of between 30 and 50 dwellings, which was in accordance with the previous
 performance against these targets is already subject to monitoring. However, it is          PPG3 (Policy H9). Although some flexibility is allowed, the policy remains broadly in line with the national minimum
 recognised that there is a need to develop new indicators to measure the quality of         standard in the PPS. As well as providing guidance in support of the use of previously-developed land and buildings and
 new development.                                                                            achieving the UDP density standards without compromising on quality, the SPD should also explain how the Council will
                                                                                             use or encourage the use of delivery tools such as design coding in major housing schemes. Natural Environment SPD
                                                                                             will need to explain how biodiversity can be successfully integrated into new housing developments, for example through
                                                                                             landscaping and provision of areas of greenspace. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on access to key
                                                                                             facilities, quality of life, housing quality, equality and diversity, biodiversity, landscape, townscape and visual amenity.
 Planning Policy Guidance Note 4 (PPG4): Industrial and Commercial Development and Small Firms (November 1992)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1143959
 Although it does not include any specific policy towards design or visual amenity, guidance highlights link between economic growth and high quality environment, and advises that the two objectives should be
 pursued together in development plans.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                       Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                    UDP economic policy highlights the need to improve the local environment and enhance the image of the area.
                                                                                          Accordingly, UDP employment allocations policies all emphasise need for high standards of design and landscaping.
                                                                                          Main aim of Design SPD will be to raise the overall quality of design throughout Walsall, for the benefit of the local
                                                                                          economy, as well as for the benefit of the environment and quality of life for local people. However, Natural Environment
                                                                                          SPD may also benefit the local economy indirectly by seeking to protect, enhance and maintain good quality areas of
                                                                                          greenspace within the Borough. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on economic investment.
 Planning Policy Statement 6 (PPS6): Planning for Town Centres (March 2005)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1501955
 Advises that public spaces and buildings should be fit for purpose, comfortable, safe, attractive, accessible and durable. Policies for town centre uses (e.g. shops, offices and leisure developments) are expected
 to promote high quality and inclusive design, in order to improve the character and quality of the area and the way it functions (paragraph 2.19). Planning for Town Centres: Guidance on Design and
 Implementation Tools, which has been prepared as a companion guide to PPS6, states that new buildings should:
  Normally front onto the street
  Respect existing building lines and where appropriate build up to the edge of the curtilage
  Maximise active street frontage
  Avoid inward-looking designs that present blank frontages
  Provide access from the public realm and
  In edge-of-centre locations, provide good pedestrian access to the centre.
 Local context is considered important in maximising the use of a site, and standard designs that are not well integrated with the local context are to be avoided.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                       Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                    Town, District and Local Centres are identified in UDP Policies ENV32 and ENV33 as areas where the need to take
                                                                                          proper account of the context and surroundings will be particularly significant. Although they pre-date the guidance,
                                                                                          general guidance on design is included in the UDP town centre policies (e.g. Strategic Policy Statement paragraph 5.6
                                                                                          and Policies S3 and S4). The Design SPD should include guidance on the character of Walsall‟s centres, key principles
                                                                                          for the design of different types of building and how developments can successfully be integrated with the existing
                                                                                          shopping area and townscape, whilst maintaining accessibility in and around the centre and to transport facilities. SA will
                                                                                          need to assess potential impact of guidance on community safety, access to key facilities, quality of life and economic
                                                                                          investment.
 Planning Policy Statement 7 (PPS7): Sustainable Development in Rural Areas (August 2004)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1143824
 Main emphasis - need to conserve areas that are statutorily protected (e.g. paragraph 16). Guidance on design in rural settlements is not directly applicable to the Walsall situation, where we have extensive
 areas of open countryside (which is Green Belt) surrounding an urban area. Nevertheless, the advice that local planning authorities should prepare policies and guidance that “encourage good quality design
 throughout their rural areas” using landscape character assessments (paragraph 13), is valid.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                       Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                    About a fifth of Walsall‟s administrative area is open countryside. The Green Belt/ open countryside is therefore identified
                                                                                          in UDP Policies ENV32 and ENV33 as an area where the need to take proper account of the context and surroundings
                                                                                          will be particularly significant. In line with the guidance, the Council has also prepared Countryside Area Profiles for four
                                                                                          areas (see below, Supplementary Planning Guidance), which summarise the character of the landscape (UDP Policy
                                                                                          ENV7). A more detailed and comprehensive Black Country historic landscape characterisation project is now nearing
                                                                                          completion. The Walsall part of the project is now complete and the findings will inform the guidance in the SPDs. It is
                                                                                          intended that the Design SPD will include a short profile of the character of the local landscape, based on these sources,
                                                                                          backed up by a separate document, which summarises the character of Walsall in more detail. SA will need to assess
                                                                                          potential impact of guidance on the landscape.
 Planning Policy Guidance Note 8 (PPG8): Telecommunications (August 2001)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1143963
Faber Maunsell        Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 Advises that visual intrusion is an important consideration when determining planning applications for telecommunications equipment, and that high priority should be given to the need to safeguard areas of
 particular environmental importance (paragraphs 14 - 16).
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                     Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                  Although the relevant UDP policy (ENV38) already addresses visual amenity issues, the Design SPD could include
                                                                                        further guidance on siting and effective methods of screening and camouflage. SA will need to assess potential impact of
                                                                                        guidance on visual amenity.
 Planning Policy Statement 9 (PPS9): Biodiversity and Geological Conservation (August 2005)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1501970
 Advises that planning policies should promote opportunities for the incorporation of beneficial biodiversity and geological features into the design of development (paragraph 1). Companion Guide, Planning for
 Biodiversity and Geological Conservation: A Guide to Good Practice (March 2006), suggests that biodiversity and geological conservation are issues that may feature in design guidance produced as a SPD
 (paragraph 4.23 & table, paragraphs 4.46 – 4.47 & Case Studies).
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                     Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                  Designated nature conservation sites and other important habitats are protected by UDP policies ENV17 – 24 and are
                                                                                        identified in UDP Policies ENV32 and ENV33 as areas where the need to take proper account of the context and
                                                                                        surroundings will be particularly significant. Although PPS9 post-dates the UDP, UDP Policies ENV32 – 33 are consistent
                                                                                        with it as they require new developments to address these issues. The SPDs should therefore provide guidance on the
                                                                                        characteristics of the designated sites, priority habitats and protected species present in Walsall, the implications for the
                                                                                        design of new developments in or near such areas such as legal requirements and how to comply with them, how to
                                                                                        ensure that habitats are properly managed, and how to integrate areas that are important for biodiversity and geodiversity
                                                                                        into new developments without compromising their value. Guidance in SPDs will also need to have regard to
                                                                                        Biodiversity Action Plan for Birmingham and the Black Country, and Biodiversity by Design (see below). SA will
                                                                                        need to assess potential impact of guidance on biodiversity and geodiversity.
 Planning Policy Statement 10 (PPS10): Planning for Sustainable Waste Management (July 2005)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1501865
 Advises that “good design and layout in new development can help to secure opportunities for sustainable waste management.” Local planning authorities are urged to ensure that development provides for
 waste management, and to promote designs and layouts that integrate waste management facilities without adverse impact on the street scene or local landscape. Development proposals are expected to be
 accompanied by site waste management plans (SWMP) setting out the amounts of waste generated during construction and how it will be managed or disposed of. New waste management facilities are also
 expected to be well designed and to contribute positively to the character and quality of the area (PPS10, paragraphs 35 – 36). The Companion Guide to PPS10, published in June 2006, indicates that SPDs can
 be used to illustrate how high quality design could help to take forward the key planning objectives of the guidance (paragraphs 8.31 – 8.33).
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                     Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                  As UDP Policies GP2, WM1 and WM4 include similar requirements the Design SPD should include further guidance on
                                                                                        the design of new waste management facilities, the need to make adequate provision for waste management in all new
                                                                                        developments and the types of facilities that need to be accommodated. It could also provide guidance on the use of
                                                                                        SWMP. Although SWMP are voluntary at the moment, there is provision within Section 54 of the Clean Neighbourhoods
                                                                                        and Environment Act 2005 for them to become mandatory for specified developments, and Defra published a
                                                                                        consultation paper on these proposals in March 2007. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on access to
                                                                                        key facilities and natural resources.
 PPS 11: Regional Spatial Strategies
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/pub/844/PlanningPolicyStatement11RegionalSpatialStrategies_id1143844.pdf
 The main principles of the new regional planning arrangements are to deliver policy better at a regional level and contribute to the cultural change necessary to deliver the Government‟s Sustainable
 Communities Plan, by:
  Giving more weight to what is currently Regional Planning Guidance (RPG) by replacing it with a statutory Regional Spatial Strategy (RSS), with which the new Local Development Documents (LDDs) have to
    be in general conformity, and by making it part of the development plan.
  Ensuring that future changes to RSSs are produced on an inclusive basis of partnership working and community involvement.
  Making the RSS more regionally and sub-regionally specific with a focus on implementation, and subject to a statutory annual monitoring report which has to identify any necessary remedial action.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



    Better integration of the RSS with other regional strategies.
    Assisting in delivering the Government‟s statutory purpose for a plan making by requiring the regional planning body (RPB) to ensure that any draft RSS revision is prepared with the objective of contributing
     to the achievement of sustainable development.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 No measurable targets and indicators.                                                      The policies of the SPD will have to be in general conformity with those of the RSS.
 Planning Policy Guidance Note 12 (PPG12): Local Development Frameworks and Creating Local Development Frameworks: A Companion Guide to PPS12 (September 2004)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1143847
 Main guidance on preparation of local development documents. Local planning authorities are expected to adopt “spatial” approach towards planning which goes beyond traditional land use planning and is
 expected to consider the potential impacts of other plans, policies, programmes and mechanisms that may affect the issues under consideration. Approach should be: visionary, wide-ranging, participative,
 integrating, responsive and deliverable. Issues covered in a Supplementary Planning Document (SPD) must relate to policies in an adopted Development Plan Document (DPD) or an existing “saved” plan and
 must clearly state which policies it supports. SPD must also establish clear “chain of conformity,” i.e. consistency with the other plans above it in the hierarchy. It must comply with national policy guidance, be in
 “conformity” with the DPD or “saved” plan it supports, and be in “general conformity” with the RSS. Must also have regard to other relevant policies and strategies at local and regional levels, particularly
 community strategies, and preparation should involve extensive involvement of local communities and relevant stakeholders, in accordance with the SCI. Process for preparing a SPD involves three key stages:
  Pre-Production – evidence gathering;
  Preparation – community involvement and public participation on draft SPD;
  Adoption – formal adoption of final SPD by the Council and inclusion in LDF.
 Review and monitoring are key elements of reformed planning system. Following              Preparation SPDs to support the policies in an existing “saved” plan (in this case, the Walsall UDP) is in accordance with
 adoption of the SPD, progress on implementation will need to be recorded in the            the guidance in PPS12. Pre-preparation of these SPDs has taken far longer than expected, in part due to lack of
 Annual Monitoring Report (AMR). It will therefore be necessary to identify measurable      resources, and partly due to the need to consider the relationship of the SPD to the many existing plans, policies and
 indicators that can be used to assess progress on implementation on an annual basis.       programmes that have a bearing on the design and layout of new developments and on the natural environment. This
                                                                                            has meant that there has had to be some overlap between pre-preparation and preparation stages, but otherwise the
                                                                                            process is in accordance with that outlined in PPS12. During August and September 2006, there was extensive informal
                                                                                            consultation (“front loading”) on the key design issues that should be addressed in the Design SPD, in accordance with
                                                                                            the adopted SCI. The formal Public Participation consultation on the draft SPDs will take place during October/ November
                                                                                            2007 and the SPDs are expected to be adopted in March 2008.
 Planning Policy Guidance Note 13 (PPG13): Transport (March 2001)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1144015
 Main objectives (paragraph 4) are:
  To provide more sustainable choices of transport for people;
  To promote access to jobs, shopping, leisure and services by public transport, walking and cycling;
  To reduce the need to travel, especially by private car.
 Planning policies expected to be complementary to those in LTP, and to address issues such as maximising use of public transport, ensuring safe and easy access to facilities such as schools, health centres,
 shops, libraries and public offices (paragraph 20). Advises local planning authorities to seek well designed, accessible places which are safe for all, and layouts that address crime prevention and community
 safety considerations (paragraphs 28 – 30).
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 None relating to the design of parking areas, although UDP maximum car parking             In the UDP, issues relating to accessibility and safety, focusing on the needs of pedestrians, cyclists, people with
 standards and accessibility standards should allow greater flexibility over the design     disabilities and others, are addressed in the Strategic Policy Statement on transport (paragraphs 7.4 and 7.8) and in
 of schemes. Accessibility of new residential development to key facilities and the         Policies GP6, GP7, T1, T4, T6, T8 and T9. In addition, Policy T11 sets out accessibility standards for pedestrians, cyclists
 amount of completed non-residential development complying with the UDP parking             and wheelchair users, which apply to residential developments and developments that generate significant numbers of
 standards are Core Output Indicators for the LDF, although these will not necessarily      trips, and Policy T12 covers access by public transport. Although the UDP policies are comprehensive, the Design SPD
 be directly applicable to the SPD, which can only have an indirect effect on such          could provide further guidance on the existing transport network in Walsall, how well designed places can help people to
 matters.                                                                                   find and access the transport they need more easily, and how conflicting transport needs and safety issues can be
                                                                                            reconciled through design. SPD will also need to have regard to West Midlands LTP2, Walsall Transport Strategy,
                                                                                            Walking & Mobility Strategy, Cycling Strategy and Draft Local Accessibility Action Plan (see below). SA will need
                                                                                            to assess potential impact of guidance on community safety, quality of life and access to key facilities.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 Planning Policy Guidance Note 15 (PPG15): Planning and the Historic Environment (September 1994)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1144041
 Although the controls relating to listed buildings and conservation areas are not covered by the main Planning Acts, advises local planning authorities to include appropriate policies in their development plans
 which may be used for the purposes of development control (paragraph 2.4). Also emphasises that the design of new buildings intended to stand alongside historic buildings needs very careful consideration, and
 that they should respect their setting and be properly integrated into the surrounding area (paragraph 2.14).
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 CPA Indicator – conservation area character appraisals and management plans -              Conservation areas, other areas of special character, listed buildings, locally listed buildings and registered parks and
 percentage of conservation areas with up-to-date appraisals and plans in place.            gardens are identified in UDP Policies ENV32 and ENv33 as areas where the need to take proper account of the context
                                                                                            and surroundings will be particularly significant. In line with the guidance, UDP policies ENV26, ENV27, ENV28, ENV29
                                                                                            and ENV30 provide guidance on development affecting industrial archaeology, listed buildings, the local list, conservation
                                                                                            areas and registered parks and gardens. It would be appropriate for the SPDs to include guidance on the key
                                                                                            characteristics of the historic buildings, townscapes and landscapes and countryside character in Walsall, drawing on
                                                                                            conservation area character appraisals, Countryside Area Profiles, other documentary evidence and the more recent
                                                                                            Black Country historic landscape characterization project, and guidance on need to adopt a more careful and sensitive
                                                                                            approach towards design where development affects historic buildings, townscapes or landscapes. This would also be
                                                                                            consistent with the good practice guidance in Building in Context (2001) and Use of Historic Landscape
                                                                                            Characterisation (2004) (see below). SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on landscape, townscape and
                                                                                            visual amenity and on the historic environment.
 Planning Policy Guidance Note 16 (PPG16): Archaeology and Planning (November 1990
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1144057
 Advocates sympathetic designs where archaeological remains are known to exist, in order to avoid disturbing the remains or to minimise damage (paragraph 12).
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                      Although the UDP already contains policies relating to archaeology and industrial archaeology (Policies ENV25 and
                                                                                            ENV26), the Design SPD could include further guidance on how sensitive design can help to protect and enhance
                                                                                            archaeological remains and general advice for developers on the importance of determining the extent of archaeological
                                                                                            remains before the detailed design stage. The Natural Environment SPD will also need to provide guidance on the
                                                                                            relationship of archaeology to the natural environment, for example, where important features such as hedgerows and
                                                                                            canals have both archaeological and biodiversity importance. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on the
                                                                                            historic environment, including archaeology.
 Planning Policy Guidance Note 17 (PPG17): Planning for Open Space, Sport and Recreation (July 2002)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1144067
 Key themes include supporting an urban renaissance – high quality, well managed open space is seen as an essential element of this. Also advises that local planning authorities should promote better use of
 existing open space, sports and recreational facilities and improve the quality of the public realm through good design (PPG17, Planning Objectives and paragraphs 18 and 20).
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 None identified, although the following indicators identified elsewhere are likely to be   Parks, cemeteries and public open spaces are identified in UDP Policies ENV32 and ENV33 as areas where the need to
 relevant:                                                                                  take proper account of the context and surroundings will be particularly significant. Chapter 8 of the UDP includes policies
  LDF Core Output Indicator – amount of eligible open space managed to Green               relating to open space, playing fields and other outdoor recreational facilities. The Council has also adopted a SPD on
     Flag Award standard; and                                                               Urban Open Space, which explains in more detail how the policies will be applied, and in particular, how requirements for
                                                                                            new open space provision as part of residential developments will be assessed. Although the amenity value of open
  UDP Local Indicator – protection and improvement of urban open space: the
                                                                                            spaces is acknowledged, guidance on the design of new facilities covers only children‟s play areas and greenways, and
     extent to which existing urban open spaces have been protected from
                                                                                            this relates mainly to issues of safety (Policy LC3 and Policy LC5). The Design SPD could therefore include further
     inappropriate development (target = 100% protection) and provision of new urban
                                                                                            guidance on the types of open space and other public spaces, how they are currently used and by whom, which types are
     open spaces (target = 24 hectares by 2011); and
                                                                                            suitable for different situations, and how urban greenspace and other public spaces should be integrated into
  UDP Local Indicator - length of new greenways constructed (target = 10 miles up          developments. The Natural Environment SPD could also provide guidance on how open spaces may contribute towards
     to 2011.                                                                               biodiversity, whilst acknowledging that in the case of playing fields, this is not their primary function. SA will need to
 N.B. Although the above indicators will reflect open space provision and to an extent,     assess potential impact of guidance on access to health and well being, quality of life, and access to key facilities.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 the quality of open space in Walsall, It is unlikely that any changes identified through
 monitoring can be attributed directly to the influence of the SPD.


 Planning Policy Guidance Note 19: Outdoor Advertisement Control (March 1992)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1144091
 Provides guidance on all advertisements that are subject to control, such as shop fascia signs, pole signs, sign boards, highway signs and poster hoardings. Notes that all advertisements affect appearance of
 building, structure or place where they are displayed, and that appearance of a good building can easily be spoiled by a “poorly-designed or insensitively-placed sign or advertisement, or by a choice of
 advertisement materials, colour, proportion or illumination which is alien to the building‟s design or fabric.” Acknowledges that respect for supplementary design guidance on outdoor advertisements and shop
 fronts can help to ensure that signs and advertisements are in harmony with the built environment, although such guidance should not be “excessively prescriptive.” Also advises that designers of advertisements
 should be prepared to compromise on matters of “corporate” design in sensitive areas, but not necessarily elsewhere. For all outdoor advertisements, powers of control may only be exercised in the interests of
 amenity and/or public safety. When assessing impact on amenity, should consider effect on appearance of building or immediate neighbourhood, having regard to local characteristics, including scenic, historical
 or architectural features which contribute to distinctive character of locality. Assessment of all proposals should be consistent. When assessing impact on public safety, should have regard to effect on safe use
 and operation of traffic or transport, such as behaviour of drivers, possible confusion with traffic signs and signals, or possible interference with navigational light or beacon. When considering safety issues,
 relevant organisations should be consulted. Annex relating to poster hoardings sets out the following criteria for assessing applications:
  Scale – should always be appropriate to surrounding area;
  General Location – considered acceptable in predominantly commercial areas, but out-of-place in open countryside (unless temporary) and residential areas (unless mix of uses, provided that appropriate
     scale);
  On Commercial Buildings - should be of appropriate scale to building and should not cut across architectural features, on flank wall, should not be unduly dominant and should be positioned so as to be
     seen as integral part of building;
  Commercial Areas - Free-Standing - should be in scale with buildings on either side and in surrounding area, and if on back of pavement effect on pedestrians should not be overwhelming;
  Conservation Areas/ Other Historically Sensitive Areas – presentation should be compatible with area‟s architectural or historic features, in some cases, smaller sized posters may be more appropriate to
     scale of buildings;
  Open Space and Civic Buildings – can be appropriate except in areas where any form of commercial activity would detract from dignity or character of area.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                      UDP already includes policies relating to appearance of commercial buildings (ENV35) and poster hoardings (ENV36).
                                                                                            Council has also adopted supplementary planning guidance on shutters and security grilles. Designing a Better Walsall
                                                                                            SPD will cover all types of development and design issues, including design of commercial premises and advertisements
                                                                                            that may be displayed on them, and free-standing advertisements and poster hoardings. SPD should not repeat guidance
                                                                                            set out in PPG19 and the UDP, but should focus on providing guidance on issues which are not already addressed. For
                                                                                            example, as design and access statements are not required with advertisement applications, applicants may find it helpful
                                                                                            for the SPD to explain what information the Council expects them to provide with advertisement applications. SPD could
                                                                                            also usefully explain Council‟s approach towards assessing amenity and safety of proposals for different types of outdoor
                                                                                            advertisements, and proposals in different types of location. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on local
                                                                                            townscape and amenity.
 Planning Policy Statement 22 (PPS22): Planning for Renewable Energy (December 2004)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1143909
 Companion Guide advises that design guidance can play an important role in raising awareness of the potential of different renewable energy technologies (paragraph 4.20). Technologies currently available are
 described in Planning for Renewable Energy, in the more recent Microgeneration Strategy: Our Energy Challenge – Power from the People, published by the DTI in May 2006and The Energy Challenge - Energy
 Review Report published in July 2006 (see above), and in other guidance published by the Carbon Trust and Energy Savings Trust (EST).
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                      Clearly, in the light of the recent Parliamentary Statement (June 2006), Energy Review Report and draft Planning
                                                                                            Policy Statement on Climate Change (see above), the Designing a Better Walsall SPD will be expected to promote
                                                                                            energy efficiency and renewable energy through design as far as it can within the constraints of the UDP energy policy
                                                                                            (ENV39). For example, it could include guidance on improving the energy efficiency of both existing and new buildings,
                                                                                            and guidance on the renewable energy technologies available, their benefits, and how different technologies can be
                                                                                            incorporated into the design of a development. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on energy and climate
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



                                                                                           change.
 Planning Policy Statement 23 (PPS23): Planning and Pollution Control (October 2004)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1143917
 Although PPS23 itself says nothing about design, the Annexes do. Annex 1 (Pollution Control, Air and Water Quality) advises that landscaping and good design layout can help to reduce the impact of pollution,
 provide opportunities to facilitate access by more sustainable transport and opportunities for sustainable drainage systems (SUDS) thus helping to reduce the impact of diffuse pollution from surface run-off and
 flooding (Annex 1, paragraphs 1.27 and 1.31). Annex 2 of PPS23 (Development on Land Affected by Contamination) acknowledges the impact that contamination can have on the general environmental quality
 and amenity of an area (Annex 2, paragraph 2.39).
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                        Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                     The need to reduce the risk of pollution and deal with contamination can have implications for the design and layout of
                                                                                           some sites. As this is an important issue in parts of Walsall, the UDP includes policies on pollution and contamination
                                                                                           (Policies ENV10 and ENV14), as well as a policy on “bad neighbour” industrial uses (Policy JP8). Both SPDs will
                                                                                           therefore need address this issue, for example by including guidance on potential sources of air pollution and the types of
                                                                                           uses that can cause contamination, impacts on the natural environment, recommended methods of remediation for
                                                                                           contaminated sites, and how design and landscaping can help reduce the impact of air pollution and overcome the blight
                                                                                           caused by contamination. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on quality of life, pollution, natural
                                                                                           resources and land use.
 Planning Policy Guidance Note 24 (PPG24): Planning and Noise (September 1994)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1144098
 States that layout can be used to help control the source of, or limit exposure to, noise. Advises that there should be adequate distance between the source of noise and any noise-sensitive buildings or areas,
 and screening by natural barriers, other buildings or non-critical rooms in a building. Highlights the importance of early consultation with the local planning authority about the possible use of such measures, so
 that they can be incorporated into the design of a proposal (paragraphs 13 - 14).
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                        Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                     Although there is no specific noise policy in the UDP, there is a policy relating to “bad neighbour” industrial uses (Policy
                                                                                           JP8), which addresses environmental impacts generally. The Design SPD could therefore provide guidance on buildings
                                                                                           and places that are considered sensitive to noise, the types of use that are likely to generate a lot of noise and/ or other
                                                                                           environmental nuisances, and on designs and layouts that will help to control the source of noise and limit exposure. SA
                                                                                           will need to assess potential impact of guidance on quality of life.
 Planning Policy Statement 25: Planning and Flood Risk (December 2006)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1504640
 Advocates positive planning to manage present and future flood risk and working in partnership with the Environment Agency, other operating authorities and key stakeholders. Recommends the following
 approach:
  Assessing risk - by identifying areas at greatest risk/ carrying out Strategic Flood Risk Assessment (SFRA);
  Managing risk - “sequential approach” towards site selection, so that development is only permitted in areas of flood risk where there are no reasonably available sites in areas of lower flood risk and where
    the benefits of the development outweigh the risk of flooding; and
  Reducing risk – safeguarding land required for flood management and using opportunities created by new development to reduce causes and impacts of flood risk, e.g. incorporating sustainable urban
    drainage systems (SUDS) into designs and layouts.
 Annex D explains the sequential approach in more detail, Annex E provides guidance on the requirements for flood risk assessments, and Annex F provides guidance on managing surface water, including
 SUDS.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                        Implications for SPD and SA
 Number of applications approved against Environment Agency advice on grounds of           Much of the guidance is aimed at preparing strategic plans, rather than SPDs. However, water can have important
 flood risk per annum is a Core Output Indicator for the LDF. However, Core Output         implications for the design and layout of new developments, particularly in areas of flood risk, and in areas that include
 Indicator will not necessarily be directly applicable to the SPD, which can only have     important groundwater sources. UDP Policy ENV40: Conservation, Protection and Use of Water Resources already
 an indirect influence on such matters.                                                    addresses flood risk, sustainable drainage and other issues relating to water, such as the protection and conservation of
                                                                                           water resources. Although the UDP was not subject to a Strategic Flood Risk Assessment (SFRA), it does identify the
                                                                                           areas in Walsall that are considered to be most at risk (i.e. Flood Zones 2 and 3). It is not appropriate to carry out a SFRA
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



                                                                                         to inform the preparation of these SPDs, given that they will support policies in the UDP, which will in due course be
                                                                                         superseded by new LDDs that will be subject to SFRA. In the meantime, the SPDs should highlight the need for early
                                                                                         discussions with the Council and the Environment Agency, when contemplating development in areas of flood risk, given
                                                                                         that the Council now has a statutory obligation to consult the Environment Agency on all major applications within flood
                                                                                         risk areas, and that in such cases, developers and applicants are expected to undertake a Flood Risk Assessment (FRA).
                                                                                         In line with the PPS and the UDP policy, the SPDs should also provide appropriate guidance on the approach towards
                                                                                         designs and layouts in locations that are within or near to floodplains or groundwater protection areas, as well as advice
                                                                                         on the incorporation of measures to conserve water and sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) and how to
                                                                                         integrate these with natural habitats. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on quality of life and natural
                                                                                         resources.
 Minerals Planning Statement 1 (MPS1): Planning and Minerals (November 2006)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1504275
 Aims include ensuring prudent, efficient and sustainable use of minerals and recycling of suitable materials, securing working practices that prevent or reduce as far as possible impact on the environment, and
 protecting and seeking enhancement of the overall quality of the environment once extraction has ceased through high standards of restoration. Local/ mineral planning authorities are advised:
  To have regard to the advice in PPS9 and ODPM Circular 6/2005 when considering impact of mineral workings on European sites;
  Not to grant permission for mineral workings in or adjacent to SSSIs if it is likely to have an adverse effect;
  To ensure that impacts on statutorily protected species are fully taken into account;
  To consider carefully impacts upon regional and local sites of biodiversity, geodiversity, landscape, historical and cultural heritage;
  To have regard to the advice in PPG2 on proposals in the Green Belt;*
  Not to permit proposals that would lead to the loss or deterioration of ancient woodland unless the benefits outweigh the impacts;
  To seek to use poor quality agricultural land in preference to higher quality land; and
  To take account of the value of the wider countryside and landscape, minimise the impact of minerals operations on its quality and character, and consider the cumulative effects of local developments.
 Annexes 1 and 2 provide more detailed guidance on planning for the supply of minerals that are currently worked in Walsall, i.e. aggregates (sands, gravels and crushed rock) and brick clay.
 *As Walsall‟s active mineral workings and Minerals Safeguarding Areas are all within the Green Belt, the advice in paragraph 3.11 of PPG2 that mineral extraction need not conflict with the purposes of including
 land in Green Belts “provided that high environmental standards are maintained and that the site is well restored” is also relevant.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                      Implications for SPD and SA
 None specifically relating to design and impact of mineral workings on the              Walsall currently has two active quarries that produce building sand, two active quarries that produce clay for brick-
 environment.                                                                            making and one clay quarry that is nearing the end of its life and will shortly be restored by landfill. UDP identifies four
                                                                                         Mineral Safeguarding Areas around existing quarries and the Strategic Policy Statement/ Policies M1 – M9 set out the
                                                                                         requirements for further mineral working within these areas and elsewhere within the Borough, including minimising the
                                                                                         impact on the environment and avoiding over-intensification, and requirements for restoration and after-care. It would
                                                                                         therefore be appropriate for the SPDs to include guidance on how an understanding of the key issues early on and good
                                                                                         design can help to mitigate the impact of new proposals for mineral extraction, and help to achieve successful
                                                                                         reclamation and after-use. It could also include guidance on the use of secondary and recycled aggregates as building
                                                                                         materials. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on natural resources including minerals, quality of life and
                                                                                         townscape, landscape and visual amenity.
 Minerals Planning Statement 2: Controlling and Mitigating the Environmental Effects of Mineral Extraction in England (March 2005)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1503787
 Advises mineral planning authorities to “ensure that the environmental impacts caused by mineral operations…are kept to an acceptable minimum” (MPS2, paragraph 4). Development plan policies are expected
 to take into account issues such as visual intrusion and impacts on landscape (MPS2, paragraphs 11 - 12).
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                      Implications for SPD and SA
 None specifically relating to design and impact of mineral workings on the              Mineral extraction is a long-term operation that can have considerable impacts on the local environment. Walsall currently
 environment.                                                                            has five active quarries, one of which is expected to cease operation shortly. These operations are already subject to
                                                                                         conditions that seek to minimise impact of the operations on the local environment. As the SPDs can only provide
                                                                                         guidance in relation to new proposals, they should focus on how an understanding of the key issues early on and careful
                                                                                         attention to design can help to minimise impact of new proposals for mineral extraction on the Green Belt, landscape,
Faber Maunsell        Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



                                                                                       biodiversity and groundwater, in support of UDP Policies ENV7, ENV40, M2, M3, M4, M6, M8 and M9. SA will need to
                                                                                       assess potential impact of guidance on natural resources, including minerals, quality of life and townscape, landscape
                                                                                       and visual amenity.
 National and Regional Guidelines for Aggregates Provision in England 2001 – 2016 (June 2003)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1144267
 Assumes that a proportion of each region‟s aggregate needs will be met from secondary or recycled aggregates. The Government is also actively promoting and encouraging greater use of re-used and recycled
 aggregates through the Waste & Resources Action Programme (WRAP).
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                    Implications for SPD and SA
 None specifically relating to design and impact of aggregates production on the       Of limited relevance to the SPDs, although as part of guidance on sustainable use of natural resources, the Designing a
 environment.                                                                          Better Walsall SPD could include guidance on the use of secondary and recycled aggregates as building materials. SA
                                                                                       will need to assess potential impact of guidance on natural resources including minerals and on townscape, landscape
                                                                                       and visual amenity.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)




 GOOD PRACTICE GUIDANCE ON DESIGN AND RELATED ISSUES
 Vital and Viable Town Centres: Meeting the Challenge (1994)
 Emphasises the importance of the appearance and amenity of town centres to maintaining vitality and viability. Amenity depends on a number of factors: general attractiveness of townscape, streetscape, and
 private spaces, and quality of public spaces including public art and landscaping. Also highlights importance of image/ identity of centres, good management and accessibility. Although it provides guidance for
 different types of centre, general principles are applicable to all.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                       Now partly superseded by advice in Planning for Town Centres: Guidance on Design and Implementation Tools,
                                                                                             which has been produced as a companion guide to PPS6 (see PPS6 above). In line with both guidance documents and
                                                                                             UDP policies, Designing a Better Walsall SPD should provide appropriate guidance on design and layout issues relating
                                                                                             to town, district and local centres, such as access issues and integration of new development with existing built
                                                                                             environment. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on a range of sustainability objectives, including quality
                                                                                             of life, accessibility, economic investment and townscape, landscape and visual amenity.
 Better Public Buildings: A Proud Legacy for the Future (October 2000)
 http://www.cabe.org.uk/default.aspx?contentitemid=430&field=sitesearch&term=better%20public%20buildings%20&type=0
 Aims to promote high quality design in new public buildings, particularly those developed under the Private Finance Initiative (PFI). Recognises impact of design on people‟s lives, and positive effects of good
 design on neighbourhoods and cities, redevelopment of derelict land, regeneration, crime reduction and public service. Advises that new public buildings should:
  Respect and enhance the location, environment and community;
  Add value and reduce whole-life costs;
  Create flexible, durable, sustainable, and ecologically sound development for the community;
  Minimise waste of materials and energy, in construction and in use;
  Provide functional, efficient, adaptable spaces for home, work and recreation;
  Be attractive and healthy for users and the public;
  Use space, materials and resources with imagination and efficiency; and
  Produce buildings which are safer to construct and easier to clean and maintain.
 Recognises importance of leadership and encouraging high expectations; advocates use of “design champion” to lead projects.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
 Recommends development of “key performance indicators for design quality” within            Guidance specifically focuses on public buildings, and not all of it is relevant to the Designing a Better Walsall SPD (e.g.
 the construction process, but such indicators are likely to be too detailed for measuring   procurement process, detailed issues relating to construction). However, broad principles are relevant and will need to
 impact of SPD.                                                                              be taken into account when preparing the SPD. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on a range of
                                                                                             sustainability objectives, including health and well being, quality of life, accessibility, townscape, landscape and visual
                                                                                             amenity.
 By Design: Urban Design in the Planning System: Towards Better Practice (2001)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1145239
 Key Government guidance on role of the planning system in promoting good design; produced by former DETR in response to Urban Task Force report. Emphasis on need to include appropriate policies in
 development plans and in supplementary planning guidance. Advises that UDP objectives for design should reflect overall strategy of plan, and the sort of place it aims to create. Policies that will form the basis
 of decision-making should be should be included in the development plan, but may be augmented by supplementary planning guidance, which may be more detailed and can be site/area-based or topic-based.
 Policies should set out the authority‟s design expectations in terms of the broad principles to be applied, avoiding excessive detail and rigid space standards. Policies should be monitored to determine their
 usefulness and effectiveness. Recommends the use of “quality audit checklist” to assess individual applications, setting out the main issues raised, guiding principles, and how development plan policies have
 been applied. Guidance also provides advice on development control process, including good practice with regard to negotiation with developers, provision of advice, use of design statements (now superseded
 by statutory requirement for design and access statement), use of design advisory panels and other aids to decision-making. Recommends pro-active approach towards design, through effective teamwork,
 collaboration/ engagement with all relevant parties at the earliest stages, developing the right skills, and use of appropriate techniques and tools. Defines objectives of urban design as:
  Character – responding to and reinforcing locally distinctive patterns of development, landscape and culture;
  Continuity and Enclosure – clear definition of private and public spaces;
Faber Maunsell          Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



    Quality of the Public Realm – public spaces and routes that are attractive, safe, uncluttered and work effectively for all in society, including elderly and disabled people;
    Ease of Movement – making places that connect with each other and are easy to move through, putting people before traffic and integrating land use and transport;
    Legibility – development that provides recognisable routes, intersections and landmarks to help people find their way round;
    Adaptability - development that can respond to changing social, technological and economic conditions;
    Diversity – a mix of styles and uses that work together to create viable places that respond to local needs.

 Also identifies the following elements of development form:
  Layout: urban structure – basic framework of routes and spaces within the development and relationship to other places;
  Layout: urban grain - pattern of the arrangement of street blocks, plots and other buildings within a settlement;
  Landscape – character and appearance of land, including its shape, form, ecology, natural features and how these combine;
  Density and Mix – amount/ proportion of development on a piece of land, such as plot ratio, floorspace, number of dwellings;
  Scale: height – in relation to people/ other buildings, ratio, number of storeys;
  Scale: massing – three-dimensional arrangement, volume and shape of a building or group of buildings;
  Appearance: details – style, detailing, decoration and elements such as openings, bays and location of entrances and windows, and
  Appearance: materials – type and use of materials in new buildings; effect of texture, colour, pattern, durability of materials.
 Includes guidance on addressing each objective and each element of urban form, and illustrated examples of good designs.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
 Guidance indicates that policies should be monitored and that local authorities should      Some parts of By Design are outdated, as it pre-dates the reformed planning system. However, the broad principles
 conduct “audits” of the management of the design and planning process. Although it          remain relevant, and most of the guidance relating to supplementary planning guidance can be applied to SPDs. UDP
 does not identify any indicators that could be used to measure usefulness and               Part II already includes general policies on urban and landscape design (Policies ENV32 – 33). The overall aim is to
 effectiveness of policies, it identifies the following methods of assessing impact of       promote design that reflects the character and quality of the existing local environment. Policies identify the types of
 design policy and guidance, which could be used to develop indicators:                      location in Walsall where a high standard of design is considered particularly significant and the criteria to be used when
  Visits to completed buildings and schemes;                                                considering development proposals. Reasoned justification explains briefly how the policies will be applied, and that a
                                                                                             SPD will be prepared, which will describe the Council‟s requirements in more detail. The Designing a Better Walsall SPD
  Internal workshops;
                                                                                             will fulfil this objective. It is also intended that it will include general advice to developers on the issues requiring
  Comments by a design advisory panel;                                                      consideration at the earliest stages in the design of a scheme. Council will also need to consider how guidance will be
  Design awards;                                                                            implemented and how design issues will be addressed through the development control process, and appropriate
  Views expressed by estate agents on commercial viability and rates of lettings;           guidance will need to be included in the SPD. UDP Part II also includes a range of other policies dealing with built
                                                                                             environment, landscape, visual impact of development and amenity issues (see below). Guidance on what can be
  Views expressed by residents‟ groups and amenity societies on the impact of new           included in supplementary planning guidance is applicable. Although this particular SPD will contain general design
     development.                                                                            guidance, the Council may also decide to prepare further SPDs containing design guidance for particular areas or
 N.B. It should be noted that the information required to measure performance against        relating to particular topics. Designing a Better Walsall SPD will therefore need to explain the Council‟s approach
 some of these indicators is not currently collected by Walsall Metropolitan Borough         towards preparing such guidance. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on quality of life, accessibility,
 Council and may not be available from other sources either. It may not be feasible or       townscape, landscape and visual amenity.
 practicable for the Council to obtain or collect such information systematically or on a
 regular basis.
 Building in Context: New Development in Historic Areas (2001)
 http://www.helm.org.uk/server/show/nav.7709
 Guidance by English Heritage and CABE on development in conservation areas and other historically sensitive areas. Pre-dates guidance on historic landscape characterisation (HLC) and conservation area
 character appraisals and management strategies (see below). Highlights need to understand historic development of towns and cities; also explains meaning of preserving and enhancing character of
 conservation areas. Use of modern building methods and materials without regard to context and use of “pastiche” not considered appropriate. Right approach is to create buildings and spaces that::
  Relate well to geography and history of the place and lie of the land;
  Sit happily in the pattern of existing development and routes through and around it;
  Respect important views;
  Respect the scale of neighbouring buildings;
  Use materials and building methods which are as high in quality as those used in existing buildings;
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



    Create new views and juxtapositions which add to the variety and texture of the setting.

 Includes 15 case studies of developments in historic centres. Concludes from these that:
  Best buildings result from creative dialogue between architect, client, local planning authorities and others, and pre-application discussions are essential;
  Local planning authority and other consultees can insist on good architecture and help to achieve it;
  Difficult sites should generate good architecture and are not an excuse for not achieving it;
  With skill and care, it is possible to accommodate large, modern uses within the grain of historic settings;
  High environmental standards can help generate good architecture;
  Sensitivity to context and use of traditional materials are not incompatible with contemporary architecture;
  Good design does not stop at the front door, but extends into public areas beyond the building;
  High-density housing does not necessarily involve building high or disrupting the urban grain and can be commercially highly successful;
  Successful architecture can be produced either by following historic precedents closely, by adapting them, or by contrasting with them;
  In a diverse context a contemporary building may be less visually intrusive than making a failed attempt to follow historic precedents.

 Main conclusions relating to successful schemes are: need for careful attention to whole process and early discussions with local planning authority, importance of collaboration, mutual respect and shared
 commitment to project.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 Includes criteria for assessing individual schemes, but no indicators that could be used   Mainly of relevance to conservation areas and other historically sensitive areas. Most of the case studies featured are
 to measure performance of a design guide.                                                  not relevant to the Walsall context; ones in Swiss Cottage and Stoke-on-Trent are most relevant. Key principles and
                                                                                            broad conclusions are relevant to the design of development in any historically sensitive area in Walsall such as
                                                                                            conservation areas and areas that include or are near to listed buildings, registered parks/ gardens, or important
                                                                                            archaeological features or remains. Any guidance in the Designing a Better Walsall SPD relating to such areas will need
                                                                                            to reflect key principles outlined in this guide, as well as more recent guidance published by English Heritage (see
                                                                                            below). Advice regarding preparation of development briefs is no longer applicable under the reformed planning system,
                                                                                            although master planning may have a role and SPD can explain this. Although aimed principally at conservation areas
                                                                                            and other historically sensitive areas, there may be circumstances when some of the key principles could be applied
                                                                                            more widely, and this should be taken into account when preparing the SPD. Will also need to address relationship
                                                                                            between general guidance contained in SPD, conservation area appraisals and management strategies, and the
                                                                                            circumstances when the Council may prepare separate SPDs containing more detailed design guidance for particular
                                                                                            areas. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on townscape, landscape and visual amenity and the historic
                                                                                            environment.
 Better Places to Live: By Design (2001)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1505061
 Prepared as a companion guide to the former PPG3, and to complement By Design, Places, Streets and Movement and Sustainable Communities Plan (see above). Aims to draw attention to key principles
 of good design (as set out in By Design, and to promote better standard of design in new housing developments. However, focuses on making efficient use of land, need to include safe, direct and convenient
 walking and cycling routes, and need to make provision for a range of housing markets and types. Also acknowledges that creation of attractive, sustainable and inclusive places that can be enjoyed by all
 depends on developing appropriate skills and “culture of investing in good design” and includes 12 illustrated “best practice” case studies. Identifies following attributes of successful housing:
  Movement – framework that is safe, direct and attractive to all users;
  Mix – rich mix of housing opportunities;
  Community – sense of neighbourhood and community ownership;
  Layout – Street layout and design that is appropriate to use and context;
  Place – Attractive and clearly defined public and private spaces;
  Amenity – Pleasant gardens and private amenity space;
  Parking – Convenient but unobtrusive car parking;
  Safety – A safe and secure environment;
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



    Space – Well-planned homes that provide space and functionality;
    Adaptability – Housing which is robust and adaptable to changing requirements;
    Maintenance – An environment that can be well maintained over the long-term;
    Sustainability – Housing design to minimise resource consumption; and
    Detail – Well considered detailing of buildings and spaces.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                        Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                     UDP housing policies already include guidance on the design of new residential schemes. Policy H1 requires
                                                                                           environmental issues to be taken into account in the design of renewal schemes and Policy H9 requires densities of
                                                                                           development that are consistent with the former PPG3 and PPS3 which has now superseded it (see above). In addition,
                                                                                           Policy H10 requires new residential developments to create a high quality living environment that is well integrated with
                                                                                           surrounding land uses and local character, in accordance with Policy ENV32, and indicates that proposals will also be
                                                                                           considered against any supplementary guidance relating to residential design, including SPDs. Key elements of
                                                                                           guidance are therefore relevant to UDP policy as well as to the Designing a Better Walsall SPD. Case studies include
                                                                                           several examples of new housing development within urban areas, but regrettably, no examples of successful
                                                                                           development in mature suburban areas. This is one of the key issues relating to residential developments in Walsall and
                                                                                           the adjoining areas of the Black Country, Birmingham and Lichfield. The SPD will need to provide appropriate guidance
                                                                                           on designs and layouts that deliver higher densities, adequate parking, safety and other important design issues, whilst
                                                                                           at the same time, maintaining the character of established residential areas. SA will need to assess potential impact of
                                                                                           guidance on community safety, quality of life, access to key facilities, housing quality and townscape, landscape and
                                                                                           visual amenity.
 Landscape Character Assessment: Guidance for England and Scotland - Pack (April 2002)
 Guidance by the Countryside Agency and Scottish National Heritage on assessing countryside character. Includes guidance on how to identify and express the different elements, such as woodlands,
 hedgerows, moors, mountains and farmland, building styles, and historic features that give a place its unique character. Needs to be read alongside The Character of England – Volume 5: West Midlands
 published in 1999.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                        Implications for SPD and SA
 Former Countryside Agency has recently consulted on Countryside Quality                   UDP Policy ENV7 supports countryside characterisation approach, and accordingly, three Countryside Area Profiles
 Counts, a project to develop indicators of change within the countryside. A               have been prepared for four areas of Walsall‟s countryside and these have been adopted as SPG (but these pre-date
 new Joint Character Area (JCA) map of England was also published in January 2006,         and do not follow the former Countryside Agency‟s characterisation classification in The Character of England). Profiles
 showing the Joint Character Areas that are being used by the Countryside Quality          cover the following areas:
 Counts project as the spatial framework for reporting change in the English                   Barr Beacon;
 countryside.                                                                                  Rough Wood Chase;
                                                                                               Longwood Gap;
                                                                                               East of Aldridge.
                                                                                           Not all of Walsall‟s countryside is covered, so Natural Environment SPD will need to explain Council‟s approach towards
                                                                                           preparation of further profiles covering remaining areas, as well as clarifying how the existing profiles will be used in
                                                                                           decision-making, and how developers should approach countryside characterisation when designing a new scheme in
                                                                                           the open countryside/ Green Belt. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on townscape, landscape and
                                                                                           visual amenity.
 Planning and Access for Disabled People: A Good Practice Guide (2003)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1144644
 A general guide rather than specifically a design guide. Pre-dates reformed planning system, therefore much of the advice regarding preparation of supplementary planning guidance and preparation of access
 statements has been superseded by more recent legislation and guidance. However, the following advice remains valid:
  Should be aiming to create inclusive environment that is accessible to all, rather than “adding on” facilities for disabled people, which set them apart from everyone else and prevent them from taking full part
     in society;
  Development plans should ideally address access issues by including appropriate criteria throughout the plan, rather than in a single policy;
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



   Supplementary design guidance can be used to help clarify detailed requirements of policies in the development plan and can be either general design guidance or specifically about access;
   Where there are “inclusive access policies” in the development plan, authorities may refuse schemes that do not comply;
   Access improvements can be secured by way of conditions or through planning obligations, although this is a matter for negotiation between the authority and the applicant;
   Developers advised to take professional advice on preparation of access statements and ensure that design team understand the fundamentals of inclusive access;
   Developments that have been designed to be inclusive from the outset are likely to have enhanced market value as they will address legal requirements, and will be more cost- effective than “adding on”
    facilities for disabled people as an afterthought.
 Also includes useful Annex B, understanding disability, which defines disability and summarises the types of disability defined in the Disability Discrimination Act, which are: mobility, manual dexterity, physical
 co-ordination, continence, ability to lift, carry or move everyday objects, speech, hearing or eyesight, memory or ability to concentrate, learn or understand, and perception or risk of danger.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                       UDP already includes policies relating to equal opportunities (Policy GP5) and disabled people (Policy GP6), and these
                                                                                             address issues relating to inclusiveness and access for people with disabilities. Other policies in the UDP also address
                                                                                             access issues, for example, Policies S4 – S7, which relate to retail, office, leisure and other “town centre” developments,
                                                                                             and Policy T1 which relates to transport. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on access to key facilities
                                                                                             and equality and diversity.
 Guidance on Tall Buildings (March 2003)
 http://www.helm.org.uk/upload/pdf/Guidance%20on%20Tall%20Buildings_2003.pdf
 Prepared by EH and CABE. Advocates a development plan led approach, with areas appropriate for tall buildings identified in the development plan. Recommends that such areas should be identified following a
 detailed urban design study that considers opportunities and constraints. Also suggests the following criteria for evaluating proposals: relationship to context, effect on the whole existing environment, relationship
 to transport infrastructure, the architectural quality of the proposed building, contribution that the proposal will make to external and internal public spaces, effect on local environment including micro-climate,
 contribution to permeability of site and wider area, function and fitness for purpose and sustainability of the proposal.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                       In reality, this is only likely to be an issue in Walsall Town Centre. However, as the UDP does not identify any locations
                                                                                             suitable for tall buildings, and no detailed urban design studies have been undertaken to identify such locations, it is not
                                                                                             appropriate for the Design SPD to provide any guidance on locations or types of location that are considered to be
                                                                                             particularly suited to the development of tall buildings. However, the SPD could include general guidance on how such
                                                                                             proposals will be assessed. The Council will therefore need to consider what guidance may be required. For example, in
                                                                                             the absence of anything else, the criteria in the guidance could be applied when assessing any proposals for tall
                                                                                             buildings that may come forward. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on townscape, landscape and
                                                                                             visual amenity.
 Safer Places: The Planning System and Crime Prevention (February 2004)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1502936
 Prepared by ODPM and Home Office to support Sustainable Communities Plan: Building for the Future and PPS1 (see above). Aims to be a practical guide to designs and layouts that may help with crime
 prevention, although acknowledges that such designs may sometimes conflict with other key sustainable development principles. Defines crime reduction, crime prevention and community safety as follows:
  Crime reduction – any action to reduce the frequency or seriousness of crime;
  Crime prevention – intervention in crime to reduce risk of occurrences and potential seriousness;
  Community safety – aspect of quality of life in which people are sufficiently free from or reassured about a range of real or perceived risks relating to crime and misbehaviour, are able to cope with the
    incidents that they experience, and if unable to cope alone, are helped to do so, enabling them to pursue the necessities of cultural, social and economic life.

 Includes detailed guidance on safer places whose key attributes are defined as:
  Access and Movement – places with well-defined routes, spaces and entrances that provide for convenient movement without compromising security;
  Structure – places structured so that different uses do not cause conflict;
  Surveillance – places where all publicly accessible spaces are overlooked;
  Ownership – places that promote a sense of ownership, respect, territorial responsibility and community;
  Physical Protection – places that include necessary, well-designed security features;
Faber Maunsell          Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



    Activity – places where the level of human activity is appropriate to the location and creates a reduced risk of crime and a sense of safety at all times; and
    Management and Maintenance – places designed with management and maintenance in mind, to discourage crime in the present and future.

 Also includes checklists for assessing proposals against the above criteria, illustrated case studies and detailed advice on issues such as layouts of buildings and spaces, footpaths, signage, lighting, landscaping
 and boundary treatments. Planning and crime prevention “toolkit” summarises role of planning policy documents in crime prevention and promoting community safety. Policies should be based on awareness of
 crime risks and understanding of potential effects of changes to built environment. Recommends use of crime pattern analysis (Home Office toolkit available), crime risk assessments (can be undertaken with
 assistance and advice of local police), and Secured by Design (award scheme managed by Association of Chief Police Officers) with certain provisos. Walsall UDP policy (Policy GP7: Community Safety)
 specifically referred to as example of a general development plan policy aimed at “designing out crime,” which is considered to be robust enough to apply to the full range of place and development types. Not
 considered necessary to have more detailed policies except where local circumstances require it.


 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                             Implications for SPD and SA
 None suggested in guidance, although the following could be used:                              Guidance appears to be suggesting that UDP Policy GP7 is sufficiently robust to address crime prevention and
  Percentage of residents who say they feel very or fairly safe outside a) during the          community safety issues in all types of new development in Walsall, and that more detailed guidance is not necessary.
     day and b) after dark; and                                                                 Community safety is also one of the criteria identified in UDP Policy ENV32, which will be considered when assessing
                                                                                                the quality of the design of proposals. Supplementary planning guidance (SPG) on the use and design of shutters and
  Total number of major planning applications submitted, and number/ percentage
                                                                                                security grilles has also been adopted by the Council. Checklist of points to consider when preparing general policies on
     achieving Secured by Design standard.
                                                                                                planning and crime suggest that when preparing the Design SPD, Council will need to consider whether more detailed
 N.B. The first indicator is already a RSS contextual monitoring indicator. Although it is      guidance on crime prevention can really add any value, without repeating what already exists within national policy
 relevant, it is extremely unlikely that any positive effects on public perceptions of safety   guidance and the UDP and SPG. However, there are issues that are not fully covered in the above policies, where
 over time can be directly attributed to SPD alone. The second indicator could be, but is       further guidance might be useful, for example:
 unfortunately not likely to be capable of being monitored at the present time, as the
                                                                                                     Explaining how the principles of “Secured by Design” are being applied and the role of local police and other
 information is not currently collected by Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council.
                                                                                                      relevant organisations in the planning process;
                                                                                                     Explaining how the Council will address potential conflicts between crime prevention/ community safety and UDP
                                                                                                      urban and landscape design policies ENV32 & ENV33; and
                                                                                                     Explaining relationship between UDP policy and Crime, Disorder and Drug Use Reduction Strategy (this has
                                                                                                      superseded former Community Safety Strategy and Crime and Disorder Strategy, which informed the UDP policy),
                                                                                                      and how Crime Audit has informed local policy.
                                                                                                SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on community safety.
 Designing for Accessibility (March 2004)
 Produced by RIBA and Centre for Accessible Environments (CAE) to supplement Part M of the Building Regulations and British Standard BS 8300:2001. Explains current legislative framework and provides good
 practice guidance on design of both external and internal spaces. Recommends use of access audits, access plans and Access Statements (at the time of publication these were not mandatory) to demonstrate
 that all relevant access issues have been adequately considered in the light of current guidance. Suggests that people with different disabilities or disability groups should be consulted on these. Key elements of
 design guidance that are relevant to design guide are: car parking, setting down points, routes, street furniture, access ramps, steps, handrails and entrances. Useful building management checklist at the end of
 the document lists the issues that should be considered by developers and managers of buildings.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                             Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                          Guidance is very detailed; broad principles in Planning and Access for Disabled People (see above) are more
                                                                                                relevant to the SPD. Advice relating to access statements has now been superseded by legal requirement for such
                                                                                                statements under Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004, associated secondary legislation and CABE
                                                                                                guidance (see above and below). It would not be appropriate to reproduce detailed design guidance set out in Designing
                                                                                                for Disability in the Design SPD, although it will need to take account of broad principles of designing for accessibility
                                                                                                such as use of audits and checklists. Design of internal spaces, which is covered in some detail in the guidance, is a
                                                                                                matter to be dealt with under the Building Regulations rather than through planning. However, as we are now required to
                                                                                                prepare “spatial” plans, the SPD cannot ignore this issue, and should include appropriate advice about compliance with
                                                                                                other legislation, regulations and standards. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on equality and
                                                                                                diversity.
 Streets for All and Streets for All: West Midlands (September 2004)
 http://www.helm.org.uk/server/show/category.8326
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 Guidance by English Heritage on design of streetscape in historic areas. Includes general guidance on ground surfaces, street furniture, signage and lighting, traffic management, environmental improvements
 and street management. Advocates use of paving materials and street surfaces appropriate to the area, retaining original materials where appropriate, retaining historic original street furniture where it exists, and
 minimising use of bollards, signage and road markings. Streets for All: West Midlands identifies locally distinctive materials, features and characteristics of streetscapes, and includes illustrated examples of good
 and bad practice. Local characteristics identified include brick tradition of manufacturing towns such as Walsall, and that bricks, street furniture etc. can be locally distinctive and contribute to character of areas
 even if industrially-produced. Good quality materials, original features and street furniture should be repaired and retained. However, as a general principle, good, well-designed modern street furniture is
 considered better than reproduction or “pastiche” of “traditional” forms.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                       Mainly of relevance to conservation areas and other historically sensitive areas, although general principles (e.g. use of
                                                                                             paving/ hard landscaping appropriate to area, use of street furniture and signage, avoiding “clutter,” sensitive traffic
                                                                                             management) are arguably applicable to any streetscape, anywhere in Walsall. The Design SPD will therefore need to
                                                                                             reflect this guidance. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on townscape, landscape and visual amenity.
 Using Historic Landscape Characterisation (2004)
 http://www.helm.org.uk/server/show/nav.7716
 Guidance on methodology as well as how to apply historic landscape characterisation (HLC) to design process. HLC is considered to have wide range of potential applications, including providing a useful
 starting point for consideration of spatial planning policies and development proposals - helps to ensure that historic context is fully understood and thereby taken into account. HLC usually includes two broad
 phases: detailed assessment and strategy. Neither is an end in itself but they provide technical evidence, which can help inform spatial planning policy at both regional and local level. It is up to individual
 planning authorities how they take this forward. Guidance includes examples of how this has been done in practice, e.g. in the development of policies for specific landscape areas, and in design guidance such
 as a design guide for Surrey. In some authorities, HLC has also been used alongside the SMR to assess planning applications, in assessing potential impact of major new development on landscape, and in
 evaluating the archaeological potential of “gaps” in the SMR.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                       Of relevance to both SPDs because Walsall parts of Black Country HLC assessment, sponsored by English Heritage,
                                                                                             are now complete and can inform its preparation, although there is as yet no strategy, and the whole project will not be
                                                                                             completed until April 2007. Black Country HLC assessment is in the form of a database linked to GIS. Main difficulty is
                                                                                             getting the HLC assessment into the public domain in time to enable it to be used alongside the SPD. If it is to be used
                                                                                             to its full potential, the Black Country HLC assessment will need to be made widely available in an appropriate electronic
                                                                                             format (ideally alongside the SMR). Unfortunately, there is as yet no timetable for this, and at present it is only feasible to
                                                                                             produce a relatively short technical document identifying the 17 character areas of Walsall that have been defined
                                                                                             through the HLC, with maps and a description of each area. The Council is proposing to publish such a document
                                                                                             alongside the Draft SPDs. It is also proposed that the Design SPD will include a brief summary of the character of
                                                                                             Walsall, and guidance on the use of historic landscape characterisation in the design process. SA will need to assess
                                                                                             potential impact of guidance on townscape, landscape and visual amenity and the historic environment.
 The Planning Response to Climate Change – Advice on Better Practice (September 2004)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1503781
 Defines key causes of climate change as greenhouse gas emissions, and energy supply, use of energy in buildings and transport as key areas for mitigating emissions. Recommends risk-based approach
 towards policy formulation, involving identification of key climate change issues and assessment of risks and potential alternatives. Main potential impacts/ mitigation measures are:
  Flooding – developments in floodplains at risk, other areas may also be at risk if floodplain reduced, and from any development that increases area of impermeable ground and thus run-off – promotion of
    SUDS recommended;
  Water Resources – water becoming scarce resource in some areas, which can affect various land uses – recommended to understand current availability, adopt precautionary principle and allow for change/
    uncertainty in water supply, also recognise wider impacts on landscape and biodiversity;
  Transport – accounts for more than a quarter of CO2 emissions in the UK, and is the only major sector not reducing emissions – recommended to consider transport and accessibility, implications of other
    strategies such as air quality, require Travel Plans for high traffic generating schemes;
  Waste and Resources – landfill sites generate over a quarter of UK‟s emissions of methane – recommended to minimise emissions through restricting landfill and encouraging controlled extraction of
    methane for energy;
  Built Environment – buildings are major consumers of energy, buildings and other infrastructure may also be at risk from effects of climate change such as flooding, subsidence due to drought, overheating
    due to temperature rise, damage due to extreme weather and water shortages – recommend integrated approach to design which seeks to prevent causes of climate change and mitigate effects, and
    encourage developers to develop low carbon buildings that are resilient to climate change impacts and to climate variability.
 Advises that SA/SEA is an effective tool for ensuring that climate change is addressed in planning policy. Also includes climate-sensitive checklist for new development and guidance on modelling techniques for
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 assessing contributions to climate change and resilience.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 Indicators could be developed around use of climate-sensitive development checklist,       RSS and UDP already include policies aimed at reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and addressing main impacts
 although ability of the Council to monitor use of such checklists in assessing planning    of climate change, such as promoting a more sustainable pattern of development (RSS Policies UR1, UR2, UR3, UDP
 applications and their effectiveness will depend on availability of resources.             Policy GP1), reducing the need to travel/ requiring Transport Assessments (RSS Policy T1, T2, UDP Policies T1, T4,
                                                                                            T10, T11, T12), increasing tree planting/ cover (RSS Policy QE8, UDP Policy ENV17), addressing flood risk and
                                                                                            encouraging sustainable drainage (RSS Policy QE9, UDP Policy ENV40), pollution control (UDP Policy ENV10), control
                                                                                            of landfill sites (UDP Policy WM3), promoting re-use of materials (RSS Policies M3, QE3, WD1), and encouraging use of
                                                                                            energy efficiency and renewable energy (RSS Policies EN1, EN2, UDP Policy ENV39). Guidance also specifically
                                                                                            recommends integrated approach towards design of new buildings therefore Design SPD will need to include
                                                                                            appropriate guidance on prevention of causes of climate change and mitigation of likely local effects. Reducing
                                                                                            emissions of greenhouse gases is an important issue in Walsall, as like many other urban areas, it suffers from poor air
                                                                                            quality and the two issues are inextricably linked. Although the whole of the Borough has recently been declared an
                                                                                            AQMA, main concentrations are transport corridors and transport appears to be the main cause of emissions, followed
                                                                                            by energy consumption of buildings. Although methane is also emitted by landfill sites and former landfill sites, controlled
                                                                                            extraction is taking place at the Borough‟s main remaining active site. In Walsall, main effects of climate change are
                                                                                            likely to be flooding arising from building on floodplains and impermeable surfaces, possibly water shortages if
                                                                                            groundwater is affected by development, drought and possibly subsidence resulting from temperature rises, and
                                                                                            structural damage from storms. Both SPDs will therefore need to highlight these issues and the Design SPD should
                                                                                            include appropriate guidance on design and layout of new development and recommended tools and techniques for
                                                                                            assessing potential contribution of developments to climate change and resilience, such as use of climate-sensitive
                                                                                            development checklist and modelling techniques. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on climate
                                                                                            change.
 Biodiversity by Design: A Guide for Sustainable Communities (September 2004)
 http://www.tcpa.org.uk/downloads/TCPA_biodiversity_guide_lowres.pdf
 Produced by TCPA to support Sustainable Communities Plan, in particular, objective of environmental enhancement to help balance proposed scale of housing growth. Supporting “richness of biodiversity” is
 seen as route to building more sustainable neighbourhoods.

 Identifies three “core principles” that provide the basis of a “biodiversity by design” approach, as follows:
  Ecological Function – understanding the ecological systems supported by the habitats present, communities of flora and fauna and the environment and conditions they rely on for support, and size/ spatial
     relationships of habitats to each other;
  Realising the Benefits – recognising “services” vegetation provides (e.g. trees acting as carbon sink/ filtering pollution/ providing air conditioning), how natural greenspace contributes to quality of life (e.g.
     health and wellbeing, social cohesion), and economic value of greenspace (e.g. increase in property values).
  Connecting with Nature – culture change in attitudes towards nature, through positive experience, use of greenspace as educational resource, and community involvement, e.g. allotments, community
     gardens, city farms.
 Guidance on context relates to existing green infrastructure, landscape character, local distinctiveness and protected habitats and species. Should consider ecological potential of all areas including Brownfield
 sites. Landscape character assessments/ area profiles recommended as aids to defining landscape character and local distinctiveness. Local authorities and developers have particular responsibility to mitigate
 impacts of development on designated sites and priority habitats and species and avoid damage to ecosystems. Section on master planning provides guidance on creating new green infrastructure (the
 types and sizes of spaces and habitats required to provide a network), regional parks, green grids and community forests (creating and managing large-scale areas of ecological interest), parks and natural
 green spaces (adapting existing parks, creating new parks and managing existing nature reserves), greenway linkages (maintaining, extending and creating wildlife corridors, such as woodlands and
 wetlands), and street trees (incorporating existing trees and new trees into designs and layouts). Also includes guidance on detailed design, such as creating communal “doorstep” spaces for wildlife, making
 provision for biodiversity in “green” buildings and private spaces such as gardens, roof gardens and green roofs, and guidance on short, medium and long-term management and stewardship.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 None identified, although the following indicators identified elsewhere are likely to be   Although Walsall is not a growth area, this guidance is relevant to any area where major developments take place, and
 relevant:                                                                                  where large-scale housing development is likely to take place, as is proposed in Walsall under the RSS Phase I
  LDF Core Output Indicator – amount of eligible open space managed to Green               Revisions. Walsall is fortunate in already having a well-defined network of open spaces including areas of open
     Flag Award standard; and                                                               countryside, nature reserves, parks and other green spaces. Some sites are recognised as having special biodiversity/
                                                                                            nature conservation value and are designated as a SAC, SSSI, SINC or SLINC. These areas are protected by existing
  UDP Local Indicator - the extent to which the Green Belt is protected from
Faber Maunsell          Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



     inappropriate development (target = 100% protection);                                    UDP and SPD policies: Policies ENV2 – 7 relate to development affecting the open countryside (which is also
    UDP Local Indicator – the degree to which sites of nature conservation importance        designated as Green Belt), Policies ENV16 – ENV24 cover development affecting trees, woodlands and nature
     are protected from destruction or damage (target = 100% protection);                     conservation, Policy ENV33 sets out the requirements for landscape design in new developments, and policies LC1 –
                                                                                              LC6 relate to development affecting open space, allotments, playing fields and greenways. The UDP policies also
  UDP Local Indicator – protection and improvement of urban open space: the extent
                                                                                              include requirements for open space provision within new residential developments, which are explained in more detail
     to which existing urban open spaces have been protected from inappropriate
                                                                                              in the Urban Open Space SPD. When preparing the SPDs, the Council will need to include appropriate guidance on the
     development (target = 100% protection) and provision of new urban open spaces
                                                                                              benefits of designing for biodiversity, relating the design and layout of new developments to the existing open space
     (target = 24 hectares by 2011); and
                                                                                              network in Walsall, how biodiversity can be incorporated into different types of schemes, and the importance of
  UDP Local Indicator – length of new greenways constructed (target = 10 miles up            management and maintenance. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on a range of sustainability
     to 2011).                                                                                objectives, including quality of life, biodiversity and townscape, landscape and visual amenity.
 N.B. Although the above indicators will reflect the extent to which the open space
 network and areas of biodiversity importance in Walsall are being protected, changes
 identified through monitoring are unlikely to be attributable directly to the influence of
 the SPDs.
 Achieving Excellence in Construction: Procurement Guide 11 – Sustainability (May 2005)
 http://www.ogc.gov.uk/documents/CP0016AEGuide11.pdf
 Guidance produced by the Office of Government Commerce (OGC) on the procurement of construction projects that best promote sustainable development, whilst achieving optimum “whole life” value for
 money, as advocated in Strategy for Sustainable Construction (see above). Not aimed at planners but at people who are directly involved in procuring or taking forward a building project. Advocates “project
 procurement lifecycle” approach, which identifies key decisions to be made/ critical outputs at each of the following stages:
  Business justification
  Project brief and procurement process
  Design brief
  Construction process
  Operation and management
  Disposal and re-use.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                           Implications for SPD and SA
 None identified, although it makes reference to national targets for development on          Although the guidance is slightly outdated as it refers to previous UK Sustainable Development Strategy, it covers all of
 brownfield land and reduction of CO2 emissions.                                              the key sustainability issues that developers need to take into account when designing a new scheme, and crucially, it
                                                                                              also highlights the need for these to be considered at the outset, when preparing business case for the scheme. All
                                                                                              these aspects should be covered in the Designing a Better Walsall SPD, and SPD could also include this guidance in its
                                                                                              select bibliography as a useful reference document. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on a range of
                                                                                              sustainability objectives.
 Environmental Quality in Spatial Planning (June 2005)
 http://www.countryside.gov.uk/LAR/environmentalplanningguidance.asp
 Guidance prepared by Countryside Agency, English Heritage, English Nature and Environment Agency on incorporating natural, built and historic environment and rural issues into plans and strategy. Comprises
 general guidance document and supplementary files (checklists) on key topic areas. Main thrust of guidance is that plans should:
  Be properly resourced and evidence-based;
  Be genuinely visionary, whilst embracing objectives of Community Strategy;
  Be ambitious about what can be done to enhance and manage environment and plan for future change, but deliverable;
  Be inclusive, involving the public and key stakeholders in preparation;
  Be better connected to, as well as being consistent with, existing plans, policies and strategies;
  Be integrated, with policies that seek to achieve “win-win-win” solutions that meet economic, social and environmental objectives;
  Respect ability of environment to accommodate change, taking account of future impacts;
  Be objectives led, with policies flowing from objectives and objectives flowing from vision;
  Facilitate locally distinctive and valued development, that fits in with, and enhances context – use of landscape character assessment and historic landscape characterisation recommended;
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



    Facilitate more sustainable development – commends policies that encourage use of recycled building material, avoidance of pollution, reducing waste, addressing dereliction and contamination, reducing
     water and energy consumption, using renewable energy, reducing need to travel, increasing density and using less land;
    Be rigorously tested through sustainability appraisal/ SEA – includes checklists designed to assist with this process;
    Be well delivered, with high quality outcomes – promoting schemes that are “good enough to approve,” rather than “not bad enough to refuse;”
    Be adequately monitored and regularly reviewed – suggested indicators are included in one of the checklists.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
 Supplementary File 11 points to a number of sources of indicators that can be used for      Guidance post-dates the revised UK Sustainable Development Strategy: Securing the Future (see above), but still
 monitoring. Unfortunately, none of the indicators available on the websites that could      retains the “three-legged stool” approach towards sustainability. Nevertheless, general guidance is valid, and in most
 be accessed actually measure quality of design (links to some of the websites are           cases, relevant to the SPDs, given that it aims to promote environmental quality through better plans and policies.
 broken) However the following are likely to be most useful for measuring overall            Preparation of SPDs will therefore have regard to this. In particular, the guidance will support many existing plans,
 environmental quality or in developing indicators that might be able to measure quality     policies and programmes will be based on a sound evidence base, taking into account public perceptions and views on
 of design:                                                                                  the quality of the environment in Walsall, local character as defined through design landscape character assessments
                                                                                             and historic landscape characterisation, and the need to promote designs and layouts that are more sustainable.
                                                                                             Sustainability appraisal framework has also been developed having regard to the relevant Supplementary Files. Broken
 Heritage Counts Indicators:
                                                                                             links highlight the danger of including website addresses in guidance, as they are liable to change. SA will need to
 Relatively few relating to maintaining overall quality of historic environment/ decision-   assess potential impact of guidance on a range of sustainability objectives including those relating to overall
 making. The following are likely to be most useful:                                         environmental quality.
  Planning approvals affecting listed buildings, conservation areas and registered
    parks and gardens;
  Attitude surveys and focus groups;
  Re-use of empty homes.

 Environment Agency Facts and Figures:
 Includes various indicators relating to water quality, water consumption, energy
 consumption, renewable energy generation, air quality, climate change and waste –
 most are also included in Sustainable Development Indicators in Your Pocket (see
 below). Although these set the context/ demonstrate the need for more sustainable
 designs and layouts, none of them is useful for measuring overall quality of built
 environment/ design. The following general indicators have some relation to visual
 amenity, layout and pattern of development:
  Households – density: number of households per km2 (ONS);
  Noise, Graffiti, Litter – number of households perceiving this to be a problem
     (ODPM);
  Population Density - number of people per km2 (ONS);

 Sustainable Development Indicators in Your Pocket 2006:
 23. Farming & Environmental Stewardship – land covered by environmental schemes
 (hectares);
 24. Land Use – area covered by urban land and other land, forest and woodland,
 farmland and inland water (hectares);
 25. Land Recycling - % of new dwellings built on previously-developed land, % all new
 development on previously-developed land;
 26. Dwelling Density – average density of new housing (dwellings per hectare);
 65. Local Environmental Quality - % of households satisfied with the quality of the
 places in which they live overall and in deprived areas.
 N.B. Some of the above data may be collected at national or regional level only, and it
 may not be possible to obtain information for Walsall on a regular basis if at all.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 Start with the Park: Creating Sustainable Urban Green Spaces in Areas of Housing Growth and Renewal (June 2005)
 http://www.cabe.org.uk/default.aspx?contentitemid=386
 Produced by CABE Space to inform Sustainable Communities Plan (see above). Provision of high quality urban green spaces is seen as key to delivery of sustainable communities. Urban green spaces can add
 value to developments, as well as having benefits for health, wellbeing, encouraging more sustainable transport and biodiversity. Design of green space is therefore as important as design of buildings and
 should be planned for at outset. Areas undergoing change may be subject to two types of challenge: housing growth and low demand.

 In areas of housing growth, main issues are identified as: need to integrate new development with existing neighbourhoods, pressure on infrastructure, potential detrimental impact of poorly designed schemes,
 competing demands on land, and requirement for higher housing density coupled with need for flood control. Suggested solutions based on examples include: developing greenspace as part of first phase of
 development, using it as framework for creation of diverse, pleasant new neighbourhoods, making most of heritage and landscape assets, using greenspace to link communities and bridge barriers, using it to
 address local open space deficiencies/ as “dividend” for existing communities, creating a hierarchy/ network of complementary but different types of spaces addressing the needs of a range of users, addressing
 contamination and dereliction through reclamation and laying out as open space, and using greenspace for flood storage/ to protect and enhance biodiversity and ecology of area. In areas of low demand, main
 issues are identified as: abandonment by those able to leave, lack of housing choice for those who remain, general social and economic deprivation exacerbated by poor environment created by empty/ derelict
 properties and run-down, underused and neglected open spaces, negative image leading to lack of interest/ investment by developers, possible lack of resources to maintain open spaces properly in the longer-
 term. Suggested solutions based on examples include: raising land values by investing in high quality public spaces early on, developing landscape and public realm projects to provide a unique selling point,
 developing clear vision of quality of open space to be created, remodelling greenspace to improve design quality, making use of greenspace and vacant buildings for temporary uses, making most of heritage by
 retaining and using existing features and buildings as centrepiece/focus of urban greenspace, using greenspace as a means of creating social vitality and community capital, creating a hierarchy of high quality
 spaces to form centre of each neighbourhood, and which are flexible, fulfil a range of recreational needs, and encourage “ownership” by the local community, addressing contamination and dereliction through
 reclamation and laying out as open space, encouraging communities to be involved in greenspace design and management, using urban greenspace and landscape as part of training programmes. When
 preparing policies for areas of housing growth or change for LDFs, guidance recommends use of historic landscape characterisation (HRC), green space strategies informed by local needs assessments as
 required by PPG17, and green space standards such as Green Flag. Also includes practical guidance on approaches likely to lead to well-designed green spaces, involving local communities, addressing
 sustainability issues such as flood risk, promoting local character and distinctiveness, improving image, addressing other urban design issues such as legibility, enclosure and connectivity, making provision for
 biodiversity, and creating open spaces that are adaptable, flexible and inclusive. Also provides guidance on funding and making provision for long-term maintenance.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 None identified, although the following indicators identified elsewhere are likely to be   Although Walsall is not a growth area and does not suffer from acute low housing demand, this guidance is relevant to
 relevant:                                                                                  Walsall for the following reasons. Firstly, the RSS Phase I Revisions and Black Country Study (see below) propose
  LDF Core Output Indicator – amount of eligible open space managed to Green               significant housing growth in the Black Country between now and 2033, so housing growth is likely to become an issue
     Flag Award standard; and                                                               in the not too distant future. Indeed, those parts of Walsall that are attractive to the market are already under pressure
                                                                                            from development, and there are concerns about the impact of intensification on the quality of the environment in some
  UDP Local Indicator – protection and improvement of urban open space: the extent
                                                                                            of these areas. Secondly, the Black Country Study also shows that parts of the Black Country suffer from an “image”
     to which existing urban open spaces have been protected from inappropriate
                                                                                            problem and consequent lack of interest/ investment, and this applies to many parts of Walsall. In other words, Walsall
     development (target = 100% protection) and provision of new urban open spaces
                                                                                            has areas that already provide a high quality environment and are under pressure from development, as well as areas
     (target = 24 hectares by 2011); and
                                                                                            that are less attractive, where investment is more difficult to encourage. However, Walsall is fortunate in already having
  UDP Local Indicator - length of new greenways constructed (target = 10 miles up to       a well-defined network of open spaces of all types, including extensive areas of greenspace, which are protected by
     2011.                                                                                  existing UDP and SPD policies. The UDP policies aim to protect existing urban open spaces, allotments and sports
 N.B. Although the above indicators will reflect open space provision and to an extent,     pitches, and to secure the provision of new open space, children‟s play, greenways and improvements to existing open
 the quality of open space in Walsall, changes identified through monitoring are unlikely   space, or improvements to existing facilities through planning obligations linked to new residential developments
 to be attributable directly to the influence of the SPD.                                   (Policies GP3, LC1 – LC6). The Council has adopted an Urban Open Space SPD, which explains in more detail how
                                                                                            these policies will be applied. When preparing the SPDs, the Council will need to include appropriate guidance on the
                                                                                            role of urban greenspace and other public spaces in the design and layout of schemes, taking into account the relevant
                                                                                            UDP and SPD policies, and the fact that different parts of Walsall experience different pressures and challenges. The
                                                                                            guidance will need to cover issues such as how new open spaces should be integrated within a new development, which
                                                                                            types of space are appropriate in different situations, and how to ensure that such spaces are properly managed and
                                                                                            maintained in the long-term. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on quality of life, access to key facilities,
                                                                                            housing quality, townscape, landscape and visual amenity.
 Policies for Spatial Plans: A Guide to Writing the Policy Content of Local Development Documents (July 2005)
 http://www.idea-knowledge.gov.uk/idk/aio/942241
 Guidance by Planning Officers‟ Society on policy formulation. Key advice on SPDs:
  SPD can be used to set out policies or guidance on issues such as design and landscaping;
  Guidance in SPD should be clearly linked to policy content of DPD or “saved” plan.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)




 Other general guidance on “spatial” policies – should be:
  Necessary to include in LDF rather than in other strategies;
  Suited to, and appropriate for, type of document they are in;
  Consistent with national planning policy;
  In general conformity with RSS;
  Have particular regard to Community Strategy and other relevant local strategies and programmes;
  Contribute towards sustainable development, including good design;
  Rooted in local social, economic and environmental characteristics of area;
  Clearly related to use or development of land;
  Clearly expressed in terms of what you want to achieve;
  Well related to reasoned justification;
  Supported by robust evidence base;
  Clear about delivery – implementation, responsibilities, etc;
  Backed-up by written commitment from any other organisations involved in implementation;
  Suitable for sustainability appraisal;
  Able to be managed and monitored; and
  In accordance with good practice.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 None, although need for policies that are capable of being monitored is highlighted.       SPDs sit at the bottom of the “hierarchy” of plans, below the UDP and RSS. In line with the guidance, they must be
                                                                                            clearly linked to the UDP policies they support, and be in general conformity with the relevant RSS policies. They must
                                                                                            also be consistent with all relevant national planning policy guidance as well as other national policy, to the extent that is
                                                                                            possible, given the requirement for rigid conformity with the UDP. Fortunately, no significant conflicts between national
                                                                                            policy guidance and the UDP have been identified. In terms of the content of the SPDs, it may not be appropriate to
                                                                                            express the guidance in terms of specific policies. It is envisaged that much of it will be expressed in terms of general
                                                                                            principles, advice and information, and will include illustrations and examples of good practice. However, guidance must
                                                                                            be clearly rooted in UDP policy and Community Strategy, will be based on robust technical evidence of the character of
                                                                                            Walsall, current perceptions of the quality of the environment in the Black Country generally and Walsall in particular,
                                                                                            and will therefore reflect local issues and priorities. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on a range of
                                                                                            sustainability objectives.
 Sustainable Energy by Design: A Guide for Sustainable Communities (January 2006)
 http://www.tcpa.org.uk/downloads/TCPA_SustEnergy.pdf
 Produced by the TCPA to support the Sustainable Communities Plan (see above), and aimed at promoting low-carbon and carbon-neutral developments thereby addressing impact of proposed housing growth
 on greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption. Acknowledges that funding is often an issue, and includes examples of how schemes can be financed. Considers different scales and locations of
 development and which measures/ new energy technologies are likely to be most applicable in each case. Guidance defines three types of location: urban, suburban and rural/ urban fringe. In urban locations,
 higher densities are considered to create opportunities for reducing energy use from transport, as well as from development themselves. In suburban locations, lower densities mean that network-based
 schemes are less viable, but more space-intensive schemes and building-integrated schemes may be easier to accommodate. In rural/ urban fringe locations, there is more space and scope for technologies
 such as wind and biomass, but low density development means that supply to all properties may not be viable. Guidance defines three types of development scale: neighbourhood/ city, street/ block, and
 building. In very large developments of neighbourhood/ city scale the creation of integrated energy networks is likely to be cost-effective, particularly if these are integrated into the overall master plan. Schemes
 of street/ block scale are considered to offer similar potential for creating sustainable energy networks such as CHP or community heating, although sites may vary in terms of micro-climate, and site analysis/
 detailed design will be important to maximise potential. Smaller developments of a single building scale provide opportunities for integrating sustainable energy into or around them, which can either be stand-
 alone systems or link into the national grid or a local energy network where one exists. Detailed attention should be given to design of buildings and surrounding areas to maximise potential. Includes illustrated
 case studies and guidance on reducing energy demand, incorporating energy efficiency, and renewable energy generation.

 Guidance on reducing energy demand through design includes:
  Impact of height and aspect of buildings on solar gain; and
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



    How passive measures can reduce energy consumption of individual buildings.

 Guidance on incorporating efficient energy supplies into designs and layouts includes:
  Community heating schemes using CHP and geothermal heat; and
  Ground source heat pump systems for individual buildings.

 Guidance on layouts and designs incorporating renewable energy generation includes:
  Large- and medium-scale community energy schemes with energy supplied by wind turbines; and
  Individual buildings with heating supplied by biomass systems or small wind turbines.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                           Implications for SPD and SA
 Increase in generation of renewable energy through new proposals per annum is a              Although Walsall is not a growth area, this guidance is relevant to any area where major developments take place, and
 Core Output Indicator for the LDF. However, this will not necessarily be directly            where large-scale housing development is likely to take place, as is proposed in Walsall under the RSS Phase I
 applicable to the SPD, which can only have an indirect influence on such matters.            Revisions. At the moment, any provision for energy efficiency and renewable energy within new development schemes
                                                                                              is a matter for negotiation, since the UDP energy policy ENV39 does not include a specific requirement for on-site
                                                                                              renewable energy generation. The Designing a Better Walsall SPD guidance will therefore be limited to encouraging
                                                                                              good practice in the sustainable use of energy through design, and the submission of information on sustainable energy
                                                                                              provision with applications for major schemes, in line with the UDP policy. In terms of the types of location identified in
                                                                                              the guidance, Walsall has elements of all three, and may therefore have scope to accommodate a wide range of
                                                                                              technologies. Many of the energy reduction, energy efficiency, and renewable energy measures referred to in the
                                                                                              guidance could in theory be incorporated into schemes in Walsall. However, the main sticking point is likely to be funding
                                                                                              such schemes, and the SPD will need to provide information and advice about short-term v long-term costs, and
                                                                                              potential sources of funding, as outlined in the guidance. In terms of the scale of development, few development
                                                                                              schemes of “neighbourhood” size come forward in Walsall, and at the present time the only scope for development on
                                                                                              this scale is likely to be within the Walsall Regeneration Company area (see below). All of the sites and areas allocated
                                                                                              for development in the UDP, and nearly all of the major schemes that come forward as planning applications are of
                                                                                              “street/block” or “building” scale. The guidance in the SPD will therefore need to focus primarily on the types of
                                                                                              technology that are applicable to designs and layouts of this size and scale, although it should also include guidance on
                                                                                              incorporating sustainable energy into the design and layout of larger-scale developments, to ensure that if any come
                                                                                              forward, this will be taken into account in the master plan or brief for the area. SA will need to assess potential impact of
                                                                                              guidance on energy.
 Guidance on Conservation Area Appraisals and Guidance on the Management of Conservation Areas (February 2006)
 http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/server/show/nav.00100200800g005
 Latest (consultative) guidance by English Heritage and PAS on conservation area character appraisals and management strategies. Guidance on the Management of Conservation Areas explains relationship
 of conservation area appraisals and management strategies to LDF, which is unfortunately not straightforward. Although appraisals cannot themselves be LDDs, they can form part of technical evidence base to
 inform preparation of LDDs. Guidance on Conservation Area Appraisals explains how appraisals should be carried out, e.g. use of historic landscape characterisation, how to define special interest and
 character, and public consultation. Recommends that published appraisals should be as succinct and informative as possible and should include appropriate maps and illustrations. Main purpose of Character
 Appraisal is defining “special interest” of conservation area – i.e. distinctiveness, qualities and values of area/ different parts of area; as well as appearance, can include sounds, smells, local environmental
 conditions, historic associations, value and significance to local community. Appraisal should include more than just description of area, should identify distinctive parts (if any), and provide “vivid” picture of area
 as it is, and its key characteristics. Key elements of assessment are:

 Location and Setting:
  Location and Context – description of location, regional context, economic profile, general condition, and existing/ potential forces for change;
  General Character and Plan Form –general character or nature of area e.g. urban, suburban, form and layout of street pattern, density of development; and
  Landscape Setting – topography and relationship to wider landscape/ townscape identified through existing landscape characterisation.
 Historic Development and Archaeology:
  Origins and historic development of the area – e.g. surviving features;
  Archaeology, including scheduled monuments - identified through research, excavations and surveys.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 Spatial Analysis:
  Character and inter-relationship of spaces within the area – importance of open spaces, how enclosed, contribution to character of area; and
  Key views and vistas – important views into and out of area, landmark buildings or features.
 Character Analysis:
  Definition of character areas or zones (where applicable) – identification of each distinct area on a plan and analysis of each area according to: form and grain of layout, qualities of buildings and contribution
    to area, unlisted buildings, local details, prevalent and traditional building materials and the public realm, audit of heritage assets, contribution made by green spaces, extent of intrusion or damage, existence
    of neutral areas, general condition, and problems, pressures and capacity for change.

 Guidance on the Management of Conservation Areas explains that appraisal should form basis for development of Management Strategy. Can be in same document as appraisal but should be in separate
 section. Should define which policy guidance (e.g. in DPD or SPD) is applicable to area, and set out proposals for management and enhancement of area. Management can include practical measures such as
 Article 4 Direction, HERS schemes, etc. Enhancement is defined as:
  Sympathetic redevelopment of sites identified in appraisal as detracting from character of appearance of area; and/or
  Pro-active proposals such as management of historic landscape, schemes for repair of distinctive architectural features, reinstatement of historic surfaces, traffic management or rationalisation of signage.

 Guidance recommends preparation of development or design briefs “as quickly as possible” following preparation of character appraisals.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 Guidance makes reference to the following BVPI which will also shortly become a CPA        Mainly of relevance to conservation areas, of which there are 18 in Walsall. Although guidance relates only to
 indicator:                                                                                 conservation areas, there may be circumstances when some of the key principles could be applied more widely (e.g. in
 BV219a – c (to be CPA from 2007): Total number of conservation areas in the local          other historically sensitive areas and/or where archaeological remains are known to be present), and this will need to be
 authority area, percentage of conservation areas in the local authority area with an up-   taken into account when preparing the general guidance in the SPDs. In accordance with its legal duty under the Town
 to-date character appraisal, and percentage of conservation areas with published           and Country Planning Act 1990 (see above) and BV219, Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council is committed to
 management proposals.                                                                      completing character appraisals and management plans for five of its conservation areas by April 2007. As these are
                                                                                            specialised documents, any guidance in the SPD relating to them should be limited to a brief explanation of their
                                                                                            purpose and role, their relationship to general design guidance such as that in UDP and Designing a Better Walsall SPD,
                                                                                            and how the Council will use them in decision-making. If more detailed guidance on the preparation of appraisals and
                                                                                            management strategies for Walsall conservation areas is considered necessary, it would be more appropriate for it to be
                                                                                            set out in a separate document. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on the townscape and landscape
                                                                                            and historic environment.
 Good Practice Guide on Planning for Tourism (May 2006)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1500045
 Has now superseded Planning Policy Guidance Note 21 (PPG21): Planning for Tourism. Acknowledges that tourism depends heavily on the natural and built environment, and can also be the key to maintaining
 and enhancing the environment. The importance of high quality design is also highlighted (paragraph 2.6).
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                      Although it has a number of important visitor attractions such as the Arboretum and the New Art Gallery and attractive
                                                                                            areas of open space, Walsall has so far not developed a significant tourist industry. As there are no specific policies on
                                                                                            tourism in the UDP, the SPDs cannot provide more than general guidance on the role of high quality design, “landmark”
                                                                                            buildings and the natural environment in supporting tourism. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on
                                                                                            economic investment and landscape, townscape and visual amenity.
 Design and Access Statements: How to Write, Read and Use Them (July 2006) http://www.cabe.org.uk/AssetLibrary/8073.pdf
 Guidance by CABE on Design and Access Statements which are now mandatory for certain types of planning application. Emphasises the need to cover both design and access issues, preferably in one
 statement. Explains minimum requirements for statements with outline applications, and that what is agreed will be expected to be adhered to at the reserved matters stage. Also explains relationship between
 design and access statements and planning policy, planning conditions, and the more detailed access statements required under Disability Discrimination Act 2005 (see above). Provides helpful guidance on
 how to write statements, such as what information should be included and why, how to assess context, evaluate options for development, and how design should relate to these. All statements should include
 information about the following:
  Use – what uses are proposed, how they fit in with each other and the wider area, and how access needs of users will be addressed;
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



   Amount – how much development is proposed, e.g. how many dwellings, how big an area, how many storeys, how much floorspace, impact of development on site and the wider area;
   Layout – why layout proposed has been chosen, how buildings and spaces within the site work together, relationship to existing buildings, features and infrastructure, how inclusive access will be maintained,
    how conflicts have been resolved/ what compromises have been made.
  Scale – size of buildings and spaces, relationship of existing buildings within or around the site to buildings proposed, how restrictions of the site have been taken into account, balance of features/ detailing.
  Landscaping – treatment of external spaces, including hard landscaping as well as provision of greenspace, how landscape has been integrated into design of whole scheme, how it relates to rest of scheme,
    uses and functions of landscaping, how it will be maintained and managed in the long-term, how needs of disabled people have been met.
  Appearance – design rationale/ philosophy and how this has influenced scheme, how appearance fits with other aims of development and with the surrounding area, why materials have been chosen, how
    they will change over time.
  Access – policy approach towards access, particularly inclusion of disabled people, how LDF policies and other policies have been applied, details of consultation carried out prior to submission of application
    with local community and access groups, advice obtained from specialists, details of how roads and other routes are linked, how people can move to and through the site, reason for location of access points
    and entrances, details of access for disabled people, and for emergency vehicles.
 Also provides comprehensive guidance on assessing each of the above elements of statements. Key issue is that those assessing statements need to consider how well they relate to the actual proposals.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 None – although it is possible to monitor the extent to which design and access            When read alongside DCLG Circular 1/2006 (see above), guidance is comprehensive and there is no need to repeat it
 statements are being provided with applications that require them, no measurable           in the Designing a Better Walsall SPD. However, SPD will be expected to explain the Council‟s main requirements and
 indicators have been identified that could be used to measure the quality of the           approach towards assessing statements. For example, it could include advice on such matters as:
 statements provided.                                                                        The Council‟s general approach towards pre-application discussions and amendments to proposals;
                                                                                             The format and presentation of design and access statements;
                                                                                             The level of detail required in design and access statements for different types of application; and
                                                                                             How the Council will assess design and access statements when making decisions on planning applications.
                                                                                            SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on quality of life, access to key facilities, equality and diversity,
                                                                                            townscape, landscape and visual amenity and land use.
 Planning Policies for Sustainable Building: Guidance for Local Development Frameworks (October 2006)
 http://www.lga.gov.uk/Documents/Publication/planning%20policies%20complete.pdf
 Prepared jointly by Planning Officers‟ Society, Local Government Association, PAS, Constructing Excellence, WRAP and Enfield Council. Originally published as a draft in July 2006, revised version published in
 October 2006. Includes definition of sustainable building, covering: design and construction practice, carbon emissions, water, material efficiency in construction, household and commercial recycling,
 environmental protection and enhancement and adaptation to climate change. Does not address issues relating to location, land use and transport as these are assumed to be covered in core policies. Includes
 suggested policy approaches for all of the subjects covered, to suit various types of LDD. For SPDs, in most cases it suggests that these should set out standards that developers should adopt, criteria against
 which schemes will be considered, and details of information that is expected to be provided with planning applications. Section on implementation is useful and identifies critical success factors as:
  Awareness - need for development control officers and developers/ design team to be aware of policies and issues, key partners and sources of information – recommends training if necessary;
  Enforcement - need for clear definition of how applicants should respond to policy and prove compliance, so there is no ambiguity – recommends use of criteria, checklists and carefully worded conditions;
    and
  Monitoring - need to establish baseline evidence, against which performance of policies can be measured – recommends use of information that is straightforward to collect and collate, e.g. compliance with
    all applications, major applications and appeals.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 Impact of policies on issues such as energy, water, minerals, waste and environmental      Guidance is aimed at sustainable building rather than urban and landscape design, and most of it is more applicable to a
 pollution, is acknowledged as being “difficult to quantify.” Guidance does not identify    DPD than to a SPD. Most of the “model” policies included in the guidance would not be appropriate for incorporation into
 any specific indicators that could be used to measure impact of design policies. Whilst    the Designing a Better Walsall SPD, although inclusion of some elements could be considered, where these would be in
 in theory it would be possible to assess compliance of SPD against permissions and         conformity with policies in the UDP. For this reason, it may not be possible for SPD to be prescriptive in all cases, but
 appeals, information is not necessarily straightforward to collect and collate,            could consider defining within it specific features that Council wishes to see incorporated into schemes, such as types of
 particularly where monitoring of applications is not done systematically and there are     water saving devices that could be used in different circumstances, and standards that the Council would recommend
 no resources available to set up a system for such monitoring, as is the case in           developers to adopt, such as those published by CIRIA and EST. Advice on implementation is helpful, and has been
 Walsall. Guidance suggests that many other authorities are in a similar position.          taken on board in the preparation of the SPD. In terms of raising awareness, training is being arranged with University of
 However, it may be feasible to assess a sample of permissions and appeals each             Central England for relevant Council staff. It is intended that the SPD will provide clear indication to developers about
 year.                                                                                      what is expected of them, and how the Council will assess quality of schemes. Baseline information for the SPD is as
                                                                                            robust as it can be, given the resources currently available. Monitoring is also constrained by lack of resources and the
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



                                                                                            difficulty of identifying suitable indicators, but as far as possible, we have identified indicators that can be used to
                                                                                            measure performance of each of the key SPD objectives, against available baseline information. SA will need to assess
                                                                                            potential impact of guidance on a range of sustainability objectives.
 Preparing Design Codes: A Practice Manual (November 2006)
 http://comunities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1504827
 Guidance prepared by CABE and RIBA, following an extensive study into the use and application of design coding (see Design Coding in Practice: An Evaluation). Guidance is intended to complement existing
 good practice guidance on design such as By Design, Safer Places and By Design: Better Places to Live (see above). Design codes are a tool that can help planners, designers and developers to improve
 the quality, value and delivery of development. Guidance explains that design codes are delivery tools for specific sites or areas, and that they provide detailed guidance, comprising of a set of written and
 graphic rules based on an existing design vision, master plan or design framework. They set out the essential features and characteristics that the design must follow. The aim is to provide clarity over what
 constitutes acceptable design quality for the site or area in question. The guidance suggests that they are likely to be most useful in situations where site-specific guidance is needed because existing guidance is
 not adequate, and for large sites that are to be developed in phases over a long time. Design coding is not a “quick-fix.” To be successful, design codes require strong leadership and team-working, and a
 considerable commitment/ up-front investment by those involved. Coding team should include people with responsibility for the land (e.g. land owner, developer, funding agency), design (e.g. designer, architect,
 master planner) and public authority (e.g. local planning authority).



 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 None, although it includes detailed checklists for selecting design coding team            Design codes for specific sites or areas could be used to supplement the guidance in the UDP and Designing a Better
 members, and skills/ knowledge requirements. A monitoring indicator could be               Walsall SPD in appropriate circumstances. For example, they may be appropriate delivery tools to guide the
 developed relating to the number of design codes prepared for particular sites/ areas.     development of very large phased schemes within the Walsall Regeneration Company area. The SPD should therefore
 It should be possible to monitor this, as there are unlikely to be many codes prepared,    explain how design codes will be used in Walsall, and in what circumstances developers will be encouraged to work with
 and in all cases the Council will be aware of them, since its involvement is essential.    the Council to prepare design codes for particular sites or areas. N.B. Design Codes should not be confused with the
                                                                                            Code for Sustainable Homes, which sets detailed building standards for new homes – the implications of the Code for
                                                                                            Sustainable Homes are set out above. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on quality of life, economic
                                                                                            investment, townscape, landscape and visual amenity and land use.


 Building a Better Environment: A Guide for Developers (November 2006)
 http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/business/444304/502508/1506471/#
 Guidance by the Environment Agency for developers on how to address key environmental issues through the development process. Provides an overview of what the Agency does, and at what stage they
 should be contacted for advice. Covers the environmental issues that are dealt with by the Agency and issues that have a bearing on these i.e. managing flood risk, surface water management, use of water
 resources, wildlife and greenspace, preventing pollution, managing waste, dealing with contamination, sustainable construction and recreation and health.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 None, although number of applications approved against Environment Agency advice           Largely re-iterates what is in existing guidance, but in plain language. Is also useful in that it emphasises the importance
 on grounds of flood risk and water quality per annum is a Core Output Indicator for the    of early liaison with the Agency and the importance of addressing the causes and effects of climate change through the
 LDF. However, Core Output Indicator will not necessarily be directly applicable to the     design and layout of schemes, such as designing schemes that address flood risk and incorporate sustainable drainage
 SPDs, which can only have an indirect influence on such matters.                           and measures to conserve water. This is a document that the SPDs could refer to in their bibliographies as useful
                                                                                            guidance for developers. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on a range of sustainability objectives
                                                                                            including biodiversity, pollution and natural resources.
 Manual for Streets (March 2007)
 http://www.communities.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1509196
 New guidance produced to replace Places, Streets and Movement and intended to complement PPS3. Not clear how this relates to By Design or Better Places to Live By Design (see below). Focuses
 primarily on development of streets and road networks, and aims to create streets that:
  Help to build and strengthen the communities they serve
  Meet the needs of all users, by embodying inclusive design
  Form part of a well-connected network
  Are attractive and have their own distinctive identity
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



    Are cost-effective to construct and maintain, and
    Are safe.

 Defines principles of inclusive design as:
  Placing people at the heart of the design process
  Acknowledging diversity and difference
  Offering choice where a single solution cannot accommodate all users
  Providing flexibility in use, and
  Providing buildings and environments that are convenient and enjoyable to use for everyone.

 Discourages building of streets that are primarily designed to meet the needs of motor traffic, bland and unattractive, unsafe and unwelcoming for pedestrians and cyclists, difficult to serve by public transport,
 and poorly designed and constructed. Recommends the following approaches:
  Applying a user hierarchy to the design process, with pedestrians at the top
  Collaborative approach towards the design of streets
  Recognising importance of community function of streets as spaces for social interaction
  Promoting inclusive environment that recognises needs of people of all abilities and ages
  Reflecting and supporting pedestrian “desire lines” in networks and detailed designs
  Developing master plans/ design codes for major developments, and using design and access statements for all scales of development
  Creating networks of streets that provide permeability and connectivity to main destinations and a choice of routes
  Moving away from hierarchies of standard road types based on traffic flows
  Developing street character types on location-specific basis, with reference to place and movement functions for each street
  Encouraging innovation with flexible approach to street layouts and use of locally distinctive, durable and maintainable materials and street furniture
  Using quality audit systems that demonstrate how designs will meet key objectives for the local environment
  Designing to keep vehicle speeds to 20 mph on residential streets unless there are overriding reasons for higher speeds
  Using minimum highway design features necessary to make streets work properly.

 Provides guidance on the seven key stages that should be followed in the design process – policy review, objective setting, design, quality auditing, planning approval, implementation and monitoring.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                        Implications for SPD and SA
 Advocates use of “quality audit systems” that demonstrate how designs will meet           Walsall‟s Development Team approach is actually featured in this manual as an example of good practice, so we must
 objectives for local environment, which implies that we need to identify the objectives   be doing something right! However, it will be necessary to review current practice and ensure that this is able to deliver
 and the criteria for assessing whether or not these are met.                              the approach advocated in the guidance, and to reflect this in the SPDs. It will be important for the SPDs to define the
                                                                                           Council‟s main objectives for the local environment, and explain what “audit systems” will be used to assess compliance,
                                                                                           and how this will be monitored. Design SPD should also explain the Council‟s preferred approaches towards the design
                                                                                           of streets and road layouts, such as the circumstances when the Council will expect master plans and design codes to
                                                                                           be prepared for particular sites or areas, what involvement the Council will have in this process, the information expected
                                                                                           to be provided in design and access statements. Natural Environment SPD should explain how to comply with legal
                                                                                           requirements such as the Habitats Directive and with the UDP nature conservation policies. SA will need to assess
                                                                                           potential impact of guidance on a range of sustainability objectives, including quality of life, economic investment and
                                                                                           townscape, landscape and visual amenity.


 REGIONAL AND SUB-REGIONAL POLICY
 Regional Spatial Strategy for the West Midlands (RPG11) (June 2004)
 http://www.wmra.gov.uk/page.asp?id=47
 Regional Planning Guidance for the West Midlands (RPG11), published in June 2004 is the current Regional Spatial Strategy (RSS) for the West Midlands and is also part of the statutory development plan for
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 Walsall. Protecting and enhancing the quality of urban environments is one of the key elements of the Spatial Strategy (paragraph 3.8). Spatial Strategy objectives include a) to make the Major Urban Areas
 (MUAs) of the West Midlands increasingly attractive places where people want to live, work and invest, and g) to ensure that the quality of the environment is conserved and enhanced across all parts of the
 Region (paragraph 3.14). The quality of the environment, including good quality design, is seen as fundamental to achieving Urban Renaissance.

 The following policies are of particular relevance:
 UR1: Implementing Urban Renaissance – the MUAs, which urges local authorities and their partners to work together to undertake environmental improvements, including greening programmes and
 conservation of the built environment, and to raise the quality of urban design, architecture and public art and spaces;
 UR3: Enhancing the Role of Town and City Centres, which emphasises the need to ensure the highest standards of design are adopted, building on the existing character and identity of centres; and
 UR4: Social Infrastructure, which urges local authorities to ensure that new social infrastructure is accessible, to support the creation of new high quality residential environments in areas of opportunity, and to
 encourage the creation of safer neighbourhoods.

 The principle of good design is also strongly supported in the Quality of the Environment policies, which aim to:
  Support regeneration, by restoring degraded areas, conserving existing environmental assets, including the re-use of redundant and under-used buildings of merit, and creating new, high quality, built and
    natural environments, particularly within the MUAs (Policy QE1: Conserving and Enhancing the Environment);
  Restore degraded areas and promote environmental improvement and physical regeneration in areas suffering from inadequate investment in the built and natural environment (Policy QE2: Restoring
    Degraded Areas and Managing and Creating High Quality New Environments);
  Promote the creation of high quality built environments as part of urban and rural renaissance and the regeneration strategies for the Region‟s cities, towns and villages (Policy QE3: Creating a High Quality
    Built Environment for All); and
  Identify, protect, conserve and enhance the Region‟s diverse historic environment and manage change in such a way that respects local character and distinctiveness (Policy QE5: Protection and
    Enhancement of the Historic Environment).

 Policy QE3 also states that particular attention should be given to:
 i. Securing a high quality of townscape, urban form, building design and open spaces, through the use of architecture, urban design and landscape design, which respects Regional and local character, culture
      and history;
 ii. Promoting public art;
 iii. Incorporating sustainability considerations such as energy and water efficiency, use of renewable energy, sustainable construction and drainage, building orientation, use of recycled materials, minimisation of
      waste, construction materials, and prolonging the lifespan of buildings;
 iv. Assessing and minimising the impacts of noise and light pollution as a result of development;
 v. Creating safer environments which discourage crime; and
 vi. Promoting community safety.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 The RSS Headline Indicators do not directly relate to design, but the following may in     All local development documents must be in “general conformity” with the Regional Spatial Strategy (RSS), which forms
 part reflect the relative attractiveness of the Major Urban Areas (which include most of   part of the statutory development plan for Walsall, along with the UDP. In this case, there is little doubt that the SPDs will
 Walsall) compared to other parts of the Region:                                            be in conformity with the RSS. The overall aim of the UDP policies that it will support is to raise the overall quality of
  2. Pattern of population movement to and from the Major Urban Areas and                  design in Walsall, thereby making it a more attractive place for people to live, work and invest. The preparation of a
    changes over time;                                                                      practical design guide that is aimed at raising the overall quality of urban and landscape design in Walsall will therefore
                                                                                            contribute towards the implementation of the overall RSS objectives of protecting and enhancing the quality of urban
  8. The pattern of development within and between town centres and the health of
                                                                                            environments and promoting urban renaissance, as well as RSS Policies QE1, QE2, QE3 and QE5. SA will need to
    town centres;
                                                                                            assess potential impact of guidance on a range of environmental sustainability objectives.
  9. Percentage of residents satisfied with living in their local community;
  11. Changes in the amount of derelict and contaminated land in different parts of
    the Region; and
  13. Changes in the level of crime and people‟s perception of crime, in different
    parts of the Region.

 Quality of the Environment indicators also do not directly relate to design, but include
Faber Maunsell          Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 the following indicators that relate to the overall quality of the built environment:
  QE2: Restoring Degraded Areas and Managing and Creating High Quality
     Environments: Amount of derelict land reclaimed a) in total and as a proportion of
     the outstanding supply of derelict land, and b) by end use.
  QE5: Protection and Enhancement of the Historic Environment: a) number and
     percentage of listed buildings and ancient monuments at risk of neglect or decay,
     and b) number and proportion of listed buildings demolished.
 N.B. Although the above indicators tell us about the overall quality of the environment
 in the Region, they do not relate directly to Walsall, although in some cases, local
 data is available. Even so, any changes identified through monitoring are unlikely to
 be attributable directly to the influence of the SPD.
 Regional Spatial Strategy Review Phase One: The Black Country (May 2006), Black Country Study (May 2006), Public Examination Panel Report (March 2007)
 http://www.blackcountryconsortium.co.uk/newsstory.asp?PageRef=20&NewsRef=42
 The RSS is currently under review. The first phase of this review covers the Black Country (i.e. the four Black Country Authorities of Dudley, Sandwell, Walsall and Wolverhampton). One of the strategic
 objectives of the Black Country Strategy is to transform the environment. This has been endorsed as a strategic objective in the Panel Report (March 2007), although the Panel has recommended significant
 changes to the wording of the policies. The Panel‟s recommendations include a new Climate Change policy CC1, an amended policy UR1A, relating to Black Country Regeneration Priorities, and a new policy
 QE10 relating to Transforming the Environment of the Black Country. The latter states that the authorities will plan for the transformation of the environment by giving physical expression to the concept of the
 “Black Country as Urban Park” through identification of beacons, corridors and communities, through preparation and implementation of Landscape Action Plan and Canal Management Plan. Black Country
 Study, published in May 2006 alongside proposed RSS Phase One Revisions, provides a long-term vision and strategy for the Black Country, looking ahead to 2033. Environmental quality is seen as an
 important part of the strategy. The Vision (Looking Forward: The Black Country in 2033, February 2005) states that:
 “Quality of place lies at the heart of current perceptions and future decisions of people and businesses potentially choosing to live, work and invest in the Black Country. Quality of life is determined by a sense of
 being valued, interaction with others, opportunities for learning, leisure, entertainment and active lifestyles, being proud to live, work and enjoy a place.”

 Study acknowledges that the perception of the Black Country is often negative, but that in reality, the area has many environmental assets, including extensive open spaces, varied topography, diverse geology,
 industrial heritage, including an extensive canal network, as well as high quality new buildings. Enhancing these assets, and creating new, high quality environments where these do not currently exist, is seen as
 crucial to unlocking the potential of the Black Country, and making the 30-year vision a reality. Urban Park concept aims to create a framework that will reinforce the area‟s distinctive settlement form, integrating
 natural and urban environments and helping to realise the potential of the area‟s natural, built and historic assets, by:
  Highlighting the topography and natural features;
  Linking existing communities to their traditional centres and new residential areas;
  Emphasising physical and symbolic connections;
  Providing linked visual, historic and cultural identification and delivering a “living landscape” including large areas for wildlife and geological heritage.

 The Urban Park will have three key “design layers:”
  Beacons: highlighting the most distinctive characteristics of the Black Country to residents and visitors;
  Corridors: joining up the Black Country by using existing linear environmental assets such as canals, other waterways and green spaces;
  Communities: defining past and future community areas, towns and villages, according to their distinct “character,“ which may be defined by physical or cultural associations or a common heritage, and
    celebrating this through urban form.

 The Study also aims to implement the RSS Quality of the Environment policies by developing a Black Country Landscape Action Plan, the status of which remains unclear, although the preparation of such a
 plan is endorsed by the Panel Report.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                            Implications for SPD and SA
 Monitoring indicators identified in the Sustainability Appraisal that relate to the overall   In seeking to raise the overall quality of development and protect, enhance and maintain the quality of the natural and
 quality of the built environment are as follows:                                              built environment in Walsall, the SPDs will support the aspiration of the RSS Phase One Revisions to transform those
                                                                                               parts of the environment that are in need of enhancement and improvement. Insofar as they can, given that they must
                                                                                               primarily support policies in the UDP, the SPDs should also reflect the Black Country Urban Park concept of beacons,
 Health and Well Being:
                                                                                               corridors and communities. It will also be able to draw on the information in the Black Country Study and the technical
  Area of local nature reserve per 1000 population;                                           work relating to the built and natural environment that has informed both the Black Country Study and the RSS Phase
Faber Maunsell          Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



    Area of outdoor playing space per 1000 population; and                                    One Revisions. However, due to conflicting timetables, it is unlikely that the Black Country Landscape Action Plan will
    Accessible natural greenspace (i.e. less than 300m from home).                            have any influence on the SPDs. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on quality of life, access to key
                                                                                               facilities, housing quality and townscape, landscape and visual amenity and environmental quality generally.

 Access to Key Services:
  Access to key services such as shops, post offices, doctors and hospitals.

 Landscape and Biodiversity:
  % Coverage by landscape character assessment; and
  Condition of landscape character.

 Local Environmental Quality:
  % of Black Country which is green space;
  Accessible natural greenspace (i.e. less than 300m from home);
  % of all housing developments on previously-developed land; and
  Households satisfied with the quality of the places in which they live.

 Climate Change:
  % of development using sustainable drainage techniques;
  Number of planning applications granted against Environment Agency advice;
  % of homes assessed against the Code for Sustainable Construction or BREEAM
    standards; and
  % of CHP or District heating.

 N.B. Although the above indicators tell us about the overall quality of the environment
 in the Black Country, any changes identified through monitoring are unlikely to be
 attributable directly to the influence of the SPD. It should be noted that the information
 required to measure performance against some of these indicators is not currently
 collected by Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council and may not be available from
 other sources either. It may not be feasible or practicable for the Council to obtain or
 collect such information systematically or on a regular basis.
 Regional Spatial Strategy Review Phase Two Revisions: Spatial Options (January 2007)
 http://www.wmra.gov.uk/page.asp?id=283
 The RSS policies for housing, the economy, strategic centres, waste and transport are currently being reviewed, although this review is still at a relatively early stage. The latest published documents relating to
 the review are the Spatial Options document, which was published for public consultation in January 2007.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                            Implications for SPD and SA
 The Sustainability Appraisal identifies the following indicators that relate to the overall   Due to conflicting timescales, the RSS Phase Two Revisions are unlikely to have any direct influence on the SPDs.
 quality of the built environment:                                                             However, in developing the Sustainability Appraisal Framework for the SPD, the Council has had regard to the Spatial
  Crime - Percentage of residents who say they feel very or fairly safe outside a)            Options, the Sustainability Appraisal and the Regional Sustainable Development Framework (RSDF), which has been
    during the day and b) after dark;                                                          reviewed and developed in parallel with the RSS Phase Two Revisions.
  Culture and Recreation - Percentage of residents that think that over the past
    three years, parks and open spaces have got better or stayed the same;
  Environmental Assets - Employment and economic value associated with
    environmental economy activities, such as environment-based tourism and
    recreation;
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



    Environmental Assets - Percentage of Character Areas showing no change or
     showing change consistent with existing character area descriptions;
    Land Use - Percentage of residents satisfied with living in their local community;
    Land Use - Area/ accessibility of greenspace in towns and cities: % of population
     within 500m of woodland of no less than 2ha in size, % of population within 4km
     access of woodland of no less than 20ha in size, and parks/ open spaces attaining
     “Green Flag” status.
    Pollution - Amount of derelict and contaminated land in different parts of the
     Region;
    Climate Change - % of new houses built in flood risk areas;
    Standards - Numbers of buildings built with BREEAM “very good” or “excellent”
     ratings; and
    Transport - Walking and cycling as a percentage of all trips.

 N.B. Although the above indicators tell us something about the overall quality of the
 environment in the Region, they are not specific to Walsall although in some cases
 local data may be available. Even so, any changes identified through monitoring are
 unlikely to be attributable directly to the influence of the SPD. It should be noted that
 the information required to measure performance against some of these indicators is
 not currently collected by Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council and may not be
 available from other sources either. It may not be feasible or practicable for the
 Council to obtain or collect such information systematically or on a regular basis.
 Biodiversity Action Plan for Birmingham and the Black Country (July 2000)
 http://www.wildlifetrust.org.uk/urbanwt/ecorecord/bap/html/main.htm
 Biodiversity can be defined on three levels as:
  The variety of ecosystems and habitats;
  The diversity of species;
  The genetic variation within species.

 Local Biodiversity Action Plan (LBAP) explains how local biodiversity can be conserved and improved, thereby contributing to global biodiversity. Plan includes Framework for Action, which explains main themes
 that need to be addressed, and Action Plans for Priority Habitats and Species. Identifies nine main types of habitat found in Birmingham and the Black Country:
  Woodland, trees and scrub;
  Grassland;
  Heathland;
  Wetland;
  Farmland;
  Urban “wasteland;”
  Parks, playing fields and public open spaces;
  Gardens and allotments;
  Buildings and the built environment.

 Significant species of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates, trees and other plants characteristic of each type of habitat are also listed, including species of particular conservation concern. Key
 messages of LBAP:
  Some of the most recent habitats, such as former industrial areas, quarries, tips, former railway lines, are among the most important;
  Public open spaces, allotments, recreation grounds, playing fields, private gardens and reservoirs are important refuges for wildlife;
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



    Green corridors formed by linear features such as railway lines, rivers and canals, provide important habitats as well as opportunities for recreation and leisure for people;
    Protection of key habitats and species is not enough - to ensure that they continue to contribute towards biodiversity, they must be properly managed;
    It is also important to increase biodiversity by creating new habitats, or re-creating former habitats that have been lost, where the opportunity arises;
    Sites and habitats are usually better for wildlife if they are close to, or linked to, other similar places, since isolated populations are more vulnerable to loss of genetic diversity and less able to adapt to
     change;

 Data collection and monitoring of key habitats and species is important – need to understand ecology of sites to avoid making decisions that may have adverse effects.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
 Monitoring of Priority Habitats and Species is difficult at the present time as up-to-      Walsall has extensive areas of countryside and other open spaces and has important examples of each of the main types
 date, consistent baseline information is not available, and historic survey data is         of habitat described in the LBAP. UDP recognises nature conservation value of derelict sites, woodland, wildlife corridors
 patchy. At present, the resources available for biodiversity monitoring are extremely       and open space (see Policies ENV14, ENV18, ENV20 and LC1), and identifies a number of designated sites which are
 limited. However, the authorities are making efforts to identify baseline information for   protected by Policies ENV19 – 21. Policy ENV23 requires layout of new development to take account of potential for
 Priority Habitats and Species, and to establish an affordable mechanism for                 enhancement of natural environment, and opportunities provided by buildings to incorporate habitats, and also to take full
 undertaking future monitoring in partnership with EcoRecord. 2006 Annual Monitoring         account of existing features of value for wildlife, including:
 Reports set out latest available information and suggest potential monitoring                Wildlife corridors;
 indicators.
                                                                                              Sites containing species or habitats for which local or national BAP prepared;
                                                                                              Sites containing species protected by law;
                                                                                              Sites containing mature or semi-mature trees;
                                                                                              Sites containing linear features such as rivers, streams, canals, field boundaries, tree belts, green lanes and road
                                                                                                 verges, and “stepping stone” features such as lakes, reservoirs, ponds and small woodlands.

                                                                                             Policy also requires habitat creation in certain specified types of location. Natural Environment SPD should explain UDP
                                                                                             requirements in detail whereas Design SPD only needs to focus on general principles relating to designs, layouts and
                                                                                             landscaping to support biodiversity such as:
                                                                                              Need for developers to understand ecology of site before design is prepared;
                                                                                              Need for designs and layouts to retain existing features of biodiversity importance;
                                                                                              Need for designs and layouts to exploit opportunities to enhance biodiversity of area.
                                                                                             SPD will also need to reflect guidance in Biodiversity by Design by CABE (see above). SA will need to assess potential
                                                                                             impact of guidance on biodiversity.
 Black Country Geodiversity Action Plan (BGCAP)
 http://www.laws.sandwell.gov.uk/ccm/content/urbanform/planninganddevelopment/ldf/supplementary-planning-documents/black-country-geodiversity-action-plan.en
 Geodiversity is:
  the geological variety of rocks, minerals, fossils and landscape together with the natural processes which form them
  The link between the landscape, people and their culture
  The variety of geological environments, phenomena and processes that make the landscape and soils and provides the framework for life on earth”.
 Geodiversity underpins biodiversity, in fact biodiversity relies on geology for diversity of habitat and the ecosystem and soil is the link between them. The Black Country Geodiversity Action Plan is an evolving
 and guiding process for planning and will be updated and evaluated constantly.


 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
 Seven objectives have been agreed. These are:                                               Geology influences human settlement, water supply and the location of industry and centres of work and prosperity. This
 1 To ensure geodiversity is identified and included as an integral part of all Black        is relevant to the Black Country where the diversity of mineral wealth including coal, ironstone, limestone, fireclays, brick
 Country subregional and local strategies, plans and policies.                               clays, roadstone, moulding sand, building sand, gravels and building stones gave rise to major industries such as mining,
 2 To develop and maintain comprehensive geodiversity data resources integrated              iron and steel production, foundries, glass manufacture and brickmaking. Relative to its area the Black Country has the
 with other data sets.                                                                       most diverse geology of anywhere in the world. Both SPDs will need to reflect the importance of the area‟s geodiversity
 3 To protect and enhance the geodiversity resource by appropriate designation of            by providing guidance on the conservation and use of local building materials and how this contributes to the local
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 geological sites and features commensurate with their local, regional, national or         landscape, biodiversity and local character and distinctiveness. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on
 international importance.                                                                  geodiversity and natural resources.
 4 To manage existing geodiversity resources and create new features and
 opportunities in association with partners.
 5 To increase public awareness and appreciation of the Black Country Geodiversity
 Heritage.
 6 To maximise the opportunities for Black Country geodiversity to contribute to all
 levels of education including life long learning.
 7 To establish appropriate mechanisms to secure the continuity, sustainability and
 effectiveness of the BCGAP process.
 Regional Economic Strategy - Delivering Advantage (2004)
 http://www.advantagewm.co.uk/downloads/west-midlands-economic-strategy.html and
 Review Documents
 http://www.advantagewm.co.uk/wmesreview.html
 Current West Midlands Regional Economic Strategy (RES), “Delivering Advantage” was published in 2004. Strategy expressed through the following four “pillars:”
 Pillar 1 – Developing a Diverse and Dynamic Business Base
 Pillar 2 – Promoting a Learning and Skilful Region
 Pillar 3 – Creating the Conditions for Growth
 Pillar 4 – Regenerating Communities.

 Overall quality of environment is considered important to the successful implementation of the strategy, in particular, Pillar 1, where this is seen as vital for the development of tourism. Design issues also relevant
 to Pillar 3, whose key themes include delivering good quality sites and buildings, and the sustainable use of natural resources, and to Pillar 4, whose key themes include the development of sustainable
 communities. RES strategy being implemented through Urban Regeneration Zones (priority areas where investment will be targeted), Business Clusters (groups of sectors that will be supported), and High
 Technology Corridors (focus for high technology businesses and research and development). RES is currently under review – policy choices published for consultation November 2006 relate to six major themes:
 enterprise, innovation, skills, economic activity, quality of life and infrastructure.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 RES identifies the following indicators relating to investment, tourism, and living,       All local development documents are required to have regard to the Regional Economic Strategy (RES). Policies relating
 which may be relevant:                                                                     to urban and landscape design can support the RES in a number of ways. For example, by requiring a high standard of
  2. Investment levels – total project successes compared to baseline (100 in WM           the design of new development within Walsall, they can help to improve overall environmental quality, making the
     Region at 2002);                                                                       borough a more attractive place for people to live, work and invest, thus supporting Pillars 1, 3 and 4. In addition, almost
                                                                                            half of Walsall is covered by Walsall, Wolverhampton and South Staffordshire Urban Regeneration Zone (Future
  6. Environmental management standards – number of businesses with ISO 14001
                                                                                            Foundations). Overall aim of Urban Regeneration Zones is to co-ordinate the regeneration organisations, programmes
     Standard compared to baseline (355 in WM Region at 2003);
                                                                                            and resources that impact on these areas, to achieve regeneration. Zones are envisaged as a long-term initiative, with
  23. Visitor perceptions and satisfaction rates – visit exceeded expectations             programmes of action up to 15 years in duration. Design SPD should help to support initiatives within the Regeneration
     (average score of satisfaction from 1(poor) to 10 (high)) compared to baseline         Zone by setting out key design principles for assessing the quality of new schemes. Relationship of SPDs to the Future
     (average score of 7 in 2002); and                                                      Foundations Regeneration Zone is discussed in more detail below. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance
  29. Population change between 1991 and 2001 (N.B. not as refined as RSS                  on a range of sustainability objectives, including quality of life, equality and diversity, economic investment and
     headline indicator relating to population change).                                     townscape, landscape and visual amenity.
 N.B. Although the above indicators will tell us about levels of investment,
 environmental standards in business and tourism in the Region, they are not specific
 to Walsall. Even if they were, any changes identified through monitoring are unlikely
 to be attributable directly to the influence of the SPD. It should be noted that the
 information required to measure performance against these indicators is not currently
 collected by Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council and even if it is available from
 other sources, it may only be available for the West Midlands Region as a whole. It
 may not be feasible or practicable for the Council to obtain or collect this type of
 information for Walsall systematically or on a regular basis.
Faber Maunsell          Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 Choosing Health for the West Midlands (March 2006)
 http://www.google.co.uk/search?hl=en&q=choosing+health+for+the+west+midlands&meta=
 Published by West Midlands Public Health Group in response to Health White Paper (see above). Considers linkages between health inequalities and deprivation/ lifestyles. Key causes that relate to design and
 layout of neighbourhoods include:
  Poor access to services and goods (e.g. outlets selling healthy food at reasonable prices; and
  Poor quality housing (affects both physical and mental health).

 Identifies obesity as a key health problem in the West Midlands Region – 23% of men and 29% are obese, which is the highest level of any region in England for women, and the fourth highest for men. Linked to
 lack of exercise - only 39% of adults in the West Midlands Region take the recommended 30 minutes of physical activity on at least 5 days a week. Also refers to Regional Lifestyle Survey, which indicates that
 people living in deprived areas were less likely to take the recommended level of exercise than others. Among different ethnic groups, White people were also most likely to take the recommended level of
 exercise, and Asian people the least likely.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                            Implications for SPD and SA
 Access of new housing to key facilities is already a Core Output Indicator for the LDF,       UDP shopping, accessibility and leisure and community policies (in particular, S3, S4, S5, T1, T8, T9, T10, T11, LC1,
 and provision of open space and greenways are Local Output Indicators. However,               LC3 and LC5) already address these issues, but links between access to goods/ services and open space/ recreation are
 any changes identified through monitoring are unlikely to be attributable directly to the     not explicitly made. However, by promoting well designed and accessible shops and other facilities, and the incorporation
 influence of the SPDs. Could consider developing design indicators relating to the            of well designed and accessible open spaces, natural greenspace and other opportunities for walking and recreation
 quality of new housing. Other statistics referred to (e.g. obesity levels, deprivation) are   within developments, the SPDs can indirectly support the aims of Choosing Health for the West Midlands. Will need to
 contextual indicators rather than monitoring indicators and the lifestyle inequalities        explore disproportionate access to key facilities for different groups through EIA, and how design of new development
 highlighted in the Regional Lifestyle Survey may provide contextual evidence for the          may influence this. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on health and well being, access to key facilities
 EqIA.                                                                                         and townscape, landscape and visual amenity.
 Future Foundations - Walsall, Wolverhampton, South Staffordshire Regeneration Zone – Zone Implementation Plan 2006 – 09 (Spring 2006)
 The Walsall, Wolverhampton and South Staffordshire Urban Regeneration Zone (Future Foundations) covers approximately half of Walsall‟s administrative area. Key socio-economic challenges identified within
 the Zone include:
  A loss of population with a further 84,000 people forecast to leave the area within the next 30 years;
  Continuing physical decline of major town centres;
  Poor housing quality and choice;
  Potential loss and reduction of biodiversity areas;
  Continuing decline and loss of the Black Country‟s historic environment; and
  Poor physical image with development opportunities limited by lack of quality land.
 The current Zone Implementation Plan (2005-09) has identified three strategic objectives for the Zone, mirroring the strategic objectives of the Black Country Study. One of these is Environment – “supporting the
 physical regeneration of our key strategic sites to encourage investment and to create places where businesses, communities and people thrive.” To deliver these objectives, five Priority Areas have been
 identified, including Priority 4, the bringing forward of key strategic sites as specific foci to spearhead urban and economic renaissance.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                            Implications for SPD and SA
 Monitoring indicators and targets (“key deliverables”) have evolved since the first           By requiring high quality, attractive and sustainable developments, particularly in environmental improvement areas, UDP
 Zone Implementation Plan was published in 2004. However, there are few indicators             Policies ENV9, ENV32 and ENV33 already support the strategic objectives of the Zone Implementation Plan, and the
 and targets in the current Plan that relate to the quality of the environment. The only       delivery of the Zone Implementation Plan within Walsall. The SPDs will assist further, by providing more detailed
 ones are:                                                                                     guidance on the Council‟s requirements for urban and landscape design and biodiversity, and defining the key design
  Number of hectares of derelict land (compared to baseline figure of 170 hectares            principles that developers will be expected to address. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on quality of
     in 2002/03); and                                                                          life, economic investment, biodiversity and land use.
  Number of hectares of Brownfield Land remediated (although “remediated” is not
     defined) – target = 17.96 hectares 2006 – 09.
 N.B. It should be noted that these indicators are unlikely to be directly applicable to
 the SPDs, particularly as the definition of the second one is unclear.
Faber Maunsell          Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 West Midlands Local Transport Plan 2 (May 2006)
 http://westmidlandsltp.gov.uk/report.php?id=1783
 The Local Transport Plan 2 (LTP2) for the West Midlands Metropolitan area covers the seven districts of Birmingham, Coventry, Solihull, Sandwell, Dudley, Walsall and Wolverhampton. The LTP has been
 reviewed several times since the first LTP was published in 1999. LTP2 was published in May 2006. The LTP2 Vision aspires towards:
 i. A thriving, sustainable and vibrant community where people want to live and where business can develop and grow;
 ii. Town, city and local centres that are attractive and vibrant, where high-quality public transport is the norm and walking and cycling are common-place;
 iii. Cleaner air and less congested traffic conditions;
 iv. A safer community with fewer road accidents and with environments in which people feel secure; and
 v. Equal opportunities for everyone to gain access to services and facilities and enjoy a better quality of life, with travel choices that are attractive, viable and sustainable.

 The LTP2 strategy has three principal elements:
 i. Make the best use of the existing transport network;
 ii. Enhance the quality of public transport; and
 iii. Target investment in infrastructure to support regeneration.

 Policies to make the best use of the existing network include encouraging people to make smarter choices with their travel options, including walking and cycling, and rolling out a network of Red Routes to
 improve both the efficiency of roads and the local environment. Other key schemes include Urban Traffic Management and Control Improvements, Park & Ride initiatives and improving information for
 passengers and potential public transport users.


 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                         Implications for SPD and SA
 LTP2 includes a number of indicators and targets relating to accessibility, safety and     All local development documents are required to have regard to the Local Transport Plan for the area. By promoting good
 the use of sustainable modes of transport, for example:                                    quality design that addresses issues of accessibility, safety, and the connections between places and spaces, the
  Increase in the number of cycling trips from 2003/04 baseline index (target = 1%         Designing a Better Walsall SPD can help to support the LTP2 Vision and strategy. Consistent with the UDP transport
     by 2010/11);                                                                           policies, it can also provide guidance on designing layouts that encourage more sustainable transport modes such as
                                                                                            public transport, walking and cycling, and which promote a safer, more accessible and inclusive environment for all. SA
  Proportion of Metropolitan built-up area within 250m of a bus stop with a weekday
                                                                                            will need to assess potential impact of guidance on community safety, quality of life, access to key facilities and equality
     daytime service (target = 95% by 2006); and
                                                                                            and diversity.
  Increase in a.m. peak traffic flows into the nine LTP centres (includes Walsall
     Town Centre) (target = no increase between 2005/06 and 2009/10).
 N.B. Although the above indicators tell us something about cycle usage, access to
 public transport, and traffic congestion in Walsall, any changes identified through
 monitoring are unlikely to be attributable directly to the influence of the SPDs. It
 should also be noted that the information required to measure performance against
 some of these indicators is not currently collected by Walsall Metropolitan Borough
 Council and may not be available from other sources either. It may not be feasible or
 practicable for the Council to obtain or collect such information systematically or on a
 regular basis.
 A Sustainable Future for the West Midlands: Regional Sustainable Development Framework (RSDF) Version Two (July 2006)
 http://www.sustainabilitywestmidlands.org.uk/rsdf
 The RSDF has been evolving since January 2005, when the first version was published. The current RSDF, Version Two, was published in July 2006. It includes the following Vision of an:
 “…economically successful, outward-looking and adaptable region, rich in culture and environment, where everyone, working together, is able to enjoy well-being and quality of life, meeting their aspirations and
 needs without prejudicing the ability of others, now or in the future, to do the same.”

 It also identifies the following four Working Principles:
  Putting people and communities at the centre of strategy development and policy decisions;
Faber Maunsell          Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



    Valuing the environment and living within environmental limits;
    Gathering and using sound evidence as the basis for policy-making; and
    Taking into account the national and global implications of our activities as well as those within the Region.

  33 Sustainable Development Objectives have also been developed from the guiding principles and priority issues of the UK Sustainable Development Strategy. These have been used to develop the SA
 framework for the RSS Phase Two Revisions.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                       In developing the Sustainability Appraisal Framework for the SPDs, the Council has had regard to the Regional
                                                                                             Sustainable Development Framework (RSDF). The Scoping Template has been used to prepare this report, and the
                                                                                             Sustainability Objectives that will be used to appraise the SPDs have been developed from those in the RSDF.
 Draft West Midlands Regional Waste Planning Strategy, West Midlands Regional Assembly, Nov 2001
 http://www.wmra.gov.uk/page.asp?id=135
 The aim of this paper is to help to secure the commitment of all the Region‟s waste planning, collection and disposal authorities, the Environment Agency industry and commerce, the waste management industry
 and the wider community, to set a strategic principles which will guide the planning and provision of waste management facilities in the West Midlands, over the next 10-15 years.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
 It is proposed that the national targets are adopted for the West Midlands:                 This is reflected in the current RSS waste policies. This strategy – and the information it is based on - is out-of-date and
  To recover value from at least 40% of municipal waste by 2005; 455 by 2010; and           will soon be superseded by RSS Phase 2 Revisions and by revised National Waste Strategy.
      67% by 2015.
  To re cycle of compost 25% of household waste by 2005; 30% by 2010; and 33%
      by 2015.
  To reduce the proportion of industrial and commercial waste which is disposed of
      to landfill to 85% of 1998 levels by 2005.
 The Midlands Plateau Natural Area Profile, Natural England, 1997 Strategy
 http://www.english-nature.org.uk/Science/natural/NA_Details.asp?NA_ID=43&S=&R=5
 This profile briefly describes and evaluates the wildlife and geological features of the Midlands Plateau Natural Area, encompassing local, national and international perspectives on nature conservation. It
 introduces the main issues which affect the Area and then identifies a series of long-term visionary objectives through which the nature conservation interest could be maintained and enriched.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                          Implications for SPD and SA
 Overarching objectives:                                                                     Habitats and species development, enhancement, protection and mitigation should be included within the policies of the
  To prevent further loss and degradation of all semi-natural habitats within the           Natural Environment SPD. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on biodiversity and the landscape.
    Natural Area, and to enhance and expand the most important and characteristic
    types such as rivers and streams, wetlands, heathlands, woodland neutral and
    acid grassland.
  To enhance the nature conservation value of the wider countryside and urban
    areas to restore degraded areas whilst retaining the essential character of the
    Natural Area.
  To maintain and expand the populations of internationally and nationally important
    species, together with key species which are characteristic of the Natural Area.
  To maintain the geological and geomorphological features of the Natural Area for
    future research and enjoyment.
 No targets, they all contained within the Local Biodiversity Action Plan.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)




 LOCAL POLICY
 Walsall Unitary Development Plan 2005 (April 2005)
 http://www.walsall.gov.uk/index/udp_documents.htm
 The adopted Walsall Unitary Development Plan (UDP) is an old-style “saved” plan, which forms part of the statutory development plan for Walsall. The UDP is therefore the most important document within the
 Walsall LDF at the present time. It contains strategic policy statements and detailed policies on a range of issues relating to urban and landscape design, local character and visual amenity. The main design
 policies in the UDP are as follows:

 Policy ENV32 – Design and Development Proposals, which requires all new developments to properly take account of the context or surroundings of the development site, and set out the criteria that the Council
 will use to assess the quality of the design of proposals.
 Policy ENV33 – Landscape Design, which states that good landscape design is an integral part of urban design, and where appropriate, requires applications to supported by full details of external layout and
 landscape proposals.
 Policy ENV34 – Public Art, which requires the provision of public art in public spaces, in important and prominent locations and in larger scale developments.
 Policy ENV 35 – Appearance of Commercial Buildings, which requires the design of commercial frontages to be appropriate to their setting and sympathetic to the building on which they are situated.
 Policy ENV36 – Poster Hoardings, which sets out the circumstances where poster hoardings may or may not be permitted.

 Other UDP policies relating to the built environment, landscape, visual impact of development and amenity issues include policies relating to Green Belt (ENV2 - ENV3), countryside character (ENV7),
 environmental improvement (ENV9), light pollution (ENV11), trees and woodland (ENV17 - ENV18), nature conservation (ENV23 -ENV24), building conservation and archaeology (ENV25 - ENV30),
 telecommunications equipment (ENV38), renewable energy and energy efficiency (ENV39), conservation, protection and use of water resources (ENV40), bad neighbour uses (JP8), town, district and local
 centres (S3 and S4), housing (H1, H9 and H10), transport (T1, T4, T6, T8, T9 and T11), open spaces and recreational facilities (LC1, LC3, LC5, LC9), and waste management (WM1 and WM4).
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                                     Implications for SPD and SA
 There are a number of local monitoring indicators relating to UDP policies, but none of these relate   The SPDs are being prepared to support policies in the existing “saved” plan, the Walsall Unitary
 to the policies on urban and landscape design. Indicators that may potentially be relevant to the      Development Plan (UDP) 2005. Creating, sustaining and enhancing a high quality natural and built
 SPDs include:                                                                                          environment throughout the Borough are key priorities within the UDP (Strategic Policy Statement,
  Green Belt – the extent to which the Green Belt is protected from inappropriate development          paragraph (2.2). The Design SPD will provide design guidance on a range of issues and will mainly support
     (target = 100% protection);                                                                        the UDP policies relating to design and visual amenity, ENV32 – ENV36, whereas the Natural Environment
                                                                                                        SPD will support the policies relating to the landscape and natural environment (ENV2 – 3, ENV7 and
  Nature Conservation – the degree to which sites of nature conservation importance are
                                                                                                        ENV17 – 24). The overall aim of these policies is to promote good design and to protect and enhance all
     protected from destruction or damage (target = 100% protection);
                                                                                                        aspects of the natural environment. It is proposed that the Design SPD should include the following
  Historic Environment – the success with which buildings of architectural or historic interest are    guidance:
     protected from destruction or damage (target = 100% protection);
                                                                                                         A general description of the character of Walsall;
  Housing Density – the density of new housing development (target = overall average density of
                                                                                                         Guidance on good and bad practice including illustrated examples;
     at least 30 dwellings per hectare);
                                                                                                         Key design principles that will be applied when assessing new development proposals;
  Housing Layout, Design and Mix – aim to achieve a mix of housing types and sizes appropriate
     to local circumstances (N.B. no specific targets);                                                  Guidance on specific design issues such as the approach towards design in sensitive areas, and how to
                                                                                                            address sustainability issues through design;
  Sustainable Transport – trends in bus and cycle usage: increase in proportion of trips made by
     bus and by bicycle in line with LTP targets (N.B. these have recently changed – see above);         Guidance on the appropriate use of particular design tools, e.g. urban and landscape characterization,
                                                                                                            design coding, use of environmental standards;
  Accessibility Standards – car parking provision in new residential developments (target = in line
     with standards in Policy T13);                                                                      General advice on the information that developers are expected to provide with applications, and how
                                                                                                            the Council will assess them.
  Open Space – protection and improvement of urban open space: the extent to which existing
     urban open spaces have been protected from inappropriate development (target = 100%                The Natural Environment SPD will include more specific guidance on the impact of development on the
     protection) and provision of new urban open spaces (target = 24 hectares by 2011); and             natural environment such as designated sites, protected species, priority habitats and species and important
                                                                                                        landscape features. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on a range of sustainability
  Greenways – length of new greenways constructed (target = 10 miles up to 2011).
                                                                                                        objectives, including quality of life, biodiversity and geodiversity, townscape, landscape and visual amenity
 N.B. Although the above indicators tell us something about changes to the overall quality of the       and the historic environment.
 environment in Walsall and the extent to which important assets are being protected, any changes
 identified through monitoring are unlikely to be attributable directly to the influence of the SPDs.
Faber Maunsell          Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 Supplementary Planning Guidance and Other Local Planning Guidance
 http://www.walsall.gov.uk/residential_development_standards_april_2005.pdf
 Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council has adopted the following Supplementary Planning Guidance and Development Control Policies that relate to the character of particular areas or the design and
 appearance of specific types of development:
  Shutters and Security Grilles (1998);
  Town Centre Strategies and Masterplans for Walsall Town Centre (1998), Brownhills (1999), Darlaston (1999) and Bloxwich (2000);
  Countryside Profiles for Barr Beacon, (1993), Rough Wood Chase (1994), and Longwood Gap (1996);
  Area of Special Townscape Character, Thornhill Road/ Middleton Road/ Foley Road East, Streetly (2003);
  Character Appraisals for the Arboretum and Caldmore Green Conservation Areas;
  Residential Development Standards (2005).
 The guidance in these documents varies. Whereas the Countryside Profiles, Conservation Area Character Appraisals and Area of Special Townscape Character policy concentrate on defining the special
 character of the area, the Town Centre policies give more detailed guidance on the preferred type, scale and form of development within the areas covered, and the Shutters and Security Grilles policy is
 specifically concerned with the appearance of shutters on shops and other premises. The Residential Development Standards policy sets out numerical standards for housing development that developers are
 expected to follow, for example, minimum distances between dwellings and minimum length/ area for gardens. It also includes guidance on general design considerations for residential development and
 domestic extensions.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                                    Implications for SPD and SA
 None specifically relating to quality of environment/ design.                                         It is not appropriate for the SPDs to include detailed descriptions of townscape and landscape character, or
                                                                                                       detailed guidance on particular issues. However, where the SPDs deal with the use of historic townscape
                                                                                                       and landscape characterisation and design issues within particular types of area, they will need to reflect
                                                                                                       existing guidance, such as that contained in the Countryside Profiles, Conservation Area Character
                                                                                                       Appraisals, Town Centre Strategies and the Shutters and Security Grilles policy. The Residential
                                                                                                       Development Standards document is different. It sets out minimum standards against which residential
                                                                                                       development schemes can be assessed, and also includes general guidance on the design of new housing
                                                                                                       and domestic extensions. When preparing the Designing a Better Walsall SPD, the Council will consider
                                                                                                       whether the Residential Development Standards should be incorporated into it, or whether they should be
                                                                                                       retained as a separate policy document. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on housing
                                                                                                       quality, townscape, landscape and visual amenity.
 Walsall Statement of Community Involvement (June 2006)
 http://www.walsall.gov.uk/index/environment/planning/local_development_framework/ldf_statement_of_community_involvement.htm
 Adopted in June 2006, the Statement of Community Involvement (SCI) sets out the standards that the Council will follow when engaging with local communities and other stakeholders in the planning process.
 For SPDs, SCI proposes a range of possible techniques for engaging with the public during the evidence gathering and preparation stages. These include publicity on the Council‟s website, publication of leaflets,
 presentations, workshops, and sending out letters and emails to appropriate people and groups. At these stages, it is envisaged that local communities, key partners, Local Neighbourhood Partnerships,
 Community Empowerment Network, and Borough Strategic Partnership will be involved. The same people will also be involved in the formal Public Participation exercise involving consultation on the draft SPD.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                                    Implications for SPD and SA
 None.                                                                                                 Apart from the UDP, Walsall Waterfront SPD (see below) and Supplementary Planning Guidance listed
                                                                                                       above, the SCI is the only document currently in the Walsall Local Development Framework that has a direct
                                                                                                       bearing on the SPDs. Consultation and community engagement on both SPDs is being undertaken in
                                                                                                       accordance with the guidance set out in the SCI. A leaflet and questionnaire has been published on the
                                                                                                       Council‟s website and all those on the Council‟s mailing list have been informed by letter about the
                                                                                                       consultation and have been invited to comment. Council officers are also engaging directly with young
                                                                                                       people and with Local Neighbourhood Partnerships. An event was also organised for local developers and
                                                                                                       agents on the Designing a Better Walsall SPD. The same organisations will also be involved at the formal
                                                                                                       Public Participation stage. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on quality of life and equality
                                                                                                       and diversity.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 Walsall Transport Strategy, Walking & Mobility Strategy and Cycling Strategy (2003)
 http://www.walsall.gov.uk/index/transport_and_streets/transport_strategies.htm
 Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council has adopted three corporate strategies relating to transport. The Transport Strategy (2003) identifies the key transport issues facing Walsall, and sets out the Council‟s
 strategy for dealing with a wide range of transport priorities. The following transport priorities are likely to have implications for the design of new developments in appropriate circumstances:
  Strategic Network Management;
  Behavioural Change;
  Travel Plans;
  School Transport and Education Needs;
  The Bus Network, Bus Stations and Bus Stops;
  Heavy Rail and Midland Metro;
  Taxis and Private Hire Vehicles;
  Powered Two Wheelers;
  Parking Strategy/ Residents‟ Parking Schemes;
  Park and Ride;
  Community and Neighbourhoods;
  Local Safety Schemes;
  Home Zones;
  People with Disabilities;
  Healthy Lifestyles;
  Pedestrians;
  Cycling;
  Safer Routes to School;
  Canals; and
  Greenways.
 The Walking & Mobility Strategy and Cycling Strategy, also produced in 2003, include guidance on the design of transport infrastructure with the aim of facilitating/ improving pedestrian and cycling accessibility.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                                     Implications for SPD and SA
 No specific indicators or targets relevant to design or the environment. However, the Walking &        UDP transport polices are consistent with corporate transport strategies, in seeking to reduce reliance on
 Mobility and Cycling Strategies make reference to the LTP indicators and targets (which have since     the private car and to promote the use of more sustainable transport modes. SPD will therefore need to
 been revised), and include policies from which further indicators may be developed, for example:       have regard to the specific design issues identified in the relevant UDP policies (in particular, Policies T1,
  Delivery of Quality Pedestrian Routes;                                                               T8, T9 and T11), and in the Walking & Mobility Strategy and Cycling Strategy. Accordingly, the Designing a
                                                                                                        Better Walsall SPD will need to address accessibility and safety issues, focusing in particular on designs
  Delivery of Safer Routes to School Projects;
                                                                                                        and layouts that address the needs of pedestrians and cyclists, and which allow people to move around
  Use of Cycling and Pedestrian Audits in major transport schemes;                                     easily between places. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on community safety, quality of
  Improving pedestrian environment in residential areas, e.g. implementation of “Home Zones;”          life and access to key facilities.
  Cycle parking standards for new developments (as UDP Policy T13).
 N.B. Although the above indicators tell us something about changes to overall accessibility and use
 of sustainable transport in Walsall, in most cases, any changes identified through monitoring are
 unlikely to be attributable directly to the influence of the SPDs. It should also be noted that the
 information required to measure performance against some of the above indicators is not currently
 collected by Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council. It may not be feasible or practicable for the
 Council to obtain or collect all of the information required systematically or on a regular basis.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 Walsall Housing Strategy 2005 – 2008 (2004)
 http://www.walsall.gov.uk/index/council_and_democracy/corporate_plan_vision_and_values.htm
 The current housing strategy for Walsall embraces the objectives of the Communities Plan. It has the following objectives:
  Contribute towards Urban Renaissance;
  Improve the quality of housing and provide safe environments;
  Ensure all tenants, social and private, get an excellent service from their landlord;
  Promote community cohesion and social inclusion; and
  Capitalise on cultural diversity.
 Key priorities relating to the design, layout and quality of housing and residential areas include bringing all social rented homes up to Decent Homes Standard by 2010 and improving unfit private homes,
 improving the general “liveability” of residential areas, promoting good quality urban design, improving the provision of housing choice and quality of housing for black and minority ethnic communities, and
 tackling the problems created by low demand and empty properties.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                                       Implications for SPD and SA
 The Housing Strategy identifies a number of “milestones” that measure the extent to which the            UDP was prepared having regard to an earlier version of this strategy. UDP includes a range of policies that
 objectives are being met, but few of them relate to the overall quality of housing and the residential   support the housing strategy. In addition to the general design policies, there are policies specifically aimed
 environment. The only ones that may be relevant are:                                                     at promoting high quality design and landscaping in residential areas (Policies H1 and H10), development
  Mixed tenure developments to provide a range of quality homes offering choice and opportunity          on previously-developed land (Policy H3), housing density (Policy H9). There are also policies relating to
    and retaining economically active people – extent to which RSS housing requirement (10,100            equal opportunities (Policies GP5 and GP6) and a policy aimed at addressing the amenity problems that can
    dwellings 1991 – 2010) is being met;                                                                  arise from “bad neighbour” industrial uses (Policy JP8). The Designing a Better Walsall SPD will build on the
                                                                                                          UDP policies by providing more detailed guidance on design issues in general, as well as issues relating to
  Making best use of land - percentage of housing completions on Brownfield Land;
                                                                                                          the design and layout of residential developments and the role of design in creating sustainable and
  Social housing stock condition – achieve Decent Homes Standard for all social rented stock by          inclusive communities, thus supporting the overall objectives of the corporate housing strategy. SA will need
    2010.                                                                                                 to assess potential impact of guidance on a range of sustainability objectives, including quality of life and
 N.B. First indicator is only a measure of the number of homes provided in total, and does not            housing quality.
 actually tell us whether a choice of homes is being delivered. Neither indicator will necessarily tell
 us anything about the influence of the SPDs.
 Stepping Up for Change: A New Strategy and Action Plan for Developing Walsall (2004)
 Walsall‟s economic strategy, Stepping Up for Change, was developed during 2002 – 03 by consultants SQW Ltd on behalf of Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council and the Walsall Regeneration Company. The
 strategy identifies four “Strategic Ambitions,” which are loosely based on the four pillars of the RES, and the following four “permeating themes:”
  Sharing a Fresh Sense of Pride and Identity;
  Building Tomorrow‟s Star Assets for Growth;
  Promoting Diversity, Maximising Cohesion; and
  Looking Outwards, Driving Forwards.

 Key elements within the first two of these themes include: promoting Walsall‟s offer by establishing its profile as a place in which business people and communities can put down roots and grow; ensuring that
 Walsall delivers high quality of life opportunities and a strong sense of community well-being through better public service provision and environmental improvement; and positioning the Town Centre as a central
 asset for retail, leisure, business services and living. The plan identifies the following “distinct assets” within Walsall, which should be reinforced:
  A sustainable and convenient pattern of district centres;
  New “flagship” developments such as the Art Gallery and Town Wharf; and
  An advantageous position at the hub of the national transport network.

 …and the following challenges which need to be addressed:
  Limited inward investment;
  Strong competition from other areas; and
  Poor quality infrastructure and consequently relatively low land investment values.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                                       Implications for SPD and SA
 Stepping Up for Change identifies a number of indicators for measuring the success of the                UDP was prepared having regard to an earlier draft of this document. UDP includes policies that are aimed
 strategy. The following indicators relate to the environment and overall attractiveness of Walsall:      at promoting good urban design and improving the overall quality of the environment throughout the
  Percentage of derelict land as a proportion of total land supply;                                      borough. There are also specific policies aimed at promoting high quality design and landscaping within
                                                                                                          Walsall‟s best quality employment sites (Policy JP6) and in town centres (Policies S3 and S4). The
  Percentage of Brownfield Land reclaimed (RES indicator – see above);
                                                                                                          Designing a Better Walsall SPD will build on these policies by providing more detailed guidance on design
  Competitiveness of the Town Centre (e.g. national retail ranking);                                     issues relating to economic development, as well as explaining the importance of design to economic and
  Satisfaction of the local area as a business destination;                                              business development, and to the health of town, district and local centres. By defining the key principles of
  Average residential and commercial property prices;                                                    good design, encouraging excellence in design and raising the overall quality of new development, the SPD
                                                                                                          will support the overall objectives of the corporate economic strategy. SA will need to assess potential
  Number of visitors (day and overnight visitors) per annum;
                                                                                                          impact of guidance on a range of sustainability objectives, including quality of life and economic investment.
  Percentage change in population due to migration; and
  Proportion of leisure time spent by local residents in the borough.
 N.B. Although the above indicators tell us something about changes to the overall quality of the
 environment and attractiveness of Walsall as a location for business, investment and leisure, any
 changes identified through monitoring are unlikely to be attributable directly to the influence of the
 SPDs. It should be noted that the information required to measure performance against some of
 the above indicators is not currently collected by Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council, and some
 of it may only be available from other sources. It may not be feasible or practicable for the Council
 to obtain or collect all of the information required systematically or on a regular basis.
 Walsall Strategic Corridors & Gateways Regeneration Initiative (February 2005)
 In February 2005, Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council‟s Cabinet agreed a strategy for the regeneration of key gateway entry points to the Borough and strategic corridors. This strategy builds on the Black
 Country Study theme of the Black Country as “urban park” and also supports a programme of environmental improvements to key gateways proposed by Walsall Borough Strategic Partnership. The initiative
 involves the linking of strategic corridors and gateways to each other and to key cultural assets, through themes which represent Walsall‟s past and future, and which have local community support. The priorities
 for action are:
  Road Corridors – based on Walsall‟s Primary Road Network;
  Canal Corridors – Walsall Canal and Wyrley & Essington Canal;
  Railway Corridors – Walsall to Wolverhampton and Walsall to Birmingham; and
  Strategic Gateways – major transport nodes/ junctions on the boundary of the Borough or within key entrance points.

 A series of criteria has also been identified, against which the relative importance of specific corridors and gateways can be assessed. These include:
  Proximity to a major transport node/ junction;
  Relative “visibility” of potential improvements;
  Potential for linkages to wider regeneration activities;
  Level of community impact; and
  Ability to influence change.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                                       Implications for SPD and SA
 None identified, although progress towards identifying priority corridors and gateways would be an       Building on the existing urban and landscape design policies in the UDP, the Designing a Better Walsall
 obvious short-term indicator. Further indicators will need to be identified to measure the               SPD will define the key urban and landscape design principles that will be applied when considering new
 implementation of the initiative as it develops.                                                         development proposals. It will be expected to support the Strategic Corridors and Gateways Initiative by
                                                                                                          providing general design guidance for developments taking place within the defined corridors and gateways.
                                                                                                          SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on a range of sustainability objectives, including quality
                                                                                                          of life, economic investment and townscape, landscape and visual amenity.
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 2005 – 2010 - Walsall Community Plan: Working Together for a Stronger Future (September 2005)
 http://www.wbsp.org.uk/wbsp-index.htm/wbsp-community_plan.htm
 The community strategy for Walsall, Working Together for a Stronger Future, has been prepared by the Walsall Borough Strategic Partnership (WBSP) and was published in September 2005. Community Plan
 sets out vision for future of Walsall, and priorities and proposals for next five years, to achieve long-term vision, which is to:
 “…create an inclusive, prosperous and competitive Borough, in which our diverse communities feel involved, safer and healthier.”

 WBSP co-ordinates partners involved in regeneration within Walsall, with aim of improving and transforming most deprived areas. Proposed improvements to be delivered through Walsall Local Area
 Agreement (see below), and activity to be concentrated around four “pillars:”
  Children and young people;
  Safer and stronger communities;
  Healthier communities and older people; and
  Enterprise and economic development.

 Plan recognises that Walsall has strengths, such as prime location at heart of transport system, unique attractions, and network of distinctive town, district and local centres, each having a strong local identity.
 However, also notes that parts of Walsall suffer from multiple deprivation, partly due to decline in traditional industry, dereliction in some areas, and lack of investment. Consequently, Walsall is still experiencing
 loss of population, particularly younger people with skills and qualifications, attracted by jobs, housing, leisure and a perception of a better quality of life elsewhere. Plan aims to “champion the development of
 Walsall as a great place to live, work, learn and play, with a positive image and reputation” and will also help to position the borough as a “vital and vibrant player in the success of the Region.” Regenerating
 housing, enhancing green spaces, modernising cultural facilities, improving connections and raising design standards are seen as key to achieving these aspirations. Two of the areas where attention is to be
 focused are:
  Transforming our “look” – including creation of new “gateways,” improving centres and open space network;
  Reinventing our places – through taking active role in LDF, “Place Check” audits, regeneration initiatives, marketing cultural attractions, setting challenging new world class design standards for new
     development.

 To help deliver the Strategy, nine Local Neighbourhood Partnerships (LNPs) have been set up to engage with local communities. Appendix B of Plan shows “sustainability appraisal framework,” which aligns the
 Plan to other key plans, including the RSS and UDP, and identifies the following key priorities for the LDF in relation to “transforming our look” and “reinventing our places:”
  Biodiversity, nature and landscape considerations in new development;
  Sustainable building design;
  Quality of the natural and built environment;
  Heritage and quality townscapes;
  Green Belt policy;
  Integrated recycling provision in new development;
  Sustain and enhance town, district and local centres and meet local needs where appropriate.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                                       Implications for SPD and SA
 Measures have been identified for each element of the vision, but these are very general, it is          There are clear links between the SPDs and the aims of the Community Plan. Community Plan recognises
 difficult to identify direct links to design. However, the following may be relevant to the overall      that raising the overall quality of the built environment and improving the quality of the design of new
 quality of the environment:                                                                              developments are crucial to achieving the stated aim of making Walsall a great place to live, work, learn and
  Safer – Crime rate in Walsall compared to rest of England;                                             play. By promoting a high standard of design throughout the Borough with the aim of improving overall
                                                                                                          image of Walsall and public confidence in the area, SPDs will make a major contribution towards the
  Pride – Satisfaction of local residents with local area as a place to live.
                                                                                                          aspirations of “transforming our look” and “reinventing our places.” As part of the “front loading” consultation,
                                                                                                          Council will be engaging with the LNPs and the Community Empowerment Network (CEN) and seeking their
 Core measures have also been identified to measure success of implementing Plan (N.B. Several            views on the issues that they feel should be covered in the SPDs. In identifying the sustainability objectives
 of these are still under development, or data are not currently collected in Walsall). The following     for the SPDs and the sustainability appraisal framework, the Council will also have regard to the key LDF
 may relate to design/ the overall quality of the environment:                                            priorities identified in the “sustainability appraisal framework” in Appendix B of the Plan.
  Accessibility of Local Services - % of residents surveyed finding it easy to access key local
     services/ within 500m of key local services (i.e. health, education, employment and fresh food);
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



   Level of Happiness - % of people surveyed who say they are very happy or quite happy;
   Sense of Belonging - % of respondents surveyed who feel they “belong” to the
    neighbourhood;
  Anti-Social Behaviour - % of people who feel anti-social behaviour is a problem in the area;
  Feeling Safe and Secure - % of residents surveyed who feel fairly safe or very safe after dark
    whilst outside in the local authority area;
  Ability to Influence - % of adults surveyed who feel they can influence decisions affecting their
    local area.
 Further indicators relating to design/ quality of the environment are set out in Walsall Local Area
 Agreement (see below).
 N.B. Although the above indicators tell us something about changes to the overall quality of life,
 quality of the environment, and public satisfaction with Walsall, any changes identified through
 monitoring are unlikely to be attributable directly to the influence of the SPDs.
 Walsall Local Area Agreement 2006 – 2009 (2005)
 http://www.walsall.gov.uk/index/walsall_local_area_agreement__laa_.htm
 Walsall Local Area Agreement (LAA) is agreement between Walsall Borough Strategic Partnership (WBSP), Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council and Government Office for the West Midlands (GO-WM). LAA
 is practical expression of, and delivery vehicle for, Walsall Community Plan: Working Together for a Stronger Future (see above). Action to be based around four “pillar” themes, or “blocks.” Block 2: Safer,
 Stronger Communities relates to the quality of the environment/ design – key priorities are identified as:
  Reducing crime and anti-social behaviour;
  Improving the most immediate/ common contact points that local residents have with environment;
  Broadening the range of engagements that all residents have with environment; and
  Engaging local communities with wider environmental issues, such as recycling and waste reduction, climate change, energy conservation, and new energy sources, and sustainable transport policies.

 Proposed actions that relate to urban design/ quality of the environment include:
  Preparing neighbourhood environmental action plans with LNPs to steer future local improvements;
  Establishing clear set of baseline data through State of the Environment Report;
  Improving access to open space, natural environment and historic environment;
  Developing LNP-sponsored exemplar environmental improvement schemes.

 The aspirations of Block 4: Economic Development and Enterprise pillar to attract inward investment and create more competitive centres will also be dependent to an extent on improving the quality of the
 environment, although actions to address this issue are addressed under Block 2.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                                    Implications for SPD and SA
 The Outcomes Framework of the LAA identifies performance indicators and measures for each             SPDs will support the vision and aspirations of the Community Plan (see above), and will therefore also
 priority outcome. The following indicators relate to design/ quality of the environment:              support the LAA. For example, it will help inform the neighbourhood environmental action plans, “Place
                                                                                                       Check” audits and exemplar environmental improvement projects, which the LNPs will be taking forward
                                                                                                       during the next three or four years. The “front loading” consultation on the SPDs could also be regarded as
 SSC2: To reassure the public, reducing the fear of crime and improve community cohesion:
                                                                                                       raising public awareness of environmental issues, thus contributing to the LAA Outcomes under SSC7. SA
 public feeling of safety and reassurance – 2.1.1 % of residents who feel fairly or very safe after
                                                                                                       will need to assess potential impact of guidance on a range of sustainability objectives.
 dark, 2.1.2 % of residents who feel fairly or very safe during daytime.
 SSC7: To increase the awareness of environmental issues, particularly in relation to key
 target groups, so as to influence personal behaviour in line with sound environmental
 principles as reflected in international, national and local policies – 7.2 Number of activities to
 raise public awareness of environmental issues.
 SSC8: To promote sustainable travel patterns and healthy lifestyles by encouraging modal
 shift with particular reference to walking and cycling – 8.4 % of the total length of footpaths
 and other rights of way that were easy to use by members of the public (BVPI 178).
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



 SSC9: To secure a cleaner, greener environment so as to ensure improved quality of life at
 neighbourhood level and a borough that is more attractive to inward investment – 9.1
 Preparation of Environmental Action Plans for LNP areas, 9.2 Local Nature Reserve provision per
 thousand population (LQoLI 30b), 9.5 Number of investigations of high priority sites of potential
 contaminated land within the Borough.
 SSC10: To improve the quality of the local environment by reducing the gaps in aspects of
 liveability between the worst wards/ neighbourhoods and the district as a whole, with a
 particular focus on reducing levels of detritus: 10.1 Proportion of relevant land and highways
 (expressed as %) that is assessed as having combined deposits of litter and detritus that fall below
 an acceptable level, from which unacceptable levels of graffiti are visible, and from which
 unacceptable levels of fly posting are visible (BV199a – c).
 SSC11: To increase the percentage of residents reporting an increase in satisfaction with
 their neighbourhoods and in disadvantaged areas, showing a narrowing of the gap between
 these areas and the rest – 11.1 % satisfaction with neighbourhood as a place to live, 11.2 %
 variance between highest and lowest levels of satisfaction across LNP areas, 11.3% % residents‟
 satisfaction with parks and public open spaces.
 SSC13: To build respect in communities and to reduce anti-social behaviour – 13.1 % of
 people who report that their local area is a place where people can get on well together.

 N.B. Although the above indicators tell us something about changes to the overall quality of life,
 quality of the environment, and public satisfaction with Walsall, any changes identified through
 monitoring are unlikely to be attributable directly to the influence of the SPDs.
 Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Corporate Plan 2006 – 07 (March 2006)
 http://www.walsall.gov.uk/index/council_and_democracy/corporate_plan_vision_and_values.htm
 The Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Corporate Plan 2006 – 07 was published in March 2006. This includes a vision for Walsall in 2008 of a Borough that is “prosperous, forward-looking, self-confident and
 optimistic – a place where individuals and groups can thrive and develop.” To achieve this it is recognised that the Council needs to address the key priorities for local residents. These include:
  Ensuring a clean and green Borough;
  Making it easier for people to get around;
  Ensure all people are safe and secure;
  Encourage everyone to feel proud of Walsall; and
  Strengthen the local economy.
 All of the above priorities are directly or indirectly related to the quality or state of the environment within Walsall.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                                     Implications for SPD and SA
 The general performance of the Council is monitored regularly through both external inspection         The guidance in the Designing a Better Walsall SPD will among other things, address issues of accessibility,
 (e.g. CPA, BVPI) and surveys conducted by the Council. The following CPA, BVPI and Local               safety and security, respect for local character and context, and the need to complement/ reinforce the
 Performance indicators are relevant to the overall quality of the environment and/or may be            positive aspects of the local environment, thereby supporting priorities of the Corporate Plan as well as the
 adapted for monitoring the performance of the SPD:                                                     UDP urban and landscape design policies. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on a range
  BV199a - c: Proportion of relevant land and highways (expressed as %) having unacceptable            of sustainability objectives including those referred to above.
     levels of litter and detritus, graffiti and fly posting;
  BV178a: Percentage of the total lengths of footpaths and other rights of way which are easy to
     use by members of the public;
  BV106 (CPA): Percentage of new homes built on previously-developed land;
  BV204: Number of planning appeal decisions allowed against the authority‟s decision to refuse
     planning applications as a percentage of the total number of planning appeals against refusals
     of planning applications;
  BV219a – c (to be CPA from 2007): Total number of conservation areas in the local authority
     area, percentage of conservation areas in the local authority area with an up-to-date character
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



     appraisal, and percentage of conservation areas with published management proposals; and
    Local Indicator LLC5: Number of friends/action groups supporting parks and open spaces
     development.

 N.B. Although the above indicators tell us something about changes to the overall quality of the
 environment in Walsall, any changes identified through monitoring are unlikely to be attributable
 directly to the influence of the SPDs.
 District Centres Strategic Regeneration Framework (March 2006)
 In March 2006, Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council‟s Cabinet approved a Strategic Regeneration Framework for the Borough‟s five District centres of Aldridge, Bloxwich, Brownhills, Darlaston and Willenhall,
 and selected local centres. Framework prepared by a consultancy team comprising Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council, WHG, BDP, King Sturge and EKOS. Framework identifies priorities for investment
 during the next 10 – 15 years, and a range of implementation projects aimed at improving and regenerating the centres and the residential areas surrounding them. These include proposals for public realm/
 environmental improvement programmes.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD
 No specific indicators or targets relating to the environment or urban and landscape design.        Implications for UDP policies already promote high quality development in centres. For example, Policy S3
                                                                                                     covers integration of new developments into centres, and issues such as scale, visual impact and
                                                                                                     pedestrian accessibility. Policy S4, which relates to Town and District Centres, sets out broad principles for
                                                                                                     development in these centres, including a requirement for a high standard of design in line with general
                                                                                                     design policies, and to give particular attention to designing out crime and accessibility. Designing a Better
                                                                                                     Walsall SPD will provide more detailed guidance on design, and will set out key principles against which the
                                                                                                     quality of proposals may be assessed, thus supporting the aspirations of the Strategic Regeneration
                                                                                                     Framework and providing guidance that can inform proposals. Underlying strategy of Framework will also be
                                                                                                     taken into account when preparing the guidance in the SPD. SA will need to assess potential impact of
                                                                                                     guidance on a range of sustainability objectives, including quality of life and economic investment.
 Corporate Equality & Diversity Strategy (2006), Race Equality Scheme (2005) and Disability Equality Scheme (2006)
 http://www.walsall.gov.uk/index/equality.htm
 The Council has adopted equalities and diversity policies covering all aspects of its service. The key objectives of the Equality & Diversity Strategy (2006) include objectives relating to the preparation of
 Equalities Impact Assessments, public consultation and equalities monitoring. The Local Development Framework is also one of the “high priority” functions which will be subjected to Equalities Impact
 Assessments in accordance with the Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000, Disability Discrimination Act 2005 (see above) and the Council‟s Race Equality Scheme (2005) and Disability Equality Scheme
 (2006).



 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                                  Implications for SPD and SA
 No specific indicators or targets relating to the environment or urban and landscape design.        In line with the requirements of the legislation and with UDP Policies GP5 and GP6 which relate to equal
                                                                                                     opportunities and disabled people, the Designing a Better Walsall SPD should promote designs and layouts
                                                                                                     that do not unlawfully discriminate against anyone and take into account the needs of all within society. To
                                                                                                     ensure that there is no adverse impact on the Council‟s legal duties and that all the relevant equality and
                                                                                                     diversity issues have been considered, the Designing a Better Walsall SPD will be subjected to an Equalities
                                                                                                     Impact Assessment (EqIA) in accordance with the Council‟s Race, Disability and Gender Equalities
                                                                                                     Schemes, although it is not considered that this will be required for the Natural Environment SPD. It is
                                                                                                     proposed that the EqIA will be undertaken as part of the SA, in line with the latest Government advice.
                                                                                                     Consultation and community engagement is being undertaken in accordance with the Statement of
                                                                                                     Community Involvement. This requires the Council to engage with the Community Empowerment Network
                                                                                                     (CEN), which includes a wide range of gender, ethnic, faith and disability groups. Consultation will also be
                                                                                                     subject to monitoring to ensure that the comments received from the public are broadly representative of the
                                                                                                     population as a whole. The leaflet and questionnaire which was used in the “front loading” consultation
                                                                                                     included monitoring questions on the back for people to record their gender, age, ethnicity and whether or
                                                                                                     not they have a disability. It was written in plain language and included a message in large print and seven
Faber Maunsell          Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



                                                                                                         community languages explaining where people could obtain further assistance. SA will need to assess
                                                                                                         potential impact of guidance on equality and diversity.
 Draft Local Accessibility Action Plan for Walsall (July 2006)
 Draft action plan prepared by Walsall Borough Strategic Partnership (WBSP) for consultation. Prepared in response to report by Social Exclusion Unit in February 2003, which identified that no-one is responsible
 for making sure that people can get to key services, jobs and other activities. This report also introduced a new framework for accessibility planning, to ensure that there is clear responsibility and accountability
 for identifying problems and deciding how to tackle them. Main barriers to accessibility identified as:
  Availability and physical accessibility of public transport – nearly a third of households do not have access to a car, and public transport does not always go to the right places at convenient times;
  Cost of transport – cost of transport can restrict choice/ ability to get to key facilities, and cost of public transport has risen at a greater rate than cost of running a private car;
  Services and facilities located in inaccessible places – often developed with insufficient attention given to accessibility by providers, seen as responsibility of transport planners;
  Safer streets – worst impacts of road traffic, such as busy roads, have disproportionate effect on deprived communities and on cyclists and pedestrians – can affect health as well as access to key services.
 Action Plan identifies a wide range of actions that are proposed to tackle poor accessibility in Walsall. Main actions relating to design are proposals for:
  Work with Disability Forum to set up Proving Group –, to assess planning applications, to ensure best practice in public realm design, by assessing planning applications;
  Increase consideration of accessibility issues in the development control process – integrate accessibility analysis into development control process.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                                      Implications for SPD and SA
 Access of new residential development to key facilities is a Core Output Indicator for LDF              UDP transport policies already seek to promote accessible pattern of development, use of sustainable
 monitoring. Indicator could also be developed around applications considered by Proving Group,          transport modes, designs and layouts that allow people to move around safely and easily within and around
 e.g. how many applications considered by Proving Group per annum and how many were                      them, and improve the quality of life of people who have to live with the environmental effects of traffic
 amended to improve accessibility as a result.                                                           (Policies T1, T2, T3, T4, T6, T8, T9, T10, T11). UDP also includes policy requiring provision of access for
                                                                                                         people with different types of disability (Policy GP6). Information underpinning Draft Local Accessibility
                                                                                                         Action Plan is important in demonstrating continued relevance of UDP policies, and that accessibility is an
                                                                                                         important problem in parts of Walsall. Designing a Better Walsall SPD will therefore need to include
                                                                                                         appropriate guidance on designs and layouts that will maintain, or improve, public accessibility to key
                                                                                                         facilities, and should also explain role of Proving Group and any other measures that will be put into place to
                                                                                                         assess accessibility of new proposals. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on community
                                                                                                         safety, quality of life and access to key facilities.
 Walsall: A Town for Enterprise: A Prospectus for Growth (November 2006)
 http://www.walsall-regeneration.co.uk/
 The Walsall Regeneration Company (WRC) was formed in Mar 2004 to spearhead the regeneration of a 780 ha area within the Borough, covering Walsall Town Centre, Darlaston and important corridors. Its
 vision and objectives are set out in Walsall, A Town for Enterprise: A Prospectus for Growth (revised Nov 2006). This states that WRC aims to attract £500 million of public and private sector investment, between
 2006 and 2015. It identifies 8 major projects aimed at delivering vision of “a confident, thriving new Walsall – a town for enterprise.” Its objectives include raising the profile and perception of Walsall regionally
 and nationally, generating confidence in the town as a place to work and live, and encouraging high quality urban design encompassing both built form and public realm.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                                      Implications for SPD and SA
 None specifically relating to the quality of design.                                                    The overall aim of the UDP urban and landscape design policies is to promote good design. The Designing
                                                                                                         a Better Walsall SPD will take these further by defining the key principles of good design, encouraging
                                                                                                         excellence in design and raising the overall quality of new development, thus supporting the overall
                                                                                                         objectives of the Prospectus. SA will need to assess potential impact of guidance on a range of
                                                                                                         sustainability objectives, including quality of life and economic investment.
 Walsall Waterfront – Supplementary Planning Document (November 2006)
 http://www.walsall.gov.uk/index/environment/planning/local_development_framework/ldf_supplementary_planning_documents.htm
 Expands on Policy WA12 of the adopted UDP, providing more detailed guidance on the development of an allocated site in Walsall Town Centre. Prominent town centre site, adjacent to New Art Gallery, with
 canal-side setting. Includes assessment of character of area and design principles for the redevelopment of the site. Seeks high quality “transformational mixed-use development,” incorporating several co-
 ordinated landmark buildings demonstrating hierarchy of scale, with particular emphasis on key “gateway” positions. Encourages use of modern materials/ innovative design that “recognises” historic context.
 Specific aspiration to maintain and enhance views down canal/ create visual links between Waterfront area and rest of town centre.
 Objectives, Targets and Indicators Relevant to SPD                                                      Implications for SPD and SA
 None – design principles are vague and difficult to use as “benchmarks” in the way suggested.           Design guidance in Waterfront SPD could be clearer – Designing a Better Walsall SPD will need to provide
                                                                                                         clear guidance, avoiding use of technical terms that may be open to interpretation. Waterfront SPD was also
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



                                                                                               held up due to the need to assess impact on biodiversity, which was not done at the outset. Natural
                                                                                               Environment SPD should include guidance aimed at ensuring that this does not happen in future and that all
                                                                                               statutory requirements under the Habitats Directive and other legislation are addressed at the outset. SA will
                                                                                               need to assess potential impact of guidance on a range of sustainability objectives, including quality of life,
                                                                                               economic investment and biodiversity.
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)
Appendix C: Sub-Stage A2 - Baseline
                       Information
Faber Maunsell     Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



Table C1: Baseline information/data for Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council (‘Designing a Better Walsall’ and ‘Natural Environment’ Supplementary
Planning Documents)

  SA Objectives                                                                                                                      Trends? (and key
                                                  Baseline Information                                           Comparators?                                            Baseline Source
                                                                                                                                   sustainability issues)
 1. Health &      Health Service Facilities                                                                  No data available.   No data available.             http://www.nhs.uk/England/Authori
 Well-Being –     Within the Walsall teaching PCT (providing NHS services) there are:                                                                            tiesTrusts/Pct/showtrust.aspx?id=5
 improve          61 doctors surgeries                                                                                                                           M3
 community        29 dentists
 health, well-    29 opticians
 being and        61 pharmacies
 reduce health    Health Services                                                                            No data available    No data available              West Midlands Regional
 inequalities     Within the West Midlands 50% of people visit a pharmacy at least once a month and                                                              Observatory, 2005. West Midlands
                  20% of people visit their GP once a month.                                                                                                     Regional Lifestyle Survey, 2005.

                  The elderly (65+) visit their GP more frequently and young people (18-24) most
                  infrequently.

                  The PCT has been rated as „Fair‟ for both Quality of Services and Use of Resources.
                  Health Perceptions                                                                         2001 census          The percentage of people       West Midlands Regional
                  Within the West Midlands 46% of people believe they are in good health and 15% of          Good health: 61%     who perceive they are in       Observatory, 2005. West Midlands
                  people say they are in bad health (2005).                                                  Poor health: 12%     good health as decreased       Regional Lifestyle Survey, 2005.
                                                                                                                                  by 15% from 2001 to
                  Those of white ethnic origin are likely to consider themselves the healthiest and those                         2005. Those who
                  of Black or Black British ethnic origin the least healthy.                                                      perceive they are in bad
                                                                                                                                  health has increased by 3
                                                                                                                                  % in the same period.
                  Life Expectancy at birth                                                                   2003                 The life expectancy for        ONS neighbourhood statistics
                  Males - In 2003 the life expectancy for males was 75.6 years.                              W. Mids: 75.9        both males and females in      [online]. Available from:
                                                                                                             England: 76.6        Walsall is lower than that     http://neighbourhood.statistics.gov.
                  Females - In 2003 the life expectancy for females was 80.4 years.                                               of W Midlands and              uk/dissemination/LeadTableView.d
                                                                                                             W. Mids: 80.6        England.                       o?a=3&b=276805&c=walsall&d=1
                                                                                                             England: 80.9                                       3&e=6&g=377637&i=1001x1003x
                                                                                                                                                                 1004&m=0&enc=1&dsFamilyId=93
                                                                                                                                                                 7
                  Infant Mortality                                                                           2002-4               The infant mortality within    Black Country Observatory, 2006.
                  In 2002-4 the number of infant deaths (deaths under 1 year) per 1000 births was 6.6.       W. Mids: 6.8         Walsall has increased,         Black County Health Barometer
                  From 1999 – 2001it was 6.3.                                                                England: 5.2         although it is lower than      2006.
                                                                                                                                  the W Midlands it is higher
                                                                                                                                  than the rest of England.
                  Sport & Fitness                                                                            2006                 This is significantly lower    Black Country Observatory, 2006.
                  In 2006 the % of adults (16+) participating in at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity   W. Mids: 19.9        in Walsall than in the W       Black Country Sports Barometer
                  sport and active recreation (including recreational walking) on three or more days of      England: 20.1        Midlands and England as        2006.
                  the week was 14.7%.                                                                                             a whole.
                  Obesity                                                                                    2003                 Stable in the W. Mids          Black Country Observatory, 2006.
                  In 2002 the population classified as obese within Walsall was 24.3%                        W. Mids: 26.5        since 2001. Within             Black Country Sports Barometer
                                                                                                             England 22.6         Walsall the obesity level is   2006.
                                                                                                                                  higher than in England but
                                                                                                                                  lower than the west
                                                                                                                                  Midlands as a whole.
                  Cancer                                                                                     2002-4               The cancer mortality rates     Black Country Observatory, 2006.
                  For 2002-4 the standardised mortality rates per 100,000 population for all cancer at all   W. Mids: 122         are higher in Walsall than     Black County Health Barometer
Faber Maunsell       Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



  SA Objectives                                                                                                                                 Trends? (and key
                                                        Baseline Information                                            Comparators?                                               Baseline Source
                                                                                                                                              sustainability issues)
                   ages under 75 was 132 in Walsall.                                                              England: 122              the West Midlands and          2006
                                                                                                                                            England.
                   Coronary Heart Disease                                                                         2002-4                    The coronary heart             Black Country Observatory, 2006.
                   For 2002-4 the standardised mortality rate per 100,000 population for coronary heart           W. Mids: 103              disease and stoke              Black County Health Barometer
                   disease and stroke related conditions at all ages under 75 was 114 in Walsall.                 England: 97               mortality rates are            2006.
                                                                                                                                            significantly higher in
                                                                                                                                            Walsall than the West
                                                                                                                                            Midlands and England.
                   Smoking                                                                                        No data available         No data available              Department of Health, 2006.
                   Smoking related deaths per 100,000 population for 2002-4 was 137.4                                                                                      Choosing Health: Health Profiles
                                                                                                                                                                           2006.
                   Health Walks (2004/5)                                                                          No data available         No data available              Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                   Health walks carried out was 571.                                                                                                                       Council, 2005. Walsall
                                                                                                                                                                           Metropolitan Borough Council
                                                                                                                                                                           Performance Plan 2005/6 p.117
                   Road Accident Casualties                                                                       2004                      This is less than both the     Black Country Observatory, 2006.
                   In 2004 the rate of people of all ages killed or seriously injured in road traffic accidents   W.Mids: 0.5               West Midlands as a whole       Black Country Health Barometer
                   within Walsall was 0.4 per 1,000 population.                                                   England: 0.6              and England. This figure       2006.
                                                                                                                                            has decreased since
                                                                                                                  1997                      1997.
                                                                                                                  Walsall: 0.7
                   Road Accident Casualties                                                                       Met. Authority Average    Within Walsall the number      Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                   Within Walsall :                                            2004/05          2005/06                                     of people killed or            Council, 2006 Walsall Metropolitan
                   No‟ of people killed or                                                                        2004/5:                   seriously injured and the      Borough Council Performance
                   seriously injured in RTAs was            108       97                                                                    number of people slightly      Data. p. 22
                                                                                                                  153                       injured has decreased          Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                   No‟ of children (under 16                                                                                                Whilst the number of           Council, 2006 Walsall Metropolitan
                   years) killed or seriously injured                                                                                       children killed or seriously   Borough Council Performance
                   in RTAs was                             16         24                                                                    injured has increased.         Data. p. 21
                                                                                                                  27                        However, all are well
                   No‟ of people slightly injured                                                                                           below the Metropolitan
                   in RTAs was                              944       868                                                                   Authority Average.
                                                                                                                  1470
                   Road Traffic Accidents                                                                         No data available         The number of road             Walsall MBC, 2006. Lighting up
                   2001 - 914 road traffic accidents                                                                                        accidents has significantly    Walsall. p.4
                   2004 - 714 road traffic accidents.                                                                                       decreased between 2001
                                                                                                                                            to 2004.
 2. Community      Crime                                                                                          Levels of worry           Overall most people feel       West Midlands Regional
 Safety - to       The most frequently identified crime and disorder issues which concern residents of            Burglary are 21% in W.    safer in their own homes       Observatory, 2005. West Midlands
 create safe       the West Midlands are                                                                          Mids and 14%              now than two years ago         Regional Lifestyle Survey, 2005.
 environments       litter and rubbish (39%),                                                                    nationally.               although 20% feel less         Walsall Metropolitan Borough
 that will help     troublesome teenagers or children (31%),                                                                               safe.                          Council (2004) BVPI General
 reduce the         burglary (30%),                                                                              Car crime 21% in W.                                      Survey: MORI draft report. p.36
 crime, the fear    speeding, joyriding and dangerous driving (29%),                                             Mids and 16%              More people feel their
 of crime and       vandalism and graffiti (19%).                                                                nationally                neighbourhood is less
 anti-social                                                                                                                                safe (26%) than 2 years
 behaviou.         Most people in the West Midlands feel safe both at night and in the day although               Violent 24% in W. Mids    ago, 19% think it is more
                   more feel unsafe after dark in their own neighbourhoods (25%).                                 and 19% nationally.       safe.

                   Walsall residents are the most likely within the West Midlands Police Area to be               High levels of disorder   More people feel crime
                   worried about levels of disorder.                                                              in their area 22% in W.   has got worse in their
Faber Maunsell       Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



  SA Objectives                                                                                                                            Trends? (and key
                                                     Baseline Information                                        Comparators?                                                 Baseline Source
                                                                                                                                        sustainability issues)
                                                                                                             Mids with 20%            neighbourhood over the
                                                                                                             nationally               last two years (29%). 19%
                                                                                                                                      feel it has got better.

                    Crime                                                                                    Jan – March 2006         No. of offences in Walsall     Crime Statistics, 2006. Crime
                    The No. of offences per 1,000 populations in Walsall for the period Jan-March 2006       Black Country: 24.1      is higher than the national,   Statistics [online], Available from:
                    was 25.5.                                                                                W. Mids: 24.9            regional and local figures,    http://www.crimestatistics.org.uk/to
                                                                                                             England & Wales: 24.9    although these are all         ol/Default.asp?region=6&force=18
                                                                                                                                      decreasing.                    &cdrp=35&l1=0&l2=0&l3=0&sub=0
                                                                                                                                                                     &v=36
                                                                                                                                      Decrease of 36% of night       Walsall MBC, 2006. Lighting up
                                                                                                                                      time household burglaries      Walsall. p.5
                                                                                                                                      between 2002 and 2006.         Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                                                                                                                                                                     Council (1999) Tracking our
                                                                                                                                      Recorded crime increased       footprints on the future: towards a
                                                                                                                                      between 1994/5 and             better quality of life for Walsall. A
                                                                                                                                      1996/7 and then                Sustainable Development
                                                                                                                                      decreased the following        Indicators Report. p. 29
                                                                                                                                      year.

                    Crime                            (2004/5)       (2005/6)                                 Met Authority Average:   Domestic burglaries and        Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                    Domestic burglaries per          14.21          13.9                                     2004/5: 18.48            vehicle crimes are lower       Council, 2006 Walsall Metropolitan
                    1000 household                                                                                                    than the Met Authority         Borough Council Performance
                                                                                                                                      Average. Robberies are         Data. p. 29
                    Violent crime per 1000           No Data        25.4                                     2004/5: 7.00             significantly lower.
                    population
                                                                                                                                      Violent crime is
                    Robberies per 1000               1.49           1.8                                      2004/5: 13.25            significantly higher than
                    population                                                                                                        the Met Authority Average

                    Vehicle crimes per 1000          14.33          15.3                                     2004/5: 16.83            There is no data for the
                    population                                                                                                        racial incidents at the Met
                                                                                                                                      Authority Average level
                    Racial incidents recorded per    45.76          80.69                                    No data available        but there has been a
                    100,000 population                                                                                                significant increase in the
                                                                                                                                      number of racial crimes
                                                                                                                                      from 2004/5 to 2005/6.

                    Crime (2004/5)                                                                                                    Walsall generally has a        Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                    Units for this statistic are unknown                                                     2003/4                   higher level of violent        Council, 2005. Walsall
                                                                                                                                      crime than the rest of         Metropolitan Borough Council
                    Violent offences by stranger: 4.79                                                       13.78                    England and Wales,             Performance Plan 2005/6 p.120
                    Violent offences in a public place: 7.01                                                 7.42                     however the difference is      Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                    Violent crime in connection with licensed premises 0.9                                   1.19                     narrowing.                     Council (2006) People and Place
                    Violent offences committed under influence: 1.46                                         2.05                                                    perspective – A Picture of our
                                                                                                                                                                     Community. p.27
 3. Access to       Access to Services                                                                       Walsall data will be     No data available              West Midlands Regional
 Key Facilities –   Within the West Midlands over 90% live less than 5 miles from their nearest food         available from 2007                                     Observatory, 2005. West Midlands
 ensure easy        store, petrol station and post office.                                                   onwards as this is an                                   Regional Lifestyle Survey, 2005.
 and equitable                                                                                               AMR Core output
 access to          75% of those in urban and rural areas live within 5 miles of an Adult Learning Centre.   Indicator.                                              Walsall Metropolitan Borough
Faber Maunsell      Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



  SA Objectives                                                                                                                            Trends? (and key
                                                   Baseline Information                                         Comparators?                                                  Baseline Source
                                                                                                                                         sustainability issues)
 services,         50% of those in the most rural areas live within 5 miles of a Learning Centre. 15% did                                                            Council (Feb 2006) Green Space
 facilities and    not know where their nearest Learning Centre was.                                                                                                 Strategy. Final Audit and
 opportunities                                                                                                                                                       Assessment Report.
 (e.g.             At least 50% of people live within 1 mile of a cash point. In the most rural areas 15%
 employment,       of people live more than 5 miles from their nearest cash point.
 training, local
 services and      96% of residents live close to a park in urban areas and 81% live near a park in the
 recreation)       most rural areas.

                   25.4% of residents live within 400m walking distance of a district centre (1998-2001).

                   22.4% of residents live within 400m walking distance of a GP (1998-2001).

                   14.9% of residents live within 400m walking distance of a public library (1998-2001).

                   Area of Green Space                                                                      No data available           No new urban open            Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                   Percentage of area classified as urban open space or green space in 2005 was                                         spaces or greenways          Council, 2006. Annual Monitoring
                   20.4%.                                                                                                               were constructed 2005/6.     Report, Dec 2006. p.8
                   59.6% of this open space is unrestricted.
                   Green Space                                                                              Blakenhall and              No data available.           Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                   The following types of green space have been identified within Walsall.                  Bloxwich has the most                                    Council (Feb 2006) Green Space
                   Allotments: 41 (44.27ha)                                                                 area and highest                                         Strategy. Final Audit and
                   Amenity Space: 113 (130.55ha)                                                            percentage of green                                      Assessment Report.
                   Cemeteries and Churchyards: 17 (54.59ha)                                                 space. In addition it has                                Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                   Derelict Land: 1 (1.93ha)                                                                the highest proportion                                   Council (1999) Tracking our
                   Green Corridor: 16 (40.36ha)                                                             of accessible green                                      footprints on the future: towards a
                   Institutional Land: 63 (171.30ha)                                                        space.                                                   better quality of life for Walsall. A
                   Natural and Natural Green Space: 110 (945.60ha)                                                                                                   Sustainable Development
                   Operational Land: 1 (5.83ha)                                                             Natural England ANGSt                                    Indicators Report. p. 16
                   Outdoor Sports Facilities: 50 (415.59ha)                                                 standards: no person
                   Parks & Gardens:27 (259.54ha)                                                            should live more than
                   Provision for Young People: 41 (44.32ha)                                                 300m from an area of
                                                                                                            natural green space
                   Of the 480 sites access is;                                                              over 2ha in size; one
                   Unrestricted: 286                                                                        LNR per 1000
                   Limited:154                                                                              population; one
                   Not Accessible: 40                                                                       accessible 20hectare
                                                                                                            site within 2km from
                   Borough wide 18.3% of households do not have access to unrestricted green space          home.
                   within 1200m, 600m and 400m for borough, neighbourhood and locally important
                   spaces respectively.
                   Quality of Green Space                                                                   Average national            Those sites within the       Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                   Under the national standards for the Green Flag award the average quality score for      scores                      council area are less than   Council (Feb 2006) Green Space
                   green space in the borough is 35. This can be broken down by site significance:          Borough: 51                 the national average         Strategy. Final Audit and
                   Borough: 40                                                                              Neighbourhood:43            where as the                 Assessment Report.
                   Neighbourhood: 42                                                                        Local: 33                   neighbourhood and local
                   Local: 32                                                                                                            sites are about the same.
                   Travel to work (2001 figures):                                                           2001                        A lower proportion of        ONS. Neighbourhood Statistics
                    Percentage of people aged 16-74 who usually travel to work by train: 0.77 (1997 –       West Midlands: 1.52       people within the Walsall    [online]. Available from:
                      1%)                                                                                    England: 4.23             area travel to work by       www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.
                                                                                                                                        train. There is a larger     uk/dissemination/LeadTableView.d
Faber Maunsell     Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



  SA Objectives                                                                                                                        Trends? (and key
                                                  Baseline Information                                       Comparators?                                                 Baseline Source
                                                                                                                                    sustainability issues)
                   Percentage of people aged 16-74 who usually travel to work by bus, mini bus or       West Midlands: 8.75     difference in the number       o?a=3&b=276805&c=Walsall&d=1
                    coach: 11.88 (1997 – 26%)                                                            England: 7.51           of people who travel by        3&e=16&g=377637&i=1001x1003
                                                                                                                                  bus compared with the W        x1006&k=Travel+to+work&m=0&e
                   Percentage of people aged 16-74 who usually travel to work by driving a car or       W. Mids: 59.97          Mids and England. A            nc=1&domainId=15&dsFamilyId=2
                    van: 58.45 (1997 – 73%)                                                              England: 54.92          slightly higher proportion     83
                                                                                                                                  travel by car or by foot.      Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                   Percentage of people aged 16-74 who usually travel to work on foot: 10.03 (1997 –    W. Mids: 9.52                                          Council, 2006. Annual Monitoring
                    no account made for those who cycle or travel on foot)                               England: 9.99                                          Report, Dec 2006. p.11
                                                                                                                                                                 Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                   Average distance (km) travelled to fixed place of work: 9.33                                                                                 Council (1999) Tracking our
                                                                                                         W. Mids: 11.87                                         footprints on the future: towards a
                   17% of all Metropolitan area employees travelled less than 2km to work. 80%          England: 13.31                                         better quality of life for Walsall. A
                    travelled under 20km.                                                                                                                        Sustainable Development
                                                                                                                                                                 Indicators Report. p. 35
                  Bus Journeys (2005/6)                                                                 2004/5                    The number of bus              Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                  There were 307.3 million bus journeys within the West Midlands Metropolitan Area.     310 million bus           journeys has decreased         Council, 2006. Annual Monitoring
                                                                                                        journeys.                 slightly.                      Report, Dec 2006. p.66
                  Train journeys (2005/6)                                                               2000/1:22.8 million       The number of train            Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                  There were 30.9 million train journeys in the West Midlands met. Area.                2004/5: 29.3              journeys has increased.        Council, 2006. Annual Monitoring
                                                                                                                                                                 Report, Dec 2006. p.67
                  Road traffic miles (2005/6)                                                           2004 road traffic index   There has been a slight        Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                  The road traffic mileage index was 99.7                                               was 100                   decrease in road traffic       Council, 2006. Annual Monitoring
                                                                                                                                  mileage.                       Report, Dec 2006. p.67
                  Cycle Trips                                                                           2004/05                   In line with national and      Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                  The cycling index was                                                                 W. Mids. Met: 74.4        regional figures there is an   Council, 2006. Annual Monitoring
                  94.5 in 2004/5                                                                                                  increase in the number of      Report, Dec 2006. p.67
                  103.8 in 2005/06                                                                      2005/6                    cycle trips. With a
                                                                                                        W. Mids. Met: 84.3        significantly higher
                                                                                                        National: 104.5           number of trips taken in
                                                                                                                                  Walsall in 2005/06 than in
                                                                                                                                  the W Mids overall.

                  No. of Trips (2005)                                                                   No data available         There is a continuing drop     Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                  Between 0730 and 0930 measured in the Cordon Survey of Walsall Town centre                                      in bus and train trips.        Council, 2006. Annual Monitoring
                  there were:                                                                                                                                    Report, Dec 2006. p.70
                                                   1997 2003 2005
                  Trips by car, bus and train      21,633 19,544 19,365
                  by car                                  13, 043 13,045
                  Car Parking                                                                           No data available         There is a general             Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                  The car parking provision in the town and district centres are: total (short stay):                             shortage of short stay car     Council, 2006. Annual Monitoring
                   Walsall town centre:           3681 (2851)                                                                    parking.                       Report, Dec 2006. p.71
                   Aldridge:                      599    (292)
                   Bloxwich:                      645    (0)
                   Brownhills:                    904    (520)
                   Darlaston                      427    (315)
                   Willenhall                     820    (275)
                  Speed Management (2005/6)                                                                                       The percentage amount of       Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                  Percentage of speed management features on the road network.                                                    speed management               Council, 2005. Walsall
                  2003/04:        21.2%                                                                                           features as increased          Metropolitan Borough Council
                  2004/05:        23.3%                                                                                           since 2003.                    Performance Plan 2005/6 p.113
                  2005/06:        25%
Faber Maunsell      Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



  SA Objectives                                                                                                                       Trends? (and key
                                                    Baseline Information                                       Comparators?                                              Baseline Source
                                                                                                                                    sustainability issues)

                   Disabled Access (2005/6)                                                              Met Auth. Ave.            Walsall is well above the     Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                   Percentage of pedestrian crossings with facilities for disabled people was            2003/04: 77%              Met Authority Average.        Council, 2005. Walsall
                          2003/04         100%                                                           2004/05: 79.9%                                          Metropolitan Borough Council
                                          2004/05         100%                                                                                                   Performance Plan 2005/6 p.111
                                          2005/06         100%                                                                                                   Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                                                                                                                                                                 Council, 2006 Walsall Metropolitan
                                                                                                                                                                 Borough Council Performance
                                                                                                                                                                 Data. p. 23
                   PRoW Accessibility (2005/6)                                                           No data available.        There has been a              Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                   Percentage of footpaths and other rights of way that were easy to use by members of                             significant decrease in the   Council, 2005. Walsall
                   the public:                                                                                                     number of footpaths easily    Metropolitan Borough Council
                   2003/4          73.0%                                                                                           accessible by the public.     Performance Plan 2005/6 p.111
                   2004/5          64.6%                                                                                                                         Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                   2005/6          36.1%                                                                                                                         Council, 2006 Walsall Metropolitan
                                                                                                                                                                 Borough Council Performance
                                                                                                                                                                 Data. p. 23
                   Museums                                  2005/6                                       2003/4           2004/5   There has been an             Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                   No. of visits/useage of museums          1473                                         993              1049     increase in both the          Council, 2005. Walsall
                   per 1000 population was:                                                                                        useage per 1000               Metropolitan Borough Council
                                                                                                                                   population and also the       Performance Plan 2005/6 p.116
                   No of visits/useage of museums per       598                                          826              637      organised school groups.
                   1000 population in person was:

                   Number of visits in organised school     13,851                                       10,397           13,034
                   groups was

                   Key tourist attractions of the area are the Leather Museum and the New Art Gallery.
                   Libraries (2004/5)                                                                    2003/4: 6046 per 1000     This figure has risen since   Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                   No. of physical visits per 1000 population to public library premises was 6,736.      population                2003/4.                       Council, 2005. Walsall
                                                                                                                                                                 Metropolitan Borough Council
                                                                                                                                                                 Performance Plan 2005/6 p.116
                   Play Areas (2005/6)                                                                   Local Equipped Areas:     There has been a              Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                   Playgrounds that conform to national standards for local equipped play areas was      2003/4: 18.8%             significant increase in the   Council, 2005. Walsall
                   47%                                                                                   2004/5; 27.4%             number equipped play          Metropolitan Borough Council
                   Playgrounds that conform to national standards for larger neighbourhood equipped      Larger Equipped Areas:    areas which meet national     Performance Plan 2005/6 p.117
                   play areas was 17%                                                                    2003/4: 4.3%              standard in the Walsall
                                                                                                         2004/5: 9.6%              Metropolitan Borough
                                                                                                                                   Council area.
                   Completed Retail, Office and Leisure Development                                      No data available         No data available             Walsall MBC, Dec 2006. Annual
                   5,915sqm gross of retail, office and leisure development were completed.                                                                      Monitoring Report 2006. p.52
                   3,469sqm gross of this development was completed within town centres.
                   Town Centre Development                                                               No data available.        There is pressure for         Walsall MBC, Dec 2006. Annual
                   The proportion of retail, leisure and other „town centre‟ uses that takes place in                              office and leisure            Monitoring Report 2006. p.53
                   established centres was 58.5%.                                                                                  schemes in and out of
                                                                                                                                   centre locations.
 4. Quality of     Population Size                                                                       2005                      Consistent annual             ONS. Neighbourhood Statistics
 Life – improve    Population size estimate (millions) for 2005 was 0.25                                 W. Mids: 5.37m            increase at both regional     Population and Migration [online].
 quality of life                                                                                         England 50.43m            and national level.           Available from:
 for all by                                                                                                                                                      http://neighbourhood.statistics.gov.
 creating                                                                                                                                                        uk/dissemination/LeadKeyFigures.
Faber Maunsell     Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



  SA Objectives                                                                                                                         Trends? (and key
                                                  Baseline Information                                         Comparators?                                               Baseline Source
                                                                                                                                      sustainability issues)
 communities                                                                                                                                                      do?a=3&b=276805&c=walsall&d=
 that are                                                                                                                                                         13&e=13&g=377637&i=1001x100
 cohesive,                                                                                                                                                        3x1004&m=0&enc=1
 diverse,
 accessible,      Population density                                                                       2005                     This is lower than the        Walsall MBC, Dec 2006. Annual
 empowered and    Population density for 2005 (persons per sq km) was 2,447                                W. Mids: 2,857           West Midlands but             Monitoring report 2006.
 sustainable                                                                                               England: 380             significantly higher than
                                                                                                                                    the rest of England.
                  Age Profile                                                                                                               Comparison            ONS. Neighbourhood Statistics
                  Population in Walsall by age band (%) from 2001 census                                   W Mids       BCountry    W Mids          B Country     Population and Migration [online].
                                 0-4             -        6.5                                              6.06         5.96        WC Higher       WC Higher     Available from:
                                 5-15            -        15.3                                             14.74        14.19       WC Higher       WC Higher     http://www.neighbourhood.statistic
                                 16-29           -        16.6                                             17.23        17.57       WC Lower        WC Lower      s.gov.uk/dissemination/LeadTable
                                 30-44           -        21.5                                             21.86        22.65       WC Lower        WC Lower      View.do?a=3&b=276805&c=Walsa
                                 45-59           -        18.5                                             19.09        18.88       WC Lower        WC Lower      ll&d=13&e=13&g=377637&i=1001
                                 60-64           -        5.5                                              5.07         4.87        WC Higher       WC Higher     x1003x1004&m=0&enc=1&dsFami
                                 65-74           -        9.2                                              8.54         8.35        WC Higher       WC Higher     lyId=276
                                 75+             -        7.0                                              7.42         7.54        WC Lower        WC Lower

                  Migration                                                                                B.Country 2003: -3,840   Gradual decrease in out       ONS. Neighbourhood Statistics
                  Net internal migration for Black Country 2004 was                                        B.Country 2002: -4,690   migration.                    Population and Migration [online].
                  -3,330.                                                                                  West Mid 2003: -6,700                                  Available from:
                                                                                                           West Mid 2004: -5,600    The population of Walsall     http://neighbourhood.statistics.gov.
                  Between 2004 and 2005 the net in/out migration for Walsall based upon 2005                                        is projected to decline       uk/dissemination/LeadHome.do;js
                  population estimate was -190.                                                                                     very slightly over the next   essionid=ac1f930dce659bc68d405
                                                                                                                                    ten years according to        d6403e9cbae64829e25c56.e38Oa
                                                                                                                                    2004 population               NuRbNuSbi0LaxeRbNeLchuKe6fz
                                                                                                                                    projections.                  nA5Pp7ftolbGmkTy;jessionid=ac1f
                                                                                                                                                                  930cce6477f9cf29420496890faa8
                                                                                                                                                                  2c3b887926.e38Qa3mPbh4Kai0M
                                                                                                                                                                  bNuNchqMazj0n6jAmljGr5XDqQL
                                                                                                                                                                  vpAe?bhcp=1
                                                                                                                                                                  Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                                                                                                                                                                  Council, 2006. Annual Monitoring
                                                                                                                                                                  Report, Dec 2006. p.7
                  Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD)                                                      Other Black Country      Walsall ranked low both of    ONS. Neighbourhood Statistics
                                                                                                           Councils                 these deprivation             [online]. Available from::
                                                                                                                                    indicators for the Black      www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.
                  The Ranks of average score for Walsall was 51 in 2004 (1 being the most deprived).       Wolverhampton 35         Country. Although it was      uk/dissemination/LeadTableView.d
                                                                                                           Dudley 109               the best in the income        o?a=3&b=276805&c=Walsall&d=1
                                                                                                           Sandwell 16              deprivation and second in     3&g=377637&i=1001x1003x1006
                  Walsall came 32nd out of 354 local authorities for income deprivation in 2004 (1 being                            the average score for the     &k=Deprivation&m=0&enc=1&dom
                  the most deprived).                                                                      Wolverhampton 24         Black Country.                ainId=46&dsFamilyId=724
                                                                                                           Dudley 41                                              Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                                                                                                           Sandwell 11                                            Council, 2006. Annual Monitoring
                                                                                                                                                                  Report, Dec 2006. p.10. Other
                                                                                                                                                                  councils AMRs.
                  Residential Preferences                                                                                           Walsall classifications       West Midlands Regional
                  Walsall residents classified the following categories as the top ten that made           West Mid   (National)    compared to W Mids &          Observatory, 2005. West Midlands
                  somewhere a good place to live;                                                                                   National                      Regional Lifestyle Survey, 2005.
                  Low level of crime: 77%                                                                  62%        (56%)         Higher           Higher       Walsall Metropolitan Borough
Faber Maunsell     Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



  SA Objectives                                                                                                                               Trends? (and key
                                                  Baseline Information                                          Comparators?                                                 Baseline Source
                                                                                                                                            sustainability issues)
                  Clean streets: 56%                                                                        23%          (24%)            Lower           Lower      Council (2004) BVPI General
                  Health services: 42%                                                                      48%          (39%)            Higher          Higher     Survey: MORI draft report. p.31
                  Decent and affordable housing: 33%                                                        42%          (37%)            Equal           Higher
                  Road and pavement repairs: 32%                                                             8%          (8%)             Higher          Higher
                  Education provision: 29%                                                                  24%          (25%)            Higher          Higher
                  Public transport: 29%                                                                     19%          (27%)            Higher          Higher
                  Parks and open spaces: 25%                                                                17%          (16%)            Higher          Higher
                  Activities for teenagers: 22%                                                             22%          (23%)            Equal           Lower
                  Low levels of traffic congestion: 20%                                                     17%          (10%)            Higher          Higher

                                                                                                            Most people would
                                                                                                            prefer to live in a village
                                                                                                            or rural area close to a
                                                                                                            town (42%). Least
                                                                                                            favourable were the
                                                                                                            centre of large cities
                                                                                                            (10%) and remote rural
                                                                                                            locations (9%).

                                                                                                            More people feel that
                                                                                                            they “strongly belong”
                                                                                                            to England (77%) than
                                                                                                            the West Midlands
                                                                                                            (46%).
                  Community satisfaction                                                                    No data available             No data available          Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                  71.5% of Walsall residents were satisfied with living in their local community in 2004.                                                            Council, 2006. Annual Monitoring
                                                                                                                                                                     Report, Dec 2006. p.13
                  Community satisfaction                                                                    No data available             No data available          Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                  Focus groups in Bloxhall, Darlaston and Blakenhall identified the following problems                                                               Council (2005) BVPI Survey
                  during focus group surveys:                                                                                                                        Tracker Follow up, Resident Focus
                   Antisocial behaviour (vandalism, graffiti, underage drinking, setting off fireworks,                                                             Groups.
                       riding quad bikes, problem neighbours, drugs and so on)
                   The area looks run down, with some homes and gardens not maintained to a
                       good standard
                   Littering (especially by school children) and dog fouling
                   Parking issues: lack of parking spaces, parking charges too expensive, cars
                       parked on pavements, cars of non-disabled people parked in disabled spaces
                   Lack of police or warden patrols and police/wardens not effective
                   Poor range of shops on local high streets
                   Lack of activities for children and young people and lack of green spaces for
                       them to play ball games
                   Poor condition of roads and pavements – potholes, uneven surfaces and
                       inadequate repairs
                   Speed bumps perceived to be unnecessary and of irregular heights
                   Additional problems highlighted by the Darlaston group include:
                   Perception that the quality of Housing services have worsened since Walsall
                       Housing Group have taken over
                   Perception that too many new apartments are being built in the area – resulting in
                       construction noise and increased competition for parking spaces
                  Community Involvement                                                                     2004/5: 300 people in         The number of people       Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                  Nine Local Neighbourhood Partnerships (LNPs) established in 2005.                         LNPs.                         involved in Local          Council, 2005. Walsall
Faber Maunsell      Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



  SA Objectives                                                                                                                        Trends? (and key
                                                  Baseline Information                                        Comparators?                                              Baseline Source
                                                                                                                                     sustainability issues)
                                                                                                                                   Neighbourhood                Metropolitan Borough Council
                   478 people involved in LNPs in 2005/6.                                                                          Partnerships has             Performance Plan 2005/6 p.59
                                                                                                                                   increased.
                   Local Committees                                                                      No data available         No data available            Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                   By 2000 19 Local Committees of elected members were established to provide a                                                                 Council (2001) Best Value
                   feedback mechanism for the local community and influence local policy.                                                                       Performance Plan 2000/01 and
                                                                                                                                                                Best Value General User
                                                                                                                                                                Satisfaction Performance
                                                                                                                                                                Indicators – Preliminary report of
                                                                                                                                                                findings p. 8
 5. Housing        House Prices                                                                          Oct-Dec 2006              Housing prices have          UK Land Registry, Land registry
 Quality –         The average house price (£) in Walsall for the period Oct-Dec 2006 was 145,707.       W. Mids: 172,151          increased in tandem with     property prices. Available at:
 provide decent,                                                                                         England & Wales:          the West Midlands and        http://www.landregistry.gov.uk/pro
 environmentall    Housing Needs and Demand Study, January 2005 suggests property prices:                192,431                   England and Wales, but       pertyprice/interactive/ppr_ualbs.as
 y sound                   1 bedroom flat = ± £63,500 (£320 per month private rental).                                            are lower than the rest of   p
 housing of the            2 bedrooms = ± £80,500 (£355 rental)                                         Oct-Dec 2004              the West Midlands and
 right quantity,           3 bedrooms = ± £97,000 (£395 rental), and                                    Walsall: 135,822          England & Wales              http://www.walsall.gov.uk/index/ho
 type and tenure           4 bedrooms = ± £160,000 (£450 rental)                                        W. Mids: 157,219                                       using/surveys_research_and_stati
 to meet local                                                                                           England & Wales:                                       stics.htm
 needs.                                                                                                  171,118
                   Housing tenure (2001)                                                                 Owner occupied 2001       Compared with the rest of    ONS. Neighbourhood statistics
                   Walsall                                                                               W. Mids: 69.5%            the country Walsall has a    [online]. Available at;
                   Owner occupied: 64.7%.                                                                England: 68.7%            lower proportion of owner    http://www.neighbourhood.statistic
                   Rented: 35.3%.                                                                                                  occupied tenure and a        s.gov.uk/dissemination/LeadTable
                                                                                                         Rented 2001               high proportion of rented.   View.do?a=3&b=276805&c=walsal
                   Shortfalls:                                                                           W. Mids: 30.5                                          l&d=13&e=7&g=377637&i=1001x1
                   In owner-occupied sector, main shortfalls are for one and two bedroom homes, with a   England:31.3                                           003x1004&m=0&enc=1&dsFamilyI
                   surplus of three bedroom accommodation.                                                                                                      d=53

                                                                                                                                                                http://www.walsall.gov.uk/index/ho
                                                                                                                                                                using/surveys_research_and_stati
                                                                                                                                                                stics.htm

                   Decent homes standard (2005/6)                                                        2004/5: 52% met the       The number of homes          ONS. Neighbourhood Statistics
                   Percentage of social housing which meets Decent Homes Standard within Walsall         Standard                  reaching decent homes        [online]. Available from:
                   Metropolitan Borough Council was 67%.                                                                           standard has increased       http://www.neighbourhood.statistic
                                                                                                         1997: 21,600 homes        since 2004/05.               s.gov.uk/dissemination/LeadTable
                   Overcrowding and under occupation:                                                    were considered unfit.                                 View.do?a=3&b=276805&c=walsal
                   Overcrowding is the second most important reason for households to be living in       This represented about                                 l&d=13&e=7&g=377637&i=1001x1
                   unsuitable housing (3.9% of all households are overcrowded). In contrast, 34.8% of    20% of all housing                                     003x1004&m=0&enc=1&dsFamilyI
                   households are underoccupied – the owner-occupied (no mortgage) sector shows the      stock.                                                 d=811
                   highest levels of under-occupation.                                                                                                          Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                                                                                                         Apr 2005 LA Stock                                      Council, 2006. Annual Monitoring
                                                                                                         falling below Decent                                   Report, Dec 2006. p.12
                                                                                                         Homes Standard                                         Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                                                                                                         W. Mids: 0.1%                                          Council, 2006 Walsall Metropolitan
                                                                                                         England: 0.1%                                          Borough Council Performance
                                                                                                                                                                Data. p. 21
                   Affordable Housing                                                                    The No. of affordable     There is a considerable      Black Country Authorities, 2006.
                   The number of affordable houses needed in Walsall in 2006 was 622 if all housing      houses built in 2004-06   discrepancy in the number    Core Strategy Launch Event
                   needs are to be met for the next five years.                                          was 43.                   of affordable houses being   Workshop – Key Facts and
Faber Maunsell        Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



  SA Objectives                                                                                                                            Trends? (and key
                                                     Baseline Information                                       Comparators?                                                Baseline Source
                                                                                                                                        sustainability issues)
                                                                                                           The average number of      built to the number of        Figures.
                    The number of affordable homes completed in 2005/6 was 2. Thus the council will        affordable homes built     houses needed in the          Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                    need to maximise the availability of affordable housing from all available sources     in 2001-2006 was 34        Walsall Metropolitan          Council, 2006. Annual Monitoring
                    (including new build, acquisitions, conversions etc.                                   per annum. Well below      Borough Council area.         Report, Dec 2006. p.59
                                                                                                           the 184 required.
                                                                                                                                                                    http://www.walsall.gov.uk/index/ho
                                                                                                                                                                    using/surveys_research_and_stati
                                                                                                                                                                    stics.htm

                    Housing Density (2005/6)                                                               PPG3 target: at least 30   The proportion of             Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                    Percentage of new dwellings completed at a density of;                                 dwellings per hectare      dwellings built at a          Council, 2006. Annual Monitoring
                    Less than 30 per hectare:            17%                                                                          minimum density of 30 per     Report, Dec 2006. p.58
                    Between 30 and 50 per hectare:       22%                                               2004-5 average density     hectare has risen steadily
                    Above 50 dwellings per hectare:      61%                                               of dwelling was 41.6       since 2000/1.
                                                                                                           per hectare.
                    The average density of dwelling was 47.3 per hectare, up from 41.6 in 2005.
                    Property Development by Type (2005/6)                                                                                                           WMRA (2007) West Midlands RSS
                    The properties built in Walsall can be divided by type %.                              W. Mids. %                                               Annual Monitoring Report 2006. p.
                    1 bed house: 0.2                                                                       1 bed house: 0.7           WC lower than W Mids          30
                    2 bed house: 1.7                                                                       2 bed house: 9.3           WC lower than W Mids
                    3 bed house: 25.1                                                                      3 bed house: 23.4          WC higher than W Mids
                    4 bed house: 16.1                                                                      4 bed house: 16.6          WC lower than W Mids
                    1 bed flat: 11.5                                                                       1 bed flat: 15.2           WC lower than W Mids
                    2 bed flat; 42.8                                                                       2 bed flat; 32.7           WC higher than W Mids
                    3 bed flat: 2.7                                                                        3 bed flat: 1.0            WC higher than W Mids
 6. Equality and    Ethnicity                                                                              West Midlands 2005         The ethnic minority           Black Country Observatory, 2006.
 Diversity –        Black country ethnic groups as a percentage of total population in 2005.                                          population of the Black       Ethnicity Barometer 2006.
 ensure that        White                    84.82                                                                                    Country is increasing
 land use and       Mixed                    1.77                                                          White: 88.74               rapidly.
 development is     Asian or Asian British 10.39                                                           Mixed: 1.39
 inclusive and is   Black or Black British 2.61                                                            Asian/Asian British:7.32
 sensitive to the   Chinese and other        0.41                                                          Black/Black British:1.98
 needs of the                                                                                              Chinese and other: 0.57
 whole              Disability                                                                             Met Auth. Average          This has seen a slight        Walsall Metropolitan Borough
 community          The percentage of economically active disabled people within the borough declaring     2003/4: 17.86%             increase but is still below   Council, 2005. Walsall
                    that they meet the DDA 1995 disability definition was 2003/4 17.00%                                               the Metropolitan Authority    Metropolitan Borough Council
                                                  2004/5 17.03%                                                                       Average.                      Performance Plan 2005/6 p.94
                    Ethnic Minorities (2004/5)                                                             Met Auth. Average          There was no change           Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                    The percentage of economically active minority ethic community population in the       2003/4: 7.4%               between 2003/04 and           Council, 2005. Walsall
                    authority area was:                                                                                               2004/05. There are 5.6%       Metropolitan Borough Council
                    2003/04         13.0%                                                                                             more economically active      Performance Plan 2005/6 p.94
                    2004/05         13.0%                                                                                             minority ethnic population
                                                                                                                                      in Walsall than the
                                                                                                                                      Metropolitan Authority
                                                                                                                                      Average.
 7. Economic        Unemployment                                                                           3.4% in the West           The unemployment rate is      http://www.walsall.gov.uk/index/ho
 Investment –       Unemployment in the Borough is 4.5%. The male unemployment rate is 6.3%.               Midlands Region and        higher than the West          using/surveys_research_and_stati
 promote                                                                                                   2.7% nationally            Midlands and Nationally.      stics.htm
 appropriate use
 of land and        Deprivation                                                                            No data available          No data available             http://www.walsall.gov.uk/index/ho
 high quality       Walsall, out of 354 local authorities in England, ranks in the top 51 in the overall                                                            using/surveys_research_and_stati
Faber Maunsell      Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



  SA Objectives                                                                                                                    Trends? (and key
                                                  Baseline Information                                         Comparators?                                           Baseline Source
                                                                                                                                 sustainability issues)
 development       Indices of Deprivation 2004, coming 32nd for income deprivation.                                                                           stics.htm
 that will
 encourage         Derelict Land
 investment to     Monitoring showed that on 31 March 2006, there was 155.5 hectares of derelict land
 support,          in Walsall.
 sustain and
 grow the local    Future proposed developments/investments include:                                       No data available    No data available             http://www.walsall.gov.uk/index/ho
 and sub-           „Business and Learning Campus‟                                                                                                           using/surveys_research_and_stati
 regional           ‟Walsall Waterfront‟ and associated leisure and hotel facilities                                                                         stics.htm
 economy            Upgrading of canals to “cruiseway” status and the restoration of the Lichfield and
                      Hatherton Canals

                   Unemployment claimants                                                                  2004                 Increasing at a slightly      ONS Neighbourhood Statistics,
                   The percentage of resident working age people claiming unemployment related             W. Mids: 2.7         faster rate than for          2006. [online], Available from:
                   benefits in Walsall in                                                                  England: 2.2         England and the W. Mids.      http://www.neighbourhood.statistic
                   2004 was 3.2%.                                                                                                                             s.gov.uk/dissemination/LeadTable
                   2006 was 4.5%                                                                           2006                                               View.do?a=3&b=276805&c=Walsa
                                                                                                           W. Mids: 3.4                                       ll&d=13&g=377637&i=1001x1003x
                   Male unemployment was at 6.3%.                                                          England: 2.7                                       1006&k=Employment&m=0&enc=
                                                                                                                                                              1&domainId=9&dsFamilyId=799
                                                                                                                                                              Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                                                                                                                                                              Council, 2006. Annual Monitoring
                                                                                                                                                              Report, Dec 2006. p.9
                   Income                                                                                  2005                 This is significantly lower   Black Country Observatory, 2006.
                   In 2005 the gross weekly pay for working age population employed full time in Walsall   W. Mids: 405         than the W. Midlands and      Quarterly Economic Barometer Q3
                   was 370 (unit not provided – assume £)                                                  England: 433         England.                      2006.
 8. Biodiversity   Designated Sites for Nature Conservation (hectares)                                     Black Country        There has been a vast         Walsall MBC, Dec 2006. Annual
 and                                                        2005 2006                                      (hectares) 2006      decrease in the amount of     Monitoring Report 2006.
 Geodiversity –      Local Nature Reserves (LNR):          155     227                                    LNR: 777.94          SLINC areas, this could       Black County Study. Quality of
 promote land        Sites of Importance for Nature        406     406                                    SINC: 1307.07        be due to development n       Place – Environment Technical
 use and              Conservation (SINC):                                                                                      the site, lack of             Report. p.51
 management          Sites of Local Importance for         1,103 439                                      SLINC: 2225.3        management meaning
 that protects        Nature Conservation (SLINC):                                                                              that sites reduce in
 and enhances        Sites of Special Scientific Interest  70      69                                     SSSI: 153.92         importance. A review of
 the quality and      (SSSI):                                                                                                   all sites is due to be
 distinctiveness     Special Areas of Conservation         0.58    0.64                                   SAC: 20.8            completed in 2007.
 of the areas‟        (SAC):
 biodiversity        National Nature Reserves:             -       0                                      NNR: 24.2
 (the range of     Local Nature Reserves                                                                   No data available.   N/A                           http://www.walsall.gov.uk/index/en
 native trees,     There are six local nature reserves within the borough.                                                                                    vironment/conservation_and_rege
 plants and        Waddens Brook/The Bank at Fibbersley is situated on derelict land with a number of                                                         neration/nature_reserves.htm
 animals) and      pools and spoil heaps. There is unimproved grassland, scrub and marsh.
 geodiversity
 (geological       Hay Head Wood is an area of mixed grassland, scrub, marsh and open water of the
 features of       canal basin. The old limeworks is within the boundary.
 interest)
                   Park Lime Pits is situated on an undulating old mining area with two large pools and
                   several wet hollows, wet grassland, calcarous grassland, hawthorn thickets and small
                   wooded areas.

                   Pelsall Common comprises of mosaics of dry heathy grassland, dominated by areas
Faber Maunsell     Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



  SA Objectives                                                                                                                         Trends? (and key
                                                   Baseline Information                                         Comparators?                                           Baseline Source
                                                                                                                                      sustainability issues)
                  of heather and other grassland with a large central area of ruderal flora. Silted pools
                  and two canals bisect the area.

                  Rough Wood Wedge is composed of extensive areas of tough grassland, scrub
                  woodland and pools of considerable value for nature conservation.

                  Shire Oak quarries are on recolonised land and the type varies from sparse
                  vegetation to acidic grassland and young birch woodland.
                  Priority Species                                                                          Total Birmingham and     N/A                       Walsall MBC, Dec 2006. Annual
                  These priority species are recorded in Walsall number of records and percentage of        Black Country Records                              Monitoring Report 2006. p.103
                  total within Birmingham & the Black Country.
                  Skylark: 94 (40%)
                  Kingfisher: 16 (14.2%)                                                                    Skylark: 234
                  Slow-worm: 1 (3.25)                                                                       Kingfisher: 113
                  Water Vole: 13 (18.6%)                                                                    Slow-worm: 31
                  Common Toad: 34 (12.2%)                                                                   Water Vole: 606
                  Green Hairstreak: 2 (2.9%)                                                                Common Toad: 278
                  Linnet: 152 (40.2%)                                                                       Green Hairstreak: 69
                  Little Ringed Plover: 4 (6.1%)                                                            Linnet: 378
                  Reed Bunting: 88 (44.4%)                                                                  L. Ringed Plover: 65
                  Dingy Skipper: 35 (36.8%)                                                                 Reed Bunting: 198
                  Hobby: 2 (6.1%)                                                                           Dingy Skipper: 95
                  Kestrel: 83 (21.8%)                                                                       Hobby: 33
                  Snipe: 41 (33.3%)                                                                         Kestrel: 381
                  Viviparous Lizard: 7 (16.3%)                                                              Snipe: 123
                  Brown Hare: 3 (50%)                                                                       Viviparous Lizard: 43
                  Badger: 51 (10.8%)                                                                        Brown Hare: 6
                  Spotted Flycatcher: 21 (23.9%)                                                            Badger: 471
                  Daubenton‟s Bat: 12 (27.3%)                                                               Spotted Flycatcher: 88
                  Natterer‟s Bat: 1 (16.7%)                                                                 Daubenton‟s Bat: 44
                  Double Line Moth: 1 (100%)                                                                Natterer‟s Bat: 6
                  Lunar Yellow Underwing Moth: 8 (100%)                                                     Double Line Moth: 1
                  Noctule Bat: 5 (10.6%)                                                                    Lunar Y. U. Moth: 8
                  Tree Sparrow: 18 (21.4%)                                                                  Noctule Bat: 47
                  Grey Partridge: 19 (4.2%)                                                                 Tree Sparrow: 84
                  Black Redstart: 2 (1.9%)                                                                  Grey Partridge: 43
                  Pipestrelle Bat: 133 (25.6%)                                                              Black Redstart: 103
                  Brown Long-eared Bat: 9 (45%)                                                             Pipestrelle Bat: 450
                  Bullfinch: 71 (18.7%)                                                                     Brown L.E. Bat: 20
                  Turtle Dove: 1 (10%)                                                                      Bullfinch: 380
                  Warty Newt: 12 (9.1%)                                                                     Turtle Dove: 10
                  Palmate Newt: 2 (13.3%)                                                                   Warty Newt: 132
                  Smooth Newt: 21 (8.8%)                                                                    Palmate Newt: 15
                  Song Thrush: 111 (23.2%)                                                                  Smooth Newt: 238
                                                                                                            Song Thrush: 479
                  Tree Preservation Orders                                                                  No data available.       N/A                       http://www.walsall.gov.uk/index/en
                  The Council currently has 650 tree preservation orders in place which protect                                                                vironment/conservation_and_rege
                  between 1 or a whole woodland of trees.                                                                                                      neration/tree_preservation.htm
                  Ancient Woodland                                                                          Black Country            N/A                       Birmingham and Black Country
                  Within Walsall there is 54.467ha of Ancient and semi-natural woodland and 1.367ha         Ancient: 136.513ha                                 Biodiversity Action plan. Available
                  of re-planted ancient woodland.                                                           Replanted: 6.032ha                                 online at:
Faber Maunsell      Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



  SA Objectives                                                                                                                          Trends? (and key
                                                   Baseline Information                                        Comparators?                                                Baseline Source
                                                                                                                                       sustainability issues)
                                                                                                                                                                  http://www.wildlifetrust.org.uk/urba
                                                                                                           Within the area of                                     nwt/ecorecord/bap/html/bap.htm
                                                                                                           Birmingham and the                                     Black County Study. Quality of
                                                                                                           Black Country the                                      Place – Environment Technical
                                                                                                           Ancient woodland                                       Report. p.51
                                                                                                           Inventory identified
                                                                                                           301ha of ancient
                                                                                                           woodland out of a total
                                                                                                           of 1429ha.
                   Woodland                                                                                No data available.         There has been a steady     Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                   Total woodland in Walsall in:                                                                                      increase in the amount of   Council (1999) Tracking our
                   2001 was 307.26ha.                                                                                                 woodland in the Walsall     footprints on the future: towards a
                   1999 was 1,139 ha of which 845.7ha were in the Forest of Mercia leaving 293.3ha.                                   Metropolitan Borough        better quality of life for Walsall. A
                   1982 was 136.90ha                                                                                                  Council area since 1982.    Sustainable Development
                                                                                                                                                                  Indicators Report. p. 17
                                                                                                                                                                  Black County Study. Quality of
                                                                                                                                                                  Place – Environment Technical
                                                                                                                                                                  Report. p.51
                   Hedgerows                                                                               Km/km2                     There has been a            Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                   In 1995 there were 4512.79km of hedgerows covering and area of 73km 2 meaning           1799: 134.14               significant decrease in     Council (1999) Tracking our
                   there was a hedgerow density of 61.19km/km 2.                                           1885: 155.50               hedgerow.                   footprints on the future: towards a
                                                                                                           1977: 83.88                                            better quality of life for Walsall. A
                                                                                                                                                                  Sustainable Development
                                                                                                                                                                  Indicators Report. p. 15
                   Green Corridors                                                                         Black County: 39km2        No data available.          Black County Study. Quality of
                   There are 6km2 of green corridors within Walsall                                                                                               Place – Environment Technical
                                                                                                                                                                  Report. p.51
                   Ecological Footprint                                                                    UK: average                Walsall is not too much     SEI (2006) the Ecological footprint
                   Walsall‟s ecological footprint is an average of 5.2 global hectares per person. The     5.4gha/person              lower than the national     of Walsall: A REAP Report.
                   main components of this figure are food and drink (1.12) and energy (0.99)              UK within top 15           average.
                                                                                                           countries for ecological
                                                                                                           footprint.
 9. Landscape,     Historic Landscape                                                                      Comparison to                                          Black Country Historic Landscape
 Townscape and     The Black Country HLC project has divided Walsall into 17 character areas. These        Woverhampton HLC                                       Characterisation.
 Visual Amenity    highlight the distinctive landscapes, townscapes and their historical origins of each   indicates that there are
 – protect,        area.                                                                                   more relict field
 enhance and       The area is predominately built up with areas of extant fields to the east of the       systems and the area
 manage the        borough. The 1800 map indicates that the majority of the borough was composed of        was much less heavily
 quality and       fields with dispersed settlements and hamlets.                                          mined.
 distinctiveness   The medieval period was composed of a mix of large open fields and irregular small
 of the area‟s     enclosure. There was a relatively high proportion of common land top the east of the
 townscapes        borough.
 and               Joint Character Areas                                                                   No data available.         No data available.          Natural England Landscape
 landscapes.       Walsall falls within Character Area 67: Cannock Chase and Cank Wood. Key                                                                       Character Assessment – Joint
                   characteristics of this area are:                                                                                                              Character Areas. Available online
                    Very varied landscape with a range of industrial, residential, agricultural and                                                              at:
                      recreational land uses.                                                                                                                     http://www.countryside.gov.uk/LAR
                    Strongly contrasting settlement pattern with some areas densely populated, others                                                            /Landscape/CC/west_midlands/ca
                      unpopulated and 'wild'. Rounded central plateau, dominated by heathland and                                                                 nnock_chase_and_cank_wood.as
                      coniferous woodland.                                                                                                                        p
                    Sprawling coal mining settlements.
Faber Maunsell        Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



  SA Objectives                                                                                                                      Trends? (and key
                                                    Baseline Information                                         Comparators?                                         Baseline Source
                                                                                                                                   sustainability issues)
                      Reclaimed and active open-cast coal sites and spoil tips from abandoned deep
                       mines.
                      Strong rectilinear pattern of parliamentary enclosure in some areas.
                      Black Country with a mosaic of urban areas, former industrial land and patches of
                       farmland.
                      Extensive urban fringe.
                      Open arable areas with low hedges.
                      Areas of small hedged fields, scattered farmsteads and small holdings. Historic
                       parks.
                      Red-brick buildings
                      Industrial archaeological features.
                     Countryside Area Profiles                                                               No data available.   No data available.         Countryside Area Profile
                     Countryside area Profiles have been developed for;                                                                                      Documents.
                     Barr Beacon
                     East of Aldridge
                     Longwood Gap and
                     Roughwood Chase.
                     Countryside Area Profiles are proposed for two further areas.
                     Graffiti (2005/6)                                                                       No data available.   No data available.         Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                     The proportion of relevant land and highways from which unacceptable levels of                                                          Council, 2006 Walsall Metropolitan
                     graffiti are visible was 10%.                                                                                                           Borough Council Performance
                                                                                                                                                             Data. p. 21
                     Fly posting (2005/6)                                                                    No data available.   No data available.         Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                     The proportion of relevant land and highways from which unacceptable levels of fly                                                      Council, 2006 Walsall Metropolitan
                     posting are visible was 1%.                                                                                                             Borough Council Performance
                                                                                                                                                             Data. p. 21
 10. Historic        Conservation Areas (April 2007)                                                         2006                 N/A                        Walsall Metropolitan Borough
 Environment -       There are 18 Conservation Areas within Walsall Borough.                                 W.Mids:749                                      Council:
 protect,                                                                                                                                                    www.walsall.gov.uk/index/environ
 enhance and         Conservation Area Appraisals for Arboretum, Caldmore Green, Churchill, Darlaston                                                        ment/conservation_and_regenerati
 manage the          and Walsall Locks completed with recommendations for future management.                                                                 on/conservation_areas.htm
 rich diversity of                                                                                                                                           Walsall Metropolitan Borough
 cultural,                                                                                                                                                   Council, 2006 Walsall Metropolitan
 historical and                                                                                                                                              Borough Council Performance
 archaeological                                                                                                                                              Data. p. 26
 assets,                                                                                                                                                     English Heritage, 2005. Heritage
 including the                                                                                                                                               Counts – The State of the West
 built                                                                                                                                                       Midlands Historic Environment.
 environment                                                                                                                                                 Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                                                                                                                                                             Council (2007) Conservation Area
                                                                                                                                                             Appraisal and Management Plan.
                                                                                                                                                             Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                                                                                                                                                             Council (1999) Tracking our
                                                                                                                                                             footprints on the future: towards a
                                                                                                                                                             better quality of life for Walsall. A
                                                                                                                                                             Sustainable Development
                                                                                                                                                             Indicators Report. p. 15
                     Listed Buildings (April 2007)                                                           2006                 The number of listed       Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                     Walsall currently has 155 Listed Buildings within the Borough, 149 of which are Grade   W. Mids: 34,363      buildings has increased.   Council:
                     II, and 6 of which are Grade II*.                                                                                                       www.walsall.gov.uk/index/environ
                                                                                                             1997:                                           ment/conservation_and_regenerati
Faber Maunsell     Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



  SA Objectives                                                                                                                      Trends? (and key
                                                  Baseline Information                                           Comparators?                                          Baseline Source
                                                                                                                                   sustainability issues)
                  283 buildings have been included in the Walsall Borough Local List of Buildings.         135 Listed Buildings                               on/listed_buildings.htm
                                                                                                           180 Locally Listed                                 English Heritage, 2005. Heritage
                                                                                                           Buildings                                          Counts – The State of the West
                                                                                                                                                              Midlands Historic Environment.
                                                                                                                                                              Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                                                                                                                                                              Council (1999) Tracking our
                                                                                                                                                              footprints on the future: towards a
                                                                                                                                                              better quality of life for Walsall. A
                                                                                                                                                              Sustainable Development
                                                                                                                                                              Indicators Report. p. 24
                  Scheduled Ancient Monuments (April 2007)                                                 2006                   The number of SAMs has      Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                  In 2007 Walsall has 5 Scheduled Ancient Monuments (SAM), the same as in 1997.            W. Mids: 1,474         remained the same.          Council:
                                                                                                                                                              www.walsall.gov.uk/archaeology.ht
                                                                                                                                                              m
                                                                                                                                                              English Heritage, 2005. Heritage
                                                                                                                                                              Counts – The State of the West
                                                                                                                                                              Midlands Historic Environment.
                                                                                                                                                              Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                                                                                                                                                              Council (1999) Tracking our
                                                                                                                                                              footprints on the future: towards a
                                                                                                                                                              better quality of life for Walsall. A
                                                                                                                                                              Sustainable Development
                                                                                                                                                              Indicators Report. p. 24
                  Archaeological Sites                                                                     N/A                    N/A                         http://www.walsall.gov.uk/index/arc
                  There are approximately 1,500 known archaeological sites within the borough of                                                              haeology.htm
                  Walsall. These are recorded on the Black Country Sites and Monuments Record.
                  The Black Country Archaeologist based in Wolverhampton provides archaeological
                  advice to the council on planning matters.
                  The archaeology of Walsall varies from Mesolithic flint tools to industrial remains of
                  the 20th century.
                  35 areas have been described as „archaeologically sensitive‟ in the UDP.
                  Registered Parks and Gardens                                                             2006                   The number of registered    English Heritage, 2005. Heritage
                  There are 4 Registered Parks and Gardens within Walsall Borough, there was only 1        W. Mids: 152           parks and gardens has       Counts – The State of the West
                  in 1997.                                                                                                        increased since 1997.       Midlands Historic Environment.
                                                                                                                                                              Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                                                                                                                                                              Council (1999) Tracking our
                                                                                                                                                              footprints on the future: towards a
                                                                                                                                                              better quality of life for Walsall. A
                                                                                                                                                              Sustainable Development
                                                                                                                                                              Indicators Report. p. 24
                  Buildings at Risk                                                                        2007                   The number of buildings     English Heritage, 2007: Buildings
                  There is 1 building (Great Barr Hall) within Walsall registered in English Heritage‟s    W. Mids: 193           registered as at risk has   at Risk Register [online]. Available
                  Buildings at Risk Register compared with 13 which were described as „at risk‟ in 1997.   England: 1,741         dramatically decreased.     from: www.english-
                                                                                                                                                              heritage.org.uk/server/show/ConB
                                                                                                                                                              ar.4828
                                                                                                                                                              Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                                                                                                                                                              Council (1999) Tracking our
                                                                                                                                                              footprints on the future: towards a
                                                                                                                                                              better quality of life for Walsall. A
                                                                                                                                                              Sustainable Development
                                                                                                                                                              Indicators Report. p. 24
Faber Maunsell         Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



  SA Objectives                                                                                                                            Trends? (and key
                                                      Baseline Information                                        Comparators?                                                Baseline Source
                                                                                                                                         sustainability issues)
                      Historic Buildings                                                                      2003/4: 7                The number of buildings       Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                      20 historic or strategically important buildings were improved through conservation     2004/5: 17               improved is increasing at     Council, 2005. Walsall
                      grants in 2005/6.                                                                                                a steady rate.                Metropolitan Borough Council
                                                                                                                                                                     Performance Plan 2005/6 p.114
                      Conservation Led Regeneration                                                           No data available.       Walsall Conservation Area     http://www.walsall.gov.uk/index/en
                      Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council actively seeks partnerships to help assist with                             partnership had £310k         vironment/conservation_and_rege
                      the care, enhancement and repair of the historic environment.                                                    over three years.             neration/conservation-
                      Bloxwich Townscape heritage Initiative has £1.25m for five years to bring tangible                                                             led_regeneration.htm
                      economic benefits to the town centre.                                                                            Willenhall Economic
                      Bradford Street Heritage Economic Regeneration Scheme has £700k for three years                                  Regeneration partnership
                      to bring tangible and economic benefits to the town and its residential hinterland.                              had £400k over three
                                                                                                                                       years.

                                                                                                                                       A significant amount of
                                                                                                                                       money is being utilised for
                                                                                                                                       conservation led
                                                                                                                                       regeneration.
 11. Pollution –      Local Air Quality Management (LAQM)                                                     212 Air Quality          n/a                           UK Air Quality Archive:
 avoid or             Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council has declared an Air Quality Management Area.       Management Areas had                                   www.airquality.co.uk/archive/laqm/
 minimise air,        The AQMA encompasses the whole council area and relates to both annual and              been declared in the                                   aqma.php?aqma_id=199
 water, soil, light   hourly NO2 objectives. The Council has identified a number of “hot spots” in the        UK by Nov 2006.                                        Black County Study. Quality of
 and noise            Borough, including the M6 corridor which runs through Walsall. There is an additional                                                          Place – Environment Technical
 pollution and        problem from the motorway in Sandwell as prevailing wind conditions channel the                                                                Report. p.49
 create good          fumes into Walsall.
 quality air,         Biological river water quality                                                          1990 Walsall 0.0 for     There has been a              http://www2.defra.gov.uk/db/rq/ind
 water and soils      In 2005 the percentage of water courses of „Good‟ biological river water quality was    Good                     significant increase in the   ex.htm
                      49.2%                                                                                   1998: 58% were very      biological water quality of
                                                                                                              good to fair.            the Council area over the     Environment Agency River Quality
                      2005                    All     Rivers          Canals                                                           last 15 years.                Data from their website
                      Class A or B            2       0               2                                                                                              (www.environment-agency.gov.uk)
                      Class C or D            1       1               0
                      Class E or F            3       3               0

                      Chemical river water quality                                                            1990 Walsall 0.0 for     There has been no             http://www2.defra.gov.uk/db/rq/ind
                      In 2005 the percentage of watercourses of „Good‟ chemical river water quality was 0.0   good                     improvement in the            ex.htm
                                                                                                              1998: 42% were very      percentage of water           Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                      2003 - 2005             All     Rivers          Canals                                  good to fair.            courses reaching good         Council (1999) Tracking our
                      Class A or B            0       0               0                                                                chemical quality. This        footprints on the future: towards a
                      Class C or D            14      10              4                                                                figure is still 0.            better quality of life for Walsall. A
                      Class E or F            5       2               3                                                                                              Sustainable Development
                                                                                                                                                                     Indicators Report. p. 44

                                                                                                                                                                     Environment Agency River Quality
                                                                                                                                                                     Data from their website
                                                                                                                                                                     (www.environment-agency.gov.uk)
                      Environment Agency Targets (2003-4)                                                     1994/5                   Since 1994/5 there has        Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                      100% of rivers and streams are compliant with EA targets.                               Rivers and streams,      been a significant            Council, 2006. Annual Monitoring
                      85% of canals have a significant failure and 15% are marginal with EA targets.          75% compliant, 25%       increase in the number of     Report, Dec 2006. p.41
                                                                                                              marginal                 rivers and streams
                      2003 - 2005             Compliant        Marginal        failure                        Canals, 15% compliant,   compliant to EA targets.      Environment Agency River Quality
                      Class A or B            12               12              0                              30% marginal, 55%        However there has been a      Data from their website
Faber Maunsell       Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



  SA Objectives                                                                                                                             Trends? (and key
                                                     Baseline Information                                         Comparators?                                                  Baseline Source
                                                                                                                                          sustainability issues)
                    Class C or D             1               0                1                               significant failure       significant increase in the     (www.environment-agency.gov.uk)
                    Class E or F             6               0                6                                                         number canals at
                                                                                                                                        significant failure of
                                                                                                                                        meeting the targets.
                    Litter (2005/6)                                                                           Met. Auth. Ave.: 24.6%    This number has                 Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                    Proportion of relevant land and highways assessed as having combined deposits of                                    increased over the years        Council, 2005. Walsall
                    litter and detritus (sand, silt etc.) was:                                                                          but is slightly below that of   Metropolitan Borough Council
                    2003/04           19.3%                                                                                             the Met Authority               Performance Plan 2005/6 p.107
                    2004/05           19.7%                                                                                             Average.                        Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                    2005/06           23.4%                                                                                                                             Council, 2006 Walsall Metropolitan
                                                                                                                                                                        Borough Council Performance
                                                                                                                                                                        Data. p. 21
 12. Natural        Mineral workings                                                                          East of England has the   The West Midlands has           Walsall MBC, Dec 2006. Annual
 Resources –        There are three active quarries extracting Eturia Marl (brick clay). There are two        largest sand and gravel   significant sand and            Monitoring Report 2006. p.79
 promote            active quarries extracting sand (aggregate). One current planning application for an      reserve at 166Mt.         gravel reserves.                Collation of the Results of the
 prudent and        extension to an existing quarry.                                                                                                                    2005 Aggregate Minerals Survey
 efficient use of                                                                                                                                                       for England and Wales (May
 natural            The West Midlands has a significant sand and gravel reserve at approximately 127Mt                                                                  2007), British Geological Survey,
 resources (e.g.                                                                                                                                                        published on DCLG
 land, soil,                                                                                                                                                            http://www.communities.gov.uk/ind
 minerals and                                                                                                                                                           ex.asp?id=1510949
 water) and                                                                                                                                                             United Kingdom Minerals
 avoid                                                                                                                                                                  Yearbook 2005: Statistical Data to
 unnecessary                                                                                                                                                            2004 (2006)
 sterilisation or                                                                                                                                                       http://www.bgs.ac.uk/mineralsuk/fr
 overexploitatio                                                                                                                                                        ee_downloads/home.html
 n                  Mineral Reserves                                                                          National (tonnes)         Permitted Reserves @            Walsall MBC, Dec 2006. Annual
                    Information confidential for individual sites in Walsall. Decline in permitted reserves   1993: 897m                March 2007:                     Monitoring Report 2006. p.80
                    due to lack of new planning permissions and consequent depletion of reserves              2004: 648m
                    through sales.                                                                            W. Mids. (tonnes)         Sand: approx 150,000            A Survey of Current Mineral
                                                                                                              1993: 202m                tonnes                          Reserves in the Black Country:
                                                                                                              2004: 181m or 4.94                                        Published Report (March 2007),
                                                                                                              year landbank             Brick Clay: approx 8            Scott Wilson for Dudley MBC,
                                                                                                                                        million tonnes within 6         Sandwell MBC and Walsall
                                                                                                                                        sites in Dudley and             Council.
                                                                                                                                        Walsall
                                                                                                                                                                        Primary Aggregate Reserves in
                                                                                                                                        Landbanks @ March               England 1990 – 2004 (2006),
                                                                                                                                        2007:                           British Geological Survey
                                                                                                                                                                        http://www.bgs.ac.uk/mineralsuk/fr
                                                                                                                                        Sand: approx 2-3 years          ee_downloads/home.html
                                                                                                                                                                        West Midlands Regional
                                                                                                                                        Brick Clay: 20-30 years         Aggregates Working Party
                                                                                                                                                                        (RAWP) Annual Report 2004,
                                                                                                                                                                        published on DCLG website:
                                                                                                                                                                        http://www.communities.gov.uk/ind
                                                                                                                                                                        ex.asp?id=1502818
                    Water Features                                                                            No data available.        Restoration of the              Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                    Walsall has:                                                                                                        Lichfield and Hatherton         Council, 2006. Annual Monitoring
                    46.7km of natural watercourses                                                                                      canal is proceeding to          Report, Dec 2006
                    7.6km of culverted watercourses                                                                                     bring it to „cruiseway‟
Faber Maunsell     Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



  SA Objectives                                                                                                                              Trends? (and key
                                                  Baseline Information                                           Comparators?                                                  Baseline Source
                                                                                                                                           sustainability issues)
                  Several lakes and ponds                                                                                                status.
                  46km of canals at „remainder status‟
                  Environmental Improvements (2005/6)                                                        2003/4: 11.31ha             The amount of land           Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                  14.13ha of land was environmentally improved.                                              2004/5: 7.65ha              environmentally improved     Council, 2005. Walsall
                                                                                                                                         is increasing each year.     Metropolitan Borough Council
                                                                                                                                                                      Performance Plan 2005/6 p.114
                                                                                                                                                                      Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                                                                                                                                                                      Council, 2006 Walsall Metropolitan
                                                                                                                                                                      Borough Council Performance
                                                                                                                                                                      Data. p. 26
 13. Energy –     Waste (2005/06)                                                                            2005/06                     The municipal waste is       Defra, 2006. Municipal waste
 Minimise          Households waste arisings rate (tonnes per capita): 0.51                                                             above that for the W Mids    statistics 2005/06 [online].
 dependency on                                                                                                                           and England as a whole.      Available from:
 non-renewable     The Municipal waste arisings (tonnes per capita): 0.59                                                                                            http://www.defra.gov.uk/environme
 energy sources                                                                                              W. Mids:0.56                Commercial and industrial    nt/statistics/wastats/archive/mwb2
 through energy    Commercial and industrial waste capacity (tonnes): 263,000 (?)                           England: 0.57               waste arisings per capita    00611.xls
 efficient and                                                                                                                           are reducing across the
 sustainable      There is not enough municipal waste management infrastructure to deal with current         Commercial and              sub-region.                  ONS. Neighbourhood Statistics
 design           requirements, let alone future requirements (e.g. stricter targets in revised National     industrial waste arisings                                [online]. Available from:
                  Waste Strategy, apportionments likely to be set in RSS Phase 2 Revisions).                 per capita exceed the
                  Commercial and industrial waste infrastructure is also heavily based around metal          national average.
                  recycling and car dismantling. The one area where Walsall have more than enough
                  is hazardous waste treatment – Walsall are a net importer of hazardous waste for
                  management and treatment

                  Waste management                                                                           No data available.          No data available.           Walsall MBC, Dec 2006. Annual
                  Walsall‟s waste management facilities include:                                                                                                      Monitoring Report 2006. p.91
                   Two civic amenity sites                                                                                                                           Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                   One waste transfer site                                                                                                                           Council (2004) BVPI General
                   No recycling, composting or recovery facilities within the borough                                                                                Survey: MORI draft report. p.42
                   A range of commercial and industrial waste management facilities with a 2002/3
                    throughput of 350,000 tonnes, mainly metal recycling and waste transfer.
                   Limited construction and demolition facilities and only three static facilities one of
                    which is a technically “mobile” plant.
                   Number of specialist hazardous waste treatment facilities with a through put in
                    2002/3 of 80,000 tonnes (there is more up-to-date information on the Environment
                    agency‟s Hazardous Waste Interrogator, but it was not useable at the time of writing
                    this report).
                   There is existing landfill capacity. Walsall‟s main landfill site is due to close in
                    2007/08 but there is permission for a new site to replace this, plus permission for
                    another landfill site (inert waste only) which has not yet been implemented. There is
                    no capacity to dispose of hazardous waste.

                  There was generally a net satisfaction of 70% with waste collection and management
                  in 2004 amongst residents.

                  Recycling (2005/6)                                                                         2005/6          2000/1      Walsall‟s recycling and      Defra, 2006. Municipal waste
                  Household recycling and composting rate 23.3%                                              Eng: 26.7       Eng 11.2    composting performance       statistics 2005/6 [online]. Available
                                                                                                                                         has improved significantly   from:
                  Municipal recycling rate 23%                                                               Eng: 27.1       Eng 12.3    and is now almost in line    http://www.defra.gov.uk/environme
                                                                                                                                         with national targets (25%   nt/statistics/wastats/archive/mwb2
Faber Maunsell      Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)



  SA Objectives                                                                                                                      Trends? (and key
                                                  Baseline Information                                        Comparators?                                              Baseline Source
                                                                                                                                   sustainability issues)
                   Waste incinerated or recovered for energy: 3%                                                      2003/4     by 2005, 30% by 2010          00506a.xls
                                                                                                         No data      Eng 5.4    and 33% by 2015)              Walsall MBC, Dec 2006. Annual
                   Waste sent to landfill 74%                                                                                                                  Monitoring Report 2006. p.94
                                                                                                         No data      Eng 79.9                                 Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                   95.5% of households have kerbside collection for „dry‟ recyclable goods.                                                                    Council, 2005. Walsall
                                                                                                         W.Mids                                                Metropolitan Borough Council
                   Within the West Midlands most people who do not recycle cite “not knowing where to    Recycled 44%                                          Performance Plan 2005/6
                   take things” and “not enough space to store recycling”.                               Incinerated: 26%                                      Walsall Metropolitan Borough
                                                                                                         Landfilled; 30%                                       Council, 2006 Walsall Metropolitan
                                                                                                                                                               Borough Council Performance
                                                                                                                                                               Data p. 21
                                                                                                                                                               West Midlands Regional
                                                                                                                                                               Observatory, 2005. West Midlands
                                                                                                                                                               Regional Lifestyle Survey, 2005.
                                                                                                                                                               WMRA (2007) West Midlands RSS
                                                                                                                                                               Annual Monitoring Report 2006.
 14. Climate       Carbon Emissions (2004)                                                                                       Walsall is slightly below     Defra, 2004. E-Digest Statistics
 Change -                                                                                                                        the levels and                about: Global Atmosphere,
 Positively plan    End user estimates of carbon emissions – Industry and Commercial per capita*        2004 W.Mids 3.8 (42%)   percentages for both the      Emissions of carbon dioxide for
 for, and            (tonnes (% of total)): 3.7 (46%)                                                    2004 UK 4.1 (45%)       West midlands and the         local authority areas
 minimise the                                                                                            2005 UK (55%)           UK.                           (experimental) [on line]. Available
 effects of,        End user estimates of carbon emissions – Domestic per capita* (tonnes (% of                                                               from:
 climate change.     total)): 2.2 (27%)                                                                  2004 W.Mids 2.6 (28%)                                 www.defra.gov.uk/environment/sta
                                                                                                         2004 UK: 2.6 (28%)                                    tistics/globatmos/galocalghg.htm
                                                                                                         2005 UK (15%)
                    End user estimates of carbon emissions – Road Transport per capita* (tonnes (%                                                            Defra, 2007. Statistical Release,
                     of total)): 2.2 (27%)                                                               2004 W.Mids 2.7 (30%)                                 2005 UK Climate Change
                                                                                                         2004 UK: 2.5 (27%)                                    sustainable development indicator
                                                                                                         2005 UK (22%)                                         and greenhouse gas emissions
                                                                                                                                                               final figures [online]. Available at:
                                                                                                                                                               www.defra.gov.uk/news/2007/070
                                                                                                                                                               131a.htm
                   Carbon Emission Savings                                                                                       A new sewage gas plant        Black County study 92006) Quality
                   A number of schemes within the Black Country save on carbon emissions through                                 has been installed at         of place: Environment Technical
                   alternative energy sources. The following figures below describe the tonnes of Co2                            Mimworth.                     Report. p.19
                   saved each year
                   Landfill gas: 47,000
                   Solar: 100
                   Hydro: 3,000
 15. Land Use –    Derelict and Contaminated Land                                                        Walsall 2005 205ha      Most of the reduction is      Walsall Metropolitan Borough
 Encourage the     In March 2006 there were 155.5ha of derelict land in Walsall.                                                 due to the reclassification   Council, 2006. Annual Monitoring
 appropriate re-   In 2005 remediation of 1.63ha of derelict and contaminated land was undertaken.                               of figures.                   Report, Dec 2006. p.8
 use of land and
 buildings and
 remediation of
 derelict or
 contaminated
 land to reflect
 regeneration
 priorities
Faber Maunsell   Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study (Version B)
Appendix D: Sub-Stage A5 – Consultation
                            Responses
Prepared by:
                  Rebecca Brunt
                  Senior Environmental Scientist

Checked by:
                  Ian Cappitt
                  Principal Environmental Scientist

Approved by:
                  John Grubb
                  Business Unit Director

Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council: Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Study June 2007
Draft Scoping Report (Version A)

 Rev No                                    Comments                                    Date
   A          Draft SA Scoping Report                                                June 2007



1 The Forum, Minerva Business Park, Lynch Wood, Peterborough, PE2 6FT
Telephone: 01733 391456 Fax: 01733 391139 Website: http://www.fabermaunsell.com

Job No 53211IPEE          Reference Draft SA Scoping Report             Date Created June2007

This contains confidential and commercially sensitive information, which shall not be disclosed
to third parties.
Job No:         53211IPEE                      Telephone: 01733 391456                          1 The Forum
Reference:      Re-01-B Final Scoping Report   Fax: 01733 391139                       Minerva Business Park
Date created:   July 2007                      Website: http://www.fabermaunsell.com             Lynch Wood
                                                                                                Peterborough
                                                                                                    PE2 6FT

				
DOCUMENT INFO